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Sample records for south africas mothers

  1. Interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A

    1998-10-01

    An estimated 120,000 pregnant women in South Africa will be HIV-infected in 1998 and about one-third of their infants will acquire HIV. Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of zidovudine (AZT) treatment initiated as late as the 36th week of pregnancy in reducing maternal-fetal HIV transmission. Moreover, drug manufacturers have announced that AZT will be made available to developing countries at a 50% or greater discount. Implementation of this strategy in South Africa has been impeded by concerns as to whether AZT treatment is cost-effective or feasible given public sector constraints. An analysis of the costs of a universally accessible vertical transmission prevention program (pre- and post-test counseling for all pregnant women, HIV testing, AZT from the 36th week of pregnancy, and 6 months of formula for infants of HIV-positive mothers) suggests such a program would consume 0.4% of South Africa's health budget in 1998 and 0.7% by 2005. The cost per disability adjusted life year gained ranged US$26-65, which compares favorably to other generally accepted health interventions. Actual costs would depend on the program's rate of implementation, coverage, and efficiency as well as final prices for AZT and HIV testing. Budgetary problems would be more severe in provinces with the most advanced HIV epidemics. Pilot projects are important both to validate assumptions about AZT's cost-effectiveness and establish capacity for wider implementation.

  2. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  3. Infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Chaponda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the nutritional, physiological and emotional benefits of breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers cannot practise exclusive breastfeeding for six months because of a range of influences on their feeding choice – thereby creating a caveat for morbidity in infants.Aim: This study explored factors influencing the infant feeding choice of HIV-positive mothers at a peri-urban hospital in Tembisa, South Africa.Methods: This study was qualitative and was conducted among 30 purposefully selected postnatal HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, Gauteng, from May to June 2011. In-depth interviews were conducted mainly in isiZulu and Sepedi which were then transcribed into English. An open coding system of analysis was used for thematic analysis.Results: Nurses significantly influenced the feeding choices of new mothers – sometimes with inconsistent information. The grandmothers of infants also influenced the new mothers’ feeding options, in some cases with the new mother coming under duress. Other relatives like the sisters and aunts of mothers appeared to significantly affect feeding choices. The time frames expressed for the initiation of a supplementary diet were as follows: before 1 month, at 1 month and at 4 months. The main reason was the belief that infants required more than breast milk as sustenance during this period.Conclusion: In the postnatal hospital setting of this study, the feeding choices of mothers were influenced by nursing personnel. Nursing personnel could marry the influential ‘authority’ they have with correct and consistent information, in order to change feeding behaviour. Significant ‘others’ like grandmothers and other relatives also influenced decisions on infant feeding. As such, family dynamics need to be considered when encouraging breastfeeding.

  4. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    SOUTH AFRICA. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South ...

  5. Negotiating the city: Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  6. Negotiating the city: : Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  7. Children's Rights to Mother-Tongue Education in a Multilingual World: A Comparative Analysis between South Africa and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrizell Stoop (néé Chürr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the mother tongue, and, more specifically, of mother-tongue education, is recognised globally. Use of the mother tongue is regarded as one of the most effective ways of acting and performing cognitively, socially and communally. The aim of this article is to encourage and promote the implementation and realisation of mother-tongue education through certain school/education models in order to achieve equality and liberation and to increase the incidence of high-performance education systems in a multilingual world. A comparative analysis of South Africa and Germany will also be undertaken with regard to language policies and the mother-tongue education situation in these countries' school systems. Several other aspects such as the choice of language as a fundamental right, the importance of international instruments, as well as some lessons to be learnt for both South Africa and Germany in respect of mother-tongue education, will be discussed. It will be concluded that, despite the existence of a multilingual world, the crucial importance of the use of the mother tongue and mother-tongue education should not be underestimated and/or ignored.

  8. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen Elise; Bergh Anne-Marie; Pattinson Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implemen...

  9. The causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: A mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, Tobenna D; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-09-11

    Because measles vaccination prevents acute measles disease and morbidities secondary to measles, such as undernutrition, blindness, and brain damage, the vaccination may also lead to higher educational attainment. However, there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis at the population level. In this study, we estimate the causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment among children born between 1995 and 2000 in South Africa. We use longitudinal data on measles vaccination status and school grade attainment among 4783 children. The data were collected by the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), which is one of Africa's largest health and demographic surveillance systems. ACDIS is located in a poor, predominantly rural, Zulu-speaking community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using mother fixed-effects regression, we compare the school grade attainment of siblings who are discordant in their measles vaccination status but share the same mother and household. This fixed-effects approach controls for confounding due to both observed and unobserved factors that do not vary between siblings, including sibling-invariant mother and household characteristics such as attitudes toward risk, conscientiousness, and aspirations for children. We further control for a range of potential confounders that vary between siblings, such as sex of the child, year of birth, mother's age at child's birth, and birth order. We find that measles vaccination on average increases school grade attainment by 0.188 grades (95% confidence interval, 0.0424-0.334; p=0.011). Measles vaccination increased educational attainment in this poor, largely rural community in South Africa. For every five to seven children vaccinated against measles, one additional school grade was gained. The presence of a measles vaccination effect in this community is plausible because (i) measles vaccination prevents measles complications including

  10. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  11. South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239.

  12. Laboratory information system data demonstrate successful implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, G G; Lilian, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Candy, S; Barron, P

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme to identify gaps for early intervention is essential as South Africa progresses from prevention to elimination of HIV infection in children. Early infant diagnosis (EID) by an HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is recommended at 6 weeks of age for all HIV-exposed infants. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) performs the PCR tests for the public health sector and stores test data in a corporate data warehouse (CDW). To demonstrate the utility of laboratory data for monitoring trends in EID coverage and early vertical transmission rates and to describe the scale-up of the EID component of the PMTCT programme. HIV PCR test data from 2003 to 2012 inclusive were extracted from the NHLS CDW by year, province, age of infant tested and test result and used to calculate EID coverage and early vertical transmission rates to provincial level. Rapid scale-up of EID over the first decade of the PMTCT programme was evident from the 100-fold increase in PCR tests to 350 000 by 2012. In 2012, 73% of the estimated 270 000 HIV-exposed infants requiring an early PCR were tested and the early vertical transmission rate had fallen to 2.4% as a result of successful implementation of the PMTCT programme. Laboratory data can provide real time, affordable monitoring of aspects of the PMTCT programme and assist in achieving virtual elimination of paediatric HIV infection in South Africa.

  13. It does matter where you come from: mothers' experiences of childbirth in midwife obstetric units, Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Sarie J; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Pattinson, Robert C; Grimbeek, Jackie

    2017-11-16

    Health professionals are striving to improve respectful care for women, but they fall short in the domains of effective communication, respectful and dignified care and emotional support during labour. This study aimed to determine women's experiences of childbirth with a view to improving respectful clinical care practices in low-risk, midwife-led obstetric units in the Tshwane District Health District, South Africa. A survey covering all midwife-led units in the district was conducted among 653 new mothers. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to mothers returning for a three-days-to-six-weeks postnatal follow-up visit. Mothers were asked about their experiences regarding communication, labour, clinical care and respectful care during confinement. An ANCOVA was performed to identify the socio-demographic variables that significantly predicted disrespectful care. Six items representing the different areas of experience were used in the analysis. Age, language, educational level and length of residence in the district were significantly associated with disrespectful care (p ≤ 0.01). Overall, the following groups of mothers reported more negative care experiences during labour: women between the ages of 17 and 24 years; women with limited formal education; and women from another province or a neighbouring country. Items which attracted fewer positive responses from participants were the following: 46% of mothers had been welcomed by name on arrival; 47% had been asked to give consent to a physical examination; and 39% had been offered food or water during labour. With regard to items related to respectful care, 54% of mothers indicated that all staff members had spoken courteously to them, 48% said they had been treated with a lot of respect, and 55% were completely satisfied with their treatment. There is a need to improve respectful care through interventions that are integrated into routine care practices in labour wards. To stop the spiral of abusive

  14. HIV viraemia and mother-to-child transmission risk after antiretroviral therapy initiation in pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, L; Phillips, T K; McIntyre, J A; Hsiao, N-Y; Petro, G; Zerbe, A; Ramjith, J; Bekker, L-G; Abrams, E J

    2017-02-01

    Maternal HIV viral load (VL) drives mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa, where most MTCT occurs. We investigated VL changes during pregnancy and MTCT following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted a prospective study of HIV-infected women initiating ART within routine antenatal services in a primary care setting. VL measurements were taken before ART initiation and up to three more times within 7 days postpartum. Analyses examined VL changes over time, viral suppression (VS) at delivery, and early MTCT based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing up to 8 weeks of age. A total of 620 ART-eligible HIV-infected pregnant women initiated ART, with 2425 VL measurements by delivery (median gestation at initiation, 20 weeks; median pre-ART VL, 4.0 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; median time on ART before delivery, 118 days). At delivery, 91% and 73% of women had VL ≤ 1000 and ≤ 50 copies/mL, respectively. VS was strongly predicted by time on therapy and pre-ART VL. The risk of early MTCT was strongly associated with delivery VL, with risks of 0.25, 2.0 and 8.5% among women with VL 1000 copies/mL at delivery, respectively (P pregnancy and with high VL appear substantially less likely to achieve VS and require targeted research and programmatic attention. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  15. What is the nutritional status of children of obese mothers in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia Patricia; Labadarios, Demetre; Nel, Johanna; Kruger, H Salome; Maunder, Eleni M W

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the anthropometric status of children of obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) mothers who participated during the 2005 National Food Consumption Study. The survey population consisted of children 1-9 y of age and their mothers 16 to 35 y of age living in the same households (n = 1532). A national sample of households was drawn, representative of all nine provinces and urban and rural areas. Trained fieldworkers measured the heights and weights of participants at their homes. The prevalence of obesity was high in the mothers (27.9%), particularly in the 26- to 35-y-old (older) group (32.3%) and in urban areas (29.1%). Children of older mothers had a significantly (P underweight children, whereas underweight women and stunted women were significantly more likely to have underweight and stunted children, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptions of diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health among black daughter-mother pairs in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise in South Africa, particularly among females living in urban environments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the emic perspectives of black young adult daughter and mother pairs living in Soweto, South Africa on diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health within their social and cultural context. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to recruit daughters with a normal body mass index (BMI who have obese mothers. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 daughters (age 24 years and 15 of their mothers in Soweto, South Africa. Interview questions related to: a eating and physical activity behaviors and perceptions, b perceptions of social and community level factors, c cultural beliefs about diet and body image, and d intergenerational relationships. Data were analyzed using four-phases of thematic analysis and the constant comparison approach. Results Daughters and mothers had similar ideas of the definition of healthy food and the importance of eating healthy, but mothers were more likely to report eating healthy because of their age, adverse health experiences, and a desire to live longer. Daughters and mothers engaged in physical activity for reasons related to weight maintenance and feeling better, but mothers reported being more likely to start exercising as a result of a health concern. Daughters and mothers had comparable views of what makes a person healthy. Daughters and mothers relied on each other for food purchasing and food preparation. Conclusion Daughters and mothers shared some similar perceptions of diet, physical activity, and health that were rooted in their daily life in Soweto. However, mothers generally reported being more likely to exhibit healthy eating and physical activity behaviors despite being obese. The mothers may have adopted these perceptions and behaviors later in life linked to ageing

  17. Perceptions of diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health among black daughter-mother pairs in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emily A; Comeau, Dawn L; Pisa, Pedro T; Stein, Aryeh D; Norris, Shane A

    2016-08-09

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise in South Africa, particularly among females living in urban environments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the emic perspectives of black young adult daughter and mother pairs living in Soweto, South Africa on diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health within their social and cultural context. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit daughters with a normal body mass index (BMI) who have obese mothers. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 daughters (age 24 years) and 15 of their mothers in Soweto, South Africa. Interview questions related to: a) eating and physical activity behaviors and perceptions, b) perceptions of social and community level factors, c) cultural beliefs about diet and body image, and d) intergenerational relationships. Data were analyzed using four-phases of thematic analysis and the constant comparison approach. Daughters and mothers had similar ideas of the definition of healthy food and the importance of eating healthy, but mothers were more likely to report eating healthy because of their age, adverse health experiences, and a desire to live longer. Daughters and mothers engaged in physical activity for reasons related to weight maintenance and feeling better, but mothers reported being more likely to start exercising as a result of a health concern. Daughters and mothers had comparable views of what makes a person healthy. Daughters and mothers relied on each other for food purchasing and food preparation. Daughters and mothers shared some similar perceptions of diet, physical activity, and health that were rooted in their daily life in Soweto. However, mothers generally reported being more likely to exhibit healthy eating and physical activity behaviors despite being obese. The mothers may have adopted these perceptions and behaviors later in life linked to ageing and ill-health. It is possible that through exposure, their

  18. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  19. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ..... Africa and Africans as indigenous to South Africa is erroneous .… The history books show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people, ..... IOL News 2007 White Teen Joins Friend for Xhosa Ritual.

  20. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; van Rooyen, Elise; Pattinson, Robert C

    2008-07-23

    Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A) or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B). Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0-30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score>10) during the site visit. There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p=0.633). Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00-23.79) and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50-23.29). A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach strategy should be guided by local circumstances, cost and the availability

  1. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  2. Free formula milk in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: voices of a peri-urban community in South Africa on policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2013-10-01

    In 2001, South Africa began implementing the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. This programme included distribution of free formula milk for infants up to 6 months of age at all public health facilities. Effective from 1 January 2011, KwaZulu-Natal became the first province to phase out free formula milk from its PMTCT programme. On 23 August 2011, the South African National Department of Health adopted promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as the national infant feeding strategy and made a decision to withdraw free formula milk from the PMTCT programme. To explore the perceptions and understanding of households at community level on the policy decision to phase out free formula milk from the PMTCT programme in South Africa. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted amongst women enrolled in a community randomized trial known as Good Start III. Focus group discussions were held with grandmothers, fathers and teenage mothers; and in-depth interviews were performed with HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Identified themes included: (1) variations in awareness and lack of understanding of the basis for the policy change, (2) abuse of and dysfunctional policy as perceived reasons for policy change and (3) proposed strategies for communicating the policy change. There is an urgent need to develop a multifaceted communication strategy clearly articulating the reasons for the infant feeding policy change and promoting the new breastfeeding strategy. The communication strategy should take into account inputs from the community. With a supportive environment and one national infant feeding strategy, South Africa has an opportunity to reverse years of poor infant feeding practices and to improve the health of all children in the country.

  3. Factors influencing the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT services by pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the utilisation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT in a resource poor setting in South Africa. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om faktore te identifiseer wat die benutting van die Voorkoming van Moeder-tot-Kind Oordrag (VMTKO beïnvloed in ‘n omgewing in Suid-Afrika wat arm is aan hulpbronne. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  4. Factors influencing the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT services by pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabang Mosala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the utilisation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT in a resource poor setting in South Africa. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om faktore te identifiseer wat die benutting van die Voorkoming van Moeder-tot-Kind Oordrag (VMTKO beïnvloed in ‘n omgewing in Suid-Afrika wat arm is aan hulpbronne. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  5. Enablers and barriers to success among mothers planning to exclusively breastfeed for six months: a qualitative prospective cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Ngcwalisa Amanda; Wilford, Aurene; Masango, Zandile; Haskins, Lyn; Coutsoudis, Anna; Spies, Lenore; Horwood, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is the most important determinant of child health and development, and is the recommended feeding practice for all mothers. However, EBF rates remain low in South Africa. This study aimed to prospectively explore enablers or barriers to success among mothers who planned to exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first six months of life, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A qualitative, longitudinal cohort design was adopted. Women were recruited during pregnancy from the catchment area of two hospitals (one urban and one rural) and purposively sampled to include working women, teenagers, and HIV positive pregnant women. This analysis relates to 22 women, from 30 women recruited, who planned antenatally to exclusively breastfeed for six months. These mothers were interviewed monthly for six months postpartum. Infant feeding practices were explored at each visit using in-depth interviews and 24 h feeding recall assessment. Framework analysis was conducted for qualitative data, and quantitative data analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 125 interviews were conducted between November 2015 and October 2016. Among 22 mothers who planned to exclusively breastfeed for six months, 17 reported adding other food or fluids before six months, and five reported exclusively breastfeeding successfully for the first six months. Key themes showed that all mothers relied strongly on health workers' infant feeding advice and support. All mothers experienced challenges regardless of whether they succeeded in EBF, including inappropriate advice from health workers, maternal-baby issues, pressure from family members and returning to school and work. However, those who were successful at EBF for six months reported that high breastfeeding self-efficacy, HIV status and cultural meaning attached to breastfeeding were underlying factors for success. Health workers are key players in providing infant feeding

  6. The South Africa Case

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    54,100. Source: African Renaissance Fund Annual Report: 2004-2005. The ARF 2005-2006 report noted the following beneficiaries and amounts: African Renaissance Fund Grants – 2005-2006. Grant. Value (R'000). Africa Institute of South Africa, Terrorism Commission. 1,700. Liberian disarmament and elections. 25,750.

  7. The experience of cash transfers in alleviating childhood poverty in South Africa: mothers' experiences of the Child Support Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Surender, Rebecca; Surrender, Rebecca; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Cash transfer (CT) programmes are increasingly being used as policy instruments to address child poverty and child health outcomes in developing countries. As the largest cash-transfer programme in Africa, the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) provides an important opportunity to further understand how a CT of its kind works in a developing country context. We explored the experiences and views of CSG recipients and non-recipients from four diverse settings in South Africa. Four major themes emerged from the data: barriers to accessing the CSG; how the CSG is utilised and the ways in which it makes a difference; the mechanisms for supplementing the CSG; and the impact of not receiving the grant. Findings show that administrative factors continue to be the greatest barrier to CSG receipt, pointing to the need for further improvements in managing queues, waiting times and coordination between departments for applicants trying to submit their applications. Many recipients, especially those where the grant was the only source of income, acknowledged the importance of the CSG, while also emphasising its inadequacy. To maximise their impact, CT programmes such as the CSG need to be fully funded and form part of a broader basket of poverty alleviation strategies.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of different feeding patterns combined with prompt treatments for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa: estimates from simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Li, Changping; Fu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Zhuang; Liu, Xiaoqian; Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Guan; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the important changes in South Africa since 2009 and the Antiretroviral Treatment Guideline 2013 recommendations, we explored the cost-effectiveness of different strategy combinations according to the South African HIV-infected mothers' prompt treatments and different feeding patterns. A decision analytic model was applied to simulate cohorts of 10,000 HIV-infected pregnant women to compare the cost-effectiveness of two different HIV strategy combinations: (1) Women were tested and treated promptly at any time during pregnancy (Promptly treated cohort). (2) Women did not get testing or treatment until after delivery and appropriate standard treatments were offered as a remedy (Remedy cohort). Replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding was assigned in both strategies. Outcome measures included the number of infant HIV cases averted, the cost per infant HIV case averted, and the cost per life year (LY) saved from the interventions. One-way and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate the uncertainty ranges of all outcomes. The remedy strategy does not particularly cost-effective. Compared with the untreated baseline cohort which leads to 1127 infected infants, 698 (61.93%) and 110 (9.76%) of pediatric HIV cases are averted in the promptly treated cohort and remedy cohort respectively, with incremental cost-effectiveness of $68.51 and $118.33 per LY, respectively. With or without the antenatal testing and treatments, breastfeeding is less cost-effective ($193.26 per LY) than replacement feeding ($134.88 per LY), without considering the impact of willingness to pay. Compared with the prompt treatments, remedy in labor or during the postnatal period is less cost-effective. Antenatal HIV testing and prompt treatments and avoiding breastfeeding are the best strategies. Although encouraging mothers to practice replacement feeding in South Africa is far from easy and the advantages of breastfeeding can not be ignored, we still suggest

  9. The cost-effectiveness of different feeding patterns combined with prompt treatments for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa: estimates from simulation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Yu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Based on the important changes in South Africa since 2009 and the Antiretroviral Treatment Guideline 2013 recommendations, we explored the cost-effectiveness of different strategy combinations according to the South African HIV-infected mothers' prompt treatments and different feeding patterns. STUDY DESIGN: A decision analytic model was applied to simulate cohorts of 10,000 HIV-infected pregnant women to compare the cost-effectiveness of two different HIV strategy combinations: (1 Women were tested and treated promptly at any time during pregnancy (Promptly treated cohort. (2 Women did not get testing or treatment until after delivery and appropriate standard treatments were offered as a remedy (Remedy cohort. Replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding was assigned in both strategies. Outcome measures included the number of infant HIV cases averted, the cost per infant HIV case averted, and the cost per life year (LY saved from the interventions. One-way and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate the uncertainty ranges of all outcomes. RESULTS: The remedy strategy does not particularly cost-effective. Compared with the untreated baseline cohort which leads to 1127 infected infants, 698 (61.93% and 110 (9.76% of pediatric HIV cases are averted in the promptly treated cohort and remedy cohort respectively, with incremental cost-effectiveness of $68.51 and $118.33 per LY, respectively. With or without the antenatal testing and treatments, breastfeeding is less cost-effective ($193.26 per LY than replacement feeding ($134.88 per LY, without considering the impact of willingness to pay. CONCLUSION: Compared with the prompt treatments, remedy in labor or during the postnatal period is less cost-effective. Antenatal HIV testing and prompt treatments and avoiding breastfeeding are the best strategies. Although encouraging mothers to practice replacement feeding in South Africa is far from easy and the advantages of

  10. Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlagabo G. Matseke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Male partner involvement (MPI can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i.e., scores of 7 to 9. Descriptive, correlation and multiple linear-regression analyses were conducted. Positive predictors of MPI included relationship status, own HIV status, awareness of female partner’s positive HIV status, female partner’s desire to have more children, having family planning discussions with provider, condom use to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and partner reasoning skills. Negative predictors included partner verbal aggression. Overall, although MPI is low, the study underlines important information that could be used to develop interventions aimed at improving maternal and infant health in PMTCT programs in South Africa.

  11. Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseke, Motlagabo G; Ruiter, Robert A C; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Peltzer, Karl; Setswe, Geoffrey; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2017-11-01

    Male partner involvement (MPI) can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i.e., scores of 7 to 9). Descriptive, correlation and multiple linear-regression analyses were conducted. Positive predictors of MPI included relationship status, own HIV status, awareness of female partner's positive HIV status, female partner's desire to have more children, having family planning discussions with provider, condom use to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and partner reasoning skills. Negative predictors included partner verbal aggression. Overall, although MPI is low, the study underlines important information that could be used to develop interventions aimed at improving maternal and infant health in PMTCT programs in South Africa.

  12. Services and programmes for teenage pregnancy and support for teenage mothers: Rural areas of Limpopo Province of South Africa and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Mmasetjana Lekganyane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to juxtapose the current services and programmes that deal with the prevention of teenage pregnancies and the teenage motherhood notion in South Africa and Slovenia. The paper looks at the situation in both countries and tries to detect the main problems in the two cases and therefore proposes changes on the basis of what is known about the two countries. In other words, we describe the situation, identify problems and suggest solutions. Teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood are always viewed as inseparable and as a discourse that exists due to a variety of social and sociological variables. The notion of teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood is assessed against related theories and scholastic (secondary evidence. Finally, it is argued that intervention services and programmes that are linked with the life perspective of teenagers and teenage mothers yield positive results.

  13. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.

  14. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease.

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  16. Phenylketonuria in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demographic conditions and more pressing health priorities in South Africa. This particular screening programme was discontinued in 1986. The results and conclusions are presented here.for the record. S Atr Med J 1995; 85: 33-36. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-known, inherited metabolic disease. It has attained a high ...

  17. South Africa and Poland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The typology of countries, namely those with innovation-driven, efficiency-driven and factor-/resource-driven ... Switzerland, Norway, Australia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Qatar, Puerto Rico,. Tobago and Trinidad ... of the cultures and values of two countries, namely South Africa and Poland, on entrepreneurial intentions ...

  18. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available -power systems in the ultrashort-pulse (mode-locked) and mid-infrared domains. One potential application is the use of such systems in lunar and satellite laser ranging, where South Africa hopes to combine an existing space geodesy programme with short...

  19. Neurodevelopmental outcome of HIV-exposed but uninfected infants in the Mother and Infants Health Study, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Priscilla E; Slogrove, Amy L; Laughton, Barbara; Bettinger, Julie A; Saunders, Henriëtte H; Molteno, Christopher D; Kruger, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility. At 12 months of age, HEU and HUU infant growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared. Growth was evaluated as WHO weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length and head-circumference-for-age Z-scores. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated using the Bayley scales of Infant Development III (BSID) and Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Fifty-eight HEU and 38 HUU infants were evaluated at 11-14 months of age. Performance on the BSID did not differ in any of the domains between HEU and HUU infants. The cognitive, language and motor scores were within the average range (US standardised norms). Seven (12%) HEU and 1 (2.6%) HUU infant showed social withdrawal on the ADBB (P = 0.10), while 15 (26%) HEU and 4 (11%) HUU infants showed decreased vocalisation (P = 0.06). There were no growth differences. Three HEU and one HUU infant had minor neurological signs, while eight HEU and two HUU infants had macrocephaly. Although findings on the early neurodevelopmental outcome of HEU infants are reassuring, minor differences in vocalisation and on neurological examination indicate a need for reassessment at a later age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane exposure and anogenital distance in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) birth cohort study, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, M S; Chevrier, J; Rauch, S; Crause, M; Obida, M; Sathyanarayana, S; Barr, D B; Eskenazi, B

    2016-07-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is used for malaria control by 10 countries, nine of which are in Africa. Technical DDT contains various isomers with 65-80% insecticidal p,p'-DDT and 15-21% o,p'-DDT, an estrogenic chemical, while the persistent metabolite of p,p'-DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), is an antiandrogen. In utero antiandrogenic exposure reduces anogenital distance in animal models and the anal position index in a single study. This study examined the associations between mother's serum DDT and DDE levels at delivery and anogenital distance in their children at birth and age 1 year. Data were collected as part of the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE), a birth cohort study located in rural South Africa. DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from 752 mothers at delivery. Anogenital distance measurements, taken at birth (n = 671) and age 1 year (n = 674), included anofourchette and anoclitoral distances in girls, and anoscrotal and anopenile lengths in boys. We also measured anococcygeal and coccyx-fourchette distances in girls, while in boys, we measured anococcygeal and coccyx-scrotal distances as well as penile length and penile width. The anal position index is calculated for both sexes as anoscrotal/coccyx-scrotal in boys and anofourchette/coccyx-fourchette in girls. We found no associations between p,p'-DDT/-DDE or o,p'-DDT and anogenital distance measurements at birth in either boys or girls. At 1 year, o,p'-DDE was negatively associated with anofourchette in girls (β =-1.32 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.27, -0.38) and positively associated with penile width in boys (β = 0.30 mm, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.60). The results do not suggest an overt antiandrogenic or estrogenic effect on anogenital distance after long-term DDT exposure. These weak associations may be due to chance. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of

  1. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; van Rooyen, Elise; Pattinson, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care...

  2. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  4. Combatting poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Economics) Combating poverty is at the frontier of analyses in South Africa today. The study to combat poverty in South Africa is six-fold. After setting the nature of the study to be pursued in Chapter 1, the dissertation analyses the theories of poverty in Chapter 2. The record of poverty in South Africa is analysed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the methods to combat poverty in South Africa. Chapter 5 is a summary of the main findings of the study. A proposed structure plan ...

  5. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements facilitating the roll-out of kangaroo mother care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma ten Ham

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Although certain requirements, such as personal alignment and reinforcing structures can be used in the roll-out of best practices, further research is desirable to promote fuller understanding of how to devise and apply the requirements in the wider adoption of best practices in South African health care settings.

  6. Changes in drinking patterns during and after pregnancy among mothers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome: A study in three districts of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael F; Olivier, Leana; Louw, Jacobus G; Lombard, Chanelle; Viljoen, Denis L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F

    2016-11-01

    Mixed ancestry populations in South Africa have amongst the highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) worldwide. Defining the drinking patterns of women with a FAS child guides FAS preventive interventions. Data were drawn from FAS prevalence surveys conducted in three districts: Witzenberg (Cape Winelands), Frances Baard (inland mining town) and Saldanha Bay (coastal towns). 156 mothers and 50 proxy informants of school-entry children diagnosed with FAS and partial-FAS were interviewed, and compared with 55 controls recruited in Saldanha Bay. Study participants were of low socio-economic status (SES), and a majority of children were either in foster care (12%) or had been cared for by relatives for long periods (44%). Of cases, 123/160 (77%) reported current drinking, similar between sites. During pregnancy, only 35% (49/139) of cases had stopped drinking, varying between sites (from 21% to 54% in chronological order of surveys; pdrinking. Though many women who stopped in pregnancy resumed postpartum, cessation in pregnancy was strongly associated with discontinuation in the long run (OR=3.3; 95%CI=1.2-8.9; p=0.005). At interview, 36% of cases (54/151) and 18% of controls (9/51) were at risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (p=0.02). Median maternal mass of cases was 22kg lower than controls, with 20% being underweight and 14% microcephalic. Increasing rates of drinking cessation during pregnancy over time suggest rising awareness of FAS. Cessation is associated with recidivism after pregnancy but also with reduced long-term drinking. Interventions should target alcohol abstinence in pregnancy, but extend into the puerperium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV-infected adolescent mothers and their infants: low coverage of HIV services and high risk of HIV transmission in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Horwood

    Full Text Available Rates of pregnancy and HIV infection are high among South African adolescents, yet little is known about rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT in this group. We report a comparison of the characteristics of adolescent mothers and adult mothers, including HIV prevalence and MTCT rates.We examined patterns of health service utilization during the antenatal and early postnatal period, HIV prevalence and MTCT amongst adolescent (<20-years-old and adult (20 to 39-years-old mothers with infants aged ≤16 weeks attending immunization clinics in six districts of KwaZulu-Natal between May 2008 and April 2009.Interviews were conducted with 19,093 mothers aged between 12 and 39 years whose infants were aged ≤16 weeks. Most mothers had attended antenatal care four or more times during their last pregnancy (80.3%, and reported having an HIV test (98.2%. A greater proportion of HIV-infected adult mothers, compared to adolescent mothers, reported themselves as HIV-positive (41.2% vs. 15.9%, p<0.0001, reported having a CD4 count taken during their pregnancy (81.0% vs. 66.5%, p<0.0001, and having received the CD4 count result (84.4% vs. 75.7%, p<0.0001. Significantly fewer adolescent mothers received the recommended PMTCT regimen. HIV antibody was detected in 40.4% of 7,800 infants aged 4-8 weeks tested for HIV, indicating HIV exposure. This was higher among infants of adult mothers (47.4% compared to adolescent mothers (17.9%, p<0.0001. The MTCT rate at 4-8 weeks of age was significantly higher amongst infants of adolescent mothers compared to adult mothers (35/325 [10.8%] vs. 185/2,800 [6.1%], OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4.Despite high levels of antenatal clinic attendance among pregnant adolescents in KwaZulu-Natal, the MTCT risk is higher among infants of HIV-infected adolescent mothers compared to adult mothers. Access to adolescent-friendly family planning and PMTCT services should be prioritised for this vulnerable group.

  8. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a community-based antiretroviral clinic in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Felicity C; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaplan, Richard; Myer, Landon; Lawn, Stephen D; Wood, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the uptake of ART among pregnant women referred to an ART service and the associated rates and risk factors for vertical HIV transmission. Method Retrospective analysis of an observational cohort at a community ART clinic in Cape Town. Results Between 2002 and 2008, 367 treatment-naïve pregnant women accessed the clinic. The median age was 27.5 years, and median gestation at presentation was 28 weeks. The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 134 cells/µl and 28 282 copies/ml. Two hundred and sixty-five women (72%) commenced ART before giving birth, 73 women (20%) were referred for prevention of mother-to-child transmission therapy (PMTCT), and 29 (8%) received no intervention. Among ART-eligible women, 13% were lost to follow-up. Of those starting ART, median duration of therapy prior to birth was 7.6 weeks (interquartile range (IQR) 4 – 11.9). The HIV transmission rate was 5.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8 – 9.0%). Factors associated with transmission were advanced maternal WHO disease stage (odds ratio (OR) 9.57, p=0.02), and follow-up viral load above 50 copies/ml (OR 3.64, p=0.03). Each additional week on ART reduced transmission by 20% (p=0.05). There was no HIV transmission among women who received more than 8 weeks’ therapy. Conclusions The rate of HIV transmission in this study was higher than reported in high-income countries. Prevention of vertical transmission with ART was hindered by women presenting late in pregnancy and with advanced stage of HIV disease. Interventions that facilitate earlier ART commencement and improve programmatic retention of pregnant women are required. PMID:21414276

  9. Meconium aspiration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ct Dis cand virus of uman. 991; us ion in une tes in. 1-179. a- eral infants g el is of om. ; 9: l acute us. Meconium aspiration in. South Africa. M. Adhikari, E. Gouws. This retrospective study of 569 cases of meconium aspiration from 11 institutions in South Africa reveals a high incidence varying from 4 to 11/1 000 and a ...

  10. The Role of Parenting in Affecting the Behavior and Adaptive Functioning of Young Children of HIV-Infected Mothers in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers’ psychological functioning, parenting, and children’s behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent–chil...

  11. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  12. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  13. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  14. in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through a regular supply of crude wine as part of their wages. Alcohol has also been used to exert control over labour ... an integral part of the South African economy, and the wine and brewing industries have made South Africa an ..... marketing and increased alcohol counter~advertising. August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAM].

  15. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  16. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  17. Food Allergy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L

    2017-06-01

    Whilst food allergy seems to have increased significantly in many developed countries in the past few decades, quality data on the burden of food allergy in many developing countries is scanty. Until recently, South Africa had a dearth of robustly designed food allergy studies. This article summarizes some of the recent research and observations regarding food allergy from the South African setting. South Africa has recently seen two important food allergy prevalence studies in selected and unselected populations. Both show allergy rates in keeping with those in several westernized countries. The major difference between sensitization and allergy rates in these studies emphasizes the vital role of the food challenge in differentiating true food allergy from asymptomatic sensitisation in equivocal cases. Eczema, young age and living in an urban population are important risk factors for food allergy in South Africa. Egg and peanut allergy are the most common food allergies in both selected and unselected populations in South Africa. In peanut allergy, Ara h 2 is the most useful component in differentiating true allergy from tolerance in peanut-sensitized patients. Use of internationally derived 95% positive predictive values for peanut and egg allergy produced many false positives in South African studies. Studies in South Africa show a trend towards more conservative introduction of peanut in eczema patients, which needs to be addressed in the light of recent studies showing a protective effect of earlier introduction of peanut. "Novel" allergies such as galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and eosinophilic oesophagitis are being described with increasing frequency in South Africa. The surprisingly high prevalence of food allergy in South Africa points towards possible involvement of South Africa in the so-called "food allergy epidemic". This has major implications on the planning of health services in the allergy sector

  18. Operational effectiveness of guidelines on complete breast-feeding cessation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV: results from a prospective observational cohort study at routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission sites, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Ameena E; Van Wyk, Brian; Doherty, Tanya; Colvin, Mark; Jackson, Debra J; Chopra, Mickey

    2009-04-15

    Until 2006, HIV-positive women who chose to exclusively breast-feed were advised to completely stop breast-feeding by 6 months. We investigated operational feasibility and predictors of complete breast-feeding cessation (CBC). A prospective observational cohort study at 3 routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission sites, South Africa. Data on "complete breast-feeding cessation at 24 weeks" and "not breast-feeding (NBF) for 4 days before the last follow-up visit at or before 24 weeks" were gathered during home visits (3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks). The main subgroup of interest for this analysis was women practicing exclusive breast-feeding/predominant breast-feeding at 3 weeks. Univariate analysis, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis, and Cox regression were performed. Eighty-eight women (43.6%) reported CBC. "Health staff suggesting formula use: [OR(a) 4.39 (1.76-10.97)] and "infant hospitalization" [OR(a) 3.27 (1.37-7.79)] were the only significant predictors of CBC. The probability of NBF at 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks was 2.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8% to 3.8%], 4.3% (3.0% to 5.6%), 5.9% (4.4% to 7.4%, 9.8% (7.9% to 11.7%), 16.1 (13.8% to 18.4%), 23.1% (20.5% to 25.7%), and 37.6% (34.6% to 40.6%), respectively. Infant HIV status [hazard ratio 5.5 95% CI 2.4 to 12.5] was the only predictor of infant death. NBF was not protective against 9-month infant HIV or death in univariate and multivariable analysis. At programmatic level, CBC by 24 weeks is uncommon, and success seems unrelated to predetermined social, economic, and environmental (acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe AFASS) criteria. Thus at this level, activities that encourage CBC (amongst women meeting AFASS criteria) need to be identified and tested.

  19. pressure in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates for the relevant disease categories for South Africa in 2000. Monte Carlo simulation- modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa.

  20. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  1. SOUTH AFRICA: POLITICAL LIFE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shubin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is currently facing several political dilemmas that influence the entire social organization of the country. Thus, the historicity of the political processes that permeate South African society today,  the power plays of the country's elites, as well as the external influences that act internally through the political parties of South Africa, and the presence of important African nation within the scope of the BRICS, are essential elements for understanding the South African policy context. Through of experiences in loco, this article establishes a comprehensive analysis of the situation, not only pointing out the political agents which actively intervene in this game, but also constructing possible scenarios for the unfolding of the events.

  2. Science councils in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2006 by taking a long, hard look at its continuing role in South Africa. This paper was written by the CSIR Fellows, at the invitation of the Department of Science and Technology, to capture some...

  3. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  4. Sedating children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding 'Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in. South Africa1 we thank the authors for publishing their research thereby giving us documentary proof of what we know to be widespread practice. Sedation has, for many years, been poorly documented and not subject to the standards in respect of monitoring ...

  5. Political killings in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NFP, on the other hand, raised questions about whether the judgment was correct, pointing out that Mthembu had been receiving threats at the time when he was killed.3. ESTABLISHING THE FACTS ABOUT. POLITICAL KILLINGS. There is no established system for collecting data on political killings in South Africa ...

  6. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS to ...

  7. Human fascioliasis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2003;74(4):117-122. 10. Ajona R, Riancho JA, Aguado JM, Salesa R, Gonzalez-Macias J. Fascioliasis in developed countries: A review of classic and aberrant forms of the disease. Medicine 1995;74(1):13-23. Accepted 11 July 2013.

  8. tional antipsychotic in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    report cost advantages or cost neutrality for these new agents. However, considerable differences in health care service pro- vision make it difficult to generalise these findings to South. Africa. Method. We compared the direct costs (private and public sector) of treating schizophrenia with an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine ...

  9. Getting Skills Right: South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in South Africa. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills…

  10. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  11. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  12. South Africa: some ethical issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa: some ethical issues. Trefor Jenkins. Blood transfusion has become an essential component of modern medical practice. However, worldwide epidemics of viral diseases — in particular, HIV/ AIDS — have made the practice of blood transfusion therapy hazardous, motivating scientists to devise techniques and ...

  13. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  14. Home visits by neighborhood Mentor Mothers provide timely recovery from childhood malnutrition in South Africa: results from a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    le Roux, Ingrid M; le Roux, Karl; Comulada, W Scott; Greco, Erin M; Desmond, Katherine A; Mbewu, Nokwanele; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    .... Mentor Mothers were trained to conduct home visits. Mentor Mothers went from house to house in assigned neighborhoods, weighed children age 5 and younger, and recruited mother-child dyads where there was an underweight child...

  15. The role of quality improvement in achieving effective large-scale prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Pierre; Barron, Peter; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Pillay, Yogan

    2015-07-01

    After a late start and poor initial performance, the South African Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme achieved rapid progress in achieving effective national-scale implementation of a complex intervention across a large number of different geographic and socioeconomic contexts. This study shows how quality-improvement methods played a significant part in PMTCT improvements. The South African rollout of the PMTCT programme underwent significant evolution, from a largely ineffective, context-insensitive, top-down cascaded training approach to a sophisticated bottom-up health systems' intervention that used modern adaptive designs. Several demonstration projects used quality-improvement methods to improve the performance of the PMTCT programme. These results prompted a national redesign of key elements of the PMTCT programme which were rapidly scaled up across the country using a unified, simplified data-driven approach. The scale up of the quality-improvement approach contributed to a dramatic fall in the nationally reported transmission rate for mother to child transmission of HIV. By 2012, measured infection rate of HIV-exposed infants at around 6 weeks after birth was 2.6%, close to the reported transmission rates under clinical trial conditions. Quality-improvement methods can be used to improve reliability of complex treatment programmes delivered at primary-care level. Rapid scale up and effective population coverage can be accomplished through a sequence of demonstration, testing and rapid spread of locally tested implementation strategies supported by real-time feedback of a simplified indicator dataset and multilevel leadership support.

  16. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  17. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  18. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  19. Reflections of a Group of South African Teenage Mothers: Sexual Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakila; Hamid, Alvi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of women's vulnerability to sexual violence, HIV infection and unintended pregnancy in South Africa, this paper explores the ways in which teenage mothers who are in school reflect on their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. We attempt to understand how teenage mothers reflect on their experiences within the…

  20. SOUTH AfRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African concert parties have given shows in canteens and palaces, in magnificent opera houses and in assembly workshops; on open-air stages, on lorries and in fields and hangars. Tarpaulins have been spread on the desert sands, and tap dancers have gone into action on table tops or any available flat sur- face.

  1. Impact of Maternal HIV Seroconversion during Pregnancy on Early Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) Measured at 4-8 Weeks Postpartum in South Africa 2011-2012: A National Population-Based Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thu-Ha; Delaney, Kevin P.; Goga, Ameena; Jackson, Debra; Lombard, Carl; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Mogashoa, Mary; Pillay, Yogan; Shaffer, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) depends on the timing of HIV infection. We estimated HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy (HSP) after having a HIV-negative result antenatally, and its contribution to early MTCT in South Africa (SA). Methods and Findings Between August 2011 and March 2012, we recruited a nationally representative sample of mother-infant pairs with infants aged 4-to-8 weeks from 578 health facilities. Data collection included mother interviews, child health-card reviews, and infant dried-blood-spots sample (iDBS). iDBS were tested for HIV antibodies and HIV-deoxyribonucleic-acid (HIV-DNA). HSP was defined as maternal self-report of an HIV-negative test during this pregnancy, no documented use of antiretroviral drugs and a matched HIV sero-positive iDBS. We used 20 imputations from a uniform distribution for time from reported antenatal HIV-negative result to delivery to estimate time of HSP. Early MTCT was defined based on detection of HIV-DNA in iDBS. Estimates were adjusted for clustering, nonresponse, and weighted by SA’s 2011 live-births. Results Of 9802 mother-infant pairs, 2738 iDBS were HIV sero-positive, including 212 HSP, resulting in a nationally weighted estimate of 3.3% HSP (95% Confidence Interval: 2.8%-3.8%). Median time of HIV-seroconversion was 32.8weeks gestation;28.3% (19.7%- 36.9%) estimated to be >36 weeks. Early MTCT was 10.7% for HSP (6.2%-16.8%) vs. 2.2% (1.7%-2.8%) for mothers with known HIV-positive status. Although they represent 2.2% of all mothers and 6.7% of HIV-infected mothers, HSP accounted for 26% of early MTCT. Multivariable analysis indicated the highest risk for HSP was among women who knew the baby’s father was HIV-infected (adjusted-hazard ratio (aHR) 4.71; 1.49-14.99), or who had been screened for tuberculosis (aHR 1.82; 1.43-2.32). Conclusions HSP risk is high and contributes significantly to early MTCT. Identification of HSP by repeat-testing at 32 weeks gestation, during labor, 6

  2. Impact of Maternal HIV Seroconversion during Pregnancy on Early Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT Measured at 4-8 Weeks Postpartum in South Africa 2011-2012: A National Population-Based Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu-Ha Dinh

    Full Text Available Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT depends on the timing of HIV infection. We estimated HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy (HSP after having a HIV-negative result antenatally, and its contribution to early MTCT in South Africa (SA.Between August 2011 and March 2012, we recruited a nationally representative sample of mother-infant pairs with infants aged 4-to-8 weeks from 578 health facilities. Data collection included mother interviews, child health-card reviews, and infant dried-blood-spots sample (iDBS. iDBS were tested for HIV antibodies and HIV-deoxyribonucleic-acid (HIV-DNA. HSP was defined as maternal self-report of an HIV-negative test during this pregnancy, no documented use of antiretroviral drugs and a matched HIV sero-positive iDBS. We used 20 imputations from a uniform distribution for time from reported antenatal HIV-negative result to delivery to estimate time of HSP. Early MTCT was defined based on detection of HIV-DNA in iDBS. Estimates were adjusted for clustering, nonresponse, and weighted by SA's 2011 live-births.Of 9802 mother-infant pairs, 2738 iDBS were HIV sero-positive, including 212 HSP, resulting in a nationally weighted estimate of 3.3% HSP (95% Confidence Interval: 2.8%-3.8%. Median time of HIV-seroconversion was 32.8weeks gestation;28.3% (19.7%- 36.9% estimated to be >36 weeks. Early MTCT was 10.7% for HSP (6.2%-16.8% vs. 2.2% (1.7%-2.8% for mothers with known HIV-positive status. Although they represent 2.2% of all mothers and 6.7% of HIV-infected mothers, HSP accounted for 26% of early MTCT. Multivariable analysis indicated the highest risk for HSP was among women who knew the baby's father was HIV-infected (adjusted-hazard ratio (aHR 4.71; 1.49-14.99, or who had been screened for tuberculosis (aHR 1.82; 1.43-2.32.HSP risk is high and contributes significantly to early MTCT. Identification of HSP by repeat-testing at 32 weeks gestation, during labor, 6 weeks postpartum, in tuberculosis-exposed women, and in

  3. Paediatric triage in South Africa | Cheema | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing child mortality is a high priority in sub-Saharan Africa, and swift, appropriate triage can make an important contribution to this goal. There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this, in many parts of South Africa no formal system for ...

  4. Cheetah conservation in South Africa | Buk | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa the distribution has shrunk from covering the whole country with the exception of forest to a narrow band along the Northern border from Kgalagadi to Kruger. In addition, 38 fenced reserves have successfully reintroduced the cheetah. The main threats in South Africa are direct persecution, loss of prey base ...

  5. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa A Monograph by MAJOR Timothy M. Bairstow United States Marine Corps School of...SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT Amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) are typically regarded as a post-conflict processes. In South Africa AR2 occurred before

  6. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Ophoff; Alastair Irons

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cy-bercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digi-tal forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration...

  7. 15Th South African Psychology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    The 15th South African Psychology Congress of the Psychological Society of South. Africa (PsySSA) was hosted at the International Convention Centre in Cape Town (CTICC),. South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken ...

  8. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  9. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et ... Sujet: Social Policy, SOCIAL WELFARE, SOCIAL SECURITY, HOUSEHOLD INCOME, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT. Région: Africa, South Africa, South of ...

  10. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  11. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  12. All projects related to south africa | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOUTH AFRICA, Mining, Economic and social development, CANADA, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH, TRAINING. Region: South Africa, Canada. Program: ... Region: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, China, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Turkey, Zambia, Republic of Congo, South Africa. Program: Governance and ...

  13. Factors that influenced mothers and/or caregivers in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, to purchase infant formula for their infants : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tshikovhi, M.P; Becker, P.J; Gericke, G.J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to identify and categorise factors that influence the choice behind the purchase of an infant formula brand by mothers and/or caregivers, and the reasons for their choice.Design...

  14. Robotics and automation activities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Utete, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...

  15. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  16. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  17. for environmental education in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Towards a “language of probability” for environmental education in South Africa. Lesley Le Grange. Department of Didactics, Faculty of Education, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa llg@.sun.ac.za. In the current phase of our history, crises abound in many spheres of life — political, ...

  18. R-HPDC in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...

  19. Dynamics of MODIS evapotranspiration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available dependent on rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in 4 climatically different regions of South Africa. Average ET in South Africa (2000–2012) was estimated to be 303 mm·a-1 or 481.4 x 109 m3·a1 (14% of PET and 67% of rainfall), mainly in the form...

  20. waterborne South Africa Canoeists and diseases in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waterborne. South Africa. Canoeists and diseases in. C. c. APPLETON, I. W. BAILEY. Summary. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) in canoeists in South Africa was estimated from examinations of urine samples taken from participants in the 1988 and 1989 Duzi Canoe Marathons on the ...

  1. Indigenous chicken genetic resources in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa. 2Department of Animal Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. 3Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Höltystr.10, 31535 Neustadt-Mariensee, Germany. 4Department of Livestock and ...

  2. in South Africa - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study was conceptualised following pub- lication of two editorials by Professor Mike Lambert, in which he proposed a model for achieving sporting excel- lence in South Africa. A questionnaire based on the assumptions of the model was administered to the first 45 ranked swimmers in South Africa.

  3. Development research in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South Africa.

  4. African leafy vegetables in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 University of Pretoria – Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 6 University of Pretoria ... communities of South Africa and to present information on the local nomenclature .... transform the leafy vegetables into dry products that have long shelf lives (Vorster et al., ...

  5. The lived experiences and social support needs of first-time mothers at health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmajapi E.T. Masala-Chokwe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social support refers to the assistance people receive from others, and it is divided into four types of support. Given the increasing mortality and morbidity rates of mothers and neonates postpartum, this study intended to determine whether the social support needs of the first-time mothers were met after early discharge from health care facilities.Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers after an early discharge from health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, Gauteng.Method: A qualitative explorative study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers. The population were first-time mothers who had a vaginal delivery and were discharged within 6–12 hours of delivery from health care facilities. Purposive sampling was performed and 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted, with those mothers who came for the prescribed three postnatal check-ups at the three health care facilities identified according to maternity services provided. Saturation of data for the three health care facilities was reached at the 14th interview. Data analysis was performed using the hermeneutic interpretive approach.Results: Almost all participants had completed grades 11 or 12, but most were unemployed. The needs identified included the need for social support, lack of confidence, knowledge and skill to care for themselves and their newborn babies after early discharge.Conclusion: There is need to identify alternative types of social support for the first-time mothers, to ensure a normal adjustment to motherhood.

  6. The lived experiences and social support needs of first-time mothers at health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala-Chokwe, Mmajapi E T; Ramukumba, Tendani S

    2017-09-22

    Social support refers to the assistance people receive from others, and it is divided into four types of support. Given the increasing mortality and morbidity rates of mothers and neonates postpartum, this study intended to determine whether the social support needs of the first-time mothers were met after early discharge from health care facilities. The objective of the study was to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers after an early discharge from health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, Gauteng. A qualitative explorative study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers. The population were first-time mothers who had a vaginal delivery and were discharged within 6-12 hours of delivery from health care facilities. Purposive sampling was performed and 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted, with those mothers who came for the prescribed three postnatal check-ups at the three health care facilities identified according to maternity services provided. Saturation of data for the three health care facilities was reached at the 14th interview. Data analysis was performed using the hermeneutic interpretive approach. Almost all participants had completed grades 11 or 12, but most were unemployed. The needs identified included the need for social support, lack of confidence, knowledge and skill to care for themselves and their newborn babies after early discharge. There is need to identify alternative types of social support for the first-time mothers, to ensure a normal adjustment to motherhood.

  7. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  8. Knowledge and Awareness of MTCT and PMTCT Post-Natal Follow-up Services Among HIV Infected Mothers in the Mankweng Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoshaba, Refilwe; Sithole, Sello Levy

    2017-01-01

    The pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the most severe health challenge affecting children across the world. It is estimated that more than 90% of all HIV infections in children result from Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT). Poor knowledge and awareness of MTCT and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) among HIV positive mothers and their babies is a major setback to the success of the PMTCT programmes. A qualitative approach and a cross-sectional design were applied in this study. The sample size of the study was 26 participants. Purposive sampling was used to select HIV infected mothers enrolled for PMTCT follow-up services and health care providers responsible for the implementation of the PMTCT programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen HIV infected mothers at two health facilities. Two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with eleven health workers at the two health facilities. Focus groups comprised of six participants from Mankweng Clinic and five participants from Mankweng Gateway Clinic. The findings from the study reveal that the majority of the respondents were aware of MTCT, but lacked knowledge and understanding about how a mother can transmit HIV to her child during pregnancy, labour and breastfeeding. The majority of the participants did not understand the risk of MTCT after birth and failed to mention breastfeeding as a mode of transmission. However, most of the participants were aware that MTCT can be prevented. The respondents were aware of the importance of treatment adherence as a prevention measure to avoid MTCT. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations were made. The first is that educational and awareness programmes need to be developed or strengthened on health risks. Mass campaign media should provide information on the importance of PMTCT activities through the use of community radio stations, Television, newsletters, bill boards etc. People need to know more about PMTCT

  9. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  10. An analysis of tourism SMEs in South Africa | Saayman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a comparative study of 37 participating countries on an analysis of Small Medium Enterprises (GEM, 2002) it was found that South Africa ranked the lowest of all developing countries, with only 3.3% of the adult population being involved in pursuing exploitable opportunities in various industries. Since 1994 South Africa ...

  11. Cannabis use trends in South Africa | Peltzer | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to synthesise cannabis use data from surveys, specialised alcohol and drug treatment centres, cannabis-related trauma unit admissions and arrestee studies over the past 12 years in South Africa. Results indicate that cannabis is the most common illicit substance used in South Africa, with ...

  12. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K

    2014-02-01

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.

  13. Assessing Grade 4 Mathematics in the Learner's Mother Tongue: A South African Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    Official policy in post-apartheid education is aimed at redressing linguistic inequity in schooling by promoting the 11 official languages of South Africa through mother tongue instruction. However, since the life chances of children are inextricably linked to the language of power, many parents believe that their children would benefit from…

  14. cmv treatment in south africa review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - perature, must be received at NICD before 14h00 same day as col- lection. Yellow-top ... Caps: 250 mg (84),. 500 mg (90). No generics cur- rently available in. South Africa. Initiation phase. Maintenance phase. Induction phase: intravenous.

  15. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...

  16. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available will be used for the Second National Communication to the UNFCCC. Furthermore, the GHG inventory will be a critical source of information for air quality management and climate change mitigation in South Africa...

  17. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  18. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed and certified a geolocation spectrum database, with the country moving towards making its spectrum management more dynamic....

  19. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors illustrate the need for standardized addresses in South Africa by describing scenarios where standardized addresses are required, or where standardized addresses would improve the current situation. They present the eleven...

  20. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  1. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  2. The costs of illiteracy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...

  3. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  4. Trends in teenage childbearing and schooling outcomes for children born to teens in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Branson; Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbearing is considered a social problem with costs to the teenage mother, her child and society at large. In South Africa, media attention suggests a contemporary crisis in teen childbearing; often linking this to a fear that the Child Support Grant incentivises motherhood among teens. Despite these assertions, there is little empirical research assessing the trends in teen childbearing over time in South Africa and the intergenerational consequences of teenage childbearing. This ...

  5. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  6. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... civil purchases (e.g. passenger aircraft).3 As a result of the biggest defence transaction in. South Africa, the Strategic Defence Package. (SDP) of December 1999, incurred R15 billion worth of DIP obligations. This article. Scientia Militaria, South African. Journal of Military Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2016, pp.

  7. Aspects of Roaccutane prescription in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-09-01

    Sep 1, 1993 ... of the Muscular Dystrophy Foundation of South Africa. This study was funded by grants from the South African Medical. Research Council, the Mauerberger Foundation, the Harry. Crossley Foundation and the University of Cape Town Staff. Research Fund. REFERENCES. 1. Maser H. Duchenne muscular ...

  8. LEISHMANIASIS IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA: PRELIMINARY NOTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... Leishmaniasis was first reported from South West. Africa in 1970.' All 4 cases had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis, and all 4 occurred in White women. These cases appeared over a period of 3 years. Before this the nearest recorded case of leishmaniasis was from south- western Angola.' Cahill' has ...

  9. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gain world power. The Soviet Union is striving to subject South Africa to a communist regime which would enable it to gain access to the country's geostrategic facilities ... 20. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 16, Nr 2, 1986. http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za ... Battalion, the French regiments.

  10. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  11. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  12. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  14. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  15. South-South cross-border patient travel to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanda, Abel; Crush, Jonathan

    2017-12-13

    This paper explores intra-regional South-South cross-border patient travel within the context of Southern Africa. South Africa, in particular, has been widely touted as one of the emerging destinations of high-end patients from the Global North alongside other destinations such as Brazil, India, Costa Rica and Thailand. Using South Africa as a case study, the paper demonstrates that South-South cross-border patient travel is far more significant than North-South patient travel both in numerical and financial terms. Every year, thousands of patients from neighbouring countries travel to South Africa in search of medical treatment for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. Despite its size and importance, the South-South flow of patients in Southern Africa is not fully understood and requires further scholarly research.

  16. Adolescent Sexuality and Culture: South African Mothers` Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores South African mothers' perspective on adolescent sexuality within their cultural prism. Forty-four (44) mothers were purposefully selected for the study. Data was collected through six focus group discussions. The results indicated that culturally embedded reasons inhibited mothers from effectively ...

  17. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact. Present threats to its academic stature and praxiological impact can only be overcome by taking appropriate and timely research management action. South African Journal of Education Vol.24(3) 2004: 233-238 ...

  18. South Africa's D-day veterans | Bisset | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some 657 members of the South African Union Defence Forces served in North West Europe between D-Day on 6 June 1944 and VE-Day on 8 May 1945, it would seem that relatively few of them were present on D-Day. South Africa's main contributions to the war effort were made in Ethiopia, Madagascar, the ...

  19. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  20. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... The journal publishes relevant book reviews and invited perspectives that contribute to the development of range and forage science in Africa. Letters to the editor that debate issues raised in the journal are acceptable. Publication of the journal is supported by the Grassland Society of Southern Africa.

  1. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  2. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  3. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani; Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the two provinces currently showing growth.

  4. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    African National Defence Force (SANDF) has played a critical and until now relatively unnoticed role in South Africa’s transition from international isolation as a “pariah” state and a source of instability to “peacemaker”. This will be explored by means of a comparative qualitative case-based analysis...... in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South......Preface Today, you, South Africans, are for the world, for Africa, for France, a model. A model for harmony between communities with such different roots. A model for good governance. A model for cultural diversity…. (Dominique De Villepin, 2003) This book attempts to demonstrate that the South...

  5. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-29

    Mar 29, 2017 ... management of the invisible hand of Adam Smith. Résumé ... d'Adam Smith. Introduction. This article is a critical reflection of the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia,. India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its .... and 'there is no such thing as a free lunch' (Smith 2009, pp. 2-3). Things ...

  6. Cheetah conservation in South Africa | Buk | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheetahs should be conserved as drivers of biodiversity conservation and as instruments of nature based tourism development. Only 7 500 cheetahs remain worldwide and their numbers continue to decrease. The species is currently listed as vulnerable, but is close to re-listing as endangered. In South Africa the ...

  7. GMOs in Africa: opportunities and challenges in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bothma, G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available commercialised GM crops. With South Africa being an early adopter of GM technology, the economic benefits for some of the crop technologies can be readily demonstrated, particularly in commercial crop production. Seventy five percent of agricultural output comes...

  8. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  9. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  10. Assessing the quality of routine data for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: An analytical observational study in two health districts with high HIV prevalence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Edward; Dudley, Lilian; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2016-11-01

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is a key maternal and child-health intervention in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa. Accordingly, the PMTCT programmes have been incorporated in the routine District Health Management Information System (DHMIS) which collects monthly facility-based data to support the management of public-health services. To date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the PMTCT information system. This study seeks to evaluate the quality of output indicators for monitoring PMTCT interventions in two health districts with high HIV prevalence. An analytical observational study was undertaken based on the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework and tools, including an assessment of the routine PMTCT data for quality in terms of accuracy and completeness. Data were collected from 57 public health facilities for six pre-defined PMTCT data elements by comparing the source registers with the routine monthly report (RMR), and the RMR with the DMHIS for January and April 2012. This was supplemented by the analysis of the monthly data reported routinely in the DMHIS for the period 2009-2012. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland Altman analysis were conducted using STATA® Version 13. Although completeness was relatively high at 91% (95% CI: 78-100%) at facility level and 96% (95% CI: 92-100%) at district level, the study revealed considerable data quality concerns for the PMTCT information with an average accuracy between the register and RMR of 51% (95% CI: 44-58%) and between the RMR and DHMIS database of 84% (95% CI: 78-91%). We observed differences in the data accuracy by organisational authority. The poor quality of the data was attributed partly to insufficient competencies of health information personnel. The study suggests that the primary point of departure for accurate data transfer is during the collation process. Institutional capacity

  11. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Africa while providing practical interventions underpinned by effective research, in order to meaningfully inform educational policy and practice. This intervention aims to confront the challenges in education in our country while fostering creativity...

  12. Improving Manufacturing Performance In South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NEW ZEALAND. 0.9. –1.9. 0.5. 1.7. –1.3. 1.5. OECD. 2.8. 0.5. 0.7. 4.1. 1.4. 1.4. SOUTH AFRICA a. NA. –0.2. –0.1. NA. 1.9. 1.7. SOUTH AFRICA b. 1.2. 0.2. –0.5. 3.2 ...... its authorisations under the heading 'general industrial financing'—as opposed to 'natural resource beneficiation' and 'tourism'—declined dramatically from ...

  13. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  14. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  15. Public Debate on GM Maize in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    . Since then, South Africa has .... South Africa did not itself experience food shortages in the 2001/2 season. The regional debate that was .... NGOs' interventionist work in emergency food, refugee shelter and rehabilitation and in community ...

  16. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...

  17. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly summarises the geological and geomorphological history of South Africa. This history is then related to various problems affecting the construction of roads in South Africa. These problems need to be identified early...

  18. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.sajournalofeducation.co.za. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa. Dana Donohue and Juan Bornman. Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Juan.

  19. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, WEATHER FORECASTS, FORECASTING TECHNIQUES, WATER MANAGEMENT, WATER CONSERVATION. Région: Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 999,749.00. Trade and Industrial Policy ...

  20. Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...

  1. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  2. Forecasting South Africa's performance at the 2010 Commonwealth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...

  3. South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...

  4. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  5. Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctors in South Africa are esteemed for the high ... Only 50% of the respondents said that better schooling opportunities for their children played a role in their decision to leave the .... “brain drain” as a one-way movement of highly skilled people from ... the depletion or loss of intellectual and technical human capacity by.

  6. Overcoming credit card fraud in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chip-and-pin technology has so far proved successful in countries such as the United. Kingdom, where total counterfeit card fraud decreased by 32% in the past two years.51 In South. Africa not all cards will have the chip-and-pin feature because not all merchants have the systems installed to support chip-and-pin cards.

  7. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State , Bloemfontein, South Africa. 2Department of Psychology, University of the Free ... population of Cape Town and black patients from Windhoek. Variations in symptoms of .... such as the USA, the Czech Republic and Japan21, while it is in strong contrast with findings in ...

  8. in Social Science Analysis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central role of surveys in social science research has long been recognised. Surveys have provided rich data about the extent of inequality in places such as. South Africa and Brazil. Surveys have also expanded our knowledge about demographic, social and economic and other variables, and have provided crit-.

  9. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...

  10. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation plans have been developed for South Africa. These 4 plans reflect different but broadly advancing approaches to conservation planning. We provide an overview of 3 historical plans and a more detailed discussion of the most ...

  11. Pulmonary scar carcinoma in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of both fibrosis and cancer.[2,3]. The Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA) has one of the highest recorded incidences of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the world, and also carries a high burden of smoking-related diseases including lung cancer.[4] However, the potential association between pulmonary scarring and ...

  12. Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION. 152. February 2015, Vol. 105, No. 2. Liquefied ... transit errors, preventing a carboxyhaemoglobin level from being obtained. However, after consulting the ... 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: L Sampson ...

  13. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  14. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus, Bandung Consensus, or Peoples' Consensus? WG Martin. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/asr.v12i1.43533 · AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Industrial democracy in South Africa's transition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AFRICA'S TRANSITION statute. had proved to be controversial. Many trade unionists saw in work- place forums a threat to trade union organisation at local level. Many employers saw them as a threat to managerial prerogative. The Act ad- dresses trade union fears by the extensive ...

  16. Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    job satisfaction, lack of future prospects (further education and career development), poor working conditions, HIV/AIDS, lack of quality of life, high levels of crime and violence, civil conflict and political instability,12–15 and a decline in the quality of the school education system.12. The HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa (in ...

  17. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  18. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy reveals that transformational global governance considerations have occupied a central place on the Republic's international radar screen. The Mandela, Mbeki, Motlanthe and Zuma governments have all ambitiously set out to help transform global order from its western-bias and ...

  19. Reproductive medicine in South Africa and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prozac or Freud. - ' tre “$555 . tee a fifiygifiiekieg tiartat ttateere. Researched Globally, ' . 7;. Developed in South Africa. flat of (FREE; ...find Calm in Your Palm it has clinically shown to stop the effects of: ' Physical stress: heart conditions, back pain, perspiration, eczema, sleeping problems, headaches, muscular and.

  20. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mum electron energy capacity greater than 10 MEV. Nine machines have a maximum photon energy capa- city below 10 MEV (Table I). A cyclotron-based 66. MEV neutron therapy machine used as a national faci- lity is based in the Cape. TABLE I. Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron.

  1. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest in the crop has waned over the years, but thc crop is now being used as a source ofhigh quality starch, which has again stimulated interest in its use as a commercial crop.

  2. Language, gender and sexuality in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    This special issue on the theme of language, gender and sexuality in South Africa does not emerge in an academic vacuum. .... highlights the extent to which fixed binary systems inform gender practices” (Msibi and Rudwick, this issue). Using a ... non-normative genders and sexualities on university campus. “If one were to ...

  3. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  4. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  5. Monogenic primary hypercholesterolaemia in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two major causes of monogenic primary hyper- cholesterolaemia. In this review, FH and FDB are defined in relation to normal lipoprotein metabolism. In South Africa FH affects about 1% of Afrikaners,jews and Indians, while FDB is probably a much rarer disorder. In Afrikaners, three 'founder' mutations are responsible for.

  6. Making sense of violence in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violence as a form of communication: Making sense of violence in South Africa. Hugo van der Merwe*. Abstract. This article explores the meaning of violence in ... Merwe** and Sue Williams in an article in 1987 – understanding violence as a ..... transition), the ideas of masculinity are clearly linked to power and physical ...

  7. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa. Keywords: plain language, definition, readability, text processing, language policy. 1. Introduction. Defining the concept of 'plain language' ...

  8. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... One is the DIP, managed exclusively by Armscor, South Africa's acquisition agency. DIP favours pursuing ..... and NIP (the DTI) custodians. DIP directly caused a substantial number of mergers between prominent .... “Defence acquisitions – Unpacking the package deals”. ISS occasional paper no. 29.

  9. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    This paper discusses the creation of a coastal vulnerability map for South Africa. The criteria used included elevation to chart datum, beach width, tidal range, wave height, geology, geomorphology, anthropogenic activities, distance to 20m isobaths and relative sea level change. The values of these parameters were divided ...

  10. Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-16

    Apr 16, 1983 ... Granuloma inguinale is a chronic specific infection of the genitalia of both sexes. It is endemic in many parts of the world, including the Caribbean, the southern USA, India, New Guinea and tropical and. sUbtropical Africa. Apart from a single patient diag- nosed clinically, no cases of the disease have pre-.

  11. The lightning climatology of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morné Gijben

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the South African Weather Service installed a state-of-the-art cloud-to-ground lightning detection network across the country. The data recorded by this network in 2006 was utilised in the development of an initial lightning climatology of South Africa. Until 2010, this climatology was based on data from a single year. This paper updates this climatology with the lightning data for the 2006–2010 period, which is the first actual lightning climatology by the South African Weather Serv...

  12. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  13. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  14. Tele-education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice eMars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programmes. The aims of this study were i to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa ii describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N in South Africa and iii review the development of these programmes with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.Method: a literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health. Despite initial attempts by the National Department of Health there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 hours of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.Conclusions: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource

  15. Child mortality in South Africa – we have lost touch EDITORIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-26

    Jul 26, 2007 ... recently released the cause-of-death report for 1997 - 2005.3. From these data it can be seen that the ... effectiveness is nowhere near 100% and transmission from mother to child still occurs at .... Mortality and Causes of Death Statistical Release in South Africa, 2005. Findings From Death Notification.

  16. Maternal deaths in South Africa Acute collapse a matter of concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the maternal deaths classified as acute collapse in South Africa as reported through the confidential maternal deaths process. Methods: All the chapters discussing maternal deaths in the Saving Mothers triennial reports were reviewed to assess the cumulative impact of ...

  17. The role of pregnancy intention in HIV prevention in South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-to-child transmission is a continuing source of new HIV infections in South Africa. The paper posits that insight into the socio-cultural, behavioural, environmental and economic factors that sustain the HIV epidemic is as important as understanding the biological causes of the disease when planning and ...

  18. Mothers\\' belief about infant teething in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the symptoms ascribed to, and remedies given for teething in infants by mothers in Nnewi South eastern Nigeria. Methodology: A pre-tested, open-ended questionnaire was administered to 161 consecutive mothers attending the paediatric outpatient and the infant welfare clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  19. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  20. Human fascioliasis in South Africa | Black | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.

  1. Taxation of life insurance in South Africa revisited | Clover | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the theoretical framework underlying the four-funds basis for taxing life insurance in South Africa and records the historical steps in the development of the basis from inception to its current form. It goes on to evaluate the basis in its current form and to propose possible changes that should be ...

  2. Pulmonary scar carcinoma in South Africa | Jenkins | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association between lung scarring and the subsequent development of cancer remains controversial. South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis in the world, and resultant scarring may predispose to malignancy. The country also carries a very high burden of smoking and ...

  3. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  4. 15Th South African Psychology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken up by workshops that focused on, amongst other topics, forensic and neuropsychology, early interventions of alcohol, and ethics. The authors feel that the theme of the congress ...

  5. Understanding the epidemic of HIV in South Africa | Williams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To investigate the magnitude and the time course of the HIV epidemic in the provinces of South Africa from the antenatal clinic HIV surveys. Design. We analysed the data on the provincial prevalences of HIV infection from 1990 to 1996 using maximum likelihood methods to determine the intrinsic growth rate and ...

  6. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  7. Infant feeding practices: realities and mind sets of mothers in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A; Mkhatshwa, H

    2007-10-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants in developing countries are at lower risk of HIV transmission than mixed-fed infants. Ethno-graphic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across South Africa, Namibia and Swaziland to understand how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling. Despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, very early mixed-feeding remains the norm; traditional conceptualisations of 'water as life' and 'milk as a fluid' are holding up against current PMTCT education, with milk considered liquid 'drink' rather than 'real food'. This aggravates an 'insufficient milk syndrome' where disempowered mothers perceive their breastmilk, and themselves, as deficient - 'not good enough'. Infant feeding is embedded within traditional relationships of intimacy; both relatives and breadwinner have influence and even authority over options and modes of infant feeding. In patriarchal and violent societies, traditional power differentials prohibit easy or complete HIV disclosure or condom negotiation; HIV status remains hidden from most partners and relatives. This context of secrecy means that the traditional advice and authority, which the mothers feel they dare not disregard, is often blind to the mother and her infant's HIV status and survival needs.

  8. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  9. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...

  10. All projects related to South Africa | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...

  11. All projects related to South Africa | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Region: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  12. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR LAW, MINIMUM WAGE, FORMAL SECTOR, INFORMAL SECTOR, UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENT. Région: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  13. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  14. Language Laboratories in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Arie

    1992-01-01

    Reviews trends in language instruction and the use of language laboratories in South African higher education from 1962 to 1990, paying particular attention to racial differences and the movement from an audio-lingual method to a communicative language technique. Questions the wisdom of equipping institutions with sophisticated hardware without…

  15. Training psychiatrists in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published study questioned whether, in relation to otolaryngology specialist training, South African universities provide equivalent training. The findings were that they do not. The authors cited a lack of oversight by the HPCSA.3 If there is a national exit exam, there must be equivalent training across all academic platforms ...

  16. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  17. SALT in South Africa: needs and parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid H. van der Vyver

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights some of the most pressing educational and language communication needs in the Republic of South Africa and emphasizes the urgency for accelerated programmes for teaching and learning. It further outlines and explains specific initiatives that have been started with in response to the needs described and it suggests an approach for the possible wider application of SALT in South Africa. Hierdie artikel belig 'n aantal van die dringendste opvoedkundige en kommunikatiewe behoeftes in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Die noodsaaklikheid van versnellingsprogramme vir die onderwys word beklemtoon. Verder omlyn en verduidelik dit spesifieke inisiatiewe waarmee begin is as antwoord op die bestaande behoeftes. Ten slotte word gesuggereer dat SALT in Suid-Afrika nog veel verder uitgebrei kan word.

  18. South Africa: A Case for Total Divestment

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, John C.

    1985-01-01

    My belief is that it is in the best short-term as well as long-term economic interests of U.S. corporations to disengage from South Africa. South African corporations are no longer profitable in most cases and there is an immediate risk that product imports, capital investment or sales will be lost or adversely affected by continued military and police action, domestic or foreign embar­ goes or government expropriation. This is in addition to normal risks of currency fluctuation and unstable ...

  19. Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development Nexus: The Development Impact for sub-Saharan Africa. ... With its relatively advanced infrastructure, as well as the new opportunities made available by the process of globalisation, democratic South Africa has become increasingly attractive to ...

  20. All projects related to South Africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Non-communicable diseases, which contribute significantly to South Africa's disease burden, are largely driven by obesity and associated illnesses. Region: South Africa. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 1,022,900.00. Advancing women's financial inclusion in francophone Africa: Cameroon, ...

  1. “MY MOTHER TOLD ME I MUST NOT COOK ANYMORE”—FOOD, CULTURE, AND THE CONTEXT OF HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED STIGMA IN THREE COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKOROR, T. A.; AIRHIHENBUWA, C. O.; ZUNGU, M.; MAKOFANI, D.; BROWN, D. C.; IWELUNMOR, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa. PMID:19095587

  2. Overview of materials research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sector Initiatives for Growth and Impact Aerospace Automotive Health Energy Micro-manufacturingBuildings Materials Science & Manufacturing ? CSIR 2010 Slide 4 www.csir.co.za Overview of Materials Research in South Africa Dr Willie du Preez Manager...&D Facilities: CSIR, UCT, UP, US, NMMU, CUT, NLC, Mintek, Necsa Physical Metallurgy: UCT, UP Primary Metal Production CSIR UP Necsa Mintek Powder Processing CSIR US ULim NIMS Wits, Mintek Investment Casting CSIR UCT US Aerosud Welding...

  3. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  4. Health risks of travelers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner, S

    1999-09-01

    Large numbers of tourists visit South Africa every year. Travelers to urban areas are at little risk of contracting an infectious disease, however the adventure traveler is at increased risk. Yellow fever is not known to occur in South Africa. Malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga and KwaZula-Natal. Schistosomiasis is endemic in large parts of the country. Although rabies is found throughout the country, only a small number of human cases is reported. High risk areas are KwaZulu-Natal, the eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high and counseling regarding sexually transmitted diseases is important. Sanitation of water is excellent in most large cities and towns; however travelers to rural areas should exercise caution. Arbovirus infections do occur but relatively few cases are reported. The hiker is at risk for tick bite fever and should be counseled. Since the abolition of apartheid, South Africa has been seen as an inexpensive, high quality destination by many tourists. In 1997, a total of 5,436,848 travelers from many different countries visited the country. Areas most frequently visited include Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, the Garden Route, Kruger National Park, KwaZulu-Natal and Pretoria. The most common reason for visiting the country was holiday (44%), followed by visiting friends and relatives (23%), business travel (27%) other (6%).1 Travelers, to the larger cities such as Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban are at little risk of acquiring an infectious disease. The adventure traveler however is at greater risk as parts of the country are endemic for malaria, schistosomiasis, rabies, food and waterborne diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and arbovirus infections. Accidental deaths due to motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence are important health risks in South Africa. Travelers visiting popular attractions are at significantly lower risk. However this has never been

  5. Coaching diversity in South Africa | Hills | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article raises the need for a better understanding of the unique problems facing sport coaches in Africa. Sport coaches in Africa and in particular South Africa, are facing challenges arising from diversity arising from constitutional issues. The coach in Africa cannot always coach in the lines of their western counterparts ...

  6. All projects related to South Africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Americas, Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Africa, Kenya, South of Sahara, Peru, South Africa. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. Vulnerability, Coping and Adaptation in the context of Climate ...

  7. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  8. Health Inequality in South Africa: A Systematic Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... inequalities, race, health in South Africa, health systems, socio-economic determinants of health and livelihoods in South ... in child/adult mortality. Keywords: Health inequality, race, child mortality, socio-economic conditions, South Africa. Résumé ...... die: Circular labour migratio n and mortality in S outh.

  9. The proposed CO2 Test Injection project in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, C.J.; Hicks, N.; Arenstein, G.; Tippmann, R.; Van Der Spuy, D.; Viljoen, J.; Davids, S.; Roos, M.; Cloete, M.; Beck, B.; Nell, L.; Arts, R.; Holloway, S.; Surridge, T.; Pearce, J.

    2013-01-01

    The South-Africa Europe Cooperation in Carbon capture and Storage (SAfECCS) project was initiated in 2011. The aim of the project is to support the South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage (SACCCS) Roadmap for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in South Africa through assessing the

  10. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, ...

  11. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  12. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  13. The lightning climatology of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morné Gijben

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the South African Weather Service installed a state-of-the-art cloud-to-ground lightning detection network across the country. The data recorded by this network in 2006 was utilised in the development of an initial lightning climatology of South Africa. Until 2010, this climatology was based on data from a single year. This paper updates this climatology with the lightning data for the 2006–2010 period, which is the first actual lightning climatology by the South African Weather Service based on data covering 5 years. A number of different maps were created from these lightning data. These were lightning ground flash density, median peak kiloampere, percentage positive and average flash multiplicity maps. These four maps were in turn used to develop lightning intensity risk, positive lightning risk and total lightning risk maps. Analysis of the maps showed that the highest concentrations of lightning are found over the central to northern interior of the country, with areas along the northern parts of the eastern escarpment experiencing the highest flash densities and falling within the extreme risk category. Both the positive and total lightning risks are severe for almost the entire country. Only towards the west of the country does the lightning risk decrease. This lightning climatology can now be used throughout South Africa for various disciplines. It will be especially useful for setting lightning safety standards and identifying priority areas for installing lightning conductors and conducting public awareness campaigns.

  14. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  15. Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  16. All projects related to South Africa | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS on agriculture and food production in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Start Date: ... In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. Start Date: ...

  17. Consumer testing of the preliminary paediatric food-based dietary guidelines for healthy children aged 1-7 years, among English- and Afrikaans-speaking mothers in the city of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley Dalene; Marais, Debbi; Bourne, Lesley

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to test the comprehensibility of the preliminary food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for healthy South African children aged 1-7 years. Objectives included assessing exposure to FBDG, comprehension of the proposed paediatric FBDG (PFBDG) and whether the guidelines can be used in meal planning. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Discussions were facilitated by the investigator in either English or Afrikaans, according to a predetermined discussion schedule. Focus groups were formed on the basis of language and socio-economic status (SES). Areas within the City of Cape Town representing lower, middle and upper SES groups. A total of seventy-six English- and Afrikaans-speaking mothers were contacted via randomly selected consenting preschool groups to participate voluntarily. Most mothers reported that they do not use guidelines. They had a good grasp of the concepts of and need for PFBDG. They suggested slight alterations to wording/phrasing of the guidelines. The most problematic guidelines were those regarding starch, milk and sweet treats/drinks. No substantial differences were found between English and Afrikaans data. Differences were found between SES groups, with the upper SES groups comprehending the guidelines better. The proposed PFBDG were well received. The target population that would benefit the most from these guidelines would be the less educated, lower SES groups. The present study shows that once the guidelines have been modified, they may be used as a comprehensive guide for nutritional education.

  18. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  19. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  20. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  1. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  2. Teacher Training Models for a New South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelhoffer, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses social change and educational realities in South Africa, noting the relatively poor qualifications of black teachers. The paper also examines South African teacher training models and presents teacher training models suitable for developing countries. (SM)

  3. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: WATER SHORTAGE, WATER MANAGEMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION, VULNERABLE GROUPS. Région: Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Climate Change. Financement total : CA$ 499,396.00.

  4. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 9 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , FORECASTING TECHNIQUES, WATER MANAGEMENT, WATER CONSERVATION. Région: South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 999,749.00. Collaboration Sud-Sud en innovation ...

  5. All projects related to south africa | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION, COMMUNAL LAND, LAND MANAGEMENT, LAND USE, SCENARIOS. Region: Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, South of Sahara. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 697,800.00. Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income Countries.

  6. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal development in rural South Africa: relationship between birth weight and access to fathers and grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Elo, Irma T; Herbst, Kobus; Hosegood, Victoria

    2010-11-01

    Birth weight is an indicator of prenatal development associated with health in infancy and childhood, and may be affected by the family environment experienced by the mother during pregnancy. Using data from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we explore the importance of the mother's access to the father and grandparents of the child during pregnancy. Controlling for household socio-economic indicators and maternal characteristics, the survival and residence of the biological father with the mother are positively associated with birth weight. The type of relationship seems to matter: married women have the heaviest newborns, but co-residence with a non-marital partner is also associated with higher birth weight. Access to the maternal grandmother may also be important: women whose mothers are alive have heavier newborns, but no additional benefit is observed from residing together. Co-residence with any grandparent is not associated with birth weight after controlling for the mother's partnership.

  8. The coal mining industry of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealey, A. (Rand Mines Ltd. (South Africa))

    1991-10-01

    After presenting a brief history of development of coal mining in South Africa together with a table of coal sales since 1885 the country's coal reserves are discussed. Brief description is given of the mining methods used viz: bord and pillar, opencast, longwalling and pillar extraction or stooping. Figures are given for the size of major production fields, employment in the mines and distribution of coal trade (for export, transport, electricity etc.). Other aspects of the industry discussed and safety (with comparison of fatalities with other coal producing countries); environmental management, manpower and administrative and commercial aspects. 18 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mokgoro

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not free of scepticism. Many a time when crime and criminal activity are rife, sceptics would lament the absence of ubuntu in society and attribute this absence to what they view as the permissiveness which is said to have been brought about by the Constitution with its entrenched Bill of Rights.Firstly, I would like to take this opportunity and (attempt to demonstrate the irony that the absence of the values of ubuntu in society that people often lament about and attribute to the existence of the Constitution with its demands for respect for human rights when crime becomes rife, are the very same values that the Constitution in general and the Bill of Rights in particular aim to inculcate in our society.Secondly, against the background of the call for an African renaissance that has now become topical globally, I would like to demonstrate the potential that traditional African values of ubuntu have for influencing the development of a new South African law and jurisprudence.The concept ubuntu, like many African concepts, is not easily definable. In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a world-view of African societies and a determining factor in the formation of perceptions which influence social conduct. It has also been described as a philosophy of life.Much as South Africa is a multicultural society, indigenous law has not featured in the mainstream of South African jurisprudence. Without a doubt, some aspects or values of ubuntu are universally inherent to South Africa’s multi cultures.The values of ubuntu are therefore an integral part of that value system which had been established by the Interim Constitution.The founding values of the democracy established by this new Constitution arguably coincide with some key values of ubuntu(ism.Ubuntu(-ism, which is central to age-old African custom and tradition however, abounds

  10. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 9 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  11. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  12. Adolescent Sexuality and Culture: South African Mothers` Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores South African mothers' perspective on adolescent sexuality within their cultural prism. forty-four (44) .... usually withhold important information about sexuality and reproduction from their daughters and instead .... to the participants. The rights of the participants as volunteers were spelt to them. They.

  13. Decision support for Foodbank South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Watson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a combined 'soft-hard' OR approach to aid decision making in the area of allocation at a not-for-profit organization, Foodbank South Africa (FBSA, that represents the largest hunger-relief network in South Africa. Two problem-structuring tools, causal mapping and root definitions (RDs are utilized. Causal mapping is used to identify areas for useful research within FBSA, and gain a greater understanding of the organization in terms of its goals and consequently a good appreciation of the context in which decisions are made. Root definitions are employed to acquire a better understanding of the 'decision-issues' within the allocation system at the Cape Town warehouse. A simulation model is developed to imitate daily allocation decisions, with the end-objective of assisting decision-making by developing a range of allocation policies. A decision support system (DSS is developed to help FBSA manage their agency database, automate some of the daily allocation decisions and simulate allocation policies.

  14. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  15. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  16. All projects related to south africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa. Project. There is a rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across Africa, driven in part by the increasing consumption of unhealthy diets (including ultra-processed and fast foods). Region: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa. Program: Food, Environment ...

  17. Strategic planning for saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children and preventing stillbirths in KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa: modelling using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Shelley-Ann; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mubaiwa, Victoria; Moran, Neil; McKerrow, Neil; Kamugisha, Leonard; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-19

    KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa has the largest population of children under the age of five and experiences the highest number of child births per annum in the country. Its population has also been ravaged by the dual epidemics of HIV and TB and it has struggled to meet targets for maternal and child mortality. In South Africa's federal system, provinces have decision-making power on the prioritization and allocation of resources within their jurisdiction. As part of strategic planning for 2015-2019, KwaZulu-Natal provincial authorities requested an assessment of current mortality levels in the province and identification and costing of priority interventions for saving additional maternal, newborn and child lives, as well as preventing stillbirths in the province. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to determine the set of interventions, which could save the most additional maternal and child lives and prevent stillbirths from 2015-2019, and the costs of these. The impact of family planning was assessed using two scenarios by increasing baseline coverage of modern contraception by 0.5 percentage points or 1 percentage point per annum. A total of 7,043 additional child and 297 additional maternal lives could be saved, and 2,000 stillbirths could be prevented over five years. Seventeen interventions account for 75% of additional lives saved. Increasing family planning contributes to a further reduction of up to 137 maternal and 3,168 child deaths. The set of priority interventions scaled up to achievable levels, with no increase in contraception would require an additional US$91 million over five years or US$1.72 per capita population per year. By increasing contraceptive prevalence by one percentage point per year, overall costs to scale up to achievable coverage package, decrease by US$24 million over five years. Focused attention on a set of key interventions could have a significant impact on averting stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality in

  18. Obstacles to success – Doctoral student attrition in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstacles to success – Doctoral student attrition in South Africa. C Herman. Abstract. The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral ...

  19. Government Investment, Growth and Employment in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...

  20. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  1. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South. Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Mental health service delivery in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2000, Rita Thom published a systematic review of mental health services research in ... the efficacy of sustainable models of service delivery in line with ... Inclusion criteria were ... in South Africa, as well as future mental health services research ..... Lund et al.27,31-35 have done extensive work in South Africa calculating.

  3. The importance of animals in human schistosomiasis in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of animals in human schistosomiasis in South Africa. ... following exposureto animal or bird bilharzia are considered. it is concluded that, as regards animal schistosomes, at present only S. mattheei and a hybrid of S. mattheei and S. haematobium pose a potential threat to human health in South Africa.

  4. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  5. Supporting Democracy: The South Africa-Canada Program on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The South Africa-Canada Program on Governance (PoG) was born in anticipation of this historic transition. It was conceived during Nelson Mandela's 1992 visit to Canada, when he asked the Canadian government to assist the people of South Africa in their preparations for democracy. In 1993, the Canadian International ...

  6. Building A New South Africa: Volume 2: Urban Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, the situation in urban South Africa is considerably complicated by the legacy of apartheid. This system has a long history in South Africa, reaching an apogee with the group areas legislation of the 1950s and 1960s, according to which racial groups were consigned strictly to delimited areas. Under it, both urban ...

  7. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  8. Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa – not just ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa. – not just performance measurement. K Carden* and NP Armitage. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. ABSTRACT. Urban water management – and the impacts that rapid population growth, ...

  9. Student mobility and doctoral education in South Africa | Sehoole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...

  10. All projects related to South Africa | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. Topic: ALCOHOL, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA. Region: New Zealand, South Africa. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 547,730.00. Amnesties for Peace in the Niger ...

  11. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water- ... Keywords: water value, residual value, marginal value, subsidy, commercial forestry, South Africa. Background .... residential, agricultural, industrial, and recreational and aes- thetics ...

  12. Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.

  13. Turning the tide of violence in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    Feb 4, 2011 ... The root cause of violence in South Africa has not changed much since the apartheid era. According to the Johannesburg-based Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), South Africa's current high rate of violent crime is just as related to economic and social marginalization as it was ...

  14. Contextual determinants of adolescent mortality in South Africa | De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...

  15. Violent protest at local government level in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violent protest at local government level in South Africa: Revolutionary potential? M Hough. Abstract. In this article, a broad overview of the main causes and theories of revolution is presented. The objective is to obtain, by analysing recent events in South Africa pertaining to the ongoing protest actions over service delivery ...

  16. STROKE IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA - CONTRIBUTING TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing data on the epidemiology of stroke in South Africa are limited, particularly among the black population, for whom basic demographic data are scanty and death certificate diagnoses l.II1reliable. This is clearly articulated in an editorial by Fritz' on stroke mcidence in South Africa. Despite their limitations she quotes ...

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance practices of listed companies in South Africa, within the broader context of the institutional capacity needed to ensure compliance and enforcement. The diagnostic reflects the corporate governance framework as of December 2001. South Africa has a well developed equity market with a market capitalization of 154 percent of GDP. Listed companies ...

  18. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  19. Building a New South Africa Volume 3: Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Building a New South Africa Volume 3: Science and Technology Policy ... 1992 symposium on the role of research in transforming South Africa, the democratic movement requested that IDRC support a mission on science and technology (S&T) policy. ... Volume 4: Environment, Reconstruction, and Development ...

  20. Building a New South Africa Volume 4 : Environment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Building a New South Africa Volume 4 : Environment, Reconstruction, and Development ... Backed by South Africa's democratic movement, and with the support of IDRC , the International Mission on Environmental Policy focuses on the critical role that environmental ... Volume 3: Science and Technology Policy ...

  1. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  2. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-29

    Aug 29, 2006 ... Abstract. In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from post- apartheid South Africa's three general elections which ...

  3. Tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Tobacco and alcohol use by adolescents are major public health concerns in South Africa. However, the extent to which key psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use and alcohol use by adolescents in South Africa are shared or unshared is unclear. This study sought to examine the shared and unshared risk ...

  4. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available for South Africa (2x) Solar irradiation in South Africa ... ... as compared to Germany, where solar PV is now close to cost competitiveness with new coal and gas Source: Joint Research Center of the European Commission, PVGIS, BCG analysis 10 More sun makes...

  5. Nigerian Immigrants and Xenophobic Violence in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, stereotypic reproduction represents the past in the present within the context of nation-building and contradictions of “African Renaissance.” Despite the leading roles Nigeria and South Africa are playing in African politics and business, the xenophobia against African immigrants undermines the prospect of ...

  6. Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

  7. Zimbabwean Teachers in South Africa: A Transient Greener Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian; Weda, Zenzele

    2017-01-01

    Zimbabwean teachers constitute the largest group of migrant teachers in South Africa (Department of Higher Education & Training (DHET), 2013). The main reason South Africa welcomes migrant teachers is to ease the country's own teacher shortage. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore Zimbabwean teachers' motives for migration to…

  8. Factors associated with smoking cessation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent populations was also demonstrated in the USA,5 suggesting that this vulnerable population may require focused interventions for smoking cessation. Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa.

  9. Trade Intensity Analysis of South Africa - Bric Economic Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study broadly focused on examining the trade and investment relationship between South Africa and the BRIC, using both descriptive and vector autoregressive estimation approaches. Specifically, the key objective is to investigate the impact of trade shocks between South Africa and the individual countries of the BRIC ...

  10. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blind or severely visually impaired children and 4% of blind adults in. South Africa ... 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding ... The data collection templates were designed to capture information.

  11. All projects related to South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In South Africa, a history of apartheid policies, concentrated poverty, social deprivation, and other risk factors related to violence within particular areas have created conditions that exacerbate exclusion, inequality, and poverty, especially among youth. Region: South Africa. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ...

  12. The Role of South Africa in Southern African Regional Integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an analysis of the role of the South African state in Southern African regional integration as viewed by the Zimbabwean state, capital and civil society. Their view is that South Africa should forge and sustain better and more equitable relations with the rest of Southern Africa so as to create and sustain a ...

  13. The emerging South African profile in Africa: Reflections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... Yet these developments are of great interest from a South African foreign policy and security point of ... Norway, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands, and developing countries such as India, Cuba and ... responsibilities, the prioritisation afforded to Africa in South African foreign policy makes Africa the.

  14. Standardised testing in South Africa: the annual national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardised testing in South Africa: the annual national assessments under the microscope. ... Governments worldwide use standardized tests to address educational deficiencies and improve public accountably and quality of education in their countries. In South Africa the Department of Basic Education resorted to ...

  15. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  16. Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in South Africa, it is important to take stock of our mental health services. This is necessary for four reasons. First, the burden of mental illness in South Africa is substantial, and is likely to increase with ... providers who work in the health and mental health sector. ... hour emergency management and observation in general.

  17. All projects related to South Africa | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk After Gestational Diabetes in South Africa. Project. Women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus, a temporary diabetes that develops during pregnancy, are at a high risk of getting type 2 diabetes sometime after their pregnancy. Topic: SOUTH AFRICA, DIABETES, MATERNAL ...

  18. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  19. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 μg ...

  20. Addressing the developmental challenges in rural South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sedikong sa Lerato Cooperate in Limpopo Province of South Africa is applying this philosophy in addressing the challenges of unemployment, poverty, inequality, health and other problems that are threatening South Africa's democracy. Using a qualitative approach, this article investigates how the philosophy is being ...

  1. Exploring Rare Diseases in South Africa, a Personal Journey: Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addison's disease, compared with other disciplines. Addison's disease is designated as a medical condition that enjoys the prescribed minimum benefit, and it is a statutory requirement in South Africa that patients belonging to a. Exploring Rare Diseases in South Africa, a Personal. Journey: Time for Electronic Record‑ ...

  2. Hegemony or Survival: South Africa's Soft Power and the Challenge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article concludes that consciously framed policies as well as constructive and positive media reporting are required to mitigate the possibly devastating effects of xenophobia on South Africa's soft power within its region and globally. Keywords: hegemony, regional hegemony, foreigners, soft power, South Africa, ...

  3. FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA Transvaal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA. J. DU P. BOTHMA. Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation-. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal is probably the most important problem animal in the sheep-farming areas of South Africa and especially in the Transvaal. To detennine the extent of damage.

  4. Analysis of water use by gated communities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... 130. Analysis of water use by gated communities in South Africa. Jacques Jl du Plessis1 and Heinz e Jacobs1*. Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. ABSTRACT. Gated communities (hereafter GCs) are popular in many countries, including ...

  5. Evaluating invasion risk for freshwater fishes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Marr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa, as a signatory of the Convention on Biological Diversity, has an obligation to identify, prioritise and manage invasive species and their introduction pathways. However, this requires knowledge of the introduction pathways, factors influencing establishment success, invasive potential, current distributions and ecological impacts. Objectives: To evaluate the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK to predict the invasion risk posed by fish species proposed for introduction into South Africa. Method: FISK assessments were compiled for species whose invasion status in South Africa was known. A Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was conducted to calibrate the FISK for South Africa. The calibrated FISK was used to evaluate the risk that three species recently proposed for importation for aquaculture could become invasive in South Africa. Results: A FISK score of 14 was identified as the threshold to delineate between species that could become invasive in South Africa and those that are unlikely to become invasive. Of the three species evaluated, Silurus glanis had a high risk of becoming invasive in South Africa, Lates calcarifer was likely to be invasive and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was unlikely to be invasive in South Africa. Conclusion: FISK was demonstrated to be a useful risk assessment tool to evaluate the invasion risk posed by species proposed for use in aquaculture. For the large number of fish imported for the pet trade, a rapid screening assessment to flag potentially high risk species was recommended prior to a full FISK assessment for flagged species.

  6. Children and participation in South Africa: Exploring the landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines tensions and links between children's informal and formal participation, and looks at how participation is constituted in and by different social spaces in South Africa. Some of the ways in which children have participated in public matters prior to and following the advent of democracy in South Africa are ...

  7. Informal employment in South Africa: Still missing pieces in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contextualises the need to study the vulnerabilities of informal workers in South Africa, both in the current literature and the general discourse, and to identify those issues that must head a refocused research agenda on the broader informal sector in South Africa. Prominent agenda items ought to include: the ...

  8. Video laryngoscopy in paediatric anaesthesia in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Video laryngoscopy in paediatric anaesthesia in South Africa. LN Nienaber. Abstract. This article provides a summary of the types of video laryngoscopes available in South Africa, and highlights some interesting paediatric cases in which video laryngoscopes were used at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria.

  9. Pauline Bredelli: South Africa's elusive first prima donna | Bester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's heritage of producing opera singers of international repute can arguably be traced back to Pauline Bredelli. Bredelli is viewed by many as South Africa's first ... Her 'Bredelli: School of Voice and Culture of Song' further attests to her prominence as a vocal pedagogue. This investigation into the life of Pauline ...

  10. Intensive care nursing in South Africa | de Beer | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various challenges face intensive care nursing in South Africa. This article describes the health care system of South Africa, with particular attention to intensive care nursing. It also describes the current state of intensive care and the challenges facing this sub-specialty of critical care.

  11. the education systems of South Africa and Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    island in the world. It is roughly half the size of South Africa, which covers a surface area of 1 219 090 square kilometers. The topographi- cal characteristics of Madagascar also pose definite similarities with the coastal provinces of South Africa, such as Mpumalanga and Kwa-. Zulu Natal. Therefore, education provisioning ...

  12. Breeding objectives for Jersey cattle in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... herd model for pasture-based and concentrate-fed systems in South Africa was used to calculate economic values by ... Alternative payment systems were used from four major milk buyers in South Africa. ... Calculation of economic values is a crucial step in the development of breeding objectives. The.

  13. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  14. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  15. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  16. Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... 11Resource Protection, Western Cape Department of Water Affairs, Private Bag X16, Sanlamhof, Cape Town, 7532, South Africa. 12Breede Overberg Catchment Management Agency, 51 Baring Street, Worcester, 6849, South Africa. 14Independent Research for Water, Climate and Environmental Justice, ...

  17. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey W

    Abstract. A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa. (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 ...

  18. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  19. A comparative analysis of corruption in South Africa and China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns about corruption in South Africa and China have intensified in recent years. Improved public administration, greater efficiency, transparency, and integrity in public institutions, are recognised as some of the emerging challenges for South Africa's post-1994 transformation process, and China's economic and social ...

  20. Forecasting tourist arrivals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Saayman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to model and forecast tourism to South Africa from the country's main intercontinental tourism markets. These include Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, the United States of America and France. Problem investigated: Tourism to South Africa has grown substantially since the first democratic elections in 1994. It is currently the third largest industry in the country and a vital source of foreign exchange earnings. Tourist arrivals continue to grow annually, and have shown some resilience to a number of emerging market crises, including the terrorist attacks in the USA. Business success, marketing decisions, government's investment policy as well as macroeconomic policy are influenced by the accuracy of tourism forecasts, since the tourism product comprises a number of services that cannot be accumulated. Accurate forecasts of tourism demand are paramount to ensure the availability of such services when demanded. In addition, the seasonal nature of tourism leads to a pattern of excess capacity followed by shortage in capacity. Method: Since univariate time series modelling has proved to be a very successful method for forecasting tourist arrivals, it is also the method employed in this paper. The naïve model is tested against a standard ARIMA model, as well as the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and seasonal-non-seasonal ARIMA models. Forecasting accuracy is assessed using the mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error and Theill's U of the various models. Monthly tourist arrivals from 1994 to 2006 are used in the analysis, and arrivals are forecasted for 2007. Findings: The results show that seasonal ARIMA models deliver the most accurate predictions of arrivals over three time horizons, namely three months, six months and 12 months. Value: This paper is the first tourist arrivals forecast using South African data for the country as a whole, and therefore it forms an interesting case study

  1. Saving mothers: 1999 - 2001 | Moodley | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'big five' causes of maternal death in South Africa in the 3 years 1999 - 2001 were non-pregnancy-related infection (mainly AIDS), complications of hypertension in pregnancy, obstetric haemorrhage, pregnancy-related sepsis and pre-existing medical conditions. Women 35 years and older were at greater risk of dying ...

  2. Logistics outsourcing by manufacturers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Waugh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As organisations find themselves in an increasingly dynamic and competitive world they are seeking new strategies to ensure their competitive advantage and profitability. Logistics presents an area in which these organisations can improve customer service and reduce costs, and strategies in support thereof such as the outsourcing of logistics activities, should be considered. However, it is critical that logistics outsourcing is done diligently to avoid potential problems for the organisation and to achieve the best possible benefits. In South Africa little research has been done regarding current outsourcing practices of local manufacturers. In this article literature on international logistics outsourcing as well as research on some of the logistics outsourcing practices of South African manufacturers is discussed. The findings of a questionnaire survey of South African manufacturers provided information on their logistics outsourcing practices and problems. Prominent issues seem to include inadequate managerial involvement in the logistics outsourcing process, as well as insufficient time spent on many of the important aspects of the outsourcing agreement, the transitioning of resources and ongoing management of the outsourced relationship. It is concluded that a thorough outsourcing process should be followed in order to achieve the benefits of logistics outsourcing.

  3. Rand volatility and inflation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwifaneli Innocentia (Mulaudzi Nemushu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The floating exchange rate regime, coupled with a more open trade policy and the growth in imports, leaves South Africa vulnerable to the effects of exchange rate behaviour on import, producer and consumer prices, which all contribute to inflation. Given the central role that inflation targeting occupies in South Africa’s monetary policy, this paper examines the effect of exchange rate shocks on consumer prices using monthly data covering the period January 1994 to December 2013. Consistent with developing countries story, results show a modest exchange rate pass-through to inflation, although inflation is mainly driven by own shocks. The variance decompositions also reveal that foreign exchange rate shocks (REER contribute relatively more to inflation than money supply shocks (M3. This suggests that South African inflation process is not basically influenced by money supply changes. The practical implication is that that the volatility of the rand is not a serious threat to inflation. The SARB should therefore focus on price stability and not be unduly worried about the volatility of the rand.

  4. Xenophobic Attacks On Black Non-South Africans In South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xenophobic Attacks On Black Non-South Africans In South Africa: The Communication Imperatives. ... He also goes on to propound a refinement of the definition of xenophobia in such a way as to include its specific target, because, as he rightly observes: in South Africa, not all foreigners are uniformly victimised. Rather ...

  5. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  6. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  7. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination.Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism.Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education.Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region.Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting

  8. Engagement of non-government organisations and community care workers in collaborative TB/HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Jeannine; Zarowsky, Christina; Hausler, Harry; Jackson, Debra

    2012-08-02

    The implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities may help to mitigate the impact of the dual epidemic on patients and communities. Such implementation requires integrated interventions across facilities and levels of government, and with communities. Engaging Community Care Workers (CCWs) in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services may enhance universal coverage and treatment outcomes, and address human resource needs in sub-Saharan Africa. Using pre-intervention research in Sisonke district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a case study, we report on three study objectives: (1) to determine the extent of the engagement of NGOs and CCWs in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV including PMTCT; (2) to identify constraints related to provision of TB/HIV/PMTCT integrated care at community level; and (3) to explore ways of enhancing the engagement of CCWs to provide integrated TB/HIV/PMTCT services. Our mixed method study included facility and NGO audits, a household survey (n = 3867), 33 key informant interviews with provincial, district, facility, and NGO managers, and six CCW and patient focus group discussions. Most contracted NGOs were providing TB or HIV support and care with little support for PMTCT. Only 11% of facilities' TB and HIV patients needing care and support at the community level were receiving support from CCWs. Only 2% of pregnant women reported being counseled by CCWs on infant feeding options and HIV testing. Most facilities (83%) did not have any structural linkage with NGOs. Major constraints identified were system-related: structural, organizational and managerial constraints; inadequate CCW training and supervision; limited scope of CCW practice; inadequate funding; and inconsistency in supplies and equipment. Individual and community factors, such as lack of disclosure, stigma related to HIV, and cultural beliefs were also identified as constraints. NGO/CCW engagement in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV/PMTCT activities is

  9. Human cases of Wesselsbron disease, South Africa 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Thomas, Juno; Leman, Patricia A; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T

    2013-05-01

    Wesselsbron disease is a neglected, mosquito-borne zoonotic infection reported from Africa. The disease primarily affects sheep and other ruminants with incidental spillover to humans. As for other arboviral diseases in Africa, little or no active surveillance is conducted, and the public and veterinary health burden of this disease remains unclear. We report on the clinical histories of 2 human cases of Wesselsbron disease that were laboratory confirmed during the 2010-2011 Rift Valley fever outbreak investigation in South Africa. This report describes the first confirmed human cases of Wesselsbron disease since 1996. Molecular sequencing and analysis of the partial NS5 gene of the Wesselsbron genome was used to identify 2 circulating clades of the virus in southern Africa. Clade I included isolates collected from South Africa and Zimbabwe, whereas clade II only included isolates from the KwaZulu Natal Province of South Africa.

  10. Korean, NEO station in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Byun, Yong-Ik; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kang, Yong-Woo; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sunyoup; Bae, Young-Ho; Yu, Sung Yeol

    2005-01-01

    The joint Near Earth Object (NEO) project team of Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO) has recently installed a 0.5-meter robotic telescope at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa. This telescope with 2-degree FOV is operated in fully automated mode making daily reports on discoveries NEOs and other significant luminosity variability via internet. The KAO-YUO joint team plans to install similar facility in Australia and Chile soon making a network of survey telescopes for southern hemisphere. In spite of its small aperture size this network will be an important tool in identifying southern NEOs especially those in the form of comets. This paper summarizes the observatory system data handling and our parallel efforts to characterize NEOs with follow-up light curve investigation. The joint project is funded by the National Research Laboratory Program of Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (KAO) and by the Korean Research Foundation.

  11. Clear air turbulence over South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M. P.; van Heerden, J.

    2001-03-01

    Clear air turbulence (CAT) at high altitude remains a hazard to aviation which can result in passenger injury and aircraft damage. Two limited surveys of CAT events over South Africa, 1993-1995 (inclusive) and 1998, are used to illustrate the most likely synoptic conditions under which CAT can be expected. A case study of CAT associated with an upper-air trough and a mountain wave is presented. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of the Ellrod Turbulence Index (ETI) derived from model data provided by the UK Met. Office. A forecast of ETI derived from the Global Spectral Model of the United States National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is also reviewed.

  12. Psychoanalysis in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Storck-van Reenen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.

  13. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  14. Atmospheric research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean: a South Africa-France bilateral collaborative programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available conference proceeding ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH IN SOUTHERN AFRICA AND INDIAN OCEAN : A SOUTH AFRICA – FRANCE BILATERAL COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMME V. Sivakumar1,2 and R. Delmas3 1 South Africa Coordinator, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics..., Universite de la Reunion, Saint Denis, La Reunion, France. svenkataraman@csir.co.za 1. INTRODUCTION In the present context of global changes, atmospheric and climatic research should be more organized in the framework of international...

  15. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    Much have been said and written about the rising powers of the BRICS and the implications for the current global order. However, the BRICS are not a harmonious group, and discrepancies between the different BRICS states can be found both in terms of actual size, regional role and power, but also...... in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  16. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  17. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  18. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.

  19. Understanding Language in Education and Grade 4 Reading Performance Using a "Natural Experiment" of Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Debra Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The regional and cultural closeness of Botswana and South Africa, as well as differences in their political histories and language policy stances, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the role of language in reading outcomes. This study aims to empirically test the effect of exposure to mother tongue and English instruction on the reading…

  20. Women's right to care and treatment within PMTCT interventions in South Africa - examined from an empowerment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maria Munk; Gold, Evelina; Holton, Christina

    2006-01-01

    This project discusses the complexities and constraint for women's participation in 'Prevention of mother to child programmes' in South Africa. These complexities are identified in both the national level, a community level and an interpersonel psycological level. While identifying we analyse these from an empowerment approach and suggest how empowerment in a theoretical manner could mitigate and reduce the complexities#

  1. All projects related to south africa | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The political and economic rise of women has marked the 20th century. Topic: DIVISION OF LABOUR, WOMEN WORKERS, WORK AT HOME, GENDER ANALYSIS, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, North and Central America, South America, India, Mexico, South Africa. Program: ...

  2. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  3. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  4. Anuran distribution, diversity and conservation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-02-05

    Feb 5, 1995 ... overall conservation status of South African anurans, this paper aims 0) to identify centres of amphibian species rich- ness, endemism and Red Data Book (RDB) richness in South. Africa; (ii) to compare the locality of identified 'hot-spots' within South African biomes and protected areas; (iii) to assess the ...

  5. Capsular Myrtaceae 10. The Metrosideros Complex: M. angustifolia (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    As is the case with Tepualia stipularis for South America, Metrosideros angustifolia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 270, is the sole representative of the capsular Myrtaceae in Africa. It occurs as a shrub or small tree at lower elevations, often along river banks, in the south-west corner of South

  6. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Brazil, South America, India, Morocco, Mexico, North and Central America, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ... à l'information est à la fois un droit de la personne fondamental et universel et une pierre angulaire de la bonne gouvernance et de la lutte contre la corruption.

  7. Mitigating health problems associated with AMD in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schachtschneider, K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious threat to water quality in South Africa. Questions are being asked to South African government leaders as to what they are doing to mitigate the effects that South Africa’s mining industry is having...

  8. South Africa and the SADC Stand-by Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The regional powerhouse, South Africa, has since the introduction of the nonracial democratic dispensation in 1994, played a central and important role in the formation of both the regional and continental security architecture. With the establishment of the Southern African Development Community...... of their establishment, which, however, can change over time (Cox 1981:136). The integration ambition surrounding security correlated with the ambitions of South Africa, the new democratic government in the regional powerhouse. South Africa and its overall foreign policy ambitions desired the pursuit of peace, democracy...... and stability for economic growth and development in the region and within South Africa itself. Since South Africa’s acceptance into the SADC in 1994, the organisation has attempted to set up the required institutional framework to enable co-operation on security, both in terms of narrow military co...

  9. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ajuruchukwu Obi; Sanelise Tafa

    2016-01-01

    South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN). Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the perc...

  10. From Township to Townscape- Urban renewal in Galeshewe, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eskilsson, Anneli; Häggdahl, Lisa; Örenfors, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Galeshewe is a former township in South Africa that has been neglected for a long time. The economic activity is low and the design of the physical environment poor. The Urban Renewal Programme started in 1999 as an attempt to improve the situation in previously disadvan-taged areas in South Africa. This diploma work can be seen as one part of that program. In South Africa one way of strengthening the economic growth is to work with the development of economic activity clusters connected thro...

  11. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  12. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  13. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  14. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  15. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Assessment is a recent addition to the environmental assessment toolbox that is not currently applied in South Africa in any formal way. However, there appear to be remarkable similarities between what is commonly proposed...

  16. A brief description of South Africa's present-day climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's climate is described for each season, and how the climate is affected by topography. Synoptic systems contributing to the variations in weather and climate we observe is also described....

  17. More doctors and dentists are needed in South Africa | Strachan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Academic Medicine and Specialist Training' was to research the number and needs of specialists and subspecialists within South Africa. Methods. Data were collected from several sources: Deans of the 8 Faculties of Health ...

  18. Eight decades of pasture plant improvement in South Africa. | Smith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fescue; grahamstown; historical review; Historical reviews; italian ryegrass; Karkloof Cocksfoot; legume; Legume breeding; lolium multiflorum; Midmar Italian Ryegrass; paspalum dilatum; pasture; Pasture plant improvements; Pasture plants; potchefstroom; rietondale; ryegrass; south africa; tall fescue; trifolium repens; ...

  19. Introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in South Africa: demographic change, genetic diversity and body condition. ... Given the species' considerable socio-economic importance, estuarine and coastal surveillance coupled with aquaculture zoning are required to integrate biodiversity and food security considerations.

  20. Dye solar cells ( and PV's) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Various institutions are doing research on photovoltaics in South Africa. Although the CSIR is the only one that does research on DSC's there is significant support from the different universities. In the presentation a short overview...

  1. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a ... Keywords: corruption; decentralisation of power; education corruption; maladministration; misappropriation;mismanagement; moral leadership; professional management ...

  2. Pertussis in children in Bloemfontein, South Africa: A 7-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced immunity after changeover from the whole- cell to the acellular pertussis vaccine, and pathogen adaptation of the B. pertussis populations.[2] The Expanded Programme on. Immunisation in South Africa (SA) changed from using whole-cell.

  3. Occupational respiratory diseases in South Africa results from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational respiratory diseases in South Africa results from SORDSA, 1997- 1999. TM Esterhuizen, E Hnizdo, D Rees, UG Lalloo, D Kielkowski, EM van Schalkwyk, N White, FCA Smith, B Hoggins, T Curtis ...

  4. Quantifying the annual fish harvest from South Africa's largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-19

    -shore communities is poorly understood. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of recreational and subsistence angling undertaken in an inland fishery in. South Africa. The study was conducted on the 360 km2 ...

  5. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)[15] coding convention ... monitoring progress towards injury and violence Sustainable .... of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

  9. Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South Africa: epidemiology and control. Vera J Adams, Miles B Markus, Joanita FA Adams, Esme Jordaan, Bronwyn Curtis, Muhammad A Dhansay, Charlie C Obihara, John E Fincham ...

  10. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  11. All projects related to South Africa | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. Project. In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. Start Date: ... Program: Agriculture and Food Security.

  12. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in South Africa ... negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be ..... health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Anim. Sci.

  13. Treatment for HIV / AIDS at South Africa's largest employers: myth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sector companies in South Africa have access to HIV/AIDS care and treatment, including antiretroviral therapy (ART); how many employees are enrolled in disease management programmes; how many are receiving ART; and which approach to ...

  14. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  15. Establishing malaria parasite transfection technology in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Brummelen, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish malaria parasite transfection technology in South Africa, firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs were prepared. In attempt to simplify these constructs, a var intron (PFC0005w), previously...

  16. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  17. Aquaculture in South Africa: A cooperative research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Safriel, O

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years the National Programme for Environmental Sciences has been involved in assessing the potential of aquaculture in South Africa and in formulating a research policy which will provide the information needed to place...

  18. Social context of premarital fertility in rural South-Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zwang, Julien; Garenne, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa, to document the perceptions and attitudes towards premarital fertility and late marriage among young adults of both sexes...

  19. Culture, language and niche publications in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Diederichs

    2011-01-01

    When speaking about culture in South Africa, we as South Africans tend to emphasise the wide variety of peoples that make up our population. We like to point out how different we are, but at the same time how we accept that we are all South Africans. And sooner or later we go on a bit about the Rainbow Nation and how successfully we integrated. We usually end discussions on this topic with how we find unity in our variety: as if this is a great achievement and unique to South Africa alone. Bu...

  20. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  1. Building a New South Africa Volume 2 : Urban Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a New South Africa Volume 2 : Urban Policy. Couverture du livre Building a New South Africa Volume 2 : Urban Policy. Directeur(s) : Marc Van Ameringen ... Le soutien apporté par le CRDI à BetterEvaluation, un réseau international visant à améliorer la théorie et la pratique de l'évaluation, a mené à la création ...

  2. Revenge and forgiveness in the New South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan Joseph; van Honk, Jack; Ellis, George

    2013-02-01

    Insofar as South Africa underwent a rapid transformation from apartheid to democracy, it may provide a unique laboratory for investigating aspects of revenge and forgiveness. Here we suggest that observations and data from South Africa are partially consistent with the hypotheses generated by MCullough and colleagues. At the same time, the rich range of revenge and forgiveness phenomena in real-life settings is likely to require explanatory concepts other than specialized modules and their computational outputs.

  3. Boni mores and consent for child research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-22

    May 22, 2015 ... Boni mores and consent for child research in South Africa. A E Strode,1 BA LLB, LLM, PhD; J Toohey,2 LLB; P Singh,1 BCom, LLB, LLM; C M Slack,2 BA Hons, MA, PhD. 1 School of Law, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. 2 HIV/AIDS Vaccines Ethics Group, School of Applied ...

  4. Psychological capital, a requisite for organisational performance in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Du Plessis; Nicolene Barkhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131) as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB). Explor...

  5. Correlation study with the light weight deflectometer in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ] Horak E, Maree JH and van Wijk AJ (1989) Procedures for using Impulse Deflectometer (IDM) measurements in the structural evaluation of pavements. Proceedings of the Annual Transportation Convention Vol 5A, Pretoria, South Africa. [15] Joubert PB (1995... Classification of Pavements through the use of IDM Deflection Basin Paramaters, RDAC Report PR 91/325. Department of Transport, Pretoria, South Africa. [20] Ping WV, Yang Z and Gao Z (2002) Field and Laboratory Determination of Granular Subgrade Moduli...

  6. Skills requirements in the supply chain industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Heyns

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The skills shortage in the supply chain industry in South Africa is much touted but underresearched. The research conducted attempts to identify the skills sets typically required by supply chain organisations as well as those skills areas that are the most challenging to fill, thus identifying the critical skills shortages in South Africa. The study includes benchmarking with international trends, conclusions and identification of key areas for future research.

  7. Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa and a pilot project is being planned. Keywords: Videoconferencing; Telemedicine; Forensic psychiatry; South Africa .... among offenders1, poor facilities to manage mental illness in prisons, the shortage of beds ... prescription and data security and storage.4,5,9,12,26 Licensure is an issue in those countries where ...

  8. Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa | Bezuidenhout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The migration of doctors from their home countries is not a new phenomenon. Apart from voluntary migration due to various reasons, medical professionals, often from sub-Saharan Africa, are actively recruited by developed countries. Doctors in South Africa are esteemed for the high standard of training they ...

  9. Addressing Africa's health needs - time for strong South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and development in South Africa are, and will increasingly be, closely linked to changes in other African countries. This was recognised by Gear and Gear nearly 50 years ago when they stated that 'for a variety of reasons humanitarian, scientific, economic, and social interest in. Africa is growing throughout the world.

  10. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  11. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  12. Cardiovascular imaging in South Africa: Is the heartache easing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Scholtz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an escalation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The radiology community of South Africa plays an important role in curbing this epidemic. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is now regarded as a very important tool in our diagnostic armamentarium, and in this issue some of the established applications, as well as exciting new developments, are discussed.

  13. The Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccines into South Africa | Page ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The massive impact of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea on the children of South Africa and Africa has long been acknowledged. Effective properly administered rotavirus vaccine could potentially prevent 170 000 – 210 000 childhood deaths per year or about one in 20 deaths in children under five years of age. While the ...

  14. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain drain is one of the most critical issues affecting the developing world. One aspect of globalisation is the international migration of skilled health professionals. The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. Africa Insight Vol. 37 (4) 2008 pp.

  15. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Clinical challenges in the co-management of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in southern Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Y Pinchevsky, W Butkow, FJ Raal, T Chirwa, 154-158 ...

  16. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  17. Low Carbon and Climate Resilient Investments: Is South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence shows that South Africa is vulnerable to climate change and is also among the highest in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Africa. In response, the government has developed a relatively comprehensive strategic and policy response framework that aims to build a climate resilient economy.

  18. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  19. National planning in South Africa: A temporal perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21. National planning in South Africa: A temporal perspective. Ernst Drewes & Mariske van Aswegen. Peer reviewed and revised. Paper presented at the Planning Africa 2012 Congress. Abstract. This article aims to provide a temporal and critical perspective on national spatial planning since the 1970s until the most recent ...

  20. Malaria control in South Africa - challenges and successes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa; relatively small areas experience seasonal transmission. (hence malaria is unstable and epidemic-prone);3 a well- organised national malaria control programme exists; and the country has a relatively well-developed scientific, economic and health infrastructure. History of malaria control in South Africa. Malaria was ...

  1. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian…

  2. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  3. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  4. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  5. Tuberculosis and social stratification in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N

    1990-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a barometer of poverty, determined by racial classification, in both town and countryside in the Republic of South Africa. Despite the fact that whites with the disease stand a greater chance of being diagnosed than their black counterparts, because they have very much better access to health care, the risks of TB for people classified by the state as black and colored are 27 and 16 times, respectively, the risk for whites. Black gold miners, the nutritional elite of the workforce, have also experienced an increase in TB rates. Tuberculosis accounts for 50 percent of all black compensation cases and some 2.5 percent of white cases. The risks of TB have increased over recent years among colored and blacks. Rates of tuberculous meningitis have also increased over the past decade, and show the dramatically worse health care available to people classified as black and colored. Although about 60,000 new TB cases are reported in the country each year, there have been cutbacks in the resources available for TB control and treatment.

  6. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  7. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    Adam Smith in Beijing: Lineages of the Twenty-First Century,. African Perspectives on China in Africa,. Asia Times,. Asia Times,. Africa's Silk Road: China and India's New Economic Frontier,. New Political Economy,. How Fast the Wind? Southern. Africa and the World-Economy 1975-2000,. The Discourse of Race in Modern ...

  8. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A.; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future. PMID:29165332

  9. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million, respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future.

  10. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  11. [Determinants of low birth weight among newborns to HIV-infected mothers not eligible for antiretroviral treatment in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, H; Meda, N; Nagot, N; Somé, E; Neboua, D; Kankasa, C; Hofmeyr, J; Tumwine, J; Vallo, R; Ye, D; Tylleskar, T; Van de Perre, P

    2013-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases the risk of infant death, but little is known about its rate and determinants among babies born to HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted in South Africa, Burkina Faso, Uganda and Zambia, during the recruitment process of the PROMISE-PEP (ANRS 12174) clinical trial. The study sample included 1196 subjects screened between August 2009 and December 2011, respectively 254 in South Africa, 221 in Burkina Faso, 197 in Uganda and 524 in Zambia, all ineligible for antiretroviral therapy. Data were collected during ANRS12174 clinical trial antenatal and postnatal screening visits, and during an inclusion visit for completion of an electronic case report form (eCRF). The mean (±SD) age of mothers was 27±5years and their mean CD4 count was 576±195cells/μL. Most mothers lived in a couple (78.7%), had no employment (72.3%) and had a good level of education (74% had gone to school). Male newborns predominated (51.7%). The mean birth weight was 3043g±435g, and 7.8% ([95%CI: 6.3%-9.3%]) of newborns weighed less than 2500g. In univariate analyses, being married or cohabiting, body mass index, WHO HIV disease stage II, female newborn and low gestational age were associated with risk of LBW. In multivariate regression model, low gestational age (aOR=3.74, Pwomen ineligible for antiretroviral therapy were the same as in the general population. There was no evidence of additional risk factors associated with HIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  13. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. Am I That Name? Middle-class lesbian motherhood in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Distiller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Both homophobic groups and those concerned to argue for the validity of gay and lesbian families invest in conceptual frameworks which rely on sameness and difference to make sense. Lesbian mothers are seen as fundamentally different to other kinds of mothers (for good or ill, or their similarity is stressed in order to ensure that their families are socially and legally recognized. This article explores the experience of navigating the contradictions of sameness and difference that cohere to being a ‘lesbian mother’. It locates its analysis in the context of post-apartheid South Africa. It explores the possibilities of inclusion and exclusion into the definition of the human enabled by the South African Constitution and the language of rights on which that document depends.

  16. A comparative risk assessment for South Africa in 2000: Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative risk assessment for South Africa in 2000: Towards promoting health and preventing disease. R Norman, D Bradshaw, M Schneider, J Joubert, P Groenewald, S Lewin, K Steyn, T Vos, R Laubscher, N Nannan, B Nojilana, D Pieterse, South African Comparitive Risk Assessment Collaboration Grou ...

  17. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in German South West Africa (GSWA). The GSWA campaign has been described in many ways as a secondary theatre within the greater geostrategic chess game of the First World War. The objective ...

  18. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa where members of previously disadvantaged groups regard the demand for minority protection with suspicion. An overview of the literature on the concept minority, legal provisions in international law and the main provisions in South African law ...

  19. The Multiple Meanings of Coloured Identity in South Africa | Petrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In post-1994, South African identity has taken centre stage in debates about diversity and its impact in a multicultural society. The coloured people of South Africa seem to have the most at stake in such debates due to the perceived ambiguity of their and others' perceptions of their identity. This article interrogates the ...

  20. Flights by foreign civil aircraft to South Africa | Ploeger | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 6 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Flights by foreign civil aircraft to South Africa.

  1. More explicit regional policy for South Africa, please Mr President

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ernst Drewes, Head: Urban and Regional Planning, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520,. South Africa. Phone: +27(0)18 2992543, email: ernst.drewes@nwu.ac. ..... economies. These include countries such as the Czech Republic. (OECD, 2014: 230), and South Korea.

  2. Freshwater nematodes from South Africa. 4. The genus Monhystera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of freshwater nematodes in South Africa, five species of Monhystera Bastian, 1865, were encountered. The ..... in any other South African freshwater Monhystera. Vaginal muscles small and inconspicuous. ... taken from the deep muddy silt together with rotting plant material from the Vaal River and from deep ...

  3. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a water-scarce country with increasing pressure on its water resources. Urgent interventions are needed to protect water security within this rapidly developing country. This paper reports on an interdisciplinary Water Security Colloquium, convened by the South African Young Academy of Science in 2014.

  4. A MANOEUVRE WARFARE ANALYSIS OF SOUTH AFRICA'S 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-31

    Jul 31, 2007 ... 55 For the latest study on the role of water in the GSWA campaign see, E. Kleynhans, “A Critical Analysis of the Impact of Water on the South. African Campaign in German South West Africa, 1914 1915”, Historia. 61/. 2. 2016. 56 WK Hancock & J van der Poel (ed). Selections from the Smuts papers. Volume.

  5. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy_. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions ...

  6. Oral health service systems in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickenautsch, S.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the provision of restorative care and dental operators' opinion about their conditions of service in a South African provincial oral health service system. DESIGN: Assessment of oral health service over a four-month period. SETTING: Gauteng Province, South Africa. SUBJECTS:

  7. Stem cell tourism in South Africa: The legal position | Mahomed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem cell tourism has become a common phenomenon worldwide and is increasingly affecting South Africa, as is evident from recent media reports. We examine the South African legal framework regulating stem cell therapy, focusing first on the effects of unproven stem cell treatments, and provide recommendations that ...

  8. The national health insurance and traditional healing in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the proposed National Health Insurance system, the dominant view is that South Africa has a two-tier healthcare system – one private and the other public. The author challenges this view and presents data to show that significant numbers of South Africans use traditional healing methods for treatment for a range of ...

  9. Sport participation in Soweto locations, South Africa: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the patterns of sport participation among high school learners of the South Western Townships (widely known as Soweto) of the Gauteng Province in South Africa. A total of 57 learners (28 girls and 29 boys) aged 14 to 20 years were randomly selected. A qualitative design using a ...

  10. South Africa's Nuclear Diplomacy Since the Termination of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South ...

  11. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All

  12. Consent procedures and electroconvulsive therapy in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    increasingly active role in our daily decision making. Consent procedures and electroconvulsive therapy in. South Africa: impact of the Mental. Health Care Act. J Segal, R Thom. Tara Hospital, The H. Moross Centre and Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand,. Johannesburg, South ...

  13. HIV epidemic in South Africa: A comparison of HIV epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-26

    Aug 26, 2014 ... 2Department of Statistics,. University of South Africa,. Pretoria, South ... antenatal care surveillance (ANC) surveys, we explored trends and patterns in HIV prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal and Western ... HIV infection in this age group is associated with recent infection, thus indicating an increasing epidemic in ...

  14. south africa's nuclear diplomacy since the termination of its nuclear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jo-Ansie

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South ...

  15. Inflation perceptions and inflation expectation in South Africa: trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a multinomial analysis of inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in South Africa. Inflation perceptions surveys among South African individuals have been undertaken since 2006. The introduction of these surveys followed on domestic inflation expectation surveys conducted in 2000, ...

  16. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  17. Looking Back at Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative picture of doctoral education in South Africa up to 2010, from the time the first doctorate was awarded in 1899. It identifies the different institutional profiles and emphases of doctoral graduation in South African universities at various periods of time in the context of economic, political and social…

  18. The necessity of public sociology in South Africa | Nwafor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore, I support Burawoy‟s call for the necessity of Public Sociology not only globally but in South Africa. I will also dwell upon the need to recover the discipline of public sociology for the sake of social relevance especially for the South African context. I will, however, start by defining what is meant by public sociology.

  19. THE NECESSITY OF PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY IN SOUTH AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-G61

    therefore, I support Burawoy‟s call for the necessity of Public Sociology not only globally but in South Africa. I will also dwell upon the need to recover the discipline of public sociology for the sake of social relevance especially for the South African context. I will, however, start by defining what is meant by public sociology.

  20. Research on doctoral education in South Africa against the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to survey the international literature on doctoral education from a South African perspective. A colossal amount of published research on doctoral education abroad has accumulated in recent years, dwarfing the minuscule number of publications on doctoral education in South Africa. Three major ...

  1. All projects related to south africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL WELFARE, SOCIAL SECURITY, HOUSEHOLD INCOME, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT. Region: South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 254,300.00. Ecology of Access to Educational Material in Developing World Universities. Project. The longstanding crisis of the ...

  2. Investigating medical tourism in South Africa | Mudzanani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical tourism is an integral part of the tourism economy in South Africa. However, despite its growing importance there appears to have been limited research into the medical tourism sector. In order to gain a better understanding of the South African medical tourism sector, the researcher conducted a thematic analysis of ...

  3. South Africa and the xenophobia dilemma: a gendered perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xenophobia, hostility towards immigrants, has become a part of the South Africa's socio-political reality. Although, discrimination against non-nationals of African descent is not a new phenomenon in the 'Rainbow nation', its recurrence and destructive nature, has attracted the attention stakeholders in the South African ...

  4. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: CUSTOMARY LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY. Région: South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 314,700.00. Participation du secteur de la sécurité privé aux conflits et aux opérations ...

  5. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diale, M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available acknowledged the success of women in Physics in South Africa (WiPiSA) by continuous funding. Different universities have graduated a woman in physics PhD while there are women professors in different institutions. The president of the South African institute...

  6. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diale, M.; Maphanga, R. R.; Tibane, M. M.; Thaoge, M. L.; Gledhill, I.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts by the group Women in Physics in South Africa are described, ranging from informal networking in departmental lunches, to programs to increase the visibility and entrepreneurial skills of women physicists, to outreach and community engagement. The current president of the South African Institute of Physics is female, and the arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project should open many doors for women.

  7. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 11 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, SMALL FARMS, AGROINDUSTRY, FOOD SECURITY. Région: South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 40,000.00. Programme du Centre international pour la justice transitionnelle concernant Israël et les territoires occupés.

  8. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  9. Impacts of fiscal policies to improve nutrition in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Obesity, a major risk factor for NCDs, is a growing problem in South Africa. Reducing rates of over- weight and obesity in the population is therefore a health priority. The South African health system's efforts can be bolstered by actions and collaboration from other sectors, which have the potential to achieve important health.

  10. Housing experiences of refugees: Policy implications for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before 1993, the population of refugees in South Africa was negligible. The political stability since the transition to democracy in 1994 opened up the country to migrants from different parts of the world. This article discusses the housing experiences of refugees, both internationally and within a South African context, and ...

  11. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, up to 70% of children of school-going age with disabilities are out of school. Of those who do attend, most are still in separate, “special” schools for learners with disabilities. This situation prevails despite the push for the educational inclusion of learners with disabilities over twelve years ago by the South ...

  12. An Investigation into Factors Impacting on Exports from South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured literature review was undertaken to encapsulate export barriers, the role of the South African government in the ... through the transfer of knowledge gained in international markets. However, South Africa is still largely a .... interventions designed to overcome these restraints. A component of this package.

  13. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  14. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of social science research in the marine environment of South Africa for the period 1994–2012. A bibliography based on a review of relevant literature and social science projects funded under the SEAChange programme of the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research ...

  15. Medical services in German South West Africa | Bouch | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Medical services in German South West Africa.

  16. Video laryngoscopy in paediatric anaesthesia in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a summary of the types of video laryngoscopes available in South Africa, and highlights some interesting paediatric cases in which video laryngoscopes were used at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria. South Afr J Anaesth Analg, 2011;17(6):363-368 ...

  17. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa | Jooste | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa.

  18. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LIFE INSURANCE, SMALL ENTERPRISES, INFORMAL SECTOR. Region: South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 168,900.00. Health Enterprise Architecture Laboratory (HEAL). Project. A health information system is made up of discreet and modular building blocks that ...

  19. Assessing South Africa's strategic options of soft power application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African foreign policy is premised on the African Renaissance concept of good governance. The country's good governance objectives are to strive for world peace and the settlement of all international disputes by negotiation – not war. Furthermore, South Africa's foreign policy is informed by its domestic policy which ...

  20. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... to analyse the response of wealthy, 'majority white' suburban congregations in the southern suburbs ... As long as the poverty gap between rich and poor widens, even if some of the nouveaux riches are Black and some ...... Welfare, religion and gender in post aparthied South Africa: Constructing a south-.

  1. South African Corporations and post-Apartheid Expansion in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The defeat of Apartheid in 1994 liberated not only South Africa's internal political processes but also its economic relations with neighbouring countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). A key outcome was the surge of South African capital northward after years of dampened large scale investment ...

  2. South Africa calling cultural tourists | Ivanovic | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cultural tourism is the most prevalent type of tourism in the world it still remains invisible in South Africa's tourism landscape. Despite the country's unique cultural heritage resource base and the fact that cultural diversity is the core feature of South African marketing strategy, absence of culture as a purpose for ...

  3. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  4. Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events. Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, ...

  5. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  6. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  7. Prevalence and acceptability of male circumcision in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objectives of the current national study were to determine the rates of self-reported circumcision among South African men and, more importantly, evaluate the acceptability of male circumcision in South Africa by uncircumcised adult men and all adult women. Materials and Methods: The study based on a ...

  8. Preserving South Africa's Paper Trail and Making Public Records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to public records and archives in South Africa is diminishing rapidly largely due to inadequate preservation strategies and a dearth of knowledge of archival preservation techniques. Inadequate attention is being paid to preservation as a collection management strategy. Continued access to South African archives is ...

  9. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, ...

  10. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  11. Opportunities and challenges for statistics education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Zewotir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African educational system is in a state of transformation as the Government embarks on a process of grappling with legacies of the past, whilst balancing risks and opportunities for the future. Accordingly, a new school curriculum with outcomes-based education as the fundamental building block was introduced along a sliding scale, starting in 1997. This curriculum, with a vast statistics content, has the potential to change the face of statistics education in South Africa, as statistics had previously been virtually absent from the school syllabus. This article highlights the challenges to and opportunities for optimising the teaching of statistics across all education levels in South Africa.

  12. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  13. Issues for cross-cultural psychiatric research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1985-03-01

    South Africa's heterogenous society offers many opportunities for cross-cultural psychiatric research, but researchers in the country are subject to a number of restraints. Apart from legally enforced segregation, there are strict censorship laws and restricted access to certain types of information. The issues surrounding categorization of cultures and factors affecting publishing research from South Africa have important implications for the type of work that is done. It is a central argument of this article that the issues affecting research in South Africa are relevant to other countries as well, and parallels between the local and international context are drawn. The South African experience suggests that analysis of the research enterprise itself is a useful part of the business of cross-cultural psychiatric research.

  14. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  15. Challenges facing the early childhood development sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atmore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the context of young children in South Africa in 2012 is described and the main challenges affecting children and the early childhood development sector (ECD in South Africa are investigated. A situation analysis of ECD in South Africa was undertaken using South African government ECD policy and programme implementation reports. There has been progress since 1994, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The number of children in Grade R has trebled since 2001, government education and social development budgets have increased substantially and 58% of children at ECD centres nationally are now subsidised. More children are in provision and in better quality provision than before. However, much still remains to be done before we can say with confidence that the needs of our youngest children are being met. This study identifies infrastructure, nutrition, ECD programmes, teacher training, institutional capacity and funding as the major gaps in ECD provision.

  16. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Daniel W

    2012-11-13

    In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS) in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892), the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT) was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV) was demonstrated in 1900 by M'Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV) in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  17. Language teaching for the New South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley G. M. Ridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some of the challenges facing the language teacher as South Africa moves into a new era. The discussion is structured around three areas of change: change in the country, changes brought about by the official language policy, and changes in the school system itself. It explores the implications for language teaching of jour key words of the new era: inclusive, non-racial, democracy, and empowerment. In relation to the 11 official languages policy, it examines the status of English, language development issues, linguistic standards, the role of grammar in teaching, and the politics of language and cultural identity. Three areas of teacher need arising from the multicultural classroom are highlighted: understanding ihe cultural and linguistic diversity of the class, ongoing language learning as essential experience, and developing teaching practices which accommodate diversity as an asset. In hierdie artikel word sommige van die uitdagings vir die taalonderwyser in 'n veranderende Suid-Afrika beskryf Die bespreking word om drie veranderingsgebiede gestruktureer: maatskaplike veranderinge, veranderinge meegebring deur die amptelike taalbeleid en veranderinge in die skoolste/sel. Vier sleutelwoorde van die nuwe bedeling in Suid-Afrika - inklusief, nie-rassig, demokrasie, en bemagtiging - word ontleed met die oog op hulle implikasies vir taalonde"ig. Mb.t. die 11 amptelike talebeleid, word die status van Engels, taalontwikkelingsaspekte, taalstandaarde, die rol van grammatika in die onderwys, en die politiek van taal en kulturele identiteit ondersoek . Drie behoejtes van onderwysers t. o. v. die multikulturele klaskamer word uitgelig: om die kultuur- en taalverskeidenheid van die klas te verstaan, die voortgesette aanleer van ander tale as kemondervinding en die ontwikkeling van onderrigpraktyke waarin diversiteit as 'n bate beskou word

  18. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  19. Hydropedological interpretation of arid soilscapes, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnefeld, Martin; Van Tol, Jacobus; Le Roux, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Hydropedological investigations in arid regions are scarce due to the low the low contribution of these areas to water resources. Infrequent rainfall and few flow events also complicates measurements hydrological studies. Hydropedological studies, relating soil morphological properties and their spatial distribution to hydrological response, have been studied in detail in semi-arid, temperate, and sub-humid regions. In this paper, we investigated the relation between soil morphological properties and selected hydrological properties of soils in an arid landscape. We also studied the spatial distribution of the morphological properties to conceptualise the hydrological behaviour of different soilscapes in the area. A total of 806 soil profiles, covering an area of 4836 ha in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa were described and classified. The geology is dominated by Dwyka tillite overlain by aeolian sands with scattered Dolerite buttes. Thirteen modal profiles, representing the dominant soils types were selected, sampled at horizon level, and analysed for pH, CEC, iron, manganese, carbonate content. In situ measurements of saturated and near saturated (tension) hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were conducted to determine the water conducting macroporosity (WCM). Undisturbed cores were collected on which water retention characteristics were determined under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that dry soil colour, degree of structure development and the presence, absence, and abundance of carbonates as well as the degree of precipitation, are important indicators of hydrological response. For example; grey soils typically have lower Ks with higher storage capacity than soils dominated by red colours, whereas abundant carbonate precipitations in the soil matrix have lower WCM due to clogging of macropores. The dominant soil distribution pattern indicates that rapid vertical flow, through and out of the pedon, might contribute to recharge of an accumulative

  20. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Chopra, Mickey; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl; Surender, Rebecca

    2012-10-22

    Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa's child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal). This study used longitudinal data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer-counsellors in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150). 1148 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study and data on the CSG were collected at infant age 6, 12, 24 weeks and 18-24 months. A stratified cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to the data to investigate factors associated with CSG receipt. Uptake of the CSG amongst eligible children at a median age of 22 months was 62% in Paarl, 64% in Rietvlei and 60% in Umlazi. Possessing a birth certificate was found to be the strongest predictor of CSG receipt (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4 -4.1). Other factors also found to be independently associated with CSG receipt were an HIV-positive mother (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) and a household income below R1100 (HR1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.6). Receipt of the CSG was sub optimal amongst eligible children showing administrative requirements such as possessing a birth certificate to be a serious barrier to access. In the spirit of promoting and protecting children's rights, more efforts are needed to improve and ease access to this cash transfer program.

  1. Costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades: findings from Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Opuni, Marjorie; Contreras-Loya, David; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Chompolola, Abson; Condo, Jeanine; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Wamai, Richard; Wang'ombe, Joseph

    2016-07-29

    We estimate facility-level average annual cost per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. Data were collected from 2011-2013 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers' perspective using micro-costing. Average annual costs per client in 2013 US$ were estimated along the service cascades. For HTC, average cost per client tested ranged from US$5 (SD US$7) in Rwanda to US$31 (SD US$24) in South Africa whereas average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$122 (SD US$119) in Zambia to US$1,367 (SD US$2,093) in Rwanda. For PMTCT, average cost per client tested ranged from US$18 (SD US$20) in Rwanda to US$89 (SD US$56) in South Africa; average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$567 (SD US$417) in Zambia to US$2,021 (SD US$3,210) in Rwanda; average cost per client on antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis ranged from US$704 (SD US$610) in South Africa to US$2,314 (SD US$3,204) in Rwanda; and average cost per infant on nevirapine (NVP) ranged from US$888 (SD US$884) in South Africa to US$2,359 (SD US$3,257) in Rwanda. We found important differences in unit costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades within and between countries suggesting that more efficient delivery of these services is possible.

  2. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  3. Taming the Cobra: English, Multilingualism, and Language Education in South Africa. A Comparison with Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ruth

    A study investigated (1) the role of English as a language of power, and how it has affected multilingualism in Canada and South Africa, (2) the nature and implementation of South Africa's multilingual policy, (3) how South Africa's language education policy and policy implementation compare to those in Canada, (4) how South African language…

  4. Social Democracy and the “Developmental State” as Development Alternatives for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates social democracy and the “developmental state” model as development alternatives for South Africa. This research is significant as it enhances the developmental debate in South Africa that is indispensable in light of South Africa’s poor socio-economic performance. A comparative-historical study is conducted, as well as an analysis of the socio-political situation in South Africa to determine each model’s compatibility with South Africa. State autonomy is assumed essen...

  5. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. South Africa\\'s strategic arms package: A critical analysis | Sylvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government's Strategic Arms Package (SAP), has been the largest public controversy of the post-Apartheid era. We synthesise the debates about two dimensions of the SAP, military necessity and affordability, in order to get a better understanding of civil-military relations in democratic South Africa. Our

  7. South Africa in the BRICS: Last but not Least

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shubin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa joined the BRICS in 2011, two years after the establishment of this group. This step was consonant with themain principles of the country’s foreign policy expressed by its first democratic government. South Africa regarded the groupas an association of like-minded independent countries, a political and moral force for changing the world. However, byadmitting a leading African country, the four first members of the BRICS wanted to overcome the geographical divide andinclude a country that enjoys a high moral authority and plays important role in peacekeeping and mediating conflicts.Through the BRICS, South Africa wanted to achieve various goals: addressing poverty, inequality and job creation at home;gaining synergic support from BRICS partners to Africa; and obtaining increased support for the reform of internationalfinancial institutions and the United Nations. This article analyzes to what extent those plans have been realized during thefirst four years of South Africa’s membership in the BRICS and concludes that, all in all, South Africa is the last but not theleast member.

  8. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  9. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  10. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  11. Psychiatric Contributions from South Africa: Ex Africa Semper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that humans originated in Africa, it is likely that many seminal psychological observations and interventions originate in the continent. Relatively little attention has been paid, however, to more recent African contributions to the scientific fields of psychiatry and clinical psychology. This article notes that a number of ...

  12. Dualism and the social formation of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teboho Pankratius Bojabotseha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that South African society is characterized by dual socio-economic structures is once more gaining ascendancy. Its key advocates include the former President of the Republic of South Africa – Thabo Mbeki – and the majority of members of the ANC-dominated judiciary, legislative and executive assemblies. The dualist interpretation is presented as a „correct‟ way of understanding reality in South Africa and problems that beset it. In general there is indeed an irresistible temptation to adopt dualist propositions as they appear to be self-evidently true. But a critical interrogation of dualist interpretations reveals that in essence there is more to reality than what meets the eye. The article makes a number of arguments: Firstly, dualist interpretations of social reality are hardly novel. English literature has ample cases of thinking influenced by dualism. Secondly, a look at the application of the dualist approach to South Africa‟s economy shows that the dual economy thesis informs the equally quixotic notion that South Africa is a country of two separate nations. Lastly, inconsistencies and weaknesses of dualist interpretations of the social formation in South Africa lead to a suggestion that the concept of the articulation of modes of production is an appropriate instrument to best analyze and understand the socio-economic processes in the country.

  13. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  14. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  15. Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2018-01-01

    , the current linkages between Africa and Asia such as those related to development cooperation form an alternative to development cooperation efforts initiated by European or North American countries. Furthermore, the African and Asian stakeholders have defined South-South Cooperation to encompass many other...... aspects of cooperation than development. In an attempt to answer the question how Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation (SSDC) have influenced each other in shaping South-South cooperation (SSC) since the turn of the Millennium, this chapter identifies two shifts...... of the New Asia-Africa Strategic Partnership (NAASP) explicitly referred to the NEPAD framework. The second shift came ten years later at the second NAASP Summit in 2015, when a general climate of reconsidering the aid paradigm contributed to a move away from a development to a public-private partnership...

  16. Compulsory licensing and the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, E L

    1999-10-01

    One cannot look at the high prevalence and persistent, dramatic spread of HIV in developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, without also examining economic and public health systems. Recent developments in South Africa have highlighted an emerging controversy surrounding the issue of access to essential medicines and drug pricing. Sparked by a South African amendment, Article 15(C) of the Medicines and Related Substances Act 101, passed in 1997, that would allow the South African Minister of Health to provide less expensive generic forms of essential medicines, including anti-HIV therapies, to South Africa, law- and policymakers as well as activists have been taking sides in a complicated debate that mixes important health issues with international trade law, patent protection, economic incentives, and United States domestic law. Threatened by what could be a weakening of patent protection, pharmaceutical firms in the United States, South Africa, and Europe have generally opposed the efforts of the South African government to allow production of such generic products, claiming that the 1997 amendment violates international trade law, particularly the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. AIDS activists and consumer advocates generally support the efforts of the South African government, claiming that international law is flexible in cases of national emergency. Lobbied by the pharmaceutical industry, United States government officials have proposed bilateral trade sanctions in an effort to pressure South Africa to repeal the 1997 amendment. These issues are reviewed in this report. Relevant provisions of Article 15(C) and the TRIPS Agreement are available on the Internet or from the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR).

  17. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa......, that recognized the injustices of the past and would be built on fundamental human rights and justice for all no matter their race, ethnicity, or economic power. South Africa has moved a long way in developing a democratic society. The emergence of this book is the result of a collaborative effort of people...... with diverse cultural, social and ethnic roots, who share a common belief in the development of a just and equal society, and who share a specific interest in developing schools as a fundamental element in developing this equal and just society....

  18. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist.  Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.

  19. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  20. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth and economic freedom nexus is studied in this article and applied to South Africa in an empirical study. Economic freedom is founded on the free or private market economy, based on competition, where voluntary exchange occurs and a legislative framework ensures the safety of market agents and private property. As part of the literature study, the Index of Economic Freedom, the Economic Freedom of the World Index and the Freedom in the World Index were studied and applied to South Africa. An empirical analysis was conducted, cross-correlation functions were estimated, and Granger causality functions, regression analysis and finally a vector auto-regression model (VAR were constructed and estimated. The research findings from South Africa support the literature, suggesting that there are indeed some indications that greater levels of economic freedom support higher rates of economic growth in a country.