WorldWideScience

Sample records for south america north

  1. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  2. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  3. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA

  4. A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holmgren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a climatic and oceanographic phenomenon, but it has profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Although the ecological effects of ENSO are becoming increasingly known from a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holmgren et al., 2001, their impacts have been more intensively studied in arid and semiarid systems. In this brief communication, we summarize the main conclusions of a recent symposium on the effects of ENSO in these ecosystems, which was convened as part of the First Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on the El Niño Phenomenon and its Global Impact, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 16–20 May 2005. Participants in the symposium shared results and perspectives from research conducted in North and South America and Australia, regions where the ecological effects of ENSO have been studied in depth. Although the reports covered a wide array of organisms and ecological systems (Fig. 1, a recurring theme was the strong increase in rainfall associated with ENSO events in dry ecosystems (during the El Niño phase of the oscillation in the Americas and the La Niña phase in Australia. Because inter-annual variability in precipitation is such a strong determinant of productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, increased ENSO rainfall is crucial for plant recruitment, productivity and diversity in these ecosystems. Several long-term studies show that this pulse in primary productivity causes a subsequent increase in herbivores, followed by an increase in carnivores, with consequences for changes in ecosystem structure and functioning that can be quite complex.

  5. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  6. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  7. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kieren J.; Bray, Sarah C.; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Trem...

  8. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  11. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = -0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river ecosystems.

  12. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  13. Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Boulle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa, and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24, and 24-48 months on ART for the period 2001-2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America], 20,306 (67%, 9,961 (34%, and 824 (12% were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count <50 cells/µl. Cumulative mortality at 4 years was 16.6%, 4.7%, and 15.3% in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa. While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage.After accounting for under

  14. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America) at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27–2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa). While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage. Conclusions After accounting for under-ascertainment of mortality

  15. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  17. A new perspective on the regional hydrologic cycle over North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Ping

    The GEOS-1 vertically-integrated 3-hr moisture flux reanalyses and hourly-gridded United States station precipitation plus a satellite-based, 6-hr global precipitation estimate were employed to investigate the impacts of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) on the regional hydrological cycle over the central United States (Part I) and the subtropical plains of South America (Part II). Research stressed the influences of upper-level synoptic-scale waves (i.e., synoptic-scale forcings) upon the regional hydrologic processes, which were explored by the impacts associated with the occurrence of LLJ. Besides the conventional budget analysis, the adopted `synoptic-forcing approach' was proven illustrative in describing these impacts through the down-scaling process of LLJs. In Part 1, the major findings include: (1)the seasonal-averaged hydrological cycle over the Great Plains is strongly affected by the occurrence of GPLLJ, (2)the synoptic-scale forcing provided by the upper-level propagating jet (ULJ) streams is essential in generating the large-scale precipitation after the GPLLJ forms from the diurnal boundary layer process, (3)without the dynamic coupling between the ULJ and LLJ, the impact of LLJ on the hydrological cycle is demonstrated to be less important, and (4)the importance of synoptic-scale forcings in preconditioning the setting of wet/dry seasons in the interannual variability of rainfall anomaly is further illustrated by examining the changes of intensity as well as the occurrence frequency between the different types of LLJ. In Part II of this study, it was found that the occurrence of Andean LLJ represents a transient episode that detours the climatic rainfall activity along the South Atlantic Convergent Zone (SACZ) to the subtropical plains (Brazilian Nordeste) in its southwestern (northeastern) flank. The appearance of a seesaw pattern in the rainfall and flux convergence anomalies along the southeastern portion of South America, which is spatially in

  18. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  19. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  20. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  1. Food Leftover Practices among Consumers in Selected Countries in Europe, South and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Higa, Federica; Godwin, Sandria; Gutierrez, Nelson; Shalimov, Roman; Cardinal, Paula; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Sosa, Miriam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Timberg, Loreida; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-09-21

    Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain. The participants responded to questions related to the length of time different types of food leftovers; such as meat, fresh salads, or restaurant dishes would be kept refrigerated or would be left at room temperature before refrigeration. Researchers also investigated how consumers would determine if the food was still safe for consumption. Potentially risky behaviors were observed in all seven countries. For instance, 55.8% of Estonians, 25% of Russians and 25.8% of Argentinean participants left food out at room temperature for several hours before storing in the refrigerator. Furthermore, 25%-29% of Colombian, Estonian, and Spanish consumers would look, smell, and taste leftovers to determine its probable safety. Correct handling of leftovers is an important aspect of consumer food safety. Although the surveys cannot be representative of all consumers in each country, they do provide an initial overview of comparative practices for handling leftovers among different countries. This provides government and educators with information on potential universal and unique consumer food safety issues related to handling leftover foods among various countries.

  2. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  3. First record of giant anteater (xenarthra, myrmecophagidae) in north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G

    1987-04-10

    A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.

  4. Differences in the Fears of Elementary School Children in North and South America: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Ogorchock, Heather N.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the fears of North American and South American children in Grades 2-5. Fears were assessed with English and Spanish versions of the American Fear Survey Schedule (FSSC-AM; Burnham 2005). Specific fears and several most common fears differed across the two countries. Overall, the South American children and the girls from both…

  5. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavergne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N and western Argentina (41.10° S, we specifically aim at (1 evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2 identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3 defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations and simulated (by global circulation model δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil–vegetation–atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  6. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    North America, Europe, Russia, Japan, South Korea, China, India , Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.24 The Non...Sea.47 Additionally, he sees competition and conflict over water arising in the river basins of the Nile, Jordon, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers . This... interlinks with oil competition, as it is the same geographic region.48 Finally, he views Africa as an additional hot spot as there are many

  7. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  8. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  9. Clitopilus argentinus in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Clitopilus argentinus is reported for the first time from North America. A full description and illustrations of the basidiomata and microscopic structures are provided. An X-ray elemental analysis of the diagnostic ‘hyaline’ incrustations of the pileus surface shows these extracellular structures

  10. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  11. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ...-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital... leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  12. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  13. Peterjamesia circumscripta (Leight.) D. Hawksw. (Roccellaceae: Ascomycota): First record to continental South America

    OpenAIRE

    Gumboski, Emerson; Eliasaro, Sionara

    2012-01-01

    Peterjamesia circumscripta, previously known from Australia, Europe, North Africa, North and Central America, and Galapagos Islands was collected in southern Brazil. This is the first record of this species in continental South America.

  14. Status of radiation curing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)

  15. Rediscovering South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Charles; Shearer, Thomas D; Staszak, Michael

    1997-01-01

    In presenting the U.S. National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement the Clinton Administration states that, "The unprecedented triumph of democracy and market economies throughout the (Latin America...

  16. North-south interdependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norse, D

    1979-01-01

    The sound eco-development of agriculture can help to establish a cooperative and harmonious north-south interdependence. The interdependence pattern is seen when the major agricultural suppliers (energy, fertilizers, and pesticides) are examined in the context of commodity transfers of grain and rubber. The consumers of either the north or south would be unable to find alternative sources without major production or social disruption. The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) INTERFUTURES study examines the chain of dependencies between raw materials and markets and the implications for economic development, employment, and environmental hazards. If interdependence is to benefit both the north and the south, technological fixes will not be adequate or appropriate to deal with the potential hazards. (DCK)

  17. Sex difference in blood pressure among South Asian diaspora in Europe and North America and the role of BMI: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, J S L; Agyemang, C; van Valkengoed, I G; Bhopal, R; Stronks, K

    2011-07-01

    It is unclear whether the sex difference that is known to occur in blood pressure (BP) is similar in some South Asian populations. This study presents a meta-analysis of the sex difference in BP, hypertension and the role of body mass index (BMI) in South Asian diaspora compared with populations of European descent. We systematically searched for studies that reported BP and hypertension among South Asian descent populations living in Europe and North America. Weighted mean differences in BP and risk ratios (RR) for hypertension were calculated for men and women. We included 11 studies in this meta-analysis. In general, men had a higher BP and prevalence of hypertension than women, for example, systolic BP was higher in men than in women among the Indian (7.21 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.46-9.95) and European populations (6.12 mm Hg, 95% CI: 4.45-7.80). The difference was less in the Pakistani population (4.00 mm Hg, 95% CI: 2.65-5.36). The Bangladeshi population showed a comparatively small sex difference in systolic (2.93 mm Hg, 95% CI: 1.20-4.66) and diastolic BP (0.68 mm Hg, 95% CI: -1.76 to 3.12) and prevalence of hypertension (RR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.66-2.46). Sex differences in BMI for the South Asian populations were greater than those in Europeans. The Indian population had similar sex differences in BP and hypertension compared with Europeans, but Pakistani and Bangladeshi had smaller sex differences. Sex differences in BMI might relate to the blunted sex differences in BP in Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations. Further research should focus on factors that underlie this intriguing sex difference among South Asian populations.

  18. Variable impact of late-Quaternary megafaunal extinction in causing ecological state shifts in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Anthony D.; Lindsey, Emily L.; Villavicencio, Natalia A.; Bostelmann, Enrique; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Wanket, James; Marshall, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of megafauna, an aspect of defaunation, can precipitate many ecological changes over short time scales. We examine whether megafauna loss can also explain features of lasting ecological state shifts that occurred as the Pleistocene gave way to the Holocene. We compare ecological impacts of late-Quaternary megafauna extinction in five American regions: southwestern Patagonia, the Pampas, northeastern United States, northwestern United States, and Beringia. We find that major ecological state shifts were consistent with expectations of defaunation in North American sites but not in South American ones. The differential responses highlight two factors necessary for defaunation to trigger lasting ecological state shifts discernable in the fossil record: (i) lost megafauna need to have been effective ecosystem engineers, like proboscideans; and (ii) historical contingencies must have provided the ecosystem with plant species likely to respond to megafaunal loss. These findings help in identifying modern ecosystems that are most at risk for disappearing should current pressures on the ecosystems' large animals continue and highlight the critical role of both individual species ecologies and ecosystem context in predicting the lasting impacts of defaunation currently underway.

  19. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Evolution and trends of the dietetics profession in the United States of America and in Argentina: north and south united by similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defranchi, Romina L Barritta de; Nelson, Jennifer K

    2009-06-01

    Since the early stages the profession of dietetics has been characterized as a multifaceted discipline and influenced by scientific and social changes. Today, health and nutrition-related diseases are becoming more global--as is the dietetics profession. The aim of this article is to review the history, education, work and challenges for dietetic practitioners in North and South America, specifically in the United States and in the Argentinean Republic. It was in Argentina where the first Latin American dietetics school was established. Both countries have since shaped the profession creating standards for education and practice in response to advances in the biopsychosocial sciences and economic and environmental changes. Reviewing both the past and current diversities in both Americas contributes to a better understanding of professional strengths and weaknesses, and can prepare dietetics specialists to meet today's needs. Regardless of local disparities, it is interesting that current and future challenges for the dietetics profession are similar between the two countries, such as growing rates of obesity, limited access to and choice of healthy diets among various income groups, busy lifestyles and decline of family meals. These common issues and the availability of Internet tools offer a unique opportunity for partnership and research that can lead to successful creative nutrition interventions and programs. In turn, such joint initiatives will confirm the essential role for the profession--not only in the western hemisphere--but also globally.

  1. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  3. Multiple pregnancies with complete mole and coexisting normal fetus in North and South America: A retrospective multicenter cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Sun, Sue Y; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V; Elias, Kevin M; Horowitz, Neil; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics of multiple gestation with complete mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF) in North and South America. Retrospective non-concurrent cohorts compromised of CHMCF from New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) (1966-2015) and four Brazilian Trophoblastic Disease Centers (BTDC) (1990-2015). From a total of 12,455 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease seen, 72 CHMCF were identified. Clinical characteristics were similar between BTDC (n=46) and NETDC (n=13) from 1990 to 2015, apart from a much higher frequency of potentially life-threatening conditions in Brazil (p=0.046). There were no significant changes in the clinical presentation or outcomes over the past 5 decades in NETDC (13 cases in 1966-1989 vs 13 cases in 1990-2015). Ten pregnancies were electively terminated and 35 cases resulted in viable live births (60% of 60 continued pregnancies). The overall rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) was 46%; the cases which progressed to GTN presented with higher chorionic gonadotropin levels (p=0.026) and higher frequency of termination of pregnancy due to medical complications (p=0.006) when compared to those with spontaneous remission. The main regional difference in CHMCF presentation is related to a higher rate of potentially life-threatening conditions in South America. Sixty percent of the expectantly managed CHMCF delivered a viable infant, and the overall rate of GTN in this study was 46%. Elective termination of pregnancy did not influence the risk for GTN; however the need for termination due to complications and higher hCG levels were associated with development of GTN in CHMCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Juncus planifolius (Juncaceae) in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    1980-01-01

    Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed.......Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed....

  5. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma. Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  6. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  7. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...

  8. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  9. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  10. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  11. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  12. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  13. Astronomical tuning and magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: Implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James; Hinnov, Linda; Wang, Yongdong; Zou, Zhuoyan; Li, Liqin

    2017-10-01

    The time scale of the Late Triassic Epoch has a divergence of age models, especially for the durations of competing definitions for its Rhaetian Stage (uppermost Triassic). The astrochronology derived from relative depth of lacustrine-bearing clastic successions and astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale (APTS) of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomical-tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that also has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of this Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age

  14. Astrochronology and magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, C.; Ogg, J. G.; Hinnov, L.; Wang, Y.; Zou, Z.; Li, L.; Grasby, S. E.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, K.

    2017-12-01

    The astrochronology derived from lacustrine clastic successions tied to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America, known as the Newark APTS provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomically tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We have compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depositional depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola section of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of the Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age. The Sichuan APTS helps to resolve the controversy about the completeness and reliability of the Newark APTS, and can be used in the future to verify if isotopic

  15. Gravity derived Moho for South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijde, M.; Julia, J.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Crustal structure in South America is one of the least understood among the Earth's continental areas. Variations in crustal thickness are still poorly constrained over large portions of the continent because of scarce or unevenly distributed crustal thickness estimates throughout South America. To

  16. Cretaceous paleogeography and depositional cycles of western South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellari, C. E.

    The western margin of South America was encroached upon by a series of marine advances that increased in extent from the Early Cretaceous to a maximum in the early Late Cretaceous for northern South America (Venezuela to Peru). In southern South America, however, the area covered by the marine advances decreased from a maximum in the Early Cretaceous to a minimum during mid-Cretaceous time, followed by a widespread advance at the end of the period. A series of unconformity-bounded depositional cycles was recognized in these sequences: five cycles in northern South America, and six (but not exactly equivalent) cycles in the Cretaceous back-arc basins of southern South America (Neuquén and Austral, or Magallanes, Basins). Both widespread anoxic facies and maximum flooding of the continent in northern South America coincide in general terms with recognized global trends, but this is not the case in southern South America. Here, anoxic facies are restricted to the Lower Cretaceous and seem to be controlled by local aspects of the basin evolution and configuration. The contrasts observed between northern and southern South America can be explained by differences in tectonic setting and evolution. To the north, sediments were deposited around the tectonically stable Guayana-Brazilian Massifs, and thus registered global "signals" such as anoxic events and major eustatic changes. The southern portion of the continent, on the contrary, developed in an active tectonic setting. Here, the mid-Cretaceous Peruvian Orogeny overprinted, to a large extent, world-wide trends and only the earliest and latest Cretaceous conform to global depositional patterns.

  17. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  18. Tall Tales of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    Designed for use in junior high school language arts classes, this learning activity packet introduces students to North American folklore. Selected readings cover Indian tales, real folk heroes (Davy Crockett and John Henry), imaginary folk heroes (Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill), Black folk stories (Brer Rabbit), and tales of Washington Irving. Each…

  19. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...

  20. Status of soil acidification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Fenn; T. G. Huntington; S. B. McLaughlin; C. Eagar; A. Gomez; R. B. Cook

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of...

  1. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  2. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  3. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  4. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  5. Global evolution of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, José L; Alberdi, María T

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study compiles updated data on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of both groups in South America. The horses in South America are represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, as are the gomphotheres, represented by Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon. Both genera of horses include small (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale), which dispersed into South America using 2 different routes. The possible model for this dispersion indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses dispersed through the eastern route and through some coastal areas. In the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon reached South America in 2 independent dispersal events, and Cuvieronius dispersed across the Andean corridor, while large Stegomastodon spread along the eastern route. Horses and gomphotheres present values of δ(13) C from woodlands to C4 grasslands. Hippidion present lower values of δ(13) C than Equus in the late Pleistocene, whereas the gomphotheres diverge from value of δ(18) O, reflecting that Cuvieronius inhabited the Andean corridor and Stegomastodon dispersed through eastern plains. The gomphothere and horse species recorded in South America became extinct around the time that humans arrived. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Book review: Bumble bees of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebee identification is generally considered straightforward, yet mistakes often are made due to the degree of similarity between the color patterns of different species. Bumble Bees of North America aims to improve the accuracy of identifications by both casual observers and professionals through the use of intuitive diagrams, descriptions, and the more technical dichotomous keys. In addition to providing the first complete field guide to North American bumblebees, the authors make efficient use of the reader’s attention by summarizing taxonomic history, favored food plants, and environmental issues concerning bumblebees.

  7. Status of RNB facilities in North America

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, J A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of accelerator facilities in North America that are involved in research using radioactive nuclear beams (RNB), including existing and operating facilities, ones currently under construction or undergoing major upgrades, and ones being planned or proposed for the future. Existing RNB facilities are located at TRIUMF (TISOL) in Vancouver, B.C., the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne National Laboratory, the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame, the 88" Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. Currently, there are two major RNB facility upgrades in progress in North America, one at TRIUMF, the ISAC project, and one at NSCL, the Intensity Upgrade project. For the future, the U.S. Nuclear Science A...

  8. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  9. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    Forest Ecol. Manag. 227 219-32 Berg E E, Hillman K M, Dial R and DeRuwe A 2009 Recent woody invasion of wetlands on the Kenai Peninsula Lowlands, south-central Alaska: a major regime shift after 18 000 years of wet Sphagnum-sedge peat recruitment Canadian J. Forest Res. 39 2033-46 Brabets T P and Walvoord M A 2009 Trends in streamflow in the Yukon River Basin from 1944 to 2004 and the influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation J. Hydrol. 371 108-19 Bunn A G, Goetz S J, Kimball J S and Zhang K 2007 Northern high-latitude ecosystems respond to climate change EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 88 333-40 D'Arrigo R, Kaufmann R K, Davi N, Jacoby G C, Laskowski C, Myneni R B and Cherubini P 2004 Thresholds for warming-induced growth decline at elevational tree line in the Yukon Territory, Canada Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18 GB3021 Goetz S J, Bunn A G, Fiske G J and Houghton R A 2005 Satellite-observed photosynthetic trends across boreal North America associated with climate and fire disturbance Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102 13521-5 Lloyd A H and Bunn A G 2007 Responses of the circumpolar boreal forest to the 20th century climate variability Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045013 Lloyd A H and Fastie C L 2002 Spatial and temporal variability in the growth and climate response of treeline trees in Alaska Clim. Change 52 481-509 Malmström C and Raffa K R 2000 Biotic disturbance agents in the boreal forest: considerations for vegetation change models Glob. Change Biol. 6 (Suppl. 1) 35-48 McGuire A D, Ruess R W, Lloyd A, Yarie J, Clein J S and Juday G P 2010 Vulnerability of white spruce tree growth in interior Alaska in response to climate variability: dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives Canadian J. Forest Res. 40 1197-209 Michealian M, Hogg E H, Hall R J and Arsenault E 2011 Massive mortality of aspen following severe drought along the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest Glob. Change Biol. 17 2084-94 Parent M B and Verbyla D 2010 The browning of Alaska

  10. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L.; Alatorre, C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae: new record for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aptroot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sterile corticolous crustose lichen Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae, recently described for southeastern North America, is reported as a new record for South America in the Serra da Jiboia mountain range, near the municipality of Santa Teresinha, in the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. This species is locally common and is probably closely related to P. isidiata, which has the same pigmentation and medullary chemistry, P. capitata differing from P. isidiata in that the former features soredia rather than isidia.

  12. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  13. North-South cooperation for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyaki, M

    1989-12-01

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.

  14. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  15. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  16. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  17. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  18. SOUTH AMERICA: Looking for partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A Regional Meeting on Fundamental Physics organized at the CIF International Physics Centre in Bogota, Colombia, in April, looked at future international collaboration possibilities for physicists from the South American Andean region in general, and from Colombia in particular

  19. 78 FR 2287 - Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp., including on-site leased workers from Noramtec, First Choice... America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Noramtec, First Choice Staffing, Staff Works, and Mr. Santo Lamarco From Wurth Revcar Fasteners, Inc., Oriskany...

  20. The bentonite industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Walker, B.T.

    1992-11-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is studying a concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface in stable crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The waste containers would be surrounded by a clay-based buffer material, composed of equal proportions of bentonite clay and silica sand. In the reference disposal concept, some 1.9 x 10 5 Mg of used fuel would be emplaced. This would require 2.5 x 10 6 Mg of bentonite. A review of the bentonite industry in North America was carried out to establish the availability of sufficient high-quality material. There are proven reserves of sodium bentonite clay in excess of 1.5 x 10 8 Mg, and vast supplies are known to exist but not yet proven. The Canadian conceptual disposal vault would require 6 x 10 4 Mg of sodium bentonite each year for 40 years. The bentonite industry of North America has an installed annual production capacity of 2 x 10 7 Mg. A disposal vault would therefore require approximately 2% of the industry capacity. A number of commercial products have been screened for potential suitability for use as a component of the buffer. Ten currently marketed bentonite products have been identified as meeting the initial quality standards for the buffer, and two non-commercial bentonites have been identified as having the potential for use in a disposal vault. (Author) (14 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs.)

  1. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  2. Estimation of gas reserves in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2001-01-01

    If the oil market is global, the gas market is divided into three zones: North America, Europe and Asia. The official forecast of the future demand of North America gas is optimist as it is based on estimates of resources which are ten times those of the proved reserves. The poor practice (SEC rules) of proved reserves (when the rest of the world uses proven+probable) leads to a constant revision and a growth of the past discoveries, showing well a wrong evaluation. The official databases are then very poor, even those of the US federal domain, which have to be public. The study of the technical data of reserves of US, Canada and Mexico leads to a more pessimistic estimation of the ultimate reserves and then to the future local supply. In the Gulf of Mexico (the main hope), the production of natural gas in shallow water decline and the discoveries in the deep-water are mainly oil. The non-conventional gas seems to level. But the future demand is also too optimistic, based on cheap price and on a steady growth. However the local gas supply will be likely insufficient, and the demand will need imported liquefied natural gas. (author)

  3. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore S. Anzaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement. Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.

  4. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  5. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  6. Violence against women in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlick Robinson, G

    2003-08-01

    Although North America is viewed as a place where women have equal rights and status, violence against women is still rampant. Forty to 51% of women experience some type of violence in their lifetime including child abuse, physical violence, rape and domestic violence. The perpetrator is most likely to be a current or former partner. Such violence stems from historical views of women as property and may flourish because of the public's reluctance to get involved in family matters. The concept of violence has been expanded to include non-traditional types such as sexual harassment, breeches of fiduciary trust and stalking. Treatment of victims of violence must include ensuring their safety, encouraging them to make healthy choices and helping them to understand they are not at fault. Education at all levels is required to change attitudes which perpetuate violence despite laws which forbid it.

  7. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  8. Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.; Owe, M.; Rango, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this study the snow cover extent during the autumn months in both North America and Eurasia has been related to the ensuing winter temperature as measured at several locations near the center of each continent. The relationship between autumn snow cover and the ensuing winter temperatures was found to be much better for Eurasia than for North America. For Eurasia the average snow cover extent during the autumn explained as much as 52 percent of the variance in the winter (December-February) temperatures compared to only 12 percent for North America. However, when the average winter snow cover was correlated with the average winter temperature it was found that the relationship was better for North America than for Eurasia. As much as 46 percent of the variance in the winter temperature was explained by the winter snow cover in North America compared to only 12 percent in Eurasia.

  9. Potential for Conflict in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    34Anglo-Argentine War." 2 Dov S. Zakheim, "The South Atlantic Conflict: Strategic, Military, and Technological Lessons", in Alberto Coll and Anthony Arendt...For example, Brazil’s period of greatest military growth after the war was during the civilian qovernment or Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-61); Joao ...W. Goodman and Juan Riel, eds., Civil Military Relations in Latin America: The Military ana Fower, c. August 1987. Coll, Alberto , and Anthony Arendt

  10. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  11. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    Conte, 1858]; Metablapylis Blaisdell, 1909 [Eleodes nigrina LeConte, 1858]; Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [Eleodes longicollis LeConte, 1851]; Scaptes Champion, 1886 [Scaptes squamulatus Champion, 1886 (= Asida tropica Kirsch, 1866]; Aspidius Mulsant and Rey, 1859 [Blaps punctata Fabricius, 1792]; Cryptozoon Schaufuss, 1882 [Cryptozoon civile Schaufuss, 1882]; Halophalerus Crotch, 1874 [Phaleria rotundata LeConte, 1851]; Dignamptus LeConte, 1878 [Dignamptus stenochinus LeConte, 1878]. Two species previously known from South America [Nilio lebasi J. Thomson and Platydema erotyloides Chevrolat] are reported for the first time from North America.

  12. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km 2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km 2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  13. Brazilian Hybrid Security in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in the region as indicators for the emergence of a security community between Brazil and its neighbors in the South American region. The way in which multiple orders coexist is not given adequate attention in empirical research. This article seeks to overcome this dichotomy. By foregrounding Brazil’s regional security practices, particularly during the Lula and Rousseff administration, I show the hybrid and sometimes ambivalent security governance system in Brazil, where mechanisms of balance of power and security community overlap in important ways.

  14. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  15. Attraction of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) haplotypes in North America and Europe to baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys is a global invasive species native to Southeast Asia that is threatening agriculture in invaded regions. While pheromone-based monitoring tools for H. halys have been validated in North America and South Korea, their efficacy has not been widely evaluated in Europe. Our goals were...

  16. The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandini, Stefania; Bergamaschi, Paola; Cerna, Marco Fernando; Gandini, Francesca; Bastaroli, Francesca; Bertolini, Emilie; Cereda, Cristina; Ferretti, Luca; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Battaglia, Vincenza; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 ka at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 ka, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent. We detected a large number (N = 48) of novel subhaplogroups, often branching into further subclades, belonging to two classes: those that arose in South America early after its peopling and those that instead originated in North or Central America and reached South America with the first settlers. Coalescence age estimates for these subhaplogroups provide time boundaries indicating that early Paleo-Indians probably moved from North America to the area corresponding to modern Ecuador and Peru over the short time frame of ∼1.5 ka comprised between 16.0 and 14.6 ka. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Analysis of late Jurassic-recent paleomagnetic data from active plate margins of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    Paleomagnetic results for rocks of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age from South America are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the active margins of the continent. Some important conclusions are reached, with varying degrees of certainty: (1) The reference APW path for stable South America is fairly well defined for the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and is not much different from the present rotation axis. (2) The so-called "Bolivian orocline" involved counterclockwise rotations in Peru and northernmost Chile and clockwise rotations in Chile south of about latitude 18.5S. These rotations probably are a result of in situ small-block rotations in response to shear, not actual oroclinal bending. (3) The Bonaire block of northern Venezuela and Colombia has been rotated clockwise relative to the stable interior of South America by about 90°. It also seems to have drifted northward relative to the craton by as much as 1600 km. It probably represents a true accreted terrane, one of very few recognized in South America so far. (4) The "Magellanes orocline" at the southern tip of South America apparently involves some counterclockwise rotation of paleomagnetic vectors, but this too is probably the result of distributed shear. (5) Tectonic processes have very thoroughly "rearranged" the rocks making up the active margins of South America. "Rearrange" here denotes displacement of crustal blocks relative to their surroundings, without significant internal deformation By analogy with North America "rearrangement" might entail in situ block rotation, translation of crustal blocks along the continental margin, and accretion of exotic "tectonostratigraphic terranes". However, in western South America "rearrangement" seems to have consisted dominantly of block rotations that were essentially in situ. For the parts of the Andes investigated so far, late Mesozoic and Cenozoic accretion of exotic terranes and large-scale translation of crustal slivers, as found in western

  18. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  20. Catalogue of meteorites from South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; García, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted.The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile's Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes.Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its

  1. [Ritual use of Anadenanthera seeds among South America natives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2007-01-01

    Several South-American native societies snuff psychoactive seeds in magic-religious rituals since ancient times. To describe archeological, historical and ethnographical evidences regarding the ritual use of vilca or yopo (Anadenanthera sp). Anadenanthera seeds were used in South America 3,000 years ago. Archeological studies found vilca seeds in funerary tombs from 1,000 BC in the north of Chile and Argentina; ceramics and snuff tubes were found in San Pedro de Atacama archeological sites from the same data, and in Tiwanaku ceremonial center in Bolivian Altiplano. Today, Anadenanthera sp is used by several native groups in Orinoco basin, where is known as yopo, and in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon. Hallucinogenic effect is due to the presence of methyl-tryptamine derivatives. Most snuff is prepared from the roasted and powdered seeds, vegetable ash and/or lime obtained from shells. Archeological and ethnographical data suggest that vilca was used and is still used by native shamans as a sacred seed in South America, due to its hallucinogenic effects.

  2. A new era for uranium mining in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonet, M.; Marvy, A.

    1997-01-01

    North America will be one of the few places in the world where continuous development of new uranium mining projects and renewed, more intense exploration will occur for the coming years. Although the present project approval process and regulatory regime can be seen as a burden, past discoveries of world-class deposits have made North America the best place to invest in uranium production for many years to come. (author) 1 fig

  3. Correlation of uranium geology between South America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Acting upon the recommendation of an Advisory Group Meeting held in 1980, the IAEA organized a Working Group on the Correlation of the Uranium Geology between South America and Africa because of the tremendous geological potential for uranium and the interest showed by the Member States of the regions concerned. The report of this Working Group is now presented. The aim of this report is to provide the nuclear industry and, in particular, the countries of the region with a broad but updated outline of current development in the uranium geology and the uranium potential of Africa and South America. The scope is such that it will provide, for those not directly involved in uranium exploration in the area, a general technical summary on the regional geology and tectonics of these two continents in order that the geodynamic setting of their uranium occurrences may be correlated. With respect to the area to be covered and bearing in mind the purpose of this study, the Working Group surveyed the most relevant parts of western Gondwanaland, of which the two continents form a part. The area covered by the report extends from north of the West African Craton and the Guiana Shield to the southern end of South America and Africa; from the Amazonian Province in western Brazil and western Argentina to the central part of the West African Craton, Congo-Kasai Craton. The Andean Chain in South America and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, which were formed by continental accretion in recent geological time and post-dated the split and drift of the two land masses, were not considered. Some of the inner portions of those cratons distant from the coastlines and for which the correlation features do not apply have also been omitted. However, certain areas of important uranium mineralization outside the main study area have been described in order to offer comparative models for future exploration elsewhere. The subject of the report is discussed under six headings: cratonic areas

  4. First records of Cyclorhipidion fukiense (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini), an ambrosia beetle native to Asia, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Rabaglia, Robert J; KnÍŽek, MiloŠ; Weaver, John S

    2018-03-13

    The Asian ambrosia beetle, Cyclorhipidion fukiense (Eggers) was detected for the first time in North America based on three specimens trapped in 2012 from three localities in South Carolina and two other specimens intercepted at the port of Savannah, Georgia, in 2010. The species is characterized, illustrated with high-resolution images, and compared with two other congeneric, adventive species (C. bodoanum and C. pelliculosum) presently established in eastern North America. Morphometric measurements are provided and a provisional key is presented to the species of Cyclorhipidion occurring in North America.

  5. Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Loehle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum have been inferred from fossil pollen assemblages, but these inferred climates are colder for eastern North America than those produced by climate simulations. It has been suggested that low CO2 levels could account for this discrepancy. In this study biogeographic evidence is used to test the CO2 effect model. The recolonization of glaciated zones in eastern North America following the last ice age produced distinct biogeographic patterns. It has been assumed that a wide zone south of the ice was tundra or boreal parkland (Boreal-Parkland Zone or BPZ, which would have been recolonized from southern refugia as the ice melted, but the patterns in this zone differ from those in the glaciated zone, which creates a major biogeographic anomaly. In the glacial zone, there are few endemics but in the BPZ there are many across multiple taxa. In the glacial zone, there are the expected gradients of genetic diversity with distance from the ice-free zone, but no evidence of this is found in the BPZ. Many races and related species exist in the BPZ which would have merged or hybridized if confined to the same refugia. Evidence for distinct southern refugia for most temperate species is lacking. Extinctions of temperate flora were rare. The interpretation of spruce as a boreal climate indicator may be mistaken over much of the region if the spruce was actually an extinct temperate species. All of these anomalies call into question the concept that climates in the zone south of the ice were extremely cold or that temperate species had to migrate far to the south. An alternate hypothesis is that low CO2 levels gave an advantage to pine and spruce, which are the dominant trees in the BPZ, and to herbaceous species over trees, which also fits the observed pattern. Thus climate reconstruction from pollen data is probably biased and needs to incorporate CO2 effects. Most temperate species could have survived across their current

  6. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  7. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  8. Perspectivs and challenges of phenology research on South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Morellato, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    rarely, but the few published studies have shown the importance of taking phenology into account for forest managment, restoration planning, and to assess plant responses to land-use changes. The main challange remains to establish successfull monitoring programs, which could be partially achieved using near remote phenology digital cameras or phenocams. Phenocams are a relative low-cost tool for taking photographs from vegetation on a daily basis, reducing manual labor. Furthermore, cameras can monitor several sites simultaneously, therefore increasinfg the spatial coverage of phenological moitoring. Phenocams are successfuly detecting leaf changes, but reproductive phenology is still an issue. Networks of phenocams already exist in north America and we are starting the first phenocam network for South America, but consistent financial support and an effective collaboration with the existing networks are to be sought for the success of this endeavour. The integrations of local populations on phenology data collection and observations would be a effective strategy to fill that gap and enroll citzens on scientific activities linked to conservation and education. Still, citizen science is largelly unexplored across South America, and remains as one of the most important goal in penology research for the next decades.

  9. Population structures of Astragalus filipes collections from western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Shaun Bushman; Kishor Bhattarai; Douglas A. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    The majority of species used for revegetation in semi-arid western rangelands of North America are grasses, with few forbs and nearly no legumes. Astragalus filipes (Torr. Ex A. Gray) is a western North American legume and a promising candidate for use in rangeland revegetation, but assessments of plant species diversity and structure are necessary to determine which...

  10. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  11. The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Kopp; L. B. Smart; C. A. Maynard; J. G. Isebrands; G. A. Tuskan; L. P. Abrahamson

    2001-01-01

    Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing non-native...

  12. Deformation in D″ Beneath North America From Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, A. J.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The lowermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth's mantle—known as D″—form the boundary between it and the core below, control the Earth's convective system, and are the site of probable large thermochemical heterogeneity. Seismic observations of D″ show a strong heterogeneity in seismic wave velocity and significant seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) are present in many parts of the region. On the basis of continuous regions of fast shear velocity (VS) anomalies in global models, it is also proposed as the resting place of subducted slabs, notably the Farallon beneath North America. A phase change of MgSiO3-perovskite (pv) to a post-perovskite (ppv) structure at near-core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions is a compelling mechanism to explain the seismic features of D″. An outstanding question is how this and other mineral phases may deform to produce anisotropy, with different mechanisms possible. With knowledge either of mantle flow or which slip system is responsible for causing deformation, we can potentially determine the other with observations of the resulting seismic anisotropy. We investigate the dynamics at the CMB beneath North America using differential shear wave splitting in S and ScS phases from earthquakes of magnitude MW>5.5 in South and Central America, Hawaii the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. They are detected on ~500 stations in North America, giving ~700 measurements of anisotropy in D″. We achieve this by correcting for anisotropy in the upper mantle (UM) beneath both the source and receiver. The measurements cover three regions beneath western USA, the Yucatan peninsula and Florida. In each case, two different, crossing ray paths are used, so that the style of anisotropy can be constrained—a single azimuth cannot distinguish differing cases. Our results showing ~1% anisotropy dependent on azimuth are not consistent with transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) anywhere. The

  13. Alien conifer invasions in South America: short fuse burning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available conifers has a much shorter history in South America, and invasions are a recent phenomenon. A workshop was convened in Argentina in May 2007 to discuss the rapid emergence of problems with invasive conifers in South America. Workshop delegates agreed that...

  14. Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Couverture du livre Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Directeur(s) : Joachim Carolsfield, Brian Harvey, Carmen Ross et Anton Baer. Maison(s) d'édition : World Fisheries Trust, Banque mondiale, ...

  15. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  16. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  17. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  18. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  19. A time for new north-south relationships in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Un; Oleribe, Obinna; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality.

  20. Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M.; Barber, Mathew J.; Rand, Kristin A.; Song, Shiya; Roman, Theodore; Battat, Erin; Elyashiv, Eyal; Guturu, Harendra; Hong, Eurie L.; Chahine, Kenneth G.; Ball, Catherine A.

    2017-02-01

    Despite strides in characterizing human history from genetic polymorphism data, progress in identifying genetic signatures of recent demography has been limited. Here we identify very recent fine-scale population structure in North America from a network of over 500 million genetic (identity-by-descent, IBD) connections among 770,000 genotyped individuals of US origin. We detect densely connected clusters within the network and annotate these clusters using a database of over 20 million genealogical records. Recent population patterns captured by IBD clustering include immigrants such as Scandinavians and French Canadians; groups with continental admixture such as Puerto Ricans; settlers such as the Amish and Appalachians who experienced geographic or cultural isolation; and broad historical trends, including reduced north-south gene flow. Our results yield a detailed historical portrait of North America after European settlement and support substantial genetic heterogeneity in the United States beyond that uncovered by previous studies.

  1. Taxonomy of interstate conflicts: is South America a peaceful region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Franchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits theoretical efforts to classify interstate conflicts. It analyses South America and discuss the adequacy of influential interpretations about the intensity of interstate conflicts in the region as compared to global or other regions ones. The literature takes for granted that South America is a peaceful region. Such interpretation results from the indicators adopted. We argue that traditional indicators do not fully capture latent tensions and the actual level of conflicts in the region. The article suggests an alternative taxonomy that better fits the South America context and argues that a research agenda on the extent and nature of interstate conflics is needed.

  2. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a mor...

  3. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  4. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  5. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  6. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America.

  7. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  8. Exploring the origins of ecological forestry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony W. ​D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Jerry F. Franklin; David R. Foster

    2016-01-01

    The use of ecological forestry to achieve management objectives, such as the maintenance of native biodiversity, has become increasingly common on public and private ownerships in North America. These approaches generally use natural disturbance processes and their structural and compositional outcomes as models for designing silvicultural prescriptions that restore or...

  9. PARASITES OF FRESHWATER FISHES IN NORTH AMERICA: WHY SO NEGLECTED?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-45 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode * North America * Cestoda * Acanthocephala * Digenea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2014

  10. The interannual variability of the Haines Index over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Joseph J. Charney

    2013-01-01

    The Haines index (HI) is a fire-weather index that is widely used as an indicator of the potential for dry, low-static-stability air in the lower atmosphere to contribute to erratic fire behavior or large fire growth. This study examines the interannual variability of HI over North America and its relationship to indicators of large-scale circulation anomalies. The...

  11. Cold-water fishes and climate change in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Williams; Daniel Isaak; J. Imhof; D. A. Hendrickson; J. R. McMillan

    2015-01-01

    Trout, salmon, grayling and whitefishes (Salmonidae) are among the most ecologically and economically important fishes. They also are among the most vulnerable to global warming, and increasing drought, floods, and wildfires. In North America, salmonids occur from central Mexico northward along coastal regions and mountainous interiors to the Arctic Plains. A...

  12. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  13. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  14. An Overview of CLT Research and Implementation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Tom Williamson; Philip Line; John W. van de Lindt

    2016-01-01

    Although not yet seen as common practice, building with cross laminated timber (CLT) is gaining momentum in North America. Behind the scenes of the widely publicized project initiatives such as the Wood Innovation Design Centre Building in Canada and the recent U.S. Tall Wood Building Competition, substantial research, engineering, and development has been completed or...

  15. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  16. The Dorstenia species (Moraceae) of north-western tropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.; Leeuwen, van R.W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Four new species of Dorstenia are described: D. panamensis C.C. Berg, D. boliviana C.C. Berg, D. peruviana C.C. Berg, and D. belizensis C.C. Berg. A list of and a key to the 21 Dorstenia species distinguished in north-western tropical America are presented, together with synonyms and distributions.

  17. GLOBAL COMPETITION BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca DIACONESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The human-geographic regionalization is a landmark in the demarcation of territories that include populations of the same demographic, cultural or economic background. A defining boundary for human characteristics across the planet can be made simple, between the North and the South. The north, though advanced economically, militarily, technologically, united, well-urbanized and landscaped, dominates the world for just 500 years before the South was in power. After a long period of stagnation, the South escapes the colonialist chains until the 1950s, after which begins a vast process of revival in which emerging new powers are emerging as well as a series of economic unions that can rival with the old powers in the North. Analyzing the number of inhabitants in the two regions, it is noted that demographic size is a priority in the slope of the power balance, so when one of the regions exceeded 50% of the total population of the Globe, it attracted wealth by exporting populations and culture that colonized the other half. After 1950, the South holds for the first time 400 years, over 50% of the total population, and in 2017 it reaches 62%, reaching 71% in 2050 and 81% of the world's population by 2100. understands that the economic difficulties in the North, financial crises, the limitation of global influence or the issue of immigrants is only at the beginning, and the transformation of the North into the southern vassal is just a matter of time.

  18. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  19. Ecosystem Demography Model: Scaling Vegetation Dynamics Across South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of South America...

  20. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  1. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  2. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  3. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  4. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-11-01

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  5. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  6. Paleohydrology Reconstruction of the Tropical South America for the Past 1.6 Million Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Rigsby, C. A.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The western Atlantic equatorial margin has been recognized as an important part of global climate change. It is responsible for the transfer of moisture to South America and, heat and fresh water to the northern hemisphere. It might hold answers to past and present global climate. We reconstructed the last 1.6 million years of the paleoclimatic record of the Tropical South American to assess a long period of oceanic and atmospheric variability, which still remains unknown to science. Paleoclimate reconstructions of the Tropical South American are determined on a sediment core located on the Brazilian continental slope. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the paleohydrologic evolution. Here we present elemental ratios of Ti/Ca and Fe/K, to determine variability in Tropical South America. Differences in sediment input observed on Fe/K and Ti/Ca ratios suggest periods of increased chemical weathering and precipitation. Comparison of our data with the Cariaco basin Molybdenum (Mo) records, suggests that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is triggering wet periods on Tropical South America, distinguishing a clear North-South anti-phase over the last 600 ka. Southward displacement of the ITCZ in the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, indicates changes in the variability mode of the ITCZ N-S excursion, modulating the precipitation over Tropical South America. We also show that extensive northward migration of Antarctic Polar Front induces a drastic change in the Tropical South America hydrological system, triggering long periods of drought, potentially driven by cooler sea surface temperature of the South Atlantic. This study is funded by Capes- IODP 38/2014 and the Duke University.

  7. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  8. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. 500.554 Section 500.554 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  9. The Carbon Budget of Coastal Waters of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Burdige, D.; Butman, D. E.; Cai, W. J.; Canuel, E. A.; Chen, R. F.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Kemp, W. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Mannino, A.; McCallister, S. L.; McGillis, W. R.; Mulholland, M. R.; Salisbury, J.; Signorini, S. R.; Tian, H.; Tzortziou, M.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Pilskaln, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and the output of numerical and statistical models are synthesized to construct a carbon budget of the coastal waters of eastern North America. The domain extends from the head of tide to (roughly) the continental shelf break and from southern Florida to southern Nova Scotia. The domain area is 2% tidal wetlands, 19% estuarine open water, and 78% shelf water. Separate budgets are constructed for inorganic and organic carbon; for tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters; and for three main subregions: the Gulf of Maine, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the South Atlantic Bight. Net primary production for the study region is about 150 Tg C yr-1, with 12% occurring in tidal wetlands and 7% in estuaries. Though respiration and photosynthesis are nearly balanced in most systems and regions, tidal wetlands and shelf waters are each found to be net autotrophic whereas estuaries are net heterotrophic. The domain as a whole is a sink of 5 Tg C yr-1 of atmospheric CO2, with tidal wetlands and shelf waters taking up 10 Tg C yr-1 (split roughly equally) and estuaries releasing 5 Tg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Carbon burial is about 3 Tg C yr-1, split roughly equally among tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Rivers supply 6-7 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about 2/3 of which is organic. Tidal wetlands supply an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about half of which is organic. Carbon in organic and inorganic forms is exported from estuaries to shelf waters and from shelf waters to the open ocean. In summary, tidal wetlands and estuaries, though small in area, contribute substantially to the overall carbon budget of the region.

  10. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, C.W.; Prestbo, E.; Brunette, B.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, 39 states in the US and 5 Canadian provinces have issued advisories about the dangers of eating mercury-contaminated fish taken from waters within their boundaries. The problem is most severe in the Great Lakes region, the Northeast US states, the Canadian maritime provinces, and in south Florida where many lakes and streams contain fish with concentrations of 1 ppm or higher. For many rural and remote locations, atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury. In 1995, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) initiated a program to monitor total mercury and methylmercury (MMHg) in wet deposition (rain and snow) in North America. In this program, the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), individual monitoring sites are funded and operated by a variety of local, state, and federal agencies. However, sampling and analysis are coordinated through a central laboratory so that all of the samples are collected and analyzed using the same protocols. Weekly wet-only precipitation samples are collected using an all-glass sampling train and special handling techniques. Analysis is by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry using USEPA Method 1631 for total mercury. Nearly 40 MDN sites are in operation in 1999. Most of the sites are in the eastern US and Canada. During 1996 and 1997, the volume-weighted mean concentration of total mercury in precipitation collected at 22 sites ranged from 6.0 to 18.9 ng/L. Annual deposition varied between 2.1 and 25.3 {micro} g/m{sup 2}. The average weekly wet deposition of total mercury is more than three times higher in the summer (June-August) than in the winter (December-February). This increase is due to both higher amounts of precipitation and higher concentrations of mercury in precipitation during the summer. The highest values for mercury concentration in precipitation and wet deposition of mercury were measured in the southeastern US.

  11. The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migratory behavior in bee hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Vera, Yuyini; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-05

    Geographical and temporal patterns of diversification in bee hummingbirds (Mellisugini) were assessed with respect to the evolution of migration, critical for colonization of North America. We generated a dated multilocus phylogeny of the Mellisugini based on a dense sampling using Bayesian inference, maximum-likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and reconstructed the ancestral states of distributional areas in a Bayesian framework and migratory behavior using maximum parsimony, maximum-likelihood and re-rooting methods. All phylogenetic analyses confirmed monophyly of the Mellisugini and the inclusion of Atthis, Calothorax, Doricha, Eulidia, Mellisuga, Microstilbon, Myrmia, Tilmatura, and Thaumastura. Mellisugini consists of two clades: (1) South American species (including Tilmatura dupontii), and (2) species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. The second clade consists of four subclades: Mexican (Calothorax, Doricha) and Caribbean (Archilochus, Calliphlox, Mellisuga) sheartails, Calypte, and Selasphorus (incl. Atthis). Coalescent-based dating places the origin of the Mellisugini in the mid-to-late Miocene, with crown ages of most subclades in the early Pliocene, and subsequent species splits in the Pleistocene. Bee hummingbirds reached western North America by the end of the Miocene and the ancestral mellisuginid (bee hummingbirds) was reconstructed as sedentary, with four independent gains of migratory behavior during the evolution of the Mellisugini. Early colonization of North America and subsequent evolution of migration best explained biogeographic and diversification patterns within the Mellisugini. The repeated evolution of long-distance migration by different lineages was critical for the colonization of North America, contributing to the radiation of bee hummingbirds. Comparative phylogeography is needed to test whether the repeated evolution of migration resulted from northward expansion of southern sedentary

  12. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Verdu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  13. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  14. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  15. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Guillermo W; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Gaetano, Leandro C

    2011-11-02

    Dryolestoids are an extinct mammalian group belonging to the lineage leading to modern marsupials and placentals. Dryolestoids are known by teeth and jaws from the Jurassic period of North America and Europe, but they thrived in South America up to the end of the Mesozoic era and survived to the beginnings of the Cenozoic. Isolated teeth and jaws from the latest Cretaceous of South America provide mounting evidence that, at least in western Gondwana, dryolestoids developed into strongly endemic groups by the Late Cretaceous. However, the lack of pre-Late Cretaceous dryolestoid remains made study of their origin and early diversification intractable. Here we describe the first mammalian remains from the early Late Cretaceous of South America, including two partial skulls and jaws of a derived dryolestoid showing dental and cranial features unknown among any other group of Mesozoic mammals, such as single-rooted molars preceded by double-rooted premolars, combined with a very long muzzle, exceedingly long canines and evidence of highly specialized masticatory musculature. On one hand, the new mammal shares derived features of dryolestoids with forms from the Jurassic of Laurasia, whereas on the other hand, it is very specialized and highlights the endemic, diverse dryolestoid fauna from the Cretaceous of South America. Our specimens include only the second mammalian skull known for the Cretaceous of Gondwana, bridging a previous 60-million-year gap in the fossil record, and document the whole cranial morphology of a dryolestoid, revealing an unsuspected morphological and ecological diversity for non-tribosphenic mammals.

  16. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  17. Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, B S

    1971-08-27

    forest elements (40) now justify the conclusion that the floras and faunas of these areas were also greatly affected by Pleistocene climatic shifts. In the broad region of South America that lies within the tropics, a series of humid-arid cycles (Appendix, 6, 8-10) drastically and repeatedly altered vegetation patterns during the Quaternary. Both montane and lowland rainforests were fragmented during dry periods and were able to reexpand during humid phases. Speciation of forest elements was initiated-and sometimes completed-in isolated patches of the fragmented forest. Secondary contact, with hybridization or reunition of populations that did not become reproductively isolated, occurred in periods of reexpansion. These biological data, combined with supportive geological evidence (Appendix, 1-11), show that climatic events during the last million or so years have affected the biota of South America as much as the Pleistocene glacial changes affected the biotas of Eurasia and North America. Since most of South America lies within tropical latitudes, it is suggested here that part of the diversity of species in the tropical areas of this continent is due to two historical factors: the lack of wholesale elimination of species (compared with northern and high latitudes), and ample opportunity for speciation in successive periods of ecological isolation. The apparent paradox of the wealth of species in the "stable tropics" is partially explained by the fact that the tropics have probably been quite unstable, from the point of view of their biotas, during the Pleistocene and perhaps part of the Tertiary.

  18. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  19. Natural gas pricing and contracting practices in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years the natural gas industry in North America has undergone substantial change as a result of the deregulated market. A comparison is provided of the key contract parameters in gas purchase contracts utilized by local distribution companies, industrial customers, cogenerators and marketers. Issues discussed include pricing mechanisms, indexed contracts, negotiated contracts, combinations, dispute resolution, supply, government regulation, industry structures, financial considerations, perception, geological influences, demand, transmission, storage, distribution, price trends and forecasts, Order 636 in the U.S., the evolution of North American market hubs, the futures market, and 'daisy chains' of connecting pipelines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-25

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  1. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  2. Electron beam curing of composites in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.; Eberle, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    Electron beam curing of fiber-reinforced composites was explored over 30 years ago. Since then there have been developments in accelerator technology, in processes for handling materials presented to an accelerator, and in materials that can be used as matrix binders. In recent years in North America, Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) have been formed involving collaboration amongst materials suppliers, accelerator manufacturers and service providers, national laboratories, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and interested potential users. The scope and status of these CRADAs are reviewed along with other recent developments in the electron beam curing of composites in North America. Innovative and proprietary materials technology has been developed and progress made toward implementing commercial practice. Significant market interest has developed in the military/aerospace industries that are finding the process and performance of electron beam cured composites to offer significant benefits

  3. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  4. Applications and development of CAMAC in North America in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.; Wagner, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    CAMAC is now a well established instrumentation system in North America. Research organizations outside of the National Laboratories and industrial users are finding that this modular instrumentation system for data handling is indeed a very practical and cost effective approach to Computer Aided Measurement and Control. Accordingly, this paper reviews applications of new developments in CAMAC during the past year and considers its future in view of related technological developments. (U.S.)

  5. US of tissue banking and transplantation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Moogk, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue banking in North America began as surgical bone banking in individual hospitals and progressed to recovery of cadaveric tissues, initially by the United States Navy Tissue Bank and more recently to regional tissue banks throughout North America. The American Association of Tissue Banks was established in 1976 to develop standards for tissue banking and the eventual inspection and accreditation of tissue banks. The gathering of statistics of tissue banking practices was first undertaken in 1992, from accredited tissue banks. The most recent statistics were compiled in 1997 and will be reported at this conference.There are currently 63 accredited tissue banks in North America, 60 in the United States and three in Canada. Overall, tissue donation has increased by 48% during this 5 year reporting time. During the same period, the number of living surgical bone donors has decreased from nearly 3,000 to less than 500. This impact is largely due to the new regulations that have been implemented by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There were over 340,000 bone grafts distributed in 1996, an increase of 20% over 1992, 33% were not sterilized, 21% were sterilized using irradiation, and 45% were demineralized. Only 1% were processed using ethylene oxide as a sterilant, a decrease from 15% in 1992. The primary mode of preservation and storage is freeze-drying with 90% of the tissues falling into this category and the rest being frozen. The second largest number of grafts distributed were skin grafts. Total tissue grafts distributed including cornea was 445,417. In January 1998, the FDA Final Rule regarding regulation of tissue banking became effective. The elements of that Final Rule and new tissue banking rules the FDA has proposed will be discussed along with regulations recently published by the Health and Human Services Department relative to organ and tissue donor referrals. Tissue Banking in North America continues to evolve and has become more and more

  6. Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...

  7. Best strategy through Marketing Alliances for Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Charlotte; Holleran, James

    2014-01-01

    Having partnerships with Marketing Alliances has been proved to be an effective way for Switzerland Tourism North America to push the Destination promotion and sales as well as increase the awareness of Switzerland with the network. The two existing partnerships are with Virtuoso and Signature Travel Network, both luxury/leisure focused companies. Particularly successful results have been observed with Virtuoso. The process of choosing the right partnership has to be carefully defined ...

  8. North-South Knowledge Partnerships : Promoting the Canada-Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Phase I (104033) sought to foster learning partnerships between Canadian and Latin American research and ... I. The idea is to support ongoing North-South and South-South knowledge partnerships based on participatory, ... Project status.

  9. Coherent changes of wintertime surface air temperatures over North Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, Hai

    2018-03-29

    The surface temperature variance and its potential change with global warming are most prominent in winter over Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Consistent wintertime surface temperature variability has been observed over large areas in Eurasia and North America on a broad range of time scales. However, it remains a challenge to quantify where and how the coherent change of temperature anomalies occur over the two continents. Here we demonstrate the coherent change of wintertime surface temperature anomalies over North Asia and the central-eastern parts of North America for the period from 1951 to 2015. This is supported by the results from the empirical orthogonal function analysis of surface temperature and temperature trend anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lands and the timeseries analysis of the regional averaged temperature anomalies over North Asia and the Great Plains and Great Lakes. The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection provides a pathway to connect the regional temperature anomalies over the two continents. The ABNA is also responsible for the decadal variation of the temperature relationship between North Asia and North America.

  10. New developments in canine hepatozoonosis in North America: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E; Allen, Kelly E; Johnson, Eileen M; Panciera, Roger J; Reichard, Mason V; Ewing, Sidney A

    2009-01-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:19426444

  11. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  12. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  13. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...

  14. Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides immitis mirrors New World patterns of human migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Koenig, Gina L.; White, Thomas J.; San-Blas, Gioconda; Negroni, Ricardo; Alvarez, Isidro Gutiérrez; Wanke, Bodo; Taylor, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Long-distance population dispersal leaves its characteristic signature in genomes, namely, reduced diversity and increased linkage between genetic markers. This signature enables historical patterns of range expansion to be traced. Herein, we use microsatellite loci from the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis to show that genetic diversity in this fungus is geographically partitioned throughout North America. In contrast, analyses of South American C. immitis show that this population is genetically depauperate and was founded from a single North American population centered in Texas. Variances of allele distributions show that South American C. immitis have undergone rapid population growth, consistent with an epidemic increase in postcolonization population size. Herein, we estimate the introduction into South America to have occurred within the last 9,000–140,000 years. This range increase parallels that of Homo sapiens. Because of known associations between Amerindians and this fungus, we suggest that the colonization of South America by C. immitis represents a relatively recent and rapid codispersal of a host and its pathogen. PMID:11287648

  15. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  16. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Icacinaceae from the eocene of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah E; Stull, Gregory W; Manchester, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    The Icacinaceae are a pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and climbers with an extensive Paleogene fossil record. Our improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the family provides an excellent context for investigating new fossil fruit and leaf material from the Eocene of western North America. We examined fossils from early and middle Eocene sediments of western Wyoming, northeastern Utah, northwestern Colorado, and Oregon and compared them with extant species of Iodes and other icacinaceous genera as well as previously described fossils of the family. Three new fossil species are described, including two based on endocarps (Iodes occidentalis sp. nov. and Icacinicaryites lottii sp. nov.) and one based on leaves (Goweria bluerimensis sp. nov.). The co-occurrence of I. occidentalis and G. bluerimensis suggests these might represent detached organs of a single species. A new genus, Biceratocarpum, is also established for morphologically distinct fossil fruits of Icacinaceae previously placed in Carpolithus. Biceratocarpum brownii gen. et comb. nov. resembles the London Clay species "Iodes" corniculata in possessing a pair of subapical protrusions. These fossils increase our knowledge of Icacinaceae in the Paleogene of North America and highlight the importance of the Northern Hemisphere in the early diversification of the family. They also document interchange with the Eocene flora of Europe and biogeographic connections with modern floras of Africa and Asia, where Icacinaceae are diverse today. The present-day restriction of this family to tropical regions offers ecological implications for the Eocene floras in which they occur. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  19. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America is investigated by analyzing data from a multi-decadal integration with a state of the art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. (orig.)

  20. Distributional changes of American martens and fishers in eastern North America, 1699-2001: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Contractions in the geographic distributions of the American marten ( Martes americana) and fi sher ( M. pennanti) in eastern North America south of the St. Lawrence River between Colonial times (ca. 1650–1800) and the fi sher’s recent range expansion (ca. 1930–present) are well documented, but causal factors in these range contractions have only partially been studied. Traditional explanations for range contractions by both species are forest clearing and unregulated trapping; little consideration has been given to alternative explanations. It has been hypothesized that deep snow limits the distribution of fi shers, and that high fi sher populations limit the distribution of martens. I assessed the potential contributions of these factors to observed range contractions for these species by evaluating expected patterns of change in their historical distributions since Colonial times. Using published data on the distribution of martens and fi shers in eastern North America, including early and contemporary fur-harvest records ( n = 60,702), I found that broad-scale changes in their geographic distributions in eastern North America were consistent with 3 of those expectations, and partially so with a 4th. I recognize that retrospective analyses cannot establish the relative importance of land clearing, unregulated trapping, and changing climatic conditions on observed range contractions; nevertheless, when historical data from eastern North America are viewed in the context of long-term climate warming and the results of recent ecological studies, they suggest that traditional arguments may only partially explain historical range contractions for both species. This study further suggests that under a warming climate, northern range boundaries for the fi sher will expand, and southern range boundaries for the American marten will continue to contract.

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America: the great unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massolo, Alessandro; Liccioli, Stefano; Budke, Christine; Klein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have begun to shed light on the distribution and genetic characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), in North America. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is likely expanding its range in the central region of the United States and Canada and that invasions of European strains might have occurred. In our review, we present the available data on E. multilocularis infections in wild and domestic animals and humans in North America and emphasize the lack of knowledge on the distribution of the parasite in wild and domestic hosts. Furthermore, we stress the need to better understand the complexity of host communities and their roles in shaping the transmission and distribution of the parasite. We hypothesize that a lack of knowledge about AE by North American physicians might result in the misdiagnosis of cases and an underestimation of disease incidence. The endemic presence of the parasite in urban areas and a recent human case in Alberta, Canada, suggest that the scientific community may need to reconsider the local public health risks, re-assess past cases that might have been overlooked and increase surveillance efforts to identify new cases of human AE. PMID:25531581

  2. Security Inequalities in North America: Reassessing Regional Security Complex Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kilroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article re-evaluates earlier work done by the authors on Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT in North America, using sectoral analysis initially developed by Buzan and Waever, but also adding the variables of institutions, identity, and interests. These variables are assessed qualitatively in the contemporary context on how they currently impress upon the process of securitization within sectoral relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The article reviews the movement from bilateral security relations between these states to the development of a trilateral response to regional security challenges post- 9/11. It further addresses the present period and what appears to be a security process derailed by recent political changes and security inequalities, heightened by the election of Donald Trump in 2016. The article argues that while these three states initially evinced a convergence of regional security interests after 9/11, which did create new institutional responses, under the current conditions, divergence in political interests and security inequalities have reduced the explanatory power of RSCT in North America. Relations between states in North American are becoming less characterized by the role of institutions and interests and more by identity politics in the region.

  3. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Adephaga of America, north of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated.One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838, one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911 for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911, Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919, are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5 are established.The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1, a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2, a list of Geadephaga species

  4. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  5. Distribution and protection of climatic refugia in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Roberts, David R; Carroll, Carlos

    2018-05-10

    As evidenced by past climatic refugia, locations projected to harbor remnants of present day climates may serve as critical refugia for current biodiversity in the face of modern climate change. Here, we map potential future climatic refugia across North America, defined as locations with increasingly rare climatic conditions. We identified these locations by tracking projected changes in the size and distribution of climate analogs over time. We used biologically-derived thresholds to define analogs and tested the impacts of dispersal limitation using four distances to limit analog searches. We identified at most 12% of North America as potential climatic refugia. Refugia extent varied depending on the analog threshold, dispersal distance, and climate projection. However, in all cases refugia were concentrated at high elevations and in topographically complex regions. Refugia identified using different climate projections were largely nested, suggesting that identified refugia were relatively robust to climate projection selection. Existing conservation areas cover approximately 10% of North America and yet protected up to 25% of identified refugia, indicating that protected areas disproportionately include refugia. Refugia located at lower latitudes (≤ 40°N) and slightly lower elevations (∼2500 m) were more likely to be unprotected. Based on our results, a 23% expansion of the protected areas network would be sufficient to protect the refugia that were present under all three of the climate projections that we explored. We propose that these refugia are high conservation priorities, due to their potential to harbor rare species in the future. However, these locations are simultaneously highly vulnerable to climate change over the long-term. We found that these refugia contracted substantially between the 2050s and the 2080s, emphasizing that the pace of climate change will strongly determine the availability and effectiveness of refugia for protecting today

  6. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  7. Environmental pollution research in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides and account of published research in environmental pollution carried out in South American institutions within the past 10 years. Because of the broadness of the topic, the continental dimensions of the assignment, and limitations of space and time, the article focuses on environmental research related to air, water, food, and soil. Thus, it is not a complete record, but rather a sample of published pollution research activities. The information here was obtained primarily from Dialog's electronic search of the Pollution Abstracts Database. The article also identifies other environmental problems that need the attention of South American researchers

  8. PAGES-Powell North America 2k database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, N.

    2014-12-01

    Syntheses of paleoclimate data in North America are essential for understanding long-term spatiotemporal variability in climate and for properly assessing risk on decadal and longer timescales. Existing reconstructions of the past 2,000 years rely almost exclusively on tree-ring records, which can underestimate low-frequency variability and rarely extend beyond the last millennium. Meanwhile, many records from the full spectrum of paleoclimate archives are available and hold the potential of enhancing our understanding of past climate across North America over the past 2000 years. The second phase of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) North America 2k project began in 2014, with a primary goal of assembling these disparate paleoclimate records into a unified database. This effort is currently supported by the USGS Powell Center together with PAGES. Its success requires grassroots support from the community of researchers developing and interpreting paleoclimatic evidence relevant to the past 2000 years. Most likely, fewer than half of the published records appropriate for this database are publicly archived, and far fewer include the data needed to quantify geochronologic uncertainty, or to concisely describe how best to interpret the data in context of a large-scale paleoclimatic synthesis. The current version of the database includes records that (1) have been published in a peer-reviewed journal (including evidence of the record's relationship to climate), (2) cover a substantial portion of the past 2000 yr (>300 yr for annual records, >500 yr for lower frequency records) at relatively high resolution (<50 yr/observation), and (3) have reasonably small and quantifiable age uncertainty. Presently, the database includes records from boreholes, ice cores, lake and marine sediments, speleothems, and tree rings. This poster presentation will display the site locations and basic metadata of the records currently in the database. We invite anyone with interest in

  9. Renewable energy in North America: Moving toward a richer mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobey, Cathy

    2010-09-15

    A follow-up to our January study with Economist Intelligence Unit, Renewable energy in North America. The update will further our call to action for a concerted group effort by energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government. 1. Introduction - State of the industry, progress made to replace carbon-based fossil fuels with alternative energy - Barriers - Pressure from public and government 2. Recent progress - Examine existing government incentive programs - International commitments - Examine the role of energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government 3. Call to Action - Creating an environment that encourages both supply and demand of renewable energy.

  10. Greening South America, one business at a time | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-06

    Sep 6, 2016 ... An employee at a print shop in Peru carries a stack of paper on his head ... medium-sized businesses across South America are learning more about. ... The 48th Asian Development Bank (ADB) annual meeting was held in ...

  11. Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Geoffrey Blate; Frank McGlocklin; John Merry; Marielos Peña-Claros; Johan Zweede

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries.However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the viability of the industry over the long term.Biological constraints, such as...

  12. Asia and South America: A Quasi-Common Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Otaviano; Sharma, Manu

    2011-01-01

    The Asian style of regional integration may be seen as a 'quasi-common economy' that eschews a formal linkup in political or monetary terms, but manages to generate similar results by strong physical integration and distributed chains of production and service delivery. This note proposes the Asian quasi-common economy as a benchmark for South America's regional integration efforts because...

  13. Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Fish species that migrate within the great rivers of South America support important local fisheries but are little known outside their native range. This book represents the first collection of the work of local scientific experts on these remarkable fish. The authors cover the Upper Paraná, Paraguay-Paraná, ...

  14. Living in South America. Young Discovery Library: No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Biabaud, Chantal

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small-sized books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume is designed to enhance learning and serve as an educational resource. The history, geography, customs, people, flora, and fauna of the countries of South America are described. Illustrations appear throughout the book. (DB)

  15. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  16. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  17. LEONA for TLE and HEET Research in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Sabbas, F.; Souza, J. R. D.; Guerra, E. M.; Filho, A. C. J.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Branco, R.; Kherani, E. A.; Naccarato, K. P.; Federico, C. A.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Gatto, R. C.; Cisotto, M. V.; Brito, A. F. D.; Fontes, N. R.; Camargo, I. H.; Silva, A. L. G. D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 the core of LEONA, which is the "Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America", was established in Brazil with 4 ground stations equipped to perform Transient Luminous Events - TLEs. This year a neutron detector was also installed to collect data on neutron flashes produced by lightning and thunderstorms themselves. Neutrons are one of the several types of High Energy Emissions from Thunderstorms - HEETs. The TLE stations are operated remotely via internet, by users logged in LEONA website, and the HEET station is continuously and automatically operated. Now a proposal to expand LEONA to have 12 TLE ground stations, 2 HEET ground stations (for neutrons, gamma and X rays) and 1 HEET mobile station (for gamma and X rays) is currently under evaluation by the Brazilian São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP, and if funded will start to be carried out in early 2018. The expanded version of LEONA will cover the Central Region of South America, including Southeast and Southern Brazil, Northern Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, which compose the most electrically active Region of South America. It will also have one TLE station in the Amazon and Northeast Regions of Brazil. South America is one of the most active thunderstorm regions of the world, with extremely large and long lived thunderstorms. Due to the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA, covering most of its territory, scientific satellites routinely turn off their equipment while flying over South America, therefore a ground network like LEONA is the only way to make consistent long term measurements of TLEs and HEET in this important region of the world. This paper will present LEONA in detail, its current operational status and its expansion plan over the next 4 years. It will also highlight the main results of the different TLE observations performed from Brazil up to date by the Atmospheric and Space Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS group at

  18. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  19. Range expansion by Passer montanus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.L.; Roberts, C.P.; Allen, Craig R.; Brown, M.B.; Moulton, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passer montanus became established in a small area of central North America following its introduction in 1870. P. montanus underwent minimal range expansion in the first 100 years following introduction. However, the North American population of P. montanus is now growing in size and expanding in geographic distribution, having expanded approximately 125 km to the north by 1970. We quantify the distance of spread by P. montanus from its introduction site in the greater St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois, USA area, using distributional (presence) data from the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count surveys for the period of 1951 to 2014. Linear regressions of the average annual range center of P. montanus confirmed significant shifts to the north at a rate of 3.3 km/year (P Linear regressions of the linear and angular distance of range center indicates significant northern movement (change in angle of mean range center; P < 0.001) since 1951. Our results quantify the extent of a northward range expansion, and suggesting a probable spread of this species northward.

  20. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Stroud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC (www.onehealthcommission.org/ and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/ and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results: A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions: It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities.

  1. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Phillips, George E

    2017-01-01

    Ceratopsids ("horned dinosaurs") are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian) of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  2. Southeast Asia-South America interregionalism: a complement to bilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Rubiolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-state relations between the countries of South America and Southeast Asia (SEA have blossomed in the past 15 years, arousing the interest of a growing number of academics. Their interregional relations, on the other hand, have been less well examined, due, probably, to the fact that their development remains incipient, as well as sporadic and poorly institutionalised. The starting point for this work is the premise that in the case of non-central regions this level of connection complements and works as a feedback mechanism for bilateral links and encourages State-State, State-region and region-region rapprochement. It introduces notions of South American regionalism and centres on concepts related to non-triadic interregionalism in the initiatives between South America and SEA since 1999.

  3. Malaria in South America: a drug discovery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luiza R; Spangenberg, Thomas; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Wells, Timothy N C

    2013-05-24

    The challenge of controlling and eventually eradicating malaria means that new tools are urgently needed. South America's role in this fight spans both ends of the research and development spectrum: both as a continent capable of discovering and developing new medicines, and also as a continent with significant numbers of malaria patients. This article reviews the contribution of groups in the South American continent to the research and development of new medicines over the last decade. Therefore, the current situation of research targeting malaria control and eradication is discussed, including endemicity, geographical distribution, treatment, drug-resistance and diagnosis. This sets the scene for a review of efforts within South America to discover and optimize compounds with anti-malarial activity.

  4. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  5. Low beta diversity of Maastrichtian dinosaurs of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Beta diversity is an important component of large-scale patterns of biodiversity, but its explicit examination is more difficult than that of alpha diversity. Only recently have data sets large enough been presented to begin assessing global patterns of species turnover, especially in the fossil record. We present here an analysis of beta diversity of a Maastrichtian (71–65 million years old) assemblage of dinosaurs from the Western Interior of North America, a region that covers ≈1.5 × 106 km2, borders an epicontinental sea, and spans ≈20° of latitude. Previous qualitative analyses have suggested regional groupings of these dinosaurs and generally concluded that there were multiple distinct faunal regions. However, these studies did not directly account for sampling bias, which may artificially decrease similarity and increase turnover between regions. Our analysis used abundance-based data to account for sampling intensity and was unable to support any hypothesis of multiple distinct faunas; earlier hypothesized faunal delineations were likely a sampling artifact. Our results indicate a low beta diversity and support a single dinosaur community within the entire Western Interior region of latest Cretaceous North America. Homogeneous environments are a known driver of low modern beta diversities, and the warm equable climate of the late Cretaceous modulated by the epicontenental seaway is inferred to be an underlying influence on the low beta diversity of this ancient ecosystem. PMID:20404176

  6. Drought-induced vegetation stress in southwestern North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyang; Goldberg, Mitchell; Tarpley, Dan; Kogan, Felix; Yu Yunyue; Friedl, Mark A; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Trends towards earlier greenup and increased average greenness have been widely reported in both humid and dry ecosystems. By analyzing NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2007, we report complex trends in both the growing season amplitude and seasonally integrated vegetation greenness in southwestern North America and further highlight regions consistently experiencing drought stress. In particular, greenness measurements from 1982 to 2007 show an increasing trend in grasslands but a decreasing trend in shrublands. However, vegetation greenness in this period has experienced a strong cycle, increasing from 1982 to 1993 but decreasing from 1993 to 2007. The significant decrease during the last decade has reduced vegetation greenness by 6% in shrublands and 13% in grasslands (16% and 21%, respectively, in the severe drought years). The greenness cycle correlates to both annual precipitation and dry season length derived from NOAA North America Regional Reanalysis data. If drought events continue as predicted by climate models, they will exacerbate ecosystem degradation and reduce carbon uptake.

  7. 2014 outbreak of enterovirus D68 in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Abzug, Mark J; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-05-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging picornavirus which causes severe respiratory disease, predominantly in children. In 2014, the largest and most widespread outbreak of EV-D68 described to date was reported in North America. Hospitals throughout the United States and Canada reported surges in patient volumes and resource utilization from August to October, 2014. In the US a total of 1,153 infections were confirmed in 49 states, although this is an underestimate of the likely millions of cases that occurred but were not tested. EV-D68 was detected in 14 patients who died; the role of the virus in these deaths is unknown. A possible association between EV-D68 and cases of acute flaccid paralysis with spinal cord gray matter lesions, known as acute flaccid myelitis, was observed during the outbreak and is under investigation. The 2014 outbreak of EV-D68 in North America demonstrates the public health importance of this emerging pathogen. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Field Studies on Lyme Disease in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Piesman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern and central North America is Ixodes dammini; in western North America, Ixodes pacificus. Searching for the appropriate vector is the first step in determining whether a region is endemic and enzootic for the spirochete B burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, followed by examination of the ticks (questing or already attached to hosts and wildlife for the spirochete. Questing ticks can be collected through a variety of methods. The two major animal hosts for I dammini are the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus and the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Sampling strategies should consider habitat and season. All three life stages of the vector tick should be located, indicating a self-sustaining population. Although B burgdorferi can be detected in many ways, there is no substitute for isolating the spirochete in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II medium for definitive proof of the presence of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  9. Prospects for exotic beam facilities in North America

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, J A

    2002-01-01

    There are several nuclear physics laboratories in North America that have on-going research using energetic and stopped radioactive beams. These include the large ISOL-type programs ISAC at TRIUMF and HRIBF at Oak Ridge and the in-flight fragmentation program at the NSCL of Michigan State University. There are also smaller, more specialized, programs using a variety of techniques at the 88-inch cyclotron of Berkeley, ATLAS at Argonne, the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Notre Dame University, and the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at SUNY/Stony Brook. There are also three projects on the horizon in North America for new capabilities in both the near term and more distant future. The intensities of the in-flight fragment beams at the NSCL will be increased dramatically very soon as the Coupled Cyclotron Project will be completed and commissioned for research by mid-2001. A new project, ISAC-II, has been approved in Canada. For the longer term, the United State...

  10. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  11. Sustainable energy developments in Europe and North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Europe and North America account for 70% of world energy consumption; 61% of which is fossil fuels. Energy trends and patterns in this region, if pursued, would have a large impact on region- and world-wide energy and ecosystems. This report addresses the issues of whether projected trends and supply structures would be 'sustainable' i.e. meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; what adaptations are warranted; and what role could and should be played by regional energy and environmental co-operation: including through the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The report is divided into three parts. Part 1 studies the interrelationships between environmental and energy policies in Europe and North America until 2010 and beyond. Part II contains research notes on CO{sub 2} concentration and energy scenarios; investment requirements of the energy supply industries in the ERE region for 1980-2000; energy technologies for the first decades of the 21st century. Scope and conditions for enhancing energy efficiency in the ERE region; CO{sub 2} and climate variation and its impact on energy policy in the USSR and European CMEA countries; the role of new and renewable sources of energy; projected energy developments in the ERE region until 2010, and pollution: synopsis of various international studies on the sustainability of energy developments. Part III describes the energy program of the UN-ECE.

  12. Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin

    2018-06-01

    There is intense public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact midlatitude weather such as cold air outbreaks on the central and east side of continents. Although there is progress in linkage research for eastern Asia, a clear gap is conformation for North America. We show two stationary temperature/geopotential height patterns where warmer Arctic temperatures have reinforced existing tropospheric jet stream wave amplitudes over North America: a Greenland/Baffin Block pattern during December 2010 and an Alaska Ridge pattern during December 2017. Even with continuing Arctic warming over the past decade, other recent eastern US winter months were less susceptible for an Arctic linkage: the jet stream was represented by either zonal flow, progressive weather systems, or unfavorable phasing of the long wave pattern. The present analysis lays the scientific controversy over the validity of linkages to the inherent intermittency of jet stream dynamics, which provides only an occasional bridge between Arctic thermodynamic forcing and extended midlatitude weather events.

  13. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  14. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km2 that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  15. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  16. Calculating investment potential in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Taxes and licensing provisions typically increase overall costs for private investors, and therefore impede private investment. In addition, the design and structure of tax systems in each country affect the extent to which financial risks are borne by private investors, rather than by the host government. Tax systems that increase perceived financial risks stemming from unpredictable oil prices, development costs and physical characteristics of undiscovered or undeveloped oil fields raise further impediments to private investment. This analysis focuses on both aspects of the investment climate--risk and return--and the way that investment incentives within three South American countries are influenced by tax and licensing regimes

  17. Determinants and Economic Impacts of North-South and South-South FDI in ASEAN : Panel Regression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Peseth, Seng

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel data of 10 ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2008 and studies the cross-country and industrial distribution of North and South FDI, investigates host country-specific determinants of the inflows of total FDI, North FDI and South FDI, and also compares the effects of North and South FDI on economic and industrial growth in the region.

  18. Changes in atmospheric rivers and moisture transport over the Northeast Pacific and western North America in response to ENSO diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Zhou, Yang; Alexander, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    The year-to-year changes in atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture transport over the northeast Pacific and western North America are investigated during December to February (DJF) from 1979/80 to 2015/16. Changes in AR frequency, intensity, and landfall characteristics are compared between three ENSO phases: central Pacific El Niño (CPEN), eastern Pacific El Niño (EPEN), and La Niña (NINA). During EPEN events, the subtropical jet extends to the south and east with an anomalous cyclonic flow around a deeper Aleutian Low. More moisture is transported towards North America and AR frequency is increased over western North America. In CPEN events, the Aleutian low shifts further southward relative to its position in EPEN, resulting in an increase in the frequency and intensity of landfalling ARs over the southwestern US. In NINA events, the landfalling AR frequency is reduced associated with anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the eastern North Pacific. We diagnose the contribution of multiple factors to the seasonal mean moisture transport using moisture budgets. During the three ENSO phases, the change in low-frequency circulation (dynamical process) is the leading contributor to the seasonal mean moisture flux divergence, while the contributions of the synoptic anomalies and the change in moisture anomaly (thermodynamic process) are not significant along the west coast of North America.

  19. Lynch syndrome in South America: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Carlos A; Sarroca, Carlos; Rossi, Benedito; Lopez-Kostner, Francisco; Dominguez, Mev; Calo, Natalia Causada; Cutait, Raul; Valle, Adriana Della; Nuñez, Lina; Neffa, Florencia; Alvarez, Karin; Gonzalez, Maria Laura; Kalfayan, Pablo; Lynch, Henry T; Church, James

    2016-07-01

    After decades of unawareness about Lynch syndrome, the medical community in South America is increasingly interested and informed. The visits and support of mentors like H. T. Lynch had been crucial to this awakening. Several countries have at least one registry with skilled personnel in genetic counseling and research. However, this only represents a very restricted resource for the region. According to the GETH, there are 27 hereditary cancer care centers in South America (21 in Brazil, 3 in Argentina, 1 in Uruguay, 1 in Chile and 1 in Peru). These registries differ in fundamental aspects of function, capabilities and funding, but are able to conduct high quality clinical, research and educational activities due to the dedication and personal effort of their members, and organizational support. More support from the governments as well as the participation of the community would boost the initiatives of people leading these groups. Meantime, the collaboration among the South American registries and the involvement of registries and leaders from developed countries will allow to maximize the efficiency in caring for affected patients and their families. The aim of this article is to describe how the knowledge of LS began to be spread in South America, how the first registries were organized and to summarize the current state of progress. In addition, we will provide an update of the clinical and molecular findings in the region.

  20. Domestication and human demographic history in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S Ivan; Postillone, María Bárbara; Rindel, Diego

    2017-05-01

    The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America. We employ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), radiocarbon data and Bayesian methods to estimate differences in population size, human occupation and explore the demographic changes of human populations in three regions (i.e., South-Central Andes, Northwest, and South Patagonia). We also use archaeological evidence to infer the main diet changes in these regions. The absolute population size during the later Late Holocene was fifteen times larger in the South-Central Andes than in Northwest Patagonia, and two times larger in the latter region than in South Patagonia. The South-Central Andes display the earlier and more abrupt population growth, beginning about 9000 years BP, whereas Northwest Patagonia exhibits a more slow growth, beginning about 7000-7500 years BP. South Patagonia represents a later and slower population increase. In this work we uncovered a well-supported pattern of the demographic change in the populations from South-Central Andes and Patagonia, obtained on the basis of different data and quantitative approaches, which suggests that the incorporation of domestic resources was paramount for the demographic expansion of these populations during the Holocene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Asian-Bering-North American teleconnection: seasonality, maintenance, and climate impact on North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection index is constructed from the normalized 500-hPa geopotential field by excluding the Pacific-North American pattern contribution. The ABNA pattern features a zonally elongated wavetrain originating from North Asia and flowing downstream across Bering Sea and Strait towards North America. The large-scale teleconnection is a year-round phenomenon that displays strong seasonality with the peak variability in winter. North American surface temperature and temperature extremes, including warm days and nights as well as cold days and nights, are significantly controlled by this teleconnection. The ABNA pattern has an equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere and is supported by synoptic-scale eddy forcing in the upper troposphere. Its associated sea surface temperature anomalies exhibit a horseshoe-shaped structure in the North Pacific, most prominent in winter, which is driven by atmospheric circulation anomalies. The snow cover anomalies over the West Siberian plain and Central Siberian Plateau in autumn and spring and over southern Siberia in winter may act as a forcing influence on the ABNA pattern. The snow forcing influence in winter and spring can be traced back to the preceding season, which provides a predictability source for this teleconnection and for North American temperature variability. The ABNA associated energy budget is dominated by surface longwave radiation anomalies year-round, with the temperature anomalies supported by anomalous downward longwave radiation and damped by upward longwave radiation at the surface.

  2. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Paul; Apt, Jay; Talukdar, Sarosh

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW.

  3. State of the Carbon Cycle of North America: Overarching Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Reed, S.; Najjar, R.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Birdsey, R.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overarching summary of the second "State of the Carbon Cycle of North America Report" (SOCCR2) from the perspective of the five editorial lead authors. The chapters of SOCCR2 represent a major update and much new material since the original report published a decade ago. The new report includes an overview of the North American carbon budget and future projections, the consequences of changes to the carbon budget, details of the carbon budget in major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and anthropogenic drivers, and implications for carbon management. The chapters focus on advances since the 2007 report, but also include new focus areas such as soil carbon, tribal lands, as well as greater emphasis on aquatic systems and the role of societal drivers and decision making on the carbon cycle. In addition, methane and the role of nitrogen will be considered to a greater extent than before. Each chapter also contains a section focusing on national and regional accounting to complement the overarching North American framework. In conclusion, SOCCR2 is expected to provide an updated assessment and a unique perspective on the carbon cycle, which will contribute to the next U.S. National Climate Assessment.

  4. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  5. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristori Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network’s status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels, as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET. Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  6. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Jin, Yoshitaka; Barja, Boris; Shimizu, Atsushi; Barbero, Albane; Salvador, Jacobo; Bali, Juan Lucas; Herrera, Milagros; Etala, Paula; Acquesta, Alejandro; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizuno, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net) is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network's status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels), as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET). Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  7. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  8. Clusters of sirenomelia in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; López-Camelo, Jorge S; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Isaza, Carolina; Aiello, Horacio; Zarante, Ignacio; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2009-02-01

    One hospital in the city of Cali, Colombia, of the ECLAMC (Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) network, reported the unusual occurrence of four cases of sirenomelia within a 55-day period. An ECLAMC routine for cluster evaluation (RUMOR) was followed that included: calculations of observed/expected ratios, site visits, comparison with comprehensively collected local, South American, and worldwide data, cluster analysis, and search for risk factors. All four Cali sirenomelia cases were born to mothers living in a 2 km(2) area, in neighboring communes, within the municipality of Cali. Considering the total births of the city of Cali as the denominator, and based on ECLAMC baseline birth prevalence rates (per 100,000) for sirenomelia (2.25, 95% CI: 2.66, 3.80), the cluster for this congenital abnormality was unlikely to have occurred by chance (observed/expected ratio = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.57-14.78; p = .002). No consistent common factor was identified, but vicinity to an open landfill as the cause could not be rejected. Another ECLAMC hospital in San Justo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, reported three further cases but these did not seem to constitute a nonrandom cluster. The methodology used to evaluate the two possible clusters of sirenomelia determined that the Cali sirenomelia cluster was unlikely to have occurred by chance whereas the sirenomelia cluster from San Justo seemed to be random. . (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Timothy A; Smith, Michael E; Bogaard, Amy; Feinman, Gary M; Peterson, Christian E; Betzenhauser, Alleen; Pailes, Matthew; Stone, Elizabeth C; Marie Prentiss, Anna; Dennehy, Timothy J; Ellyson, Laura J; Nicholas, Linda M; Faulseit, Ronald K; Styring, Amy; Whitlam, Jade; Fochesato, Mattia; Foor, Thomas A; Bowles, Samuel

    2017-11-30

    How wealth is distributed among households provides insight into the fundamental characters of societies and the opportunities they afford for social mobility. However, economic inequality has been hard to study in ancient societies for which we do not have written records, which adds to the challenge of placing current wealth disparities into a long-term perspective. Although various archaeological proxies for wealth, such as burial goods or exotic or expensive-to-manufacture goods in household assemblages, have been proposed, the first is not clearly connected with households, and the second is confounded by abandonment mode and other factors. As a result, numerous questions remain concerning the growth of wealth disparities, including their connection to the development of domesticated plants and animals and to increases in sociopolitical scale. Here we show that wealth disparities generally increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale, using Gini coefficients computed over the single consistent proxy of house-size distributions. However, unexpected differences in the responses of societies to these factors in North America and Mesoamerica, and in Eurasia, became evident after the end of the Neolithic period. We argue that the generally higher wealth disparities identified in post-Neolithic Eurasia were initially due to the greater availability of large mammals that could be domesticated, because they allowed more profitable agricultural extensification, and also eventually led to the development of a mounted warrior elite able to expand polities (political units that cohere via identity, ability to mobilize resources, or governance) to sizes that were not possible in North America and Mesoamerica before the arrival of Europeans. We anticipate that this analysis will stimulate other work to enlarge this sample to include societies in South America, Africa, South Asia and Oceania that were under-sampled or not

  10. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  11. Intravitreal Angiostrongylus cantonensis: first case report in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America treated with posterior worm removal via pars plana vitrectomy. This was a retrospective, observational case study. Data from medical charts, wide-field digital imaging, ocular ultrasound, and visual evoked potential studies were reviewed. A 20-month-old boy presented with eosinophilic meningitis and right eye exotropia. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed a positive result for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc, subretinal tracks, vitreous opacities, peripheral tractional retinal detachment, and a dead worm in the vitreous cavity. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with worm removal. This case report illustrates the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America, possibly related to the uncontrolled spread of an exotic invasive species of snail.

  12. A survey of transmission tariffs in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusztig, C.; Feldberg, P.; Orans, R.; Olson, A.

    2006-01-01

    One goal of electricity restructuring is to facilitate voluntary transactions in workably competitive wholesale electricity markets. Unfettered wholesale trading, however, can only take place under open and comparable access to transmission by all market participants at non-discriminatory tariffs. Since a rich body of literature exists for topics like nodal pricing, transmission rights, ancillary services, and optimal dispatch, this paper's focus is to survey the transmission tariffs actually used in North America to achieve open and comparable transmission access. In doing so, it provides a practical guide to developing a transmission tariff, illustrated by the survey's role in shaping the tariff filed by a company like the British Columbia Transmission Company (BCTC) with its regulator, the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). (author)

  13. Recent trends in gas contracting in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of recent business trends impacting upon natural gas contracting in North America is provided. Among the trends examined are supply and demand, natural gas prices, access to the U.S. market, gas sales contracts, electronic gas sales, retail level marketing, the growing popularity of 'one-stop shopping', and standardization of contracts. Overall, supplies appear to be adequate for now, demand is growing, prices are volatile, short-term contracts are more popular than long-term ones, electronic commerce combined with one-stop shopping marketing at the retail level is growing, and standardization of spot and short-term gas sales contracts is slowly being accepted by industry as a means to to improve the efficiency of the market. 12 refs

  14. The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. C.; Maehr, David S.; Noss, Reed F.; Larkin, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Grizzly bear restoration and recovery is a controversial, highly politicized process. By 1959, when the Craigheads began their pioneering work on Yellowstone grizzly bears, the species had been reduced to a remnant of its historic range. Prior to the colonization of North America by Europeans, the grizzly lived in relatively pristine habitats with aboriginal Native Americans. As civilization expanded, humans changed the face of the landscape, converting grizzly bear habitat to farms and ranches. People killed grizzlies to protect livestock and eliminate a perceived threat to human safety. In concert, habitat loss and direct human-caused mortality had effectively eliminated the grizzly from 95 percent of its historic range in the conterminous United States by the 1920s (Servheen 1989). Grizzly bear numbers had been reduced nearly 98 percent by 1975 when the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (USFWS 1993).

  15. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  16. Monitoring the shorebirds of North America: Towards a unified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.L.; Morrison, R.I.G.

    2003-01-01

    The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM) has recently developed a single blueprint for monitoring shorebirds in Canada and the United States in response to needs identified by recent shorebird conservation plans. The goals of PRISM are to: (1) estimate the size of breeding populations of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. The initial focus has been on developing methods to estimate trends in population size. A three-part approach for estimating trends includes: (1) breeding surveys in arctic, boreal, and temperate regions, (2) migration surveys, and (3) wintering surveys.

  17. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurath, G.; Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323...... IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8(.)6%, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which...... varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic. diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors...

  18. Missourian (early Late Pennsylvanian) climate in Midcontinent North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutter, S.R.; Heckel, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    The abrupt decrease in mineable coals from Desmoinesian to Missourian rocks in Midcontinent North America has been related by several lines of evidence to the probability that Missourian climate became at least seasonally drier than Desmoinesian climate. This represents a transition from the equatorial Desmoinesian rainforest climate to the arid Permian climate, as North America moved northward from the equator. This change is reflected in the progression of evaporites from western Colorado in the Desmoinesian to Kansas in the Permian. Direct climatic evidence from soils in two Missourian shales deposited at low stands of sea-level includes caliche horizons, incompletely leached mixed-layer clays. Less direct climatic evidence includes the greater proportion of marine limestone deposited at intermediate sea-level stands in the Missourian than in the Desmoinesian part of the sequence, in conjunction with the greater abundance and thickness of oolite and shore-line facies in Missourian limestones than in Desmoinesian counterparts. This probably reflects increasing dryness of the climate, which would have led to decreased detrital influx and increased salinity as rainfall and runoff diminished. Indirect climatic evidence in offshore black phosphatic shales deposited at highest sea-level stands involves possible seasonality in organic and phosphatic laminations, related to periodicity of upwelling in the tropical trade-wide belt under the strong monsoonal influence of Pangaea. Mid-continent Missourian climates probably ranged from tropical monsoon to tropical savanna or hot steppe, all having wet-dry seasonality. The coincident extinctions of conodont, brachiopod, and other marine genera as well as the loss of swamp lycopods at the end of the Desmoinesian suggest the possibility that a greater than usual drop in sea level affected both realms at this time, while the climate was becoming drier. 91 references.

  19. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  20. Practice Patterns of Dentist Anesthesiologists in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew S; Fischer, Michael W; Lang, Nicholas S; Cooke, Matthew R

    2018-01-01

    This study provides trends in the discipline of dental anesthesiology. A questionnaire-based survey was sent to 338 members of the American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists to evaluate practice patterns. One focus of the study was modality of sedation/anesthesia used for dentistry in North America. Age, gender, years in practice, and geographic region of practice were also obtained. Data gathered from the returned questionnaires were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and then imported into JMP Statistical Discovery Software (v12.2 Pro) for descriptive analysis. A total of 112 surveys were completed electronically and 102 surveys were returned via post, for a total response rate of 63.3% ( N = 214). Data from this survey suggested a wide variation of therapeutic practices among dentist anesthesiologists in North America. Of the surveyed dentist anesthesiologists, 58.7% (SE = 4.2%) practice as mobile providers, 32.2% (SE = 3.1%) provide care in an academic environment, and 27.7% (SE = 2.8%) function as operator/anesthetists. The majority of anesthesia is provided for pediatric dentistry (47.0%, SE = 4.2%), oral and maxillofacial surgery (18.5%, SE = 3.9%), and special needs (16.7%, SE = 3.6%). Open-airway (58.7%, SE = 5.5%) sedation/anesthesia was the preferred modality of delivery, compared with the use of advanced airway (41.3%, SE = 4.6%). The demographics show diverse practice patterns of dentist anesthesiologists in multiple regions of the continent. Despite concerns regarding specialty recognition, reimbursement difficulties, and competition from alternative anesthesia providers, the overall perceptions of dentist anesthesiologists and the future of the field seem largely favorable.

  1. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  2. West Nile virus and North America: an unfolding story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, A

    2004-08-01

    Before the introduction of the West Nile virus (WNV) into the United States of America (USA) in 1999, conditions in North America were ideal for an arboviral epidemic. Such factors as the large, susceptible and non-immune animal and human populations, the presence of competent vectors, increasing international travel and commerce, existing methods for rapid dissemination and an ill-prepared animal and public health infrastructure all combined to create the essential elements for a severe animal and public health crisis--the 'perfect microbial storm'. The introduction of WNV into New York City was the final factor, serving as the catalyst to initiate one of the most significant epidemics in the USA. The spread of WNV across the country resulted in very large populations of wildlife, equines and people being exposed and infected. The epidemic is still not fully understood and its character continues to change and adapt. The recent recognition of a number of non-vector modes of transmission has revealed the disease as a greater threat and more difficult to control than first thought. West Nile virus gives every indication that it will become a permanent part of the 'medical landscape' of the USA, continuing to threaten wildlife, domestic animals and humans as a now endemic disease. This paper discusses the features of this extraordinary epidemic, and emphasises the need for an integrated surveillance system, greater diagnostic capacity and improved control strategies.

  3. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  4. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Bourgeon

    Full Text Available The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present, i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP. In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the "Beringian standstill hypothesis", which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period.

  5. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeon, Lauriane; Burke, Ariane; Higham, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present), i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP). In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the "Beringian standstill hypothesis", which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period.

  6. Potential for small-diameter sawtimber utilization by the current sawmill industry in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis G. Wagner; Charles E. Keegan; Roger D. Fight; Susan. Willits

    1998-01-01

    New silvicultural prescriptions for ecosystem management on both public and private timberlands in western North America will likely result in an influx of relatively small-diameter sawtimber for processing. Since sawmills currently process a majority of sawtimber harvested in western North America (more than 80% in some regions), this study concentrated on...

  7. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  8. 75 FR 80109 - Nissan North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...-0171; Notice 1] Nissan North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan) \\1\\ has determined that certain model year 2008 through 2010 Nissan Titan trucks do not fully comply with the requirements of paragraph S19.2.2(b) of Federal Motor...

  9. 78 FR 40546 - Nissan North America, Incorporated, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-0142; Notice 1] Nissan North America, Incorporated, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan) \\1\\ has determined that certain model year (MY) 2009 through 2012 Nissan Titan trucks manufactured from January 31, 2008 to July 17, 2012 and MY 2012 Nissan NV trucks...

  10. 78 FR 59090 - Nissan North America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...-0142; Notice 2] Nissan North America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential.... SUMMARY: Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan) has determined that certain model year (MY) 2009 through 2012 Nissan Titan trucks manufactured from January 31, 2008 to July 17, 2012 and MY 2012 Nissan NV trucks...

  11. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America's ice-free corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles

    2016-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km...

  12. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 strains present in North America are described here for the first time. Different from serotype 13 strains described in Europe, North America strains are biotype I and antigenically related to both, serotypes 13 and 10. Chemical and structural...

  13. Cross-continental patterns in the timing of southward Peregrine Falcon migration in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worcester, R.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the timing of southward migration of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) across North America, based on passage data compiled by the Hawk Migration Association of North America, supplemented with two other similar datasets collected by individual observers at sites in western Canada.

  14. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-0153; Notice 1] Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Continental Tire North America, Inc., (Continental),\\1\\ has determined that certain passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  15. 77 FR 24762 - Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... instruction standards. Refer to Hyundai Motor Company (74 FR 9125, March 2, 209); Ford Motor Company (73 FR 11462, March 3, 2008); Mazda North America Operations (73 FR 11464, March 3, 2008); Ford Motor Company...-0176; Notice 2] Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  16. 75 FR 28297 - Sychip, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA), Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Either Adminstaff or MENA, Plano, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... owned subsidiary of Murata Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA). Since January 1, 2010, workers...

  17. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  18. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  19. BTU convergence spawning gas market opportunities in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The so-called BTU convergence of US electric power and natural gas sectors is spawning a boom in market opportunities in the US Northeast that ensures the region will be North America's fastest growing gas market. That's the view of Catherine Good Abbott, CEO of Columbia Gas Transmission Corp., who told a Ziff Energy conference in Calgary that US Northeast gas demand is expected to increase to almost 10 bcfd in 2000 and more than 12 bcfd in 2010 from about 8 bcfd in 1995 and only 3 bcfd in 1985. The fastest growth will be in the US Northeast's electrical sector, where demand for gas is expected to double to 4 bcfd in 2010 from about 2 bcfd in 1995. In other presentations at the Ziff Energy conference, speakers voiced concerns about the complexity and speed of the BTU convergence phenomenon and offered assurances about the adequacy of gas supplies in North American to meet demand growth propelled by the BTU convergence boom. The paper discusses the gas demand being driven by power utilities, the BTU convergence outlook, electric power demand, Canadian production and supply, and the US overview

  20. Updated Estimates of Glacier Mass Change for Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menounos, B.; Gardner, A. S.; Howat, I.; Berthier, E.; Dehecq, A.; Noh, M. J.; Pelto, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine glaciers are critical components in Western North America's hydrologic cycle. We use varied remotely-sensed datasets to provide updated mass change estimates for Region 2 of the Randolf Glacier Inventory (RGI-02 - all North American glaciers outside of Alaska). Our datasets include: i) aerial laser altimetry surveys completed over many thousands of square kilometers; and ii) multiple Terabytes of high resolution optical stereo imagery (World View 1-3 and Pleiades). Our data from the period 2014-2017 includes the majority of glaciers in RGI-02, specifically those ice masses in the Rocky Mountains (US and Canada), Interior Ranges in British Columbia and the Cascade Mountains (Washington). We co-registered and bias corrected the recent surface models to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) data acquired in February, 2000. In British Columbia, our estimates of mass change are within the uncertainty estimates obtained for the period 1985-2000, but estimates from some regions indicate accelerated mass loss. Work is also underway to update glacier mass change estimates for glaciers in Washington and Montana. Finally, we use re-analysis data (ERA interim and ERA5) to evaluate the meteorological drivers that explain the temporal and spatial variability of mass change evident in our analysis.

  1. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  2. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  3. Uncertainty in the Future of Seasonal Snowpack over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, R. R.; Mearns, L.

    2017-12-01

    The uncertainty in future changes in seasonal snowpack (snow water equivalent, SWE) and snow cover extent (SCE) for North America are explored using the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) suite of regional climate models (RCMs) and their driving CMIP3 global circulation models (GCMs). The higher resolution of the NARCCAP RCMs is found to add significant value to the details of future projections of SWE in topographically complex regions such as the Pacific Northwest and the Rocky Mountains. The NARCCAP models also add detailed information regarding changes in the southernmost extent of snow cover. 11 of the 12 NARCCAP ensemble members contributed SWE output which we use to explore the uncertainty in future snowpack at higher resolution. In this study, we quantify the uncertainty in future projections by looking at the spread of the interquartile range of the different models. By mid-Century the RCMs consistently predict that winter SWE amounts will decrease over most of North America. The only exception to this is in Northern Canada, where increased moisture supply leads to increases in SWE in all but one of the RCMs. While the models generally agree on the sign of the change in SWE, there is considerable spread in the magnitude (absolute and percent) of the change. The RCMs also agree that the number of days with measureable snow on the ground is projected to decrease, with snow accumulation occurring later in the Fall/Winter and melting starting earlier in the Spring/Summer. As with SWE amount, spread across the models is large for changes in the timing of the snow season and can vary by over a month between models. While most of the NARCCAP models project a total loss of measurable snow along the southernmost edge of their historical range, there is considerable uncertainty about where this will occur within the ensemble due to the bias in snow cover extent in the historical simulations. We explore methods to increase our

  4. Homologous Recombination and Xylella fastidiosa Host-Pathogen Associations in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Lopes, João R S; Muller, Christiane; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2017-03-01

    Homologous recombination affects the evolution of bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa, a naturally competent plant pathogen that requires insect vectors for dispersal. This bacterial species is taxonomically divided into subspecies, with phylogenetic clusters within subspecies that are host specific. One subspecies, pauca, is primarily limited to South America, with the exception of recently reported strains in Europe and Costa Rica. Despite the economic importance of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in South America, little is known about its genetic diversity. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has previously identified six sequence types (ST) among plant samples collected in Brazil (both subsp. pauca and multiplex). Here, we report on a survey of X. fastidiosa genetic diversity (MLST based) performed in six regions in Brazil and two in Argentina, by sampling five different plant species. In addition to the six previously reported ST, seven new subsp. pauca and two new subsp. multiplex ST were identified. The presence of subsp. multiplex in South America is considered to be the consequence of a single introduction from its native range in North America more than 80 years ago. Different phylogenetic approaches clustered the South American ST into four groups, with strains infecting citrus (subsp. pauca); coffee and olive (subsp. pauca); coffee, hibiscus, and plum (subsp. pauca); and plum (subsp. multiplex). In areas where these different genetic clusters occurred sympatrically, we found evidence of homologous recombination in the form of bidirectional allelic exchange between subspp. pauca and multiplex. In fact, the only strain of subsp. pauca isolated from a plum host had an allele that originated from subsp. multiplex. These signatures of bidirectional homologous recombination between endemic and introduced ST indicate that gene flow occurs in short evolutionary time frames in X. fastidiosa, despite the ecological isolation (i.e., host plant species) of genotypes.

  5. Late Holocene Drought Variability in Eastern North America: Evidence From the Peatland Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    Tree-ring based drought chronologies from semi-arid regions of western North America have revealed substantial variability in water balance during the past 1000 years, including episodes of persistent drought more severe than any observed during historical times. Delimitation of regional and continental-scale footprints of these past drought events, including their spatial patterning in humid regions where moisture-sensitive paleoclimate records are scarce, is critical to understanding their dynamics and potential causes. Ombrotrophic peatlands are scattered throughout humid regions of North America at mid-latitudes and represent an underutilized source of multidecadal-scale information on past moisture variations. We are developing a spatial network of peatland-derived paleoclimate and paleoecological records in eastern North America, in an effort to 1) determine whether large, decadal to multidecadal droughts of the past several thousand years were spatially and temporally coherent, 2) assess whether the magnitude of past drought events was sufficient to force ecological change in terrestrial ecosystems, and 3) assess the underlying mechanisms and dynamics of widespread drought in North America. We have completed water-level reconstructions based on testate-amoeba assemblages from two ombrotrophic peatlands in mid-continental North America, Hole in the Bog (NC Minnesota) and Minden Bog (SE Michgian). We also have developed reconstructions from three Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands, South Rhody Peatland (NC Michigan), Hornet Peatland (NW Wisconsin), and Irwin Smith Peatland (NE Michigan). Although these kettle peatlands are not truly ombrotrophic, high-magnitude water-table fluctuations should still be attributable to climate variability, and we use these records to supplement our interpretation of regional climate history. Our results indicate that all high-magnitude fluctuations in water balance were spatially extensive, affecting bog-surface moisture

  6. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  7. Hydrologic effects of land and water management in North America and Asia: 1700–1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Haddeland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic effects of land use changes, dams, and irrigation in North America and Asia over the past 300 years are studied using a macroscale hydrologic model. The simulation results indicate that the expansion of croplands over the last three centuries has resulted in 2.5 and 6 percent increases in annual runoff volumes for North America and Asia, respectively, and that these increases in runoff to some extent have been compensated by increased evapotranspiration caused by irrigation practices. Averaged over the year and the continental scale, the accumulated anthropogenic impacts on surface water fluxes are hence relatively minor. However, for some regions within the continents human activities have altered hydrologic regimes profoundly. Reservoir operations and irrigation practices in the western part of USA and Mexico have resulted in a 25 percent decrease in runoff in June, and a 9 percent decrease in annual runoff volumes reaching the Pacific Ocean. In the area in South East Asia draining to the Pacific Ocean, land use changes have caused an increase in runoff volumes throughout the year, and the average annual increase in runoff is 12 percent.

  8. The potential distribution of invading Helicoverpa armigera in North America: is it just a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera has recently invaded South and Central America, and appears to be spreading rapidly. We update a previously developed potential distribution model to highlight the global invasion threat, with emphasis on the risks to the United States. The continued range expansion of H. armigera in Central America is likely to change the invasion threat it poses to North America qualitatively, making natural dispersal from either the Caribbean islands or Mexico feasible. To characterise the threat posed by H. armigera, we collated the value of the major host crops in the United States growing within its modelled potential range, including that area where it could expand its range during favourable seasons. We found that the annual value of crops that would be exposed to H. armigera totalled approximately US$78 billion p.a., with US$843 million p.a. worth growing in climates that are optimal for the pest. Elsewhere, H. armigera has developed broad-spectrum pesticide resistance; meaning that if it invades the United States, protecting these crops from significant production impacts could be challenging. It may be cost-effective to undertake pre-emptive biosecurity activities such as slowing the spread of H. armigera throughout the Americas, improving the system for detecting H. armigera, and methods for rapid identification, especially distinguishing between H. armigera, H. zea and potential H. armigera x H. zea hybrids. Developing biological control programs, especially using inundative techniques with entomopathogens and parasitoids could slow the spread of H. armigera, and reduce selective pressure for pesticide resistance. The rapid spread of H. armigera through South America into Central America suggests that its spread into North America is a matter of time. The likely natural dispersal routes preclude aggressive incursion responses, emphasizing the value of preparatory communication with agricultural producers in areas suitable for

  9. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  11. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  12. Ophthalmology in North America: Early Stories (1491-1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Leffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New World plants, such as tobacco, tomato, and chili, were held to have beneficial effects on the eyes. Indigenous healers rubbed or scraped the eyes or eyelids to treat inflammation, corneal opacities, and even eye irritation from smoke. European settlers used harsh treatments, such as bleeding and blistering, when the eyes were inflamed or had loss of vision with a normal appearance (gutta serena. In New Spain, surgery for corneal opacity was performed in 1601 and cataract couching in 1611. North American physicians knew of contralateral loss of vision after trauma or surgery (sympathetic ophthalmia, which they called “sympathy.” To date, the earliest identified cataract couching by a surgeon trained in the New World was performed in 1769 by John Bartlett of Rhode Island. The American Revolution negatively affected ophthalmology, as loyalist surgeons were expelled and others were consumed with wartime activities. After the war, cataract extraction was imported to America in earnest and academic development resumed. Charles F Bartlett, the son of John, performed cataract extraction but was also a “rapacious privateer.” In 1801, a doctor in the frontier territory of Kentucky observed anticholinergic poisoning by Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed and suggested that this agent be applied topically to dilate the pupil before cataract extraction. John Warren at Harvard preferred couching in the 1790s, but, after his son returned from European training, recommended treating angle closure glaucoma by lens extraction. Other eye procedures described or advertised in America before the 19th century included enucleation, resection of conjunctival lesions or periocular tumors, treatment of lacrimal fistula, and fitting of prosthetic eyes.

  13. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  14. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Kirtman, B. P.; Juang, H.-M. Henry; Kanamitsu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Three regional climate simulations covering the austral summer season during three contrasting phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle were conducted with the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The simulated interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon River Basin, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins, and extratropical South America compare reasonably well with observations. The RSM optimally filters the peturbations about a time-varying base field, thereby enhancing the information content of the global NCEP reanalysis. The model is better than the reanalysis in reproducing the observed interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation at both high frequencies (3-30 days) and intraseasonal (30-60 days) scales. The low-level jet shows a peak in its speed in 1998 and a minimum in the 1999 simulations. The lag correlation of the jet index with convection over various areas in continental South America indicates that the jet induces precipitation over the Pampas region downstream. A detailed moisture budget was conducted over various subregions. This budget reveals that moisture flux convergence determines most of the interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon Basin, the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the Nordeste region of Brazil. However, both surface evaporation and surface moisture flux convergence were found to be critical in determining the interannual variability of precipitation over the southern Pampas, Gran Chaco area, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.

  15. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of Express Personnel Services and the La Salle Network, Bloomingdale, IL; Havi Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL..., applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP, including on-site...

  16. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution) Indianapolis, IN Pursuant to... the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located in... cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located in Plainfield, Indiana...

  17. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...,839B; TA-W-70,839C] Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off... Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood, CA; Amended...

  18. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including... Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject worker group includes on-site leased workers...

  19. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  20. Dynamic Downscaling of Seasonal Simulations over South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper multiple atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM) integrations at T42 spectral truncation and prescribed sea surface temperature were used to drive regional spectral model (RSM) simulations at 80-km resolution for the austral summer season (January-February-March). Relative to the AGCM, the RSM improves the ensemble mean simulation of precipitation and the lower- and upper-level tropospheric circulation over both tropical and subtropical South America and the neighboring ocean basins. It is also seen that the RSM exacerbates the dry bias over the northern tip of South America and the Nordeste region, and perpetuates the erroneous split intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over both the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins from the AGCM. The RSM at 80-km horizontal resolution is able to reasonably resolve the Altiplano plateau. This led to an improvement in the mean precipitation over the plateau. The improved resolution orography in the RSM did not substantially change the predictability of the precipitation, surface fluxes, or upper- and lower-level winds in the vicinity of the Andes Mountains from the AGCM. In spite of identical convective and land surface parameterization schemes, the diagnostic quantities, such as precipitation and surface fluxes, show significant differences in the intramodel variability over oceans and certain parts of the Amazon River basin (ARB). However, the prognostic variables of the models exhibit relatively similar model noise structures and magnitude. This suggests that the model physics are in large part responsible for the divergence of the solutions in the two models. However, the surface temperature and fluxes from the land surface scheme of the model [Simplified Simple Biosphere scheme (SSiB)] display comparable intramodel variability, except over certain parts of ARB in the two models. This suggests a certain resilience of predictability in SSiB (over the chosen domain of study) to variations in horizontal

  1. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  2. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  3. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  4. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)

  6. Bird collision impacts at wind turbines in eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Curry, Richard; Guarnaccia, John [Curry and Kerlinger, LLC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the incidence of bird collisions at wind turbines in Eastern North America. Modern wind turbines are high, with long, tubular towers. Bird fatality is analyzed and references to the relevant studies that have been done are given. 26 sites were investigated for turbine mortality in 2011 and these are shown on a map. 64 turbines were examined in Maple Ridge and it was seen that 4 birds were killed per turbine per year. The results demonstrated that no eagles were killed, there were no endangered species involved and there was no real deviation from site to site. More than 80,000 individual turbines were researched and more than $30 million spent on the study. Around 120,000 birds are killed per year, or an average of over 6 birds per turbine per year, in the United States. It is clear from the extensive research conducted that there are a lot of data on birds and turbines; the data show that songbirds are the most often affected.

  7. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  9. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  10. Outlook for natural gas liquids sales in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The outlook for natural gas liquids (NGL) markets in North America is forecast, with a focus on NGL sourced from Canada. The supply of NGL from Canada is first discussed, showing that Canadian NGL production is typically a function of natural gas production. Over the period ending in the year 2001, Canadian propane and butanes production is expected to peak at ca 275,000 bbl/d and ethane at ca 175,000 bbl/d. The processing, transport, and storage infrastructure for NGL in Canada has been regarded as being matured. A historical overview of the NGL market has shown large swings in demand, linked to such factors as crude oil prices and the drop in butanes demand caused by changes in gasoline specifications in the USA. On the other hand, oxygenates required for reformulated gasolines need butanes as a raw material for their manufacture, signifying a new market for butanes when such gasolines are mandated in clean air programs. Prospects for propane are good in the transportation market because of its clean burning properties. Prospects for expanding ethylene production are favorable to NGL producers; major Canadian petrochemical producers are located close to the source of ethane and petrochemical demand for ethane is forecast to increase by 40,000 bbl/d due to a new plant coming on line and to larger exports to the USA. Results of some forecasts of Canadian propane, butane, and ethane supply and demand are included. 8 figs

  11. In the spotlight: New hydro development in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    1992 was a year of progress for many segments of the hydropower industry as developers worked to bring new projects on line. This industry overview features several of these projects and offers a preview of 1993 activity. The only operating privately owned hydroelectric project in Texas. The largest hydro plant in the province of Manitoba. The world's largest submersible hydroturbine-generator. These projects and others-completed and placed in service in 1992-can claim a special place in the history books. For each of the 31 hydro projects in North America that began operating in 1992, there's a unique story to tell. Each called upon the time, talent, commitment, ingenuity, and perseverance of those involved in their development. In aggregate, these projects contribute nearly 3,800 MW of clean, renewable electrical capacity that can be used efficiently and cost-effectively to help meet the power demands of customers in the US and Canada. Utilities, state agencies, municipalities, and independent power developers played roles in developing new hydro in 1992. We offer a sampling of their work to illustrate progress made in the past year

  12. Energy balances for Europe and North America 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is based on the ECE Energy Data Bank collected by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy, supplemented by other official data available to the secretariat. The Energy Data Base contains energy balances from 1960 to 1985 for the market economy countries of western Europe and North America and from 1965 to 1985 for the centrally planned economy countries of eastern Europe. During the first session of the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy held in 1979, countries decided to circulate a questionnaire on Selected Energy Issues covering the years 1973, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/2, para. 29). While the methodology for establishing the balances has been mutually agreed, the assumptions underlying each country's forecast are not necessarily comparable. At their fifth session held from 23 to 27 September 1985, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy agreed to issue a second questionnaire to collect revised projections for the years 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/11, para. 50(b)). Information received served as benchmarks to construct a time series from 1970 to 1985. Commodities listed include solid fossil fuels, petroleum fuels, gaseous fuels both natural and derived, nuclear energy, hydro- and geothermal energy, electricity, steam and hot water, energy derived from non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, wave, tidal, etc.)

  13. A study of ayahuasca use in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachel; Gurel, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-one subjects who used ayahuasca at least once in North America answered a lengthy set of open-ended questions and completed the 81-item After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. An additional 50 ayahuasca users were interviewed in person. The data for this study represent ayahuasca experience based on more than 2,267 ceremonies. A comparison group of 46 people attending a Catholic spiritual retreat weekend also completed the After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. A factor analysis of this questionnaire yielded three factors: Joy in Life, Relationship to the Sacred and Toxic Feelings. Although the ayahuasca users had significantly higher scores on the first two factors, the two groups had modest mean differences indicating a similar response to two very different spiritual experiences. This key finding strongly supports the view that ayahuasca users are engaged in an authentic process as spiritual in nature as that of the retreatants. The qualitative data revealed that ayahuasca users reduced their alcohol intake, ate healthier diets, enjoyed improved mood and greater self-acceptance and felt more loving and compassionate in their relationships. Seventy-four percent of the ayahuasca users said they had a relationship with and received ongoing guidance and support from the spirit of ayahuasca.

  14. Environmental concerns regarding electric power transmission in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCicco, J.M.; Bernow, S.S.; Beyea, J.

    1992-01-01

    The electric utilities of North America have become ever more interconnected via transmission facilities, largely to insure reliability. Current policy discussions regarding transmission include calls for improved access, increased capacity, and deregulation to facilitate trade in electric power. From an environmental perspective, two issues have been notably absent in much of the debate: (1) a recognition of the full range of environmental impacts related to electricity transmission; and (2) the potential for end-use efficiency to address the reliability and economy requirements that motivate attention to transmission. This paper broaches these issues, starting with an elaboration of the environmental impacts, which range from global and regional effects to local concerns, including the potential health risks associated with electric and magnetic fields. We emphasize that transmission planning should occur as part of an integrated planning process, in which the environmental and social costs of various options are fully considered. We discuss the potential for end-use efficiency to lessen environmental impacts of both transmission and generation. We conclude that there is a need to ensure that environmental externalities and demand-side alternatives are adequately considered when transmission network expansions are proposed. (Author)

  15. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  16. Boettger stoneware from North America and Europe; are they authentic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swann, Charles P. E-mail: swann@bartol.udel.edu; Nelson, Christina H

    2000-03-01

    In the early 18th century, Johann Friedrich Boettger, an alchemist recently arrived in Dresden, was assigned to ceramic experimentation under the orders of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. The Elector and his advisors hoped to discover the secret of making hard paste porcelain like the wares imported into Europe from China and Japan. In 1706-1707, Boettger produced his first ceramic body, a red stoneware similar to the wares produced in Yixing, China. The first objects were made following the forms of chinese prototypes or European metalwork of the period. Recently, the authenticity of a number of 'Boettger' objects in various museums and private collections in North America and Europe has been questioned. To aide in resolving these questions several non-destructive analytical techniques have been employed, the most important being PIXE. This report is on an initial study of 25 objects with 16 elements from Al to Zr and Pb being analysed. The results strongly suggest three different groupings, one of objects from the Meissen factory during the 20th century, one from the work of Boettger himself early in the 18th century and one from an as yet unknown time period and site. The first two groups were previously identified by one of the authors (C.N.)

  17. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  18. Quality assessment of published health economic analyses from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses

  19. Continent at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2006-01-01

    This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, "Continent at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America," was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K...

  20. Crossing borders : development, learning and the North-South divide.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, C.

    2006-01-01

    While the validity of categories like 'First' and 'Third' World or 'North' and 'South' has been increasingly questioned, there have been few attempts to consider how learning between North and South might be conceived. Drawing on a range of perspectives from development and postcolonial scholarship, this paper argues for the creative possibility of learning between different contexts. This involves a conceptualisation of learning that is at once ethical and indirect: ethical because it transc...

  1. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  2. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  3. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jacob; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael T.; Alpers, Charles N.; Hall, Britt D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eckley, Chris S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for > 16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3 ± 6.5 μg kg− 1) and canal (28.6 ± 6.9 μg kg− 1) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7 ± 4.6 μg kg− 1) and estuarine (23.6 ± 5.6 μg kg− 1) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8 ± 2.2 μg kg− 1) and forested (32.0 ± 2.7 μg kg− 1) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9 ± 1.7 μg kg− 1), rangeland (25.5 ± 1.5 μg kg− 1), agriculture (23.4 ± 2.0 μg kg− 1), and urban (22.7 ± 2.1 μg kg− 1) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55 ± 0.05 μg kg− 1) and canals (0.54 ± 0.11 μg kg− 1), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22 ± 0.03 μg kg− 1). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n > 100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (> 6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r2 = 0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land

  4. Fishery intensification in small water bodies: a review for North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moehl, John Frederic; Davies, William D

    1993-01-01

    .... Intensification is also achieved by enhancing water fertility through liming and fertilization. Case studies are presented representing contrasting climatic regions of North America while demonstrating similarities in management style...

  5. Perspectives on the Land Use History of North America: A Context for Understanding Our Changing Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisk, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    ... between land use and landcover change. The authors provide the historical context for interpreting recent landcover change in several regions of North America and articulate the value of a comprehensive, continental land use history...

  6. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSoil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  7. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces...

  8. First report of the post-fire morel Morchella exuberans in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew N; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Iturriaga, Teresa; Matheny, P Brandon; Petersen, Ronald H; Hughes, Karen W; Gube, Matthias; Powers, Rob A; James, Timothy Y; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comparison, are rare and limited to a report from Minnesota in 1977 and eastern Ontario in 1991. Here, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) sequences were used to identify the post-fire morel that fruited in great abundance the year following the 2012 Duck Lake Fire in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and after the 2016 large-scale fire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee as M. exuberans. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the collections from eastern North America may be more closely related to those from Europe than from western North America, Europe, and China.

  9. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,758] Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  10. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including continuous surfaces of day length,...

  11. 78 FR 30963 - Michelin North America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...: Michelin North America, Inc. (MNA), has determined that certain Michelin brand passenger car replacement... ETRTO standard and the Tire and Rim Association (T&RA) standard, thus becoming noncompliant with the...

  12. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  13. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-08

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 km and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late 21st century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late 21st century.

  14. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-08

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  15. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C; Schwarz, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  16. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Mowat

    Full Text Available Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  17. Economics issues - nuclear power generation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Taylor, J.; Santucci, J.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the US utility industry is in transition. Political, social, and economic factors are contributing to a rapid shift from a monopoly structure (captive markets, cost-plus prices, negotiated rate of return on capital) to a highly competitive one (choices for customers, prices determined by the market place, earnings based on market price less cost). The rate of change has been accelerating. For example, what just two years ago would have been thought of as highly unlikely -- competition for the individual electric customer -- is now part of the plan in California and other states. In our view, technology is at the root of many of these structural changes with more to come. Yet another round of technological change is afoot, involving even more efficient gas turbines, new methods of utilizing transmission lines, distributed generation, and new opportunities for electricity use and service. It can be argued that the restructuring of the marketplace reflects, in some measure, anticipation for these advances. For the foreseeable future, nuclear energy will continue to play a significant role in the generating grid of North America. However, new nuclear generation will be held to standards of competition that are dictated by market forces, and by advances in competing technologies for base load generation. It is important to understand these forces, and devise a response which ensures that nuclear energy will continue to provide a viable, competitive, and environmentally superior option for generating electricity in the 21st century. The EPRI Nuclear Power program is focused on achieving these goals. (author)

  18. Knowledge exchange for climate adaptation planning in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science

  19. Ground Motion Characteristics of Induced Earthquakes in Central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Assatourians, K.; Novakovic, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ground motion characteristics of induced earthquakes in central North America are investigated based on empirical analysis of a compiled database of 4,000,000 digital ground-motion records from events in induced-seismicity regions (especially Oklahoma). Ground-motion amplitudes are characterized non-parametrically by computing median amplitudes and their variability in magnitude-distance bins. We also use inversion techniques to solve for regional source, attenuation and site response effects. Ground motion models are used to interpret the observations and compare the source and attenuation attributes of induced earthquakes to those of their natural counterparts. Significant conclusions are that the stress parameter that controls the strength of high-frequency radiation is similar for induced earthquakes (depth of h 5 km) and shallow (h 5 km) natural earthquakes. By contrast, deeper natural earthquakes (h 10 km) have stronger high-frequency ground motions. At distances close to the epicenter, a greater focal depth (which increases distance from the hypocenter) counterbalances the effects of a larger stress parameter, resulting in motions of similar strength close to the epicenter, regardless of event depth. The felt effects of induced versus natural earthquakes are also investigated using USGS "Did You Feel It?" reports; 400,000 reports from natural events and 100,000 reports from induced events are considered. The felt reports confirm the trends that we expect based on ground-motion modeling, considering the offsetting effects of the stress parameter versus focal depth in controlling the strength of motions near the epicenter. Specifically, felt intensity for a given magnitude is similar near the epicenter, on average, for all event types and depths. At distances more than 10 km from the epicenter, deeper events are felt more strongly than shallow events. These ground-motion attributes imply that the induced-seismicity hazard is most critical for facilities in

  20. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  1. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  2. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  3. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  4. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Filipino Female in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been described in Southeast Asia, but has only recently begun to emerge in North America. The hypermucoviscous strain of K. pneumoniae is a particularly virulent strain known to cause devastatingly invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Here we present the first known case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae in North America. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:165–168.

  5. DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jenkins, Dennis L; Götherstrom, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The timing of the first human migration into the Americas and its relation to the appearance of the Clovis technological complex in North America ca. 11-10.8 thousand radiocarbon years before present ((14)C ka B.P.) remains contentious. We establish that humans were present at Paisley 5 Mile Point...

  6. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David C.; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  7. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  8. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  9. Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactors for Mo-99/Tc-99m production in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J.W., E-mail: hilbovanw@sympatico.ca [Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU in 2009 - 2010 caused an overall isotope shortage of approximately 30%; and in North America, the annual Tc-99m demand decreased from an estimated 20 million unit doses to about 15 million unit doses. Mo-99/Tc-99m is produced from HEU targets, irradiated in NRU for 11 days, and after chemical removal of uranium it is shipped to Nordion in Kanata, Ontario. Nordion further purifies the material and sends it to Lantheus Medical Imaging in the USA for manufacture of Mo-99 generators, which are then distributed to hundreds of hospital radiopharmacies throughout North America. One other American company, Covidien, manufactures and distributes Mo-99 generators like Lantheus, but they import bulk Mo-99 from Europe or South Africa. At the hospitals, Tc-99m is chemically extracted daily from the Mo-99 generators and loaded into syringes for immediate clinical use. Fortuitously, the 66 hour half-life of Mo-99 allows the replenishment of Tc-99m in the generator over a growth period of about 20 hours; and a generator can be 'milked' daily for up to two weeks. A more efficient model is the direct production and distribution of Tc-99m unit doses to regional hospitals from 10 'industrial' radiopharmacies located at existing licensed reactor sites in North America. A 20 kW homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor at each site would deliver 15 litres of irradiated uranyl sulphate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells for extraction of Mo-99, which would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) would be recycled. Each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily, for courier delivery to all of the Nuclear Medicine hospitals within a 3 hour average range by road transport. Typically, the delivered doses would be in the range 10 to 30 mCi. Assuming an average unit dose of 25 mCi at the hospital and 5 x 52

  10. Potential effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems of the Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covich, A.P.; Fritz, S.C.; Lamb, P.J.; Marzolf, R.D.; Matthews, W.J.; Poiani, K.A.; Prepas, E.E.; Richman, M.B.; Winter, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Great Plains landscape is less topographically complex than most other regions within North America, but diverse aquatic ecosystems, such as playas, pothole lakes, ox-bow lakes, springs, groundwater aquifers, intermittent and ephemeral streams, as well as large rivers and wetlands, are highly dynamic and responsive to extreme climatic fluctuations. We review the evidence for climatic change that demonstrates the historical importance of extremes in north-south differences in summer temperatures and east-west differences in aridity across four large subregions. These physical driving forces alter density stratification, deoxygenation, decomposition and salinity. Biotic community composition and associated ecosystem processes of productivity and nutrient cycling respond rapidly to these climatically driven dynamics. Ecosystem processes also respond to cultural effects such as dams and diversions of water for irrigation, waste dilution and urban demands for drinking water and industrial uses. Distinguishing climatic from cultural effects in future models of aquatic ecosystem functioning will require more refinement in both climatic and economic forecasting. There is a need, for example, to predict how long-term climatic forecasts (based on both ENSO and global warming simulations) relate to the permanence and productivity of shallow water ecosystems. Aquatic ecologists, hydrologists, climatologists and geographers have much to discuss regarding the synthesis of available data and the design of future interdisciplinary research. ?? 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae of North America, North of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen F. Sanborn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe and illustrate the biogeography of the cicadas inhabiting continental North America, north of Mexico. Species distributions were determined through our collecting efforts as well as label data from more than 110 institutional collections. The status of subspecies is discussed with respect to their distributions. As we have shown over limited geographic areas, the distribution of individual species is related to the habitat in which they are found. We discuss the biogeography of the genera with respect to their phylogenetic relationships. California is the state with the greatest alpha diversity (89 species, 46.6% of taxa and unique species (35 species, 18.3% of taxa. Texas, Arizona, Colorado and Utah are the states with the next greatest alpha diversity with Texas, Arizona and Utah being next for unique species diversity. Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island are the states with the least amount of cicada diversity. Diversity is greatest in states and areas where there is a diversity of plant communities and habitats within these communities. Mountainous terrain also coincides with increases in diversity. Several regions of the focus area require additional collection efforts to fill in the distributions of several species.

  12. Population structure of Heterobasidion annosum from North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Otrosina; T.E. Chase; F.W. Cobb; K. Korhonen

    1993-01-01

    Isolates of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. representing North American S and P and European S, P, and F intersterility groups were subjected to isozyme analysis.European S, P, and F groups had more variability than the North American S and P groups in expected heterozygosity, number of alleles per locus, and percent polymorphic loci.In contrast with the North...

  13. Human Population Decline in North America during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.; Goodyear, A. C.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Kennett, J.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    dates. The decline at the YD onset was more than 50%, similar in magnitude to the decline in Clovis-Folsom point ratios. While calibration and sampling factors may affect the trends, this abrupt decline is large and requires explanation. SUMMARY: Even though correlation does not equate with causation, the coeval YD decline in both points and 14C dates appears linked to significant changes in climate and biota, as represented by the megafaunal extinction. While the causes of the YD remain controversial, a human population decline appears to have occurred, at least across parts of North America. Furthermore, the YD onset is associated with the abrupt replacement of Clovis by regional or subregional scale cultural traditions, potentially reflecting decreased range mobility and increased population isolation. Projectile point distributions and summed probability analyses, we argue, are potentially useful approaches for exploring demographic changes at regional scales.

  14. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  15. [Infection by hepatitis virus among the indigenous populations of South America: a review of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, J M; Blitz-Dorfman, L; Pujot, F H

    1996-09-01

    After the report of the epidemic outbreak of delta hepatitis among the Yukpa amerindians in the early 80s, the viral hepatitis arose as an important health problem in all the Amerindian communities from the north of South America and the Amazonian Basin. Despite the few data available, the results obtained in different communities from Venezuela (Yukpa, Barí, Yanomami) have shown a high endemicity of hepatitis B and D virus infections and a significant prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibody among their members. By contrast, the infection by hepatitis C virus, which is present in all the urban areas from South America, seems uncommon, or even absent among some Amerindian populations. At the moment, a satisfactory explanation for this findings has not yet been arised. However, it could be possible that the margination of these populations regarding the health care system has been keeping them free of an infection largely linked worldwide to iatrogeny. Vaccination of Amerindian populations against hepatitis B should be taken as a priority of the health care programs. Moreover, such programs should consider the iatrogenic transmission of the HCV as a matter of concern regarding such populations, since parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses seems to spread quickly among their members once they are introduced, giving rise to serious health problems.

  16. A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Gallina

    Full Text Available Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere.

  17. Multistation digisonde observations of equatorial spread F in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Directional ionogram and F-region drift observations were conducted at seven digisonde stations in South America during the COPEX campaign from October to December 2002. Five stations in Brazil, one in Argentina, and one in Peru, monitored the ionosphere across the continent to study the onset and development of F-region density depletions that cause equatorial spread F (ESF. New ionosonde techniques quantitatively describe the prereversal uplifting of the F layer at the magnetic equator and the eastward motion of the depletions over the stations. Three of the Brazilian stations were located along a field line with a 350-km apex over the equator to investigate the relation of the occurrence of ESF and the presence of sporadic E-layers at the two E-region intersections of the field line. No simple correlation was found.

  18. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  19. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  20. Landscape‐level patterns in fawn survival across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingery, Tess M.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    A landscape‐level meta‐analysis approach to examining early survival of ungulates may elucidate patterns in survival not evident from individual studies. Despite numerous efforts, the relationship between fawn survival and habitat characteristics remains unclear and there has been no attempt to examine trends in survival across landscape types with adequate replication. In 2015–2016, we radiomarked 98 white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta‐analysis approach, we compared fawn survival estimates from across North America using published data from 29 populations in 16 states to identify patterns in survival and cause‐specific mortality related to landscape characteristics, predator communities, and deer population density. We modeled fawn survival relative to percentage of agricultural land cover and deer density. Estimated average survival to 3–6 months of age was 0.414 ± 0.062 (SE) in contiguous forest landscapes (no agriculture) and for every 10% increase in land area in agriculture, fawn survival increased 0.049 ± 0.014. We classified cause‐specific mortality as human‐caused, natural (excluding predation), and predation according to agriculturally dominated, forested, and mixed (i.e., both agricultural and forest cover) landscapes. Predation was the greatest source of mortality in all landscapes. Landscapes with mixed forest and agricultural cover had greater proportions and rates of human‐caused mortalities, and lower proportions and rates of mortality due to predators, when compared to forested landscapes. Proportion and rate of natural deaths did not differ among landscapes. We failed to detect any relationship between fawn survival and deer density. The results highlight the need to consider multiple spatial scales when accounting for factors that influence fawn survival. Furthermore, variation in mortality sources and rates among landscapes indicate the potential for

  1. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications . Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  2. Avian Influenza Risk Surveillance in North America with Online Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Robertson

    Full Text Available The use of Internet-based sources of information for health surveillance applications has increased in recent years, as a greater share of social and media activity happens through online channels. The potential surveillance value in online sources of information about emergent health events include early warning, situational awareness, risk perception and evaluation of health messaging among others. The challenge in harnessing these sources of data is the vast number of potential sources to monitor and developing the tools to translate dynamic unstructured content into actionable information. In this paper we investigated the use of one social media outlet, Twitter, for surveillance of avian influenza risk in North America. We collected AI-related messages over a five-month period and compared these to official surveillance records of AI outbreaks. A fully automated data extraction and analysis pipeline was developed to acquire, structure, and analyze social media messages in an online context. Two methods of outbreak detection; a static threshold and a cumulative-sum dynamic threshold; based on a time series model of normal activity were evaluated for their ability to discern important time periods of AI-related messaging and media activity. Our findings show that peaks in activity were related to real-world events, with outbreaks in Nigeria, France and the USA receiving the most attention while those in China were less evident in the social media data. Topic models found themes related to specific AI events for the dynamic threshold method, while many for the static method were ambiguous. Further analyses of these data might focus on quantifying the bias in coverage and relation between outbreak characteristics and detectability in social media data. Finally, while the analyses here focused on broad themes and trends, there is likely additional value in developing methods for identifying low-frequency messages, operationalizing this

  3. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  4. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in Northwestern North America, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Krebs; K. Kielland; J.P Bryant; M. O' Donoghue; F. Doyle; C. McIntyre; D. DiFolco; N. Berg; S. Carriere; R. Boonstra; S. Boutin; A. J. Kenney; D. G. Reid; K. Bodony; J. Putera; H. K. Timm; T. Burke.

    2013-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) fluctuate in 9–10 year cycles throughout much of their North American range. Regional synchrony has been assumed to be the rule for these cycles, so that hare populations in virtually all of northwestern North America have been assumed to be in phase. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on...

  5. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  6. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. D. Amiro; A. G. Barr; J. G. Barr; T. A. Black; R. Bracho; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included standreplacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon...

  7. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  8. Seismic hazard, risk, and design for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen; Jaiswal, Kishor; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nicolas; Haller, Kathleen; Mueller, Charles; Shumway, Allison

    2018-01-01

    We calculate seismic hazard, risk, and design criteria across South America using the latest data, models, and methods to support public officials, scientists, and engineers in earthquake risk mitigation efforts. Updated continental scale seismic hazard models are based on a new seismicity catalog, seismicity rate models, evaluation of earthquake sizes, fault geometry and rate parameters, and ground‐motion models. Resulting probabilistic seismic hazard maps show peak ground acceleration, modified Mercalli intensity, and spectral accelerations at 0.2 and 1 s periods for 2%, 10%, and 50% probabilities of exceedance in 50 yrs. Ground shaking soil amplification at each site is calculated by considering uniform soil that is applied in modern building codes or by applying site‐specific factors based on VS30">VS30 shear‐wave velocities determined through a simple topographic proxy technique. We use these hazard models in conjunction with the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) model to calculate economic and casualty risk. Risk is computed by incorporating the new hazard values amplified by soil, PAGER fragility/vulnerability equations, and LandScan 2012 estimates of population exposure. We also calculate building design values using the guidelines established in the building code provisions. Resulting hazard and associated risk is high along the northern and western coasts of South America, reaching damaging levels of ground shaking in Chile, western Argentina, western Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and in localized areas distributed across the rest of the continent where historical earthquakes have occurred. Constructing buildings and other structures to account for strong shaking in these regions of high hazard and risk should mitigate losses and reduce casualties from effects of future earthquake strong ground shaking. National models should be developed by scientists and engineers in each country using the best

  9. The burden of oesophageal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Enrique; Sierra, Monica S; Musetti, Carina; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Oesophageal cancer shows marked geographic variations and is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. We described the burden of this malignancy in Central and South America. Regional and national level incidence data were obtained from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries. Mortality data were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype were available from high-quality population-based cancer registries. Males had higher incidence and mortality rates than females (male-to-female ratios: 2-6:1 and 2-5:1). In 2003-2007, the highest rates were in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Mortality rates followed the incidence patterns. Incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than adenocarcinoma (AC), except in females from Cuenca (Ecuador). SCC and AC incidence were higher in males than females, except in the Region of Antofagasta and Valdivia (Chile), Manizales (Colombia) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Incidence and mortality rates tended to decline in Argentina, Chile, Brazil (incidence) and Costa Rica from 1997 to 2008. The geographic variation and sex disparity in oesophageal cancer across Central and South America may reflect differences in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption which highlights the need to implement and/or strengthen tobacco and alcohol control policies. Maté consumption, obesity, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection may also explain the variation in oesophageal cancer rates but these relationships should be evaluated. Continuous monitoring of oesophageal cancer rates is necessary to provide the basis for cancer prevention and control in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  11. Mapping the expansion of coyotes (Canis latrans across North and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Hody

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of coyotes (Canis latrans has dramatically expanded since 1900, spreading across much of North America in a period when most other mammal species have been declining. Although this considerable expansion has been well documented at the state/provincial scale, continent-wide descriptions of coyote spread have portrayed conflicting distributions for coyotes prior to the 1900s, with popularly referenced anecdotal accounts showing them restricted to the great plains, and more obscure, but data-rich accounts suggesting they ranged across the arid west. To provide a scientifically credible map of the coyote’s historical range (10,000–300 BP and describe their range expansion from 1900 to 2016, we synthesized archaeological and fossil records, museum specimens, peer-reviewed reports, and records from wildlife management agencies. Museum specimens confirm that coyotes have been present in the arid west and California throughout the Holocene, well before European colonization. Their range in the late 1800s was undistinguishable from earlier periods, and matched the distribution of non-forest habitat in the region. Coyote expansion began around 1900 as they moved north into taiga forests, east into deciduous forests, west into costal temperate rain forests, and south into tropical rainforests. Forest fragmentation and the extirpation of larger predators probably enabled these expansions. In addition, hybridization with wolves (C. lupus, C. lycaon, and/or C. rufus and/or domestic dogs has been documented in the east, and suspected in the south. Our detailed account of the original range of coyotes and their subsequent expansion provides the core description of a large scale ecological experiment that can help us better understand the predator-prey interactions, as well as evolution through hybridization.

  12. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  13. Linking biotic homogenization to habitat type, invasiveness and growth form of naturalized alien plants in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Qian; Qinfeng. Guo

    2010-01-01

    Aim Biotic homogenization is a growing phenomenon and has recently attracted much attention. Here, we analyse a large dataset of native and alien plants in North America to examine whether biotic homogenization is related to several ecological and biological attributes. Location North America (north of Mexico). Methods We assembled...

  14. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  15. Role of petroleum in the North-South dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bouri, W

    1985-01-01

    The North-South dialogue is an unbalanced struggle because the South is seeking to ensure its survival, while the North is defending its gains and concessions. This paper highlights the role of petroleum in the dialogue, in the cooperation and solidarity that now exist between countries of the South, in convincing the industrial countries of the need for comprehensive negotiations, and in promoting the idea of a new international econmic order. It also highlights the role OAPEC has played in pursuing a dialogue with the North on oil and oil industries, in exchanging know-how and information with industrial countries, and in acquiring technology from them. A new element since 1973 has been the use of petroleum as a political weapon. 17 references, 1 table.

  16. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  17. Winter Precipitation in North America and the Pacific-North America Pattern in GEOS-S2Sv2 Seasonal Hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Molod, Andrea; Schubert, Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    Reliable prediction of precipitation remains one of the most pivotal and complex challenges in seasonal forecasting. Previous studies show that various large-scale climate modes, such as ENSO, PNA and NAO play significant role in winter precipitation variability over the Northern America. The influences are most pronounced in years of strong indices of such climate modes. This study evaluates model bias, predictability and forecast skills of monthly winter precipitation in GEOS5-S2S 2.0 retrospective forecast from 1981 to 2016, with emphasis on the forecast skill of precipitation over North America during the extreme events of ENSO, PNA and NAO by applying EOF and composite analysis.

  18. Radiotherapy for invasive breast cancer in North America and Europe: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceilley, Elizabeth; Jagsi, Reshma; Goldberg, Saveli; Grignon, Laurent; Kachnic, Lisa; Powell, Simon; Taghian, Alphonse

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To document and explain the current radiotherapeutic management of invasive breast cancer in North America and Europe. We also identified a number of areas of agreement, as well as controversy, toward which additional clinical research should be directed. Methods and materials: An original survey questionnaire was developed to assess radiation oncologists' self-reported management of breast cancer. The questionnaire was administered to physician members of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. We present the results of the comparative analysis of 702 responses from North America and 435 responses from Europe. Results: Several areas of national and international controversy were identified, including the selection of appropriate candidates for postmastectomy radiation therapy (RT) and the appropriate management of the regional lymph nodes after mastectomy, as well as after lumpectomy. Only 40.7% and 36.1% of respondents would use postmastectomy RT in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes in North America and Europe, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was offered more frequently by North American than European respondents (p < 0.0001) and more frequently by academic than nonacademic respondents in North America (p < 0.05). The average radiation fraction size was larger in Europe than in North America (p < 0.01). European respondents offered RT to the internal mammary chain more often than did the North American respondents (p < 0.001). North American respondents were more likely to offer RT to the supraclavicular fossa (p < 0.001) and axilla (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Marked differences were found in physician opinions regarding the management of breast cancer, with statistically significant international differences in patterns of care. This survey highlighted areas of controversy, providing support for international randomized trials to optimize the RT management of

  19. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  20. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D

    2012-11-13

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America.

  1. Projected hydrogen cost from methane reforming for North America 2015-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderveen, K.; Lutz, A.; Klebanoff, L.; Drennen, T.; Keller, J.; Drennen, T.; Kamery, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H 2 Sim) was used to project the cost for hydrogen at the point of sale to light duty vehicles for distributed, small-scale steam methane reforming. Projections cover the period from 2010-2050 in North America, and take into account assumptions about the quantity of recoverable natural gas remaining in North America. We conclude that there is a window for distributed reforming to play a positive role in supplying a H 2 fuel infrastructure, but this window is closing rapidly. The analysis assumes that production from natural gas reserves in North America will peak sometime before 2050 and demand will cause the price to rise after the peak of production in a manner consistent with Hotelling's model. We consider three scenarios for when the peak occurs, and evaluate the impact on the cost of hydrogen fuel produced via distributed small scale reforming in these three scenarios. (authors)

  2. Reconstruction of caribou evolutionary history in Western North America and its implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Musiani, Marco; McDevitt, Allan D; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The role of Beringia as a refugium and route for trans-continental exchange of fauna during glacial cycles of the past 2million years are well documented; less apparent is its contribution as a significant reservoir of genetic diversity. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and 14 microsatellite loci, we investigate the phylogeographic history of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in western North America. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal two distinct groups of caribou. Caribou classified as a Northern group, of Beringian origin, exhibited greater number and variability in mtDNA haplotypes compared to a Southern group originating from refugia south of glacial ice. Results indicate that subspecies R. t. granti of Alaska and R. t. groenlandicus of northern Canada do not constitute distinguishable units at mtDNA or microsatellites, belying their current status as separate subspecies. Additionally, the Northern Mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (presently R. t. caribou) has closer kinship to caribou classified as granti or groenlandicus. Comparisons of mtDNA and microsatellite data suggest that behavioural and ecological specialization is a more recently derived life history characteristic. Notably, microsatellite differentiation among Southern herds is significantly greater, most likely as a result of human-induced landscape fragmentation and genetic drift due to smaller population sizes. These results not only provide important insight into the evolutionary history of northern species such as caribou, but also are important indicators for managers evaluating conservation measures for this threatened species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. North-South Institute Institutional Grant 2011-2012 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The North-South Institute (NSI) is an established independent thinktank in Canada whose work focuses on international development, poverty reduction and global inequalities. Building on a long history of collaboration between NSI and IDRC, this grant will provide the Institute with core support for 2011-2012. NSI activities ...

  4. Musharraf calls for North-South cooperation: Science and technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "President Gen Pervez Musharraf has called for improved North-South cooperation in scinece and technology and said it would enable millions of people in the developing countries to realize the goal of rapid socio-economic progress" (1.5 page)

  5. Analysis of COMS-1 North-South Station Keeping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perturbations caused by the Sun and the Moon are predominantly out-of-plane effects causing a change in the inclination and in the right ascension of ascending node of a geostationary satellite. Due to the change of the inclination, subsatellite latitude of the geostationary satellite has a daily variations of the same magnitude of the inclination. Therefore we need a facility to control the orbital inclination and right ascension of ascending node for maintaining the satellite position in specified subsatellite latitude boundary using thrusters. In this paper we studied North-South station keeping strategies of the COMS-1 such as Track-Back Chord Target (TBCT method, Maximum Compensation Target (MCT method and Minimum Fuel Target (MFT method. We accomplished those North-South station keeping maneuvers for one year starting from December 2008. The required velocity increments to maintain the satellite are estimated as MCT 52.6065m/s, TBCT 52.2383m/s, MFT 51.5428m/s, respectively. We demonstrated that TBCT and MFT methods are proper to North-South station keeping for COMS-1. MFT method showed the minimum required velocity increments whereas TBCT traced narrow inclination boundary area for North-South station keeping.

  6. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  7. North-South Colonization Associated with Local Adaptation of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böndel, Katharina B; Lainer, Hilde; Nosenko, Tetyana; Mboup, Mamadou; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    After colonization population sizes may vary across the species range depending on environmental conditions and following colonizations. An interesting question is whether local adaptation occurs more frequently in large ancestral populations or in small derived populations. A higher number of new mutations and a lower effect of genetic drift should favor selection in large populations, whereas small derived populations may require an initial local adaptation event to facilitate the colonization of new habitats. Wild tomatoes are native to a broad range of different habitats characterized by variable abiotic conditions in South America, and represent an ideal system to study this interplay between demography and natural selection. Population genetic analyses and statistical inference of past demography were conducted on pooled-sequencing data from 30 genes (8,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from an extensive sampling of 23 Solanum chilense populations over Chile and Peru. We reveal first a north-south colonization associated with relaxed purifying selection in the south as shown by a decrease of genetic variation and an increasing proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism from north to south, and population substructure with at least four genetic groups. Second, we uncover a dual picture of adaptation consisting of 1) a decreasing proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions from north to south suggesting that adaptation is favored in large populations, whereas 2) signatures of local adaptation predominantly occur in the smaller populations from the marginal ranges in the south. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  9. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of species distribution models (SDMs can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19% of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  10. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jose Luis Passos; Fragoso, José M V; Crawshaw, Danielle; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2016-01-01

    The development of species distribution models (SDMs) can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA) at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs) better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19%) of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  11. Mining and development: are they compatible in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, W

    1976-12-01

    Mining operations will require new methods and policies if they are to be of positive benefit to Third World countries. A review of experiences in South America reveals that few jobs were created in spite of intensive capital costs. Concentration of political power in a small elite group, such as miners, tends to counter efforts to improve working conditions and bring about better income distribution to the general population. Foreign exchange earnings and central government revenues benefit disproportionately to the social and economic needs of the people. More appropriate policies for developing countries will (1) seek mining opportunities with lower capital and higher labor intensity, (2) reduce foreign mining expenditures in favor of local input, and (3) reassess the government and mining-sector relationship as it applies to investment of mining surpluses. Any new policy directions will have to cope with the reluctance of miners to accept changes that are not in their direct interest and with those incompatible with tribal ancestral land use. Countries with a large investment in mining operations will be reluctant to change policies, particularly those recommended by outsiders. (24 references) (DCK)

  12. The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of known troglobiotic species occur in caves and subterranean environments from great depths. However, recently more attention has been given to other subterranean environments, such as the hypothelminorheic habitats. It comprises the most superficial among all subterranean habitats. This kind of environment is characterized by the constant presence of wet spots, absence of light and very particular abiotic characteristics, comprising unique species. The first hypothelminorheic Amphipoda from South America is here described, a new species of the genus Hyalella which occurs in a wetland on Southern Brazil. The new species differs from other troglobiotics of the genus by the presence of a curved seta on the inner ramus of uropod 1 and elongation of appendices, as the first pair of antennae and peraeopods 6 and 7. However, human impacts in the area where the new species occurs have changed heavily their habitat, which may have led the species to a critical level of threat or even extinction, demonstrating the fragility of this environment.a

  13. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  14. Cystic echinococcosis in South America: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Pavletic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis (CE or hydatidosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by a cestode of the family Taeniidae, species Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. This report presents CE figures for these five countries in 2009 – 2014 and proposes indicators to measure national control programs. Nearly 5 000 new CE cases were diagnosed annually in the five countries during the study period. The average case fatality rate was 2.9%, which suggests that CE led to approximately 880 deaths in these countries during the 6-year period. CE cases that required secondary or tertiary health care had average hospital stays of 10.6 days, causing a significant burden to health systems. The proportion of new cases (15% in children less than 15 years of age suggests ongoing transmission. Despite figures showing that CE is not under control in South America, the long-standing implementation of national and local control programs in three of the five countries has achieved reductions in some of the indicators. The Regional Initiative for the Control of CE, which includes the five countries and provides a framework for networking and collaboration, must intensify its efforts.

  15. Robotic-assisted partial Nephrectomy: initial experience in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Lemos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To report the initial outcomes of robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy in a tertiary center in South America. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 11/2008 to 12/2009, a total of 16 transperitoneal robotic-assisted partial nephrectomies were performed in 15 patients to treat 18 kidney tumors. One patient with bilateral tumor had two procedures, while two patients with two synchronous unilateral tumors had a single operation to remove them. Eleven (73% patients were male and the right kidney was affected in 7 (46% patients. The median patient age and tumor size were 57 years old and 30 mm, respectively. Five (28% tumors were hilar and/or centrally located. RESULTS: The median operative time, warm ischemia time and estimated blood loss was 140 min, 27 min and 120 mL, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in one patient with bilateral tumor, and one additional pyelolithotomy was performed due to a 15mm stone located in the renal pelvis. The histopathology analysis showed 15 (83% malignant tumors, which 10 (67% were clear cell carcinoma. The median hospital stay was 72 hrs and no major complication was observed. CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is safe and represents a valuable option to perform minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery.

  16. Unexpected Languages: Multilingualism and Contact in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This exploration of the languages of contact in the North American British-US borderlands in the period between 1783 and 1860 provides insights into the types of extended contact that occurred in the areas north of 42[degrees] and south of 50[degrees]. Although multilingualism was the norm in the Old Northwest and the old Oregon Territory during…

  17. Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Carter, Brendan; Bednaršek, Nina; Hales, Burke; Chan, Francis; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric; Byrne, Robert H.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Greeley, Dana; Juranek, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple linear regression approach to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast Ocean Acidification (WCOA) cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012, and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast, with the lowest values (37-55 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions off southern Oregon and northern California and higher values (51-63 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Coastal dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are also elevated due to a natural remineralized component (Cbio), which represents carbon accumulated through net respiration in the seawater that has not yet degassed to the atmosphere. Average surface Canth is almost twice the surface remineralized component. In contrast, Canth is only about one third and one fifth of the remineralized component at 50 m and 100 m depth, respectively. Uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since the preindustrial period so that undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the shell dissolution of living pteropods. Our data show that the most severe biological impacts occur in the nearshore waters, where corrosive waters are closest to the surface. Since the pre-industrial times, pteropod shell dissolution has, on average, increased approximately 19-26% in both nearshore and offshore waters.

  18. Geophysical constraints on the mantle structure of the Canadian Cordillera and North America Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T. C.; Currie, C. A.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    In western Canada, geophysical data indicate that there is a pronounced contrast in mantle structure between the Canadian Cordillera (CC) and North America craton (NAC). The CC is characterized by lower mantle seismic velocity, higher surface heat flow, lower mantle electrical resistivity and lower effective elastic thickness. These observations are consistent with two distinct thermal regimes: the CC has hot and thin lithosphere, while the NAC lithosphere is cool and thick. The boundary between the CC and NAC coincides with the south-north trending Rocky Mountain Trench - Tintina Fault system. Earlier studies have hypothesized that the thin CC lithosphere is maintained by small-scale convection of hydrated mantle, whereas the NAC lithosphere is dry and resistant to thinning. Here, we test this hypothesis through a detailed examination of two independent data sets: (1) seismic shear-wave (Vs) tomography models and (2) magnetotelluric (MT) measurements of mantle electrical resistivity. We analyze tomography model NA07 at 50-250 km depth and create a mapping of Vs to temperature based on mantle composition (via Perple_X) and a correction for anelasticity. For the CC, the calculated temperature is relatively insensitive to mantle composition but strongly depends on the water content and anelastic correction. With a laboratory-based correction, the estimated temperature is 1150 °C at 100 km depth for wet mantle, compared to 1310 °C for dry mantle; no melt is predicted in either case. An empirical anelastic correction predicts a 115 °C hotter mantle and likely some melt. In contrast, composition is the main control on the calculated temperature for the NAC, especially at depths electrical resistivity is sensitive to mantle temperature and hydration.

  19. Making full use of wind power potential in North America -- possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaud, Christian

    2010-09-15

    The anticipated increase in electrical load in North America up to the year 2050 will be at least 50%. Wind potential in North America is enormous, well in excess of the expected requirements. However, the amount of wind capacity, which can be directly connected to a grid is limited to 20% of the installed capacity because of technical constraints. Technologies to enable full wind potential to be harnessed still need to be developed; they will consist in storing wind energy in hydroelectric reservoirs or generating hydrogen. However, the resulting cost of electricity will be somewhat higher than present.

  20. Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Jack A.; Tanai, Toshimasa

    1987-01-01

    The known fossil fruits and leaves of Acer from western North America represent 91 species and 28 sections, 12 of which are extinct and are described as new sections of Acer. Sixty-four species are described as new, 2 new combinations are proposed, and 6 species are left unnamed; 21 have been previously described. The most diverse sections of Acer in the Tertiary of western North America are the extinct Glabroidea (at least 13 species), Negundo (9 species), Macrophylla (8 species), and Erioca...

  1. Sommelier Suggestions: The Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Inspires a Content Collection Worth Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Timothy J; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2017-05-01

    The 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Program inspires a Content Collection of Arthroscopy journal articles worthy of review. A foundation of a credible podium presentation is the published medical literature. Your Editors thus suggest recent publications that seem particularly relevant in the context of the 2017 annual meeting. Consider these articles as one would a suggestion for a good glass of wine to complement a delicious meal. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Remote-Sensing Based Framework for Mapping Drought over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Zhan, X.; Gao, F.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Mladenova, I. E.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will address the development of a multi-scale drought monitoring tool for North America based on remotely sensed estimates of evapotranspiration. The North American continent represents a broad range in vegetation and climate conditions, from the boreal forests in Canada to the arid deserts in Mexico. This domain also encompasses a range in constraints limiting vegetation growth, with a gradient from radiation/energy limitation in the north to moisture limits in the south. This feasibility study over NA will provide a valuable test bed for future implementation world-wide in support of proposed global drought monitoring and early warning efforts. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) represents anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET (fPET), generated with the thermal remote sensing based Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated disaggregation algorithm, DisALEXI demonstrated that ESI maps over the continental US (CONUS) show good correspondence with standard drought metrics and with patterns of antecedent precipitation, but can be generated at significantly higher spatial resolution due to a limited reliance on ground observations. Unique behavior is observed in the ESI in regions where the evaporative flux is enhanced by moisture sources decoupled from local rainfall, for example in areas where drought impacts are being mitigated by intense irrigation or shallow water tables. As such, the ESI is a measure of actual stress rather than potential for stress, and has physical relevance to projected crop development. Because precipitation is not used in construction of the ESI, this index provides an independent assessment of drought conditions and will have particular utility for real-time monitoring in regions with sparse rainfall data or significant delays in meteorological reporting. The North American ESI product will be quantitatively compared with spatiotemporal patterns in the NADM, and with

  3. Rock art at the pleistocene/holocene boundary in Eastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Walter A; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Bernardo, Danilo V; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K

    2012-01-01

    Most investigations regarding the first americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370 ± 40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7 ± 0.8 ka BP to 9.9 ± 0.7 ka BP. These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension.

  4. Biofuels: What a Biopact between North and South could achieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.

    2007-01-01

    With very few exceptions, such as the recent remarks by International Energy Agency (IEA) head Claude Mandil, commentators on the world's energy issues have yet to recognize the enormous contribution that biofuels producers from the South could make to solving the world's greenhouse gas emission problems and problems to do with the peaking of oil supplies. Once the equation between biofuels and high-cost, land-intensive cultivation in the North is broken, and a quite different scenario involving production in the South is adopted, then the possibilities are dramatically changed. The argument of this paper is that a transition to substitution of 20 percent of OECD gasoline needs by 2020 could be met from the South by creating the equivalent of 18 Brazils over the course of the next decade. Such an enormous transition will not occur by itself, or through the operation of market forces alone. It needs an institutional framework, one that guarantees for the countries of the North regular supplies of biofuels produced in a responsible manner, and guarantees for the countries of the South open markets for the biofuels produced. The OECD is in the best position to bring about such an arrangement, through taking the initiative of offering developing countries a 'Biopact' between North and South, thereby creating for the first time a global market for biofuels. The launch of an International Biofuels Forum under the auspices of the UN in early 2007 is a step towards the creation of such an international framework where North-South issues on biofuels may be fruitfully addressed. (author)

  5. South-South Cooperation, North-South Aid and the Prospect of International Aid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South-South Cooperation (SSC and North-South Aid (NSA arise from different historical conditions and there are great differences between their philosophies, principles and paradigms. Against the background of a changing global environment, developed countries realized that the original development aid architecture must be reformed on one hand, and that developing countries are increasingly important in the aid architecture on the other. Hence, Western donors began to rethink their aid principles and methods, and accepted the concept of development effectiveness gradually, an attempt to establish global development forum and global partnership including emerging donors, beneficiary countries, civil society and the private sector. Nevertheless, being developing countries themselves, emerging donors are faced with unsolved domestic poverty issues and imperfect aid management institutions, which means that the emerging donors are unable to take a dominant position in the current aid architecture. Hence, the future dialogue and cooperation between traditional and emerging donors should feature the principle that the responsibilities taken by each party are collective but not identical, with developing countries bearing the main responsibilities in promoting poverty reduction and economic development in developing countries. They should be mutually tolerant about the different philosophies and share useful experiences. Moreover, emerging donors should promote development capacity building in recipient countries through win-win cooperation and solve their domestic development issues at the same time.

  6. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Czaja, Albert-J; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Maccariello, Silvana; Cassani, Fabio; Granito, Alessandro; Ferrari, Rodolfo; Mantovani, Vilma; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco-B

    2005-03-28

    Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3, DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2 phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57 with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls. B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs 48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs 43%, P = 0.01) and in controls (16% vs 34%, P = 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2 Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs 35%, P = 0.01). HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for AIH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  7. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the

  8. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig

  9. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste [Shell International Gas (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig.

  10. Comparison of dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, X Q; Guo, L

    2010-05-01

    Different educational and professional developments within the dental field create different sets of missions, norms, and practices regarding dental diseases and their appropriate treatment. This review has addressed differences in dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America. Many factors influence the choice of model and it is very difficult to predict which model will become predominant. However, there is growing sentiment that the independent faculty model in North America is logical and superior to the model, which 'integrates' dental and medical education in mainland China. Many North America dental schools place a high priority on preclinical and clinical training in the curriculum in order to expose students to patient oral health needs and systemic dental problems much earlier than in mainland China. North America dental schools promote and embrace students self-learning skills by the use of PBL, CRL, and TRAD education methodologies and new e-based technologies and approaches whereby students learn rather than are taught. In mainland China, the traditional lecture-based format is still employed in the majority of dental schools; however, strategies to enhance students self-learning skills is increasingly utilised in most well-known Chinese dental schools. The Chinese dental education model, which treats dentistry as a sub-specialty of medicine, has brought about fundamental differences, with the dentist functioning essentially as a stomatologist. For example, China has built up a large oral and maxillofacial surgery society, and craniofacial surgery is performed to a much broader extent by Chinese dentists than by most North American counterparts. In North America, dentists engage in full-time work, attend continuing training/education programmes, belong to an association, gain legal status, and construct a code of ethics emphasising the quality of care delivered to the public. Currently, continuing dental

  11. The rebirth of natural gas industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgley, R.

    1994-01-01

    In seventies years united states of america made a strict regulation of gas prices; as a matter of results, producers were discouraged and did not engaged themselves in gad prospecting and production. In eighties years began the deregulation and that what gave to producers the stimulation to prospect and produce. It is necessary to increase the efficiency of gas and then the gas industry will develop more and more. An other point made to favour gas industry is the performance from an ecological point of view. It is easy to understand why gas industry has a development three times more important than others energy sources

  12. Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2014-08-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  14. The Brasiliano collage in South America: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available Analysis of recent geological and geochronological data from the basement of the South American platform indicates that the Brasiliano orogenic collage took place in four distinct pulses: a Early Cryogenian (ca. 800 - 740Ma; b Late Cryogenian-Early Ediacaran (ca. 660 - 610 Ma; c Early-Middle Ediacaran (c. 590 - 560 Ma; and d Late Cambrian (520 - 500 Ma. The first three pulses are well represented in most Neoproterozoic structural provinces in West Gondwana. The youngest orogenic phase/pulse, however, is only seen in Argentina (Pampean Orogeny and Brazil, in eastern Rio de Janeiro State (Búzios Orogeny. The period between ca. 750 and 500 Ma is comparable to that reported for the amalgamation of various continental fragments in East (Arabian-Nubian, Mozambique, Kuunga and North Gondwana (Cadomian. However, important differences in the nature and ages of events are recognized, which can be expected in view of the magnitude of Gondwana agglutination and the diversity of paleogeographic and tectonic scenarios. West Gondwana shows an interesting peculiarity: lithologically and tectonically diversified Tonian terranes underlie Brasiliano orogenic buildups. They were strongly reworked during most of the orogenic pulses. The Tonian terranes (1000 - 900 Ma and their relation with Rodinia or with the processes of Gondwana fusion remains an open question. Indications of their presence in East Gondwana are still poorly documented.

  15. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Anjos, R.M.; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222 Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m 3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m 3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m 3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina

  16. 76 FR 67406 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 158D Nissan North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1794] Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 158D Nissan North America, Inc.; (Motor Vehicles) Canton, MS...), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order. Whereas, Nissan North America...

  17. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic products in North America: Are there really lessons to be learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Hammett; James L. Chamberlain

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the legacy of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) and, more specifically, medicinal plant use in North America. It also discusses briefly MAP markets both in North America and throughout the world, and describes the constraints to the sustainable use and development of MAP resources. Lastly, the paper relates some lessons that may be appropriate for...

  18. Stomach cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Monica S; Cueva, Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Stomach cancer mortality rates in Central and South America (CSA) are among the highest in the world. We describe the current burden of stomach cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer deaths from WHO's mortality database (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 and estimated annual percent change to describe time trends. Stomach cancer was among the 5 most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer mortality. Between CSA countries, incidence varied by 6-fold and mortality by 5-6-fold. Males had up to 3-times higher rates than females. From 2003 to 2007, the highest ASRs were in Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru (males: 19.2-29.1, females: 9.7-15.1). The highest ASMRs were in Chilean, Costa Rican, Colombian and Guatemalan males (17.4-24.6) and in Guatemalan, Ecuadorian and Peruvian females (10.5-17.1). From 1997 to 2008, incidence declined by 4% per year in Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica; mortality declined by 3-4% in Costa Rica and Chile. 60-96% of all the cancer cases were unspecified in relation to gastric sub-site but, among those specified, non-cardia cancers occurred 2-13-times more frequently than cardia cancers. The variation in rates may reflect differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors. High mortality may additionally reflect deficiencies in healthcare access. The high proportion of unspecified cases calls for improving cancer registration processes. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Prostate cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Mónica S; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Central and South America (CSA) in the last few decades. We describe the geographical patterns and trends of prostate cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries in 13 countries and nation-wide cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) to describe time trends. Prostate cancer was the most common cancer diagnosis and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among males in most CSA countries. From 2003-2007, ASRs varied between countries (6-fold) and within countries (Brazil: 3-6-fold). French Guyana (147.1) and Brazil (91.4) had the highest ASRs whereas Mexico (28.9) and Cuba (24.3) had the lowest. ASMRs varied by 4-fold. Belize, Uruguay and Cuba (24.1-28.9) had the highest ASMRs while Peru, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (6.8-9.7) had the lowest. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica prostate cancer incidence increased by 2.8-4.8% annually whereas mortality remained stable between 1997 and 2008. The geographic and temporal variation of prostate cancer rates observed in CSA may in part reflect differences in diagnostic and registration practices, healthcare access, treatment and death certification, and public awareness. The incidence of prostate cancer is expected to increase given recent early detection activities and increased public awareness; however, the impact of these factors on mortality remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation Metrics for Simulations of Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, S.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Cheeseman, M.; Haynes, K. D.; Phillips, M.

    2017-12-01

    The evergreen broadleaf forest of the Amazon Basin is the largest rainforest on earth, and has teleconnections to global climate and carbon cycle characteristics. This region defies simple characterization, spanning large gradients in total rainfall and seasonal variability. Broadly, the region can be thought of as trending from light-limited in its wettest areas to water-limited near the ecotone, with individual landscapes possibly exhibiting the characteristics of either (or both) limitations during an annual cycle. A basin-scale classification of mean behavior has been elusive, and ecosystem response to seasonal cycles and anomalous drought events has resulted in some disagreement in the literature, to say the least. However, new observational platforms and instruments make characterization of the heterogeneity and variability more feasible.To evaluate simulations of ecophysiological function, we develop metrics that correlate various observational products with meteorological variables such as precipitation and radiation. Observations include eddy covariance fluxes, Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF, from GOME2 and OCO2), biomass and vegetation indices. We find that the modest correlation between SIF and precipitation decreases with increasing annual precipitation, although the relationship is not consistent between products. Biomass increases with increasing precipitation. Although vegetation indices are generally correlated with biomass and precipitation, they can saturate or experience retrieval issues during cloudy periods.Using these observational products and relationships, we develop a set of model evaluation metrics. These metrics are designed to call attention to models that get "the right answer only if it's for the right reason," and provide an opportunity for more critical evaluation of model physics. These metrics represent a testbed that can be applied to multiple models as a means to evaluate their performance in tropical South America.

  1. Diabetes in South and Central America: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aguirre, Loreto; Franco, Laercio; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; de Lapertosa, Sylvia Gorban; Seclen, Segundo; Vinocour, Mary

    2014-02-01

    The estimated population of the South and Central America (SACA) Region is 467.6 million and 64% is in the age range of 20-79 years but the population pyramid and age distribution are changing. The average prevalence of diabetes in the Region is 8.0% and is expected to reach 9.8% by the year 2035. Prevalence is much lower in rural settings than in urban and the differences attributed to lifestyle changes may be a target for intervention. The indigenous population is a particularly vulnerable group needing special attention. On average, 24% of the adult cases with diabetes are undiagnosed but in some countries this is still as high as 50%. Health expenditure due to diabetes in the Region is around 9% of the global total. Inadequate glycemic control, defined as HbA1c >7%, is a strong predictor of chronic complications which increase resource use in the Region and less than half of the patients enrolled in diabetes care programmes are at target. Fifty percent or more of the adult population is overweight/obese and around one third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome using regional cutoffs for waist circumference. The number of people with IGT is almost equal to those with diabetes presenting an additional challenge for prevention. Children with type 1 diabetes represent only 0.2% of the total population with diabetes but the incidence may be increasing. In many places they have limited access to insulin, and even when available, it is not used appropriately. The available epidemiological data provide the background to act in developing national diabetes programmes which integrate diabetes care with cardiovascular prevention and promote diabetes prevention as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful adaptation of a research methods course in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Vasquez, Diego; Loor, Cecilia; Palacio, Ana

    2017-01-01

    South America has low research productivity. The lack of a structured research curriculum is one of the barriers to conducting research. To report our experience adapting an active learning-based research methods curriculum to improve research productivity at a university in Ecuador. We used a mixed-method approach to test the adaptation of the research curriculum at Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil. The curriculum uses a flipped classroom and active learning approach to teach research methods. When adapted, it was longitudinal and had 16-hour programme of in-person teaching and a six-month follow-up online component. Learners were organized in theme groups according to interest, and each group had a faculty leader. Our primary outcome was research productivity, which was measured by the succesful presentation of the research project at a national meeting, or publication in a peer-review journal. Our secondary outcomes were knowledge and perceived competence before and after course completion. We conducted qualitative interviews of faculty members and students to evaluate themes related to participation in research. Fifty university students and 10 faculty members attended the course. We had a total of 15 groups. Both knowledge and perceived competence increased by 17 and 18 percentage points, respectively. The presentation or publication rate for the entire group was 50%. The qualitative analysis showed that a lack of research culture and curriculum were common barriers to research. A US-based curriculum can be successfully adapted in low-middle income countries. A research curriculum aids in achieving pre-determined milestones. UCSG: Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil; UM: University of Miami.

  3. Educating and training north american travel agents and tour operators with webinars: the case of Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Victoria; Salamin, Anne-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland Tourism provides reliable, informative, high quality and long-term contacts to key accounts such as Travel Agents and Tour Operators in North America with the aim of boosting Switzerland’s presence in the market. The Trade Department is using various online tools such as e-learning platforms, a social media group and Webinars to educate and train the travel professionals. Since 2003, participants to Webinars have increased smoothly; therefore the Company would like to know if this...

  4. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  5. 78 FR 39772 - Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of Electrolux North America, Inc., Electrolux...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...,702B] Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of Electrolux North America, Inc., Electrolux... On-Site at Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., Webster City, Iowa; Electrolux Home Care Products... Leased Workers From Per Mar Security, 400 Des Moines Street, Webster City, Iowa; Amended Certification...

  6. Adult Literacy and Basic Education in Europe and North America: From Recognition to Provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limage, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Examines the growth of recognition of adult illiteracy in Western Europe and North America since the early 1970s. Discusses the invisibility of the problem, types of illiteracy identified in schools, importance of literacy across the curriculum, links between illiteracy and poverty, and involvement of international organizations. Contains 36…

  7. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  8. Predicting the effect of fire on large-scale vegetation patterns in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Ernesto. Alvarado

    1996-01-01

    Changes in fire regimes are expected across North America in response to anticipated global climatic changes. Potential changes in large-scale vegetation patterns are predicted as a result of altered fire frequencies. A new vegetation classification was developed by condensing Kuchler potential natural vegetation types into aggregated types that are relatively...

  9. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  10. Ecology and silviculture of the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus. Westveld

    1953-01-01

    Using the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site, the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles, such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.

  11.  Climate change may trigger broad shifts in North America's Pacific Coastal rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick A. DellaSala; Patric Brandt; Marni   Koopman; Jessica Leonard; Claude Meisch; Patrick Herzog; Paul Alaback; Michael I. Goldstein; Sarah Jovan; Andy MacKinnon; Henrik von Wehrden

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses significant threats to Pacific coastal rainforests of North America. Land managers currently lack a coordinated climate change adaptation approach with which to prepare the region's globally outstanding biodiversity for accelerating change. We provided analyses intended to inform coordinated adaptation for eight focal rainforest tree species...

  12. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Scott V. Ollinger; Steve Frolking; George C. Hurtt; David Y. Hollinger; Kenneth J. Davis; Yude Pan; Xiaoyang Zhang; Feng Deng; Jiquan Chen; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Bevery E. Law; M. Altaf Arain; Ankur R. Desai; Andrew D. Richardson; Ge Sun; Brian Amiro; Hank Margolis; Lianhong Gu; Russell L. Scott; Peter D. Blanken; Andrew E. Suyker

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale...

  13. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  14. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  15. First report of Pineus strobi (Hartig, 1839) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly Darr; Scott Salom; Rachel K. Brooks; Robert G. Foottit; Gary L. Miller; Nathan P. Havill

    2018-01-01

    The pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi (Hartig, 1839) (Hempitera: Adelgidae), is native to eastern North America and is found throughout the natural range of its main host species, eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. (Pinaceae), which stretches from the Atlantic coast, west to Ontario and Minnesota (Drooz 1985). For the first...

  16. First report of Pineus strobi (Hartig) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi (Hartig, 1839) (Hempitera: Adelgidae), is native to eastern North America. Its main host species is eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. Pineus strobi is reported here for the first time from Washington, Colorado, Saskatchewan and tentatively Oregon by identifica...

  17. 78 FR 51271 - Michelin North America, Inc., Moot of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... The subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards. 2. Associated with the... tire has the performance capacity of an Extra Load tire, the load requirement of the standard load.... SUMMARY: Michelin North America, Inc. (Michelin),\\1\\ has determined that certain BF Goodrich brand tires...

  18. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    White pine blister rust disease, caused by the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola, has severely disrupted five-needled pine ecosystems in North America. A 100-year effort to manage this disease was predicated in part on the premise that the pathogen utilizes only species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) as...

  19. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  20. Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Rebecca McLain; Susan Alexander; Luis Villarreal-Ruiz; Shannon Berch; Tricia L. Wurtz; Catherine G. Parks; Erika McFarlane; Blaze Baker; Randy Molina; Jane E. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Morels are prized edible mushrooms that fruit, sometimes prolifically, in many forest types throughout western North America. They are collected for personal consumption and commercially harvested as valuable special (nontimber) forest products. Large gaps remain, however, in our knowledge about their taxonomy, biology, ecology, cultivation, safety, and how to manage...

  1. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  2. Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Settlement by Anglo-Americans in the desert shrublands of North America resulted in the introduction and subsequent invasion of multiple nonnative grass species. These invasions have altered presettlement fire regimes, resulted in conversion of native perennial shrublands to nonnative annual grasslands, and placed many native desert species at risk. Effective...

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes for Forests and Grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities have substantially elevated the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) onto terrestrial ecosystems of North America. Some of this N can stimulate carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but the fertilization effect of added N can be diminished by e...

  4. The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Eduard Jendak; Liu Houping; Keneth R. Marchant; Toby R. Petrice; Therese M. Poland; Hui Ye

    2002-01-01

    Yet another new exotic forest pest has been discovered in North America, and this time the infestation is centered in Michigan and Ontario. In May and June 2002, adults of an unidentified buprestid beetle were collected from ash (Fraxinus) trees in the Detroit area of southeastern Michigan.

  5. Phylogeny of Cirsium spp. in North America: host specificity does not follow phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native ...

  6. A simple tool for estimating throughfall nitrogen deposition in forests of western North America using lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather T. Root; Linda H. Geiser; Mark E. Fenn; Sarah Jovan; Martin A. Hutten; Suraj Ahuja; Karen Dillman; David Schirokauer; Shanti Berryman; Jill A. McMurray

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has had substantial impacts on forests of North America. Managers seek to monitor deposition to identify areas of concern and establish critical loads, which define the amount of deposition that can be tolerated by ecosystems without causing substantial harm. We present a new monitoring approach that estimates throughfall inorganic...

  7. Threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America: An analysis of existing literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris Poff; Karen A. Koestner; Dan Neary; Victoria Henderson

    2011-01-01

    A total of 453 journal articles, reports, books, and book chapters addressing threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America were analyzed to identify, quantify, and qualify the major threats to these ecosystems as represented in the existing literature. Publications were identified either as research, policy, literature review, historical comparison, or...

  8. Global monthly CO2 flux inversion with a focus over North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Deng; Chen, Jing M.; Ishizawa, Misa; Chiu-Wai Yuen; Gang Mo; Higuchi, Kaz; Chan, Douglas; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2007-01-01

    A nested inverse modelling system was developed for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Monthly inverse modelling was conducted using CO 2 concentration measurements of 3 yr (2001-2003) at 88 sites. Inversion results show that in 2003 the global carbon sink is -2.76 ± 0.55 Pg C. Oceans and lands are responsible for 88.5% and 11.5% of the sink, respectively. Northern lands are the largest sinks with North America contributing a sink of -0.97 ± 0.21 Pg C in 2003, of which Canada's sink is -0.34 ± 0.14 Pg C. For Canada, the inverse results show a spatial pattern in agreement, for the most part, with a carbon source and sink distribution map previously derived through ecosystem modelling. However, discrepancies in the spatial pattern and in flux magnitude between these two estimates exist in certain regions. Numerical experiments with a full covariance matrix, with the consideration of the error structure of the a priori flux field based on meteorological variables among the 30 North America regions, resulted in a small but meaningful improvement in the inverted fluxes. Uncertainty reduction analysis suggests that new observation sites are still needed to further improve the inversion for these 30 regions in North America

  9. The Luzula comosa complex (Luzula section Luzula, Juncaceae) in western North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zika, P. F.; Wilson, B. A.; Kirschner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 4 (2015), s. 201-229 ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Luzula * Pacific North America * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2015

  10. 78 FR 24304 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Maserati North America Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Maserati North America Inc. AGENCY: National Highway... exemption of the Quattroporte vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR Part 543, Exemption from the Theft... motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard...

  11. Global warming and stress complexes in forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Jeremy J. Littell

    2009-01-01

    A warmer climate in western North America will likely affect forests directly through soil moisture stress and indirectly through increased extent and severity of disturbances. We propose that stress complexes, combinations of biotic and abiotic stresses, compromise the vigor and ultimate sustainability of forest ecosystems. Across...

  12. Cucullia umbratica (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a new European noctuid in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Handfield

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a noctuid new for North America, Cucullia umbratica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is reported from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada. A male and a female from the Islands are illustrated as well as specimens of the superficially similar species Cucullia intermedia Speyer, 1870. The male genitalia of both species are illustrated.

  13. Standards and Guidelines of the Reading Recovery [TM] Council of North America. Third Edition: Fall 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This booklet outlines the Reading Recovery Council of North America's (RRCNA) standards and guidelines for those who are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of effective Reading Recovery and/or "Descubriendo La Lectura" sites. The standards are deemed essential for assuring quality services to children and effective…

  14. 77 FR 65150 - Cryovac North America; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or on cooked... Exempt From Certification to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or.... FDA-2004-C-0559 (Formerly Docket No. 2004C[hyphen]0078)] Cryovac North America; Withdrawal of Color...

  15. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  16. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  17. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  18. Stephanospora michoacanensis (Stephanosporaceae, Agaricales), a novel sequestrate truffle from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero; Ivone Baez-Alvarado; Victor M. Gomez-Reyes; Michael Castellano

    2015-01-01

    Stephanospora michoacanensis is presented as a new species from North America. This angiocarpic species is recognized by its yellowcream peridial surface color, and broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, spiny or crested, inamyloid spores with a distinct, complete or nearly complete corona at its base. Stephanospora michoacanensis is similar to S. caroticolor, but S....

  19. Newspaper Coverage of Zebra Mussels in North America : A Case of "Afghanistanism"?

    OpenAIRE

    Roush, Donny; Fortner, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    Few environmental issues have arisen so abruptly, spread so rapidly, and been so clearly linked to human activity as has the introduction of nonindigenous zebra mussels to the surface freshwater of North America. This research examines communication patterns in information about zebra mussels as an example of how the mass media deal with threats to the environment.

  20. Phytophthora ramorum detections in Canada: Evidence for migration within North America and from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goss; M. Larsen; A. Vercauteren; S. Werres; K. Heungens; N.J. Grünwald

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death on oak and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals, has been reported in ornamental nurseries on the West Coast of North America from British Columbia to California. Long-distance migration of P. ramorum has occurred via the nursery trade, and shipments of host plants are known to...

  1. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Nathan W. Siegert

    2005-01-01

    The saga of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in North America began on 25 June 2002, when five entomologists representing Michigan State University (MSU), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS)...

  2. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  3. 75 FR 17828 - Michelin North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... retread, repair, and recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the... tire retread, repair, and recycling industries. The use of steel cord construction in the sidewall and... Noncompliance Michelin North America, Inc. (Michelin), has determined that certain passenger car tires...

  4. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants in ...

  5. Geologic literature on North America, 1785-1918; Part I, Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, John M.

    1923-01-01

    The bibliography forming Part I of this compilation includes papers relating to the geology paleontology, petrology, and mineralogy of North America-specifically, the United States, the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, the Arctic regions north of the continent, Greenland, Mexico Central America, Panama, and the West Indies including Trinidad-and also the Hawaiian Islands. Geographic and descriptive writings and accounts of travels with incidental mention of geologic facts are not included. Textbooks published in America and work general in character by American authors are given but general papers by foreign writers are excluded unless they have appeared in American publications. Papers by American writers on the geology of other parts of the world are not listed.

  6. Discovery of the oldest record of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Charophyta) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Kenneth G; Sleith, Robin S

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the colonization and spread of invasive species improves our understanding of key concepts in population biology as well as informs control and prevention efforts. The characean green alga Nitellopsis obtusa (starry stonewort) is rare in its native Eurasian range but listed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as an aggressive invasive in North America. First documented in North America in 1978 from New York, United States, it has since been reported from numerous inland lakes from Minnesota to Vermont, and from Lake Ontario and inland lakes in southern Ontario, Canada. While the ecological impacts of N. obtusa are not clearly understood in its invasive range, initial results show negative environmental effects. We have discovered a liquid-preserved herbarium specimen that predates the 1978 records by at least 4 years, and is the first confirmed record of N. obtusa in Québec. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  7. First Detection of Bat White-Nose Syndrome in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Ballmann, Anne E; George, Kyle G; Griffin, Kathryn; Knowles, Susan; Huckabee, John R; Haman, Katherine H; Anderson, Christopher D; Becker, Penny A; Buchanan, Joseph B; Foster, Jeffrey T; Blehert, David S

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation. IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats susceptible

  8. Delineation of Tundra Swan Cygnus c. columbianus populations in North America: geographic boundaries and interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Sladen, William J. L.; Wilson, Heather M.; Savage, Susan E.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Henry, Bill; Schwitters, Mike; Snowden, James

    2014-01-01

    North American Tundra Swans Cygnus c. columbianus are composed of two wellrecognised populations: an Eastern Population (EP) that breeds across northern Canada and north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, which migrates to the eastern seaboard of the United States, and a Western Population (WP) that breeds in coastal regions of Alaska south of the Brooks Range and migrates to western North America. We present results of a recent major ringing effort from across the breeding range in Alaska to provide a better definition of the geographic extent of the migratory divide in Alaska. We also reassess the staging and winter distributions of these populations based on locations of birds tracked using satellite transmitters, and recent recoveries and sightings of neck-collared birds. Summer sympatry of EP and WP Tundra Swans is very limited, and largely confined to a small area in northwest Alaska. Autumn migration pathways of EP and WP Tundra swans abut in southwest Saskatchewan, a region where migrating WP birds turn west, and EP birds deviate abruptly eastward. Overall, from 1989 to 2013 inclusive, 2.6% of recoveries or resightings reported to the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory were of birds that moved from the domain of the population in which they were initially captured to within the range of the other population; a proportion roughly comparable to the results of Limpert et al. (1991) for years before 1990. Of the 70 cross-boundary movements reported since 1989, 39% were of birds marked on breeding areas and 61% were of birds marked on wintering areas. Dispersing swans (i.e. those that made crossboundary movements) did not differ with respect to age or sex from those that did not move between populations. The Brooks Range in northern Alaska effectively separates the two populations within Alaska, but climate-induced changes in tundra breeding habitats and losses of wetlands on staging areas may alter the distribution for both of these populations.

  9. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  10. First detection of bat white-nose syndrome in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne; George, Kyle; Griffin, Kathryn M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Huckabee, John R.; Haman, Katherine H.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation.

  11. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  12. The role of emergency medicine physicians in trauma care in North America: evolution of a specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Michael D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMP in the care of trauma patients in North America has evolved since the advent of the specialty in the late 1980's. The evolution of this role in the context of the overall demands of the specialty and accreditation requirements of North American trauma centers will be discussed. Limited available data published in the literature examining the role of EMP's in trauma care will be reviewed with respect to its implications for an expanded role for EMPs in trauma care. Two training models currently in the early stages of development have been proposed to address needs for increased manpower in trauma and the critical care of trauma patients. The available information regarding these models will be reviewed along with the implications for improving the care of trauma patients in both Europe and North America.

  13. What Do We Know about the Development of Creativity in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David D.; Grau, Valeska; Ortiz, Dominga; Bernardino, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research about the development of creativity in South America focusing on studies of individual differences in creativity and educational and developmental studies of children and adolescents' creativity. Most South American researchers are influenced by mainstream psychometric approaches, although computational and cultural…

  14. Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Hydrovatini new for the fauna of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benetti, C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The species Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 is recorded for the first time for South America, after the recollection of specimens of this species in the municipality of Gramado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The range of distribution of the species, previously restricted to the Caribbean, is now extended to the latitude 29º 26’ South, approximately.

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  16. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  18. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  19. Mid-Holocene to Present Climate Transition in Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.; Sifeddine, A.; Braconnot, P.; Dias, P. S.; Costa, R.; Jorgetti, T.

    2008-12-01

    The classical illustration of Holocene climate changes in tropical South America is the huge rising of Titicaca lake level from 4400 to 4000 cal BP. Because the Amazon basin is the source of Andean rainfalls we have explored Amazonian data of climate changes during the Holocene to better understand the cause of this abrupt transition. Amazonian data confirm the existence of mid-Holocene dryness: (1) lacustrine level studies show a lower precipitation/evaporation budget than present, with the lowest lake levels between 8500 and 6800 cal BP; (2) although the dominant Holocene vegetation has always been the rainforest in the heart of Amazonia, this forest expanded towards the northwestern and southwestern regions from 6800 to 1550 cal BP, moreover, pioneer elements of the rainforest developed during the mid-Holocene and the best example is those of Cecropia, between 9000 and 5000 cal BP. (3) soil d13C indicates a forest expansion over savannas areas in Roraima (north), Mato Grosso and Rondonia (southwest), during the Holocene. (4) the mid-Holocene (8000- 4000 cal BP) is characterized by repeated occurrences of forest fires, marked by the presence of charcoals in soils and lacustrine sediments. However these different records are not characterized by abrupt transitions at the end of the Middle Holocene in Amazonia. In the Andean records there is a clear north-south shift in the timing of the transition. Analysis of coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model simulations suggest that convection in Amazon basin is directly controlled by insolation leading to an almost linear response of local climate to the global forcing. Differently, in the eastern and south-western regions where the rain is brought by the South American Monsoon, the climate transition appears more abrupt. It may be because the involved climate mechanisms are more complex and depend on Ocean/Atmosphere/Vegetation coupled process (ITCZ position, ZCAS formation, etc.). Tectonic movements or threshold links to

  20. First record of Smilodon fatalis Leidy, 1868 (Felidae, Machairodontinae) in the extra-Andean region of South America (late Pleistocene, Sopas Formation), Uruguay: Taxonomic and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuetti, Aldo; Perea, Daniel; Ubilla, Martín; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    The Felidae are known in South America from the Ensenadan Stage/Age onwards. Among them, machairodonts of the genus Smilodon stand out. Three species are recognized, and all three are present on the continent: S. gracilis from the early-middle Pleistocene in north-east Venezuela; S. fatalis, found only in Lujanian sediments on the west side of the Andes (north-west of Peru and south-west of Ecuador); and S. populator, which inhabited the eastern part of the Andes during the Ensenadan and Lujanian. This distribution has led to the suggestion that the last two felids were allopatric during the Lujanian. Here, we report the first evidence of S. fatalis in the eastern part of the continent (Sopas Formation, late Pleistocene of Uruguay), based on an almost complete skull. This finding not only enlarges its distribution in South America but questions the idea of allopatric distribution. It also adds a new component to the mammalian predator trophic level of Uruguay, with the capacity to predate large South American herbivores and megaherbivores. A revision of materials previously assigned to S. populator in the extra-Andean zone of South America will be required.

  1. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  2. South America: Brazil leads the way in offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Brazil has found more than 600 million barrels of oil in the Campos basin and made other strikes to the north, offshore Sergipe, Alagoas, and Rio Grande do Norte states. Argentina's government recently gave the state oil company (YPF) permission to prospect in the Falkland Islands area about 200 miles east of Argentina's southern tip. YPF also is expected to accelerate work offshore Tierra del Fuego next year. The nationalization of petroleum in Venezuela is discussed. Drilling activity has slowed to 67 percent of the level of 1974. The goal for 1975 is about 875 million barrels. Chile has revised its oil law to permit foreign companies to explore, develop and produce the country's resources via contracts. Despite spotty successes, Peru has not given up on the northeastern jungle area, just south of Ecuador's fields. Occidental Petroleum and Petroperu have been the only companies to find commercial oil in the four-year exploration period. Their reserves are put at 464 million barrels. Eighteen foreign companies signed 14 contracts covering more than 50,000 square miles in Bolivia since the country asked for outside help in 1972. Ecuador's output reached an all-time high of 244,000 bpd and then slowed down to a 27,000 bpd dribble when the Trans-Ecuador pipeline broke. The government decreed that production from the Texaco and Gulf fields in the Oriente must rise to 210,000 bopd and that the two companies must drill their unexplored and undeveloped acreage or lose it. Ecuador cut 43 cents from the price of oil by reducing the production tax. Colombia abolished all oil concessions this year in an attempt to stem steadily slipping production. Exploration activities in Uruguay and Paraguay are discussed. (MCW)

  3. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  4. Methane (CH4) Flux for North America L4 Daily V1 (CMS_CH4_FLX_NAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CMS Methane (CH4) Flux for North America data set contains estimates of methane emission in North America based on an inversion of the GEOS-Chem chemical...

  5. Tomotectonic constraints on deformation of Cordilleran North America since Late Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalynuk, M. G.; Sigloch, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic tomography reveals detailed mantle structure beneath North America, largely thanks to USArray. TWO massive composite slabs are recognized down to 2000 km depth and their topologies are combined with quantitative plate reconstructions back to the breakup of Pangea using Atlantic and Pacific magnetic isochrons. This tomotectonic analysis reveals evolving arc/trench-plate geometries of a vast archipelago/microcontinent and ocean plateau that were overridden by North America, and an explanation for Cordilleran deformation episodes. As Pangea fragmented, subduction reconfigured from EAST-directed beneath the continent (during final growth of the Intermontane Superterrane, IMS, or "AltaBC"), to WEST-directed beneath an intraoceanic, massive arc chevron (MAC). MAC trenches were stationary within a mantle reference frame, as indicated by near-vertical slab walls 4-7x as thick as mature ocean lithosphere, and its trenches were >10,000 km long. East-pointing MAC apex was located 2000-4000 km off Pangea's west coast where MAC arc was built atop the Insular superterrane (INS, or "BajaBC"), a microcontinent extending >2600 km southwards from the apex. Ocean lithosphere between the MAC apex and west-drifting North America was consumed by 155 Ma. INS, comparable in length to the Indian subcontinent, initially collided with the leading edge of North America/IMS and generated "Nevadan" deformation. Diachronous Sevier deformation followed as MAC was driven farther into the continental margin and raked southward (sinistral offsets w.r.t. North America). By 130 Ma, with large segments accreted and MAC geometry breaking down, subduction was forced to jump outboard (westward) of MAC. The Franciscan accretionary complex marks a return to eastward/Andean-style subduction (of the Farallon plate). A remarkably complete analogue for collision at 130 Ma is found in modern Australia's override of arcs to its north. Rapid northward transport of BajaBC w.r.t. North America 90-50 Ma is

  6. Indigenous peoples of North America: environmental exposures and reproductive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions.

  7. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  8. Cottonwood Tree Rings and Climate in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.; Edmondson, J.; Griffin, E. R.; Meko, D. M.; Merigliano, M. F.; Scott, J. A.; Scott, M. L.; Touchan, R.

    2012-12-01

    In dry landscapes of interior western USA, cottonwood (Populus spp.) seedling establishment often occurs only close to river channels after floods. Where winter is sufficiently cold, cottonwoods also have distinct annual rings and can live up to 370 years, allowing us to reconstruct the long-term history of river flows and channel locations. We have analyzed the annual rate of cottonwood establishment along streams in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota and Idaho. Because the trees germinate next to the river, establishment rates are strongly correlated with the rate of channel migration driven by floods. Along large rivers dominated by snowmelt from the mountains, interannual variation in peak flows and cottonwood establishment is small, and century-scale variation driven by climate change is apparent. The upper Snake, Yellowstone and Green rivers all show a strong decrease in cottonwood establishment beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to the present, indicating a decrease in peak flows prior to flow regulation by large dams. This is consistent with published tree-ring studies of montane conifers showing decreases in snowpack at the same time scale. In contrast, beginning in the late 1800s cottonwood ring widths along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota show an increase in annual growth that continues into the present. Because annual growth is strongly correlated with April-July flows (r=0.69) the ring-width data suggest an increase in April-July flows at the same time tree establishment dates suggest a decrease in peak flows. These results may be reconciled by the hypothesis that increases in low temperatures have decreased snowpack while lengthening the growing season.

  9. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  10. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  11. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  12. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-01-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe...... placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra....... This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys...

  13. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  14. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  15. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  16. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  17. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  18. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  19. Impact of the Winter North Pacific Oscillation on the Surface Air Temperature over Eurasia and North America: Sensitivity to the Index Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Song, Linye

    2018-06-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) on the surface air temperature (SAT) variations over Eurasia and North America based on six different NPO indices. Results show that the influences of the winter NPO on the SAT over Eurasia and North America are sensitive to the definition of the NPO index. The impact of the winter NPO on the SAT variations over Eurasia (North America) is significant (insignificant) when the anticyclonic anomaly associated with the NPO index over the North Pacific midlatitudes shifts westward and pronounced northerly wind anomalies appear around Lake Baikal. By contrast, the impact of the winter NPO on the SAT variations over Eurasia (North America) is insignificant (significant) when the anticyclonic anomaly over the North Pacific related to the NPO index shifts eastward and the associated northerly wind anomalies to its eastern flank extend to North America. The present study suggests that the NPO definition should be taken into account when analyzing the impact of the winter NPO on Eurasian and North American SAT variations.

  20. Ungulate predation and ecological roles of wolves and coyotes in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Loveless, Karen M; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C. lupus). We investigated intrinsic and extrinsic influences on per capita kill rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces) during winter by sympatric packs of eastern coyotes, eastern wolves, and admixed canids in Ontario, Canada to clarify the predatory ability and ecological roles of the different canid top predators of eastern North America. Eastern coyote ancestry within packs negatively influenced per capita total ungulate (deer and moose combined) and moose kill rates. Furthermore, canids in packs dominated by eastern coyote ancestry consumed significantly less ungulate biomass and more anthropogenic food than packs dominated by wolf ancestry. Similar to gray wolves in previous studies, eastern wolves preyed on deer where they were available. However, in areas were deer were scarce, eastern wolves killed moose at rates similar to those previously documented for gray wolves at comparable moose densities across North America. Eastern coyotes are effective deer predators, but their dietary flexibility and low kill rates on moose suggest they have not replaced the ecological role of wolves in eastern North America. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Priorities for improving the scientific foundation of conservation policy in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noss, Reed F; Fleishman, Erica; Dellasala, Dominick A; Fitzgerald, John M; Gross, Mart R; Main, Martin B; Nagle, Fiona; O'Malley, Stacey L; Rosales, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) can enhance conservation of biodiversity in North America by increasing its engagement in public policy. Toward this end, the North America Section of SCB is establishing partnerships with other professional organizations in order to speak more powerfully to decision makers and taking other actions--such as increasing interaction with chapters--geared to engage members more substantively in science-policy issues. Additionally, the section is developing a North American Biodiversity Blueprint, which spans the continental United States and Canada and is informed by natural and social science. This blueprint is intended to clarify the policy challenges for protecting continental biodiversity, to foster bilateral collaboration to resolve common problems, and to suggest rational alternative policies and practices that are more likely than current practices to sustain North America's natural heritage. Conservation scientists and practitioners can play a key role by drawing policy makers' attention to ultimate, as well as proximate, causes of biodiversity decline and to the ecological and economic consequences of not addressing these threats.

  2. Future prospects for radioactive nuclear beams in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    In 1989 this author proposed the construction of a dedicated, flexible, radioactive nuclear beams facility that would provide intense beams of nearly all elements for a program of scientific studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reaction dynamics, astrophysics, high-spin physics, nuclei far from stability, material- and surface science, and atomic- and hyperfine-interaction physics. The initial name proposed for the new facility was ''IsoSpin Factory'' to underscore the key feature of this new physics tool; it was later changed to ''IsoSpin Laboratory'' (ISL). The ISL is now supported by a broad base of nuclear scientists and has been identified in the US Long Range Plan on Nuclear Science as one of the new potential construction projects for the second part of this decade. Since 1989 a number of conferences and workshops has been held in which the scientific and technical case for RNB facilities has been made. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the North American plan for the ISL, which was initially summarized in a ''White Paper'' but has since evolved in its scientific and technical scop

  3. The industrial applications of shape memory alloys in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Schetky D, L.

    2000-01-01

    Literature in the recent past on shape memory effect alloys dwelt principally on the physical metallurgy, crystallography and kinetics of the shape memory phenomenon. By contrast, we now have books and conference proceedings devoted to the engineering aspects of SMAs, their technology and application. The dominant role SMAs now play in the field of medical and orthodontic devices is well documented and will be reviewed by others in this conference. In this paper we will discuss the commercial applications for shape memory alloy devices in the North American market; applications which are in many cases also produced in European countries and Japan. The early success of shape memory alloy couplings for joining tubing and pipe in the late 1960's was not followed by other large volume applications until the advent of shape memory eyeglass frames, brassiere underwires and cellular phone antennas. Many other applications have now evolved into mature markets and these will be reviewed. In addition to the many commercial applications cited, there are a number of other fields in which shape memory alloys are destined to play a major role; these include smart materials and adaptive structures, MEMS devices, infrastructure systems and electrical power generation and distribution. These applications are being developed with private and government funding and will also be briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  5. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  6. The industrial applications of shape memory alloys in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Schetky D, L. [Memry Corp., Brookfield, CT (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Literature in the recent past on shape memory effect alloys dwelt principally on the physical metallurgy, crystallography and kinetics of the shape memory phenomenon. By contrast, we now have books and conference proceedings devoted to the engineering aspects of SMAs, their technology and application. The dominant role SMAs now play in the field of medical and orthodontic devices is well documented and will be reviewed by others in this conference. In this paper we will discuss the commercial applications for shape memory alloy devices in the North American market; applications which are in many cases also produced in European countries and Japan. The early success of shape memory alloy couplings for joining tubing and pipe in the late 1960's was not followed by other large volume applications until the advent of shape memory eyeglass frames, brassiere underwires and cellular phone antennas. Many other applications have now evolved into mature markets and these will be reviewed. In addition to the many commercial applications cited, there are a number of other fields in which shape memory alloys are destined to play a major role; these include smart materials and adaptive structures, MEMS devices, infrastructure systems and electrical power generation and distribution. These applications are being developed with private and government funding and will also be briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

  8. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2018-05-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  10. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  11. The future profile of power generation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation addressed North American power generation issues with particular reference to energy markets, electricity projections, coal supply and natural gas supply. Energy demand is expected to grow due to an increase in population and economic activity. Growth will be tempered by improvements in energy efficiency of equipment and buildings. Production of domestic energy is projected to grow, but not enough to meet energy demands in the United States, thereby increasing levels of imports, primarily natural gas from Canada. One of the key factors in energy markets is the price of natural gas which rose to record levels in 2001 due to strong demand in the winter and tight supplies stemming from low drilling rates in the late 1990s. In the long term, technology improvements will offset price increases. Improvements in gas finding and development technology will continue. Electricity use is projected to grow at slightly slower than historical rates due to improvements in equipment efficiency and investments in demand-side management programs. The growth in electricity sales is led by the commercial sector followed by the industrial sector. The paper emphasized the need for new generating capacity to replace aging generating plants. Coal-fired steam plants have the largest share of power generation in the United States, representing about one-half of total generation, followed by nuclear, natural gas and renewable energy sources. The use of petroleum for generation is small and is expected to decline in the future with the advent of new efficient generating technologies. The use of natural gas for power generation is expected grow significantly due to new technologies for efficient combustion turbines and combined-cycle generators fueled by natural gas. These technologies have low capital costs compared to other technologies and have short lead times for construction. tabs., figs

  12. CO2 consumption and bicarbonate fluxes by chemical weathering in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Cations released by chemical weathering are mainly counterbalanced by atmospheric/soil CO2 dissolved in water. Existing approaches to quantify CO2 consumption by chemical weathering are mostly based on the parameters runoff and lithology. Land cover is not implemented as predictor in existing regional or global scale models for atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption. Here, bicarbonate fluxes in North American rivers are quantified by an empirical forward model using the predictors runoff, lithology and land cover. The model was calibrated on chemical data from 338 river monitoring stations throughout North America. It was extrapolated to the entire North American continent by applying the model equation spatially explicitly to the geodata used for model calibration. Because silicate mineral weathering derived bicarbonate in rivers originates entirely from atmospheric/soil CO2, but carbonate mineral weathering additionally releases lithogenic bicarbonate, those source minerals are distinguished to quantify the CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Extrapolation of the model results in a total bicarbonate flux of 51 Mt C a-1 in North America; 70% of which originate from atmospheric/soil CO2. On average, chemical weathering consumes 2.64 t atmospheric/soil C km-2 a-1 (~ 30%-40% above published world average values). For a given runoff and land cover, carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks export the most bicarbonate. However, half of this is assumed to be of lithogenic origin. Thus, the most atmospheric/soil CO2 per runoff is modeled to be consumed by basic plutonics. The least bicarbonate is exported and the least CO2 is consumed per runoff by weathering of metamorphic rocks. Of the distinguished different land cover classes of which urban areas export the most bicarbonate for a given lithology and runoff, followed by shrubs, grasslands and managed lands. For a given runoff and lithology, the least bicarbonate is exported from areas with forested land cover. The model shows 1

  13. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  14. Landsat TM inventory and assessment of waterbird habitat in the southern altiplano of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.P.; Caziani, S.M.; Waltermire, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    The diverse set of wetlands in southern altiplano of South America supports a number of endemic and migratory waterbirds. These species include endangered endemic flamingos and shorebirds that nest in North America and winter in the altiplano. This research developed maps from nine Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (254,300 km2) to provide an inventory of aquatic waterbird habitats. Image processing software was used to produce a map with a classification of wetlands according to the habitat requirements of different types of waterbirds. A hierarchical procedure was used to, first, isolate the bodies of water within the TM image; second, execute an unsupervised classification on the subsetted image to produce 300 signatures of cover types, which were further subdivided as necessary. Third, each of the classifications was examined in the light of field data and personal experience for relevance to the determination of the various habitat types. Finally, the signatures were applied to the entire image and other adjacent images to yield a map depicting the location of the various waterbird habitats in the southern altiplano. The data sets referenced with a global positioning system receiver were used to test the classification system. Multivariate analysis of the bird communities censused at each lake by individual habitats indicated a salinity gradient, and then the depth of the water separated the birds. Multivariate analysis of the chemical and physical data from the lakes showed that the variation in lakes were significantly associated with difference in depth, transparency, latitude, elevation, and pH. The presence of gravel bottoms was also one of the qualities distinguishing a group of lakes. This information will be directly useful to the Flamingo Census Project and serve as an element for risk assessment for future development.

  15. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-05-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Basic physics program for a low energy antiproton source in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Nieto, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize much of the important science that could be learned at a North American low energy antiproton source. It is striking that there is such a diverse and multidisciplinary program that would be amenable to exploration. Spanning the range from high energy particle physics to nuclear physics, atomic physics, and condensed matter physics, the program promises to offer many new insights into these disparate branches of science. It is abundantly clear that the scientific case for rapidly proceeding towards such a capability in North America is both alluring and strong. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Recent trends, drivers, and projections of carbon cycle processes in forests and grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, G. M.; Williams, C. A.; Birdsey, R.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    In North America forest and grassland ecosystems play a major role in the carbon cycle. Here we present the latest trends and projections of United States and North American carbon cycle processes, stocks, and flows in the context of interactions with global scale budgets and climate change impacts in managed and unmanaged grassland and forest ecosystems. We describe recent trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in these ecosystems as well as the carbon dynamics associated with land use and land cover change. We also highlight carbon management science and tools for informing decisions and opportunities for improving carbon measurements, observations, and projections in forests and grasslands.

  18. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  19. Korean older intimate partner violence survivors in North America: cultural considerations and practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woochan S; Nelson-Becker, Holly

    2009-01-01

    While literature on elder abuse has expanded, elder abuse by intimate partners has been less investigated. Even less is known about intimate partner violence among older Koreans living in North America. This article identifies important cultural considerations for individuals helping the Korean older adult community, beginning with the definition of intimate partner violence in this community and barriers to leaving that include traditional views of the East Asian self. Current practice interventions are discussed and recommendations for future practice such as healing han, the accumulated suffering from years of abuse, are suggested. The ultimate goal of this paper is to expand awareness in order to develop the best culturally competent prevention and intervention practice for Korean older intimate partner violence survivors in North America.

  20. Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial in vegetation records from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott; Desprat, S.; Grigg, L.D.; Grimm, E.C.; Heusser, L.E.; Jacobs, Brian F.; Lopez-Martinez, C.; Whitlock, C.L.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution pollen records from North America show that terrestrial environments were affected by Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich climate variability during the last glacial. In the western, more mountainous regions, these climate changes are generally observed in the pollen records as altitudinal movements of climate-sensitive plant species, whereas in the southeast, they are recorded as latitudinal shifts in vegetation. Heinrich (HS) and Greenland (GS) stadials are generally correlated with cold and dry climate and Greenland interstadials (GI) with warm-wet phases. The pollen records from North America confirm that vegetation responds rapidly to millennial-scale climate variability, although the difficulties in establishing independent age models for the pollen records make determination of the absolute phasing of the records to surface temperatures in Greenland somewhat uncertain. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.