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Sample records for south africa qualitative

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Facilities Maintenance--A School Governance Function in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaba, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    I analysed school facilities maintenance, a school governance function in South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 principals and three deputy principals as coordinators of this function at their schools. The interviews were purposively and conveniently selected to gather data regarding school facilities maintenance and gain…

  2. Analysis of modal shift in South Africa: A qualitative investigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative investigation into factors facilitating modal shift formed part of a larger research study that was conducted by the CSIR for the National Department of Transport. The aim of the study was to understand the factors that are most...

  3. Exploring Treatment Needs and Expectations for People Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Courtney, Ingrid; Zanoni, Holly; Bangsberg, David R; Orrell, Catherine; Goggin, Kathy; Katz, Ingrid T

    2018-04-04

    The UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets aim to dramatically increase the number of people who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 2020. Greater understanding of barriers to ART initiation in high prevalence countries like South Africa is critical. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants in Gugulethu Township, South Africa, including 10 healthcare providers and 20 people living with HIV (PLWH) who did not initiate ART. Interviews explored barriers to ART initiation and acceptability of theory-based intervention strategies to optimize ART initiation. An inductive content analytic approach was applied to the data. Consistent with the Theory of Triadic Influence, barriers to ART initiation were identified at the individual, social, and structural levels. Results suggested high acceptability for intervention strategies involving trained HIV-positive peers among South African PLWH and healthcare providers. Research is needed to evaluate their feasibility and efficacy in high HIV prevalence countries.

  4. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  5. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  6. Optimizing lay counsellor services for chronic care in South Africa: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Fairall, Lara; Egbe, Catherine O; Bhana, Arvin

    2014-05-01

    To conduct a qualitative systematic review on the use of lay counsellors in South Africa to provide lessons on optimizing their use for psychological and behavioural change counselling for chronic long-term care in scare-resource contexts. A qualitative systematic review of the literature on lay counsellor services in South Africa. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Five randomized control trials and two cohort studies reported that lay counsellors can provide behaviour change counselling with good outcomes. One multi-centre cohort study provided promising evidence of improved anti-retroviral treatment adherence and one non-randomized controlled study provided promising results for counselling for depression. Six studies found low fidelity of lay counsellor-delivered interventions in routine care. Reasons for low fidelity include poor role definition, inconsistent remuneration, lack of standardized training, and poor supervision and logistical support. Within resource-constrained settings, adjunct behaviour change and psychological services provided by lay counsellors can be harnessed to promote chronic care at primary health care level. Optimizing lay counsellor services requires interventions at an organizational level that provide a clear role definition and scope of practice; in-service training and formal supervision; and sensitization of health managers to the importance and logistical requirements of counselling. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. Health care providers' attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Phyllis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the abortion legislation in South Africa in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortion services still exist including provider opposition to abortions and a shortage of trained and willing abortion care providers. The dearth of abortion providers undermines the availability of safe, legal abortion, and has serious implications for women's access to abortion services and health service planning. In South Africa, little is known about the personal and professional attitudes of individuals who are currently working in abortion service provision. Exploring the factors which determine health care providers' involvement or disengagement in abortion services may facilitate improvement in the planning and provision of future services. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Thirty four in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted during 2006 and 2007 with health care providers who were involved in a range of abortion provision in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Complex patterns of service delivery were prevalent throughout many of the health care facilities, and fragmented levels of service provision operated in order to accommodate health care providers' willingness to be involved in different aspects of abortion provision. Related to this was the need expressed by many providers for dedicated, stand-alone abortion clinics thereby creating a more supportive environment for both clients and providers. Almost all providers were concerned about the numerous difficulties women faced in seeking an abortion and their general quality of care. An overriding concern was poor pre and post abortion counselling including contraceptive counselling and provision. Conclusion This is the first known qualitative study undertaken in South Africa exploring providers' attitudes towards abortion and adds to the body of

  9. Sector switching among histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggunan, Shaun D; Singh, Suveera

    2013-05-30

    The mobility of health care professionals from the public to private sector is prevalent in South Africa. However, literature on sector switching of clinical doctors remains limited. It is against this background that this study aims to make the labour market visible for histopathologists and identify the reasons for sector switching. This study is exploratory and descriptive. It uses qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, with 70% (n = 16/23) of the population of histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Lee's (1966) push-pull theory is adapted to explain the pull sector switching behaviours of histopathologists. Interviews were recorded and independently transcribed. The narratives of the participants were coded to reflect the main themes that contributed to their sector switching behaviours. Five key themes emerged as reasons for the mobility of histopathologists from the public to private sector in KwaZulu-Natal. The findings indicate that remuneration, working conditions, work flexibility, career pathing and autonomy of labour processes are the key drivers of this mobility. Histopathologists provide a core function in the health care chain. However, their invisibility in academic discourse in both public health and human resources for health indicates the paucity of research undertaken on the importance of these specialists in the health care chain. This is especially significant in developing countries like South Africa, where there is a dearth of these specialists. This study, while exploratory, aims to open a dialogue to better understand their reasons for sector switching and, hopefully, inform policies on training, recruitment and retention of these specialists.

  10. A qualitative study of the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennion, Liezel; Johannesson, Anton

    2018-04-01

    There is a known shortage of rehabilitation staff in rural settings and a sharp increase in the number of lower limb amputations being performed. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation will result in worse physical and psychological outcomes for a person with a lower limb amputation, and they will not be eligible to be fitted with a prosthesis. To explore therapists' experiences with providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in a rural setting. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to collect and analyse data. Data were collected from 17 purposively sampled therapists in five district hospitals in a rural community in South Africa. Data were collected in two rounds of focus groups to explore the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa. The main themes identified in the study were (1) a lack of government health system support, (2) poor socioeconomic circumstances of patients and (3) cultural factors that influence rehabilitation. These themes all negatively influence the therapists' ability to follow up patients for pre-prosthetic rehabilitation after discharge from hospital. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation is a substantial barrier to prosthetic fitting in rural South Africa. Patients who do not receive pre-prosthetic rehabilitation have a poorly shaped residuum or other complications such as knee or hip joint contractures which disqualifies them from being referred to prosthetic services. Therapists involved in this study identified the most important barriers to patients having access to prosthetic services. Clinical relevance Pre-prosthetic rehabilitation provides care of the residuum; maintenance or improvement of physical strength, joint range of motion and referral to a prosthetist. By exploring the challenges known to exist in this service, we can identify potential ways to reduce these barriers and improve the lives of those who use it.

  11. Compounding diagnostic delays: a qualitative study of point-of-care testing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Davids, Malika; Blankvoort, Nadine; Pai, Nitika Pant; Dheda, Keertan; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-04-01

    Successful point-of-care (POC) testing (completion of test-and-treat cycle in one patient encounter) has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and improve patient and public health outcomes. We explored what tests are done and how in public/private, rural/urban hospitals and clinics in South Africa and whether they can ensure successful POC testing. This qualitative research study examined POC testing across major diseases in Cape Town, Durban and Eastern Cape. We conducted 101 semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions with doctors, nurses, community health workers, patients, laboratory technicians, policymakers, hospital managers and diagnostic manufacturers. In South Africa, diagnostics are characterised by a centralised system. Most tests conducted on the spot can be made to work successfully as POC tests. The majority of public/private clinics and smaller hospitals send samples via couriers to centralised laboratories and retrieve results the same way, via internet, fax or phone. The main challenge to POC testing lies in transporting samples and results, while delays risk patient loss from diagnostic/treatment pathways. Strategies to deal with associated delays create new problems, such as artificially prolonged turnaround times, strains on human resources and quality of testing, compounding additional diagnostic and treatment delays. For POC testing to succeed, particular characteristics of diagnostic ecosystems and adaptations of professional practices to overcome associated challenges must be taken into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  13. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meissner, DPhil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the 40 driest countries in the world with an annual average rainfall of 497 mm, South Africa is a water-scarce country. Additionally, South Africa's rate of economic development is closely linked to its water security. Thus, increasing water stress, supply variability, flooding, and water pollution levels and inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation are slowing economic growth. Despite the high premium placed on South Africa's water resources, no commonly shared understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security. Methods: We used interviews and qualitative analyses to establish and compare how people from different lifestyles perceive water security in the Greater Sekhukhune District and the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipalities of South Africa. The inland Sekhukhune has a drier climate and more rural socioeconomic profile than the coastal, urbanised eThekwini with its complex economy and diverse socioeconomic structure. We did face-to-face structured interviews with a diverse stakeholder group consisting of community members, traditional leaders, municipal officials, researchers, business people, and farmers in each municipality and focus groups in two communities of each municipality: Leeuwfontein and Motetema (Sekhukhune and Inanda and Ntshongweni (eThekwini. Each interview lasted 40–60 min, and focus group discussions lasted 90–120 min. We asked the respondents about their understanding of the concept of water security and whether they believe that, at the local and national level, the authorities had achieved water security for all. Findings: Following a qualitative analysis, we found that water security is a state of mind based on context-specific (ie, localised and individualised perceptions held by an individual of water-related threats and how it influences

  14. Qualitative exploration of a smoking cessation trial for people living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Nandita; Gittelsohn, Joel; Ross, Alexandra; Elf, Jessica; Chon, Sandy; Niaura, Raymond; Martinson, Neil; Golub, Jonathan E

    2017-06-16

    In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted. A codebook was developed and codes were applied to the transcripts, which were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Barriers at the economic, social/interpersonal, and individual levels induced stress, which hindered smoking cessation. Economic stressors included unemployment and poverty. Social or interpersonal stressors were lack of social support for quitting smoking and lack of social support due to having HIV. Individual stressors were traumatic life events. Alcohol was used to cope with stress and frequently co-occurred with smoking. Managing cravings was a barrier unrelated to stress. Participants proposed income and employment opportunities, group counseling and more frequent counseling as solutions to address stressors at different levels. NRT was helpful to mitigate cravings. Future smoking cessation interventions need to target barriers at multiple levels. Increasing the supply and duration of NRT may increase its effectiveness. Other behavioral approaches such as group counseling or peer counseling could hold promise in this setting but need to be tested for efficacy through randomized controlled trials. To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study examining barriers to smoking cessation for people living with HIV in South Africa. Smoking is highly prevalent among people with HIV in South Africa and cessation interventions are urgently needed. A better understanding of

  15. Research evidence and policy: qualitative study in selected provinces in South Africa and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Zani, Babalwa; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Wiysonge, Charles S; Dudley, Lillian; Kredo, Tamara; Garner, Paul; Young, Taryn

    2015-09-03

    The translation of research into policy and practice is enhanced by policymakers who can recognise and articulate their information needs and researchers that understand the policymakers' environment. As researchers, we sought to understand the policymaking process and how research evidence may contribute in South Africa and Cameroon. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews in South Africa and focus group discussions in Cameroon with purposively sampled subnational (provincial and regional) government health programme managers. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analysed. Participants in both countries described the complex, often lengthy nature of policymaking processes, which often include back-and-forth consultations with many diverse stakeholder groups. These processes may be influenced by political structures, relationships between national and subnational levels, funding and international stakeholder agendas. Research is not a main driver of policy, but rather current contextual realities, costs, logistics and people (clinicians, NGOs, funders) influence the policy, and research plays a part. Research evidence is frequently perceived as unavailable, inaccessible, ill-timed or not applicable. The reliability of research on the internet was questioned. Evidence-informed health decision-making (EIDM) is regarded as necessary in South Africa but is less well understood in Cameroon. Insufficient time and capacity were hindrances to EIDM in both countries. Good relationships between researchers and policymakers may facilitate EIDM. Researchers should have a good understanding of the policymaking environment if they want to influence it. Greater interaction between policymakers and researchers is perceived as beneficial when formulating research and policy questions as it raises researchers' awareness of implementation challenges and enables the design of tailored and focused strategies to respond to policymakers' needs

  16. A qualitative analysis of facilities maintenance - a school governance function in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M I Xaba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I analysed school facilities maintenance, a school governance function in South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 principals and three deputy principals as coordinators of this function at their schools. The interviews were purposively and conveniently selected to gather data regarding school facilities maintenance and gain insight into the challenges this function presents to schools and their governing bodies. Findings indicate that schools generally do not have organisational structures for planned facilities maintenance, nor do they have policies on facilities maintenance. Evidence of facilities maintenance at schools mainly relates to concerns with facilities repairs, (mostly "as the need arises" and general campus cleanliness; mostly with emergency and corrective forms of maintenance as opposed to crucial preventive maintenance. Therefore, there is a need for interim facilities maintenance committees and, in the long term, a whole-school approach to facilities maintenance that makes facilities maintenance a strategic lever for school functionality.

  17. A qualitative study of methamphetamine initiation in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals’ initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. Results On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered “trendy”, which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. Conclusion The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for

  18. A qualitative study of methamphetamine initiation in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-04-01

    Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals' initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered "trendy", which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for community-level interventions to address the

  19. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  20. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security....

  1. Children's experiences of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in an urban township of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alison; Daniels, Karen; Tomlinson, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious mental and public health issue. In particular, children exposed to violence are at risk for poor developmental outcomes and physical and mental health problems. One area that has been shown to increase the risk for poor outcomes is the use of corporal punishment as a discipline method. While researchers are starting to ask children directly about their experiences of violence, there is limited research with children about their perspectives on physical punishment, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper begins to address this gap by reporting on the spontaneous data that emerged during 24 qualitative interviews that were conducted with children, aged 8-12 in South Africa. The themes that emerged indicated that corporal punishment is an everyday experience, that it has negative emotional and behavioral consequences, and that it plays a role in how children resolve interpersonal conflicts. The study highlights the challenges for violence prevention interventions in under-resourced contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study of patient motivation to adhere to combination antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loggerenberg, Francois; Gray, Debra; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Kunene, Pinky; Gengiah, Tanuja N; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Grant, Alison D

    2015-05-01

    Taken as prescribed, that is, with high adherence, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV infection and disease from being a sure predictor of death to a manageable chronic illness. Adherence, however, is difficult to achieve and maintain. The CAPRISA 058 study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 to test the efficacy of individualized motivational counselling to enhance ART adherence in South Africa. As part of the overall trial, a qualitative sub-study was conducted, including 30 individual interviews and four focus group discussions with patients in the first 9 months of ART initiation. Data were inductively analyzed, using thematic analysis, to identify themes central to ART adherence in this context. Four themes emerged that characterize the participants' experiences and high motivation to adhere to ART. Participants in this study were highly motivated to adhere, as they acknowledged that ART was 'life-giving', in the face of a large amount of morbidity and mortality. They were further supported by techniques of routine remembering, and highlighted the importance of good social support and access to supportive healthcare workers, to their continued success in negotiating their treatment. Participants in the current study told us that their adherence motivation is enhanced by free accessible care, approachable and supportive healthcare workers, broad social acceptance of ART, and past first-hand experiences with AIDS-related co-morbidity and mortality. Programs that include specific attention to these aspects of care will likely be successful in the long term.

  3. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  4. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  5. A qualitative investigation of the role of paediatric rehabilitation professionals in rural South Africa: Rehabilitation professionals’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Mathye

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the role that rehabilitation professionals play in the rehabilitation of children with disabilities in the rural and under-resourced community of Giyani in South Africa. Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a convenient sample of eight rehabilitation professionals. Data were transcribed verbatim by two trained students and verified by the main researcher. An inductive approach to qualitative data analysis was used. In vivo and open coding were used to generate codes. Results: Analysis of data resulted in 21 codes, 9 subcategories, 5 categories and 1 theme. The role of rehabilitation professionals was described in terms of the five categories which are to examine newborn babies and children at risk, support caregivers of children with disabilities, impart skills training for caregivers of children with disabilities, rehabilitate children with disabilities and conduct follow-ups in communities where the children with disabilities reside. Conclusion: The role that rehabilitation professionals play in the rural and under-resourced community of Giyani in South Africa is similar to the role played in high-income countries. The role that rehabilitation professionals play is not only focused on the child but also on the family.

  6. Qualitative exploration of the career aspirations of rural origin health science students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Paula N; Flack, Penny S; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Reid, Stephen J Y

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence in the literature that rural background significantly encourages eventual rural practice. Given the shortage of healthcare providers in rural areas, we need to explore ways of ensuring throughput and success of rural-origin students in health sciences. It is therefore important to understand who these students are, what motivates them and the factors involved in the formation of their career choices. The aim of this study is to understand the aspirations of undergraduate health science students of rural origin with regard to their future career plans. The objectives of the study include to explore and identify the key issues facing rural-origin students with regard to their future career plans. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 health science students from two South African universities. Transcriptions were analyzed with the aid of Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com). The findings suggest health science students of rural origin studying at universities in the South African context face specific challenges related to the nature of the contrast between rural and urban life, in addition to the more generic adaptations that confront all students on entering tertiary education. In order to support rural students in their studies, academic, financial, emotional and social stressors need to be addressed. Universities should strengthen existing support structures as well as aid the development of further support that may be required.Key words: career plan, health science, rural background, South Africa.

  7. 'Going private': a qualitative comparison of medical specialists' job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, John

    2013-01-03

    There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist 'dual practice', that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel 'needed' and 'relevant'. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost

  8. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 assistance from the National Olympic Committee of South. Africa (NOCSA), while an overwhelming proportion (89%) received no financial support. Of the 45 swimmers surveyed,. 8 respondents were financially supported by Swimming South. Africa, whilst 8 indicated that they were sponsored privately. Twenty-one of the ...

  9. A qualitative analysis of factors influencing HPV vaccine uptake in Soweto, South Africa among adolescents and their caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid T Katz

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV may be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an opportunity for primary prevention. Given the importance of psycho-social forces in vaccine uptake, we sought to elucidate factors influencing HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income South African adolescents receiving the vaccine for the first time in Soweto.The HPV vaccine was introduced to adolescents in low-income townships throughout South Africa as part of a nationwide trial to understand adolescent involvement in future vaccine research targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposively-sampled adolescents and their care providers to understand what forces shaped HPV vaccine uptake. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and examined using thematic analysis.Of 224 adolescents recruited, 201 initiated the vaccine; 192 (95.5% received a second immunization; and 164 (81.6% completed three doses. In our qualitative study of 39 adolescent-caregiver dyads, we found that factors driving vaccine uptake reflected a socio-cultural backdrop of high HIV endemnicity, sexual violence, poverty, and an abundance of female-headed households. Adolescents exercised a high level of autonomy and often initiated decision-making. Healthcare providers and peers provided support and guidance that was absent at home. The impact of the HIV epidemic on decision-making was substantial, leading participants to mistakenly conflate HPV and HIV.In a setting of perceived rampant sexual violence and epidemic levels of HIV, adolescents and caregivers sought to decrease harm by seeking a vaccine targeting a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Despite careful consenting, there was confusion regarding the vaccine's target. Future interventions promoting STI

  10. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa: Perceptions versus Reality – A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Aarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines must be addressed to ensure that people use them with confidence. Campaigns to increase the uptake of generic medicines by consumers and providers of healthcare need to be informed by local norms and practices. This study sought to compare South African consumers’ and healthcare providers’ perceptions of quality of generics to the actual quality of selected products. Methods The study was conducted at the local level in three cities of South Africa: Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town. Purposive sampling was used to recruit consumer participants (n = 73 and random sampling used to recruit healthcare providers from public and private sectors (n = 15. Data were obtained through twelve focus group discussions with consumers and semi-structured interviews (n = 15 with healthcare providers in order to gain familiarity with perceptions of quality. One hundred and thirty five products comprising paracetamol tablets (n = 47, amoxicillin capsules (n = 45 and hydrochlorothiazide tablets (n = 43 were sourced from public and private sector healthcare providers. These products were subjected to in vitro dissolution, uniformity of weight and identity (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy tests using prescribed methods from the British (2005 and United States Pharmacopeias (2006. Results Respondents described drug quality in relation to the effect on symptoms. Procurement and use behavior of healthcare providers was influenced by prior experience, manufacturers’ names and consumers’ ability to pay. All formulations passed the in vitro tests for quality. Conclusions This study showed clear differences between

  11. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  12. Mobile phone use among patients and health workers to enhance primary healthcare: A qualitative study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey Watkins, Jocelyn Olivia Todd; Goudge, Jane; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Griffiths, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Mobile phones have the potential to improve access to healthcare information and services in low-resourced settings. This study investigated the use of mobile phones among patients with chronic diseases, pregnant women, and health workers to enhance primary healthcare in rural South Africa. Qualitative research was undertaken in Mpumalanga in 2014. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 113 patients and 43 health workers from seven primary healthcare clinics and one district hospital. Data were thematically analysed. We found that some health workers and patients used their own mobile phones for healthcare, bearing the cost themselves. Patients used their mobile phones to remind themselves to take medication or attend their clinic visits, and they appreciated receiving voice call reminders. Some patients and health workers accessed websites and used social media to gather health information, but lacked web search strategies. The use of the websites and social media was intermittent due to lack of financial ability to afford airtime among these patients and health workers. Many did not know what to search for and where to search. Doctors have developed their own informal mobile health solutions in response to their work needs and lack of resources due to their rurality. Physical and social factors influence the usability of mobile phones for healthcare, and this can shape communication patterns such as poor eyesight. The bottom-up use of mobile phones has been evolving to fill the gaps to augment primary care services in South Africa; however, barriers to access remain, such as poor digital infrastructure and low digital literacy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges remain. ... such issues as environmental preserva- tion, new ... women's access to land. ... Youth in South Africa face many hurdles, ... works like family and friends to overcome chal- ... representatives, local businesses, and gov-.

  14. South Africa comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1993-01-01

    South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article

  15. Provider perspectives on drug-resistant tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus care in South Africa: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftary, A; Padayatchi, N

    2016-11-01

    To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss. 2) Patient-provider interactions are likely stronger among nurses, and in HIV vs. MDR/XDR-TB service delivery, due to greater attention to patient empowerment and support. Stigma associated with MDR/XDR-TB, considered worse than HIV, may be perpetuated within non-specialised facilities less familiar with MDR/XDR-TB. 3) HCWs who struggle with the daily tedium of MDR/XDR-TB treatment supervision are becoming increasingly supportive of treatment literacy and self-administration. 4) Effective integration of HIV and MDR/XDR-TB services may be impeded by administrative restrictions, workplace norms and provider mindsets. Comprehensive, decentralised management of MDR/XDR-TB and HIV coinfection requires the creation of patient-provider trust and treatment literacy in MDR/XDR-TB programmes, and defying workplace norms that could provoke nosocomial TB exposure and fragmented service provision.

  16. Children’s experiences of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in an urban township of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alison; Daniels, Karen; Tomlinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious mental and public health issue. In particular, children exposed to violence are at risk for poor developmental outcomes and physical and mental health problems. One area that has been shown to increase the risk for poor outcomes is the use of corporal punishment as a discipline method. While researchers are starting to ask children directly abouttheir experiences of violence, there is limited research with children about their perspectives on physical punishment, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper begins to address this gap by reporting on the spontaneous data that emerged during 24 qualitative interviews that were conducted with children, aged 8–12 in South Africa. The themes that emerged indicated that corporal punishment is an everyday experience, that it has negative emotional and behavioral consequences, and that it plays a role in how children resolve interpersonal conflicts. The study highlights the challenges for violence prevention interventions in under-resourced contexts. PMID:26094159

  17. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Atkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT to ensure treatment adherence. Objective: This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA. Design: Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results: The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions: The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

  18. Influences on visit retention in clinical trials: insights from qualitative research during the VOICE trial in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazi, Busisiwe; Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Mathebula, Florence; Hartmann, Miriam; van der Straten, Ariane

    2014-07-28

    Although significant progress has been made in clinical trials of women-controlled methods of HIV prevention such as microbicides and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), low adherence to experimental study products remains a major obstacle to being able to establish their efficacy in preventing HIV infection. One factor that influences adherence is the ability of trial participants to attend regular clinic visits at which trial products are dispensed, adherence counseling is administered, and participant safety is monitored. We conducted a qualitative study of the social contextual factors that influenced adherence in the VOICE (MTN-003) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, focusing on study participation in general, and study visits in particular. The research used qualitative methodologies, including in-depth interviews (IDI), serial ethnographic interviews (EI), and focus group discussions (FGD) among a random sub-sample of 102 female trial participants, 18 to 40 years of age. A socio-ecological framework that explored those factors that shaped trial participation and adherence to study products, guided the analysis. Key codes were developed to standardize subsequent coding and a node search was used to identify texts relating to obstacles to visit adherence. Our analysis includes coded transcripts from seven FGD (N = 40), 41 IDI, and 64 serial EI (N = 21 women). Women's kinship, social, and economic roles shaped their ability to participate in the clinical trial. Although participants expressed strong commitments to attend study visits, clinic visit schedules and lengthy waiting times interfered with their multiple obligations as care givers, wage earners, housekeepers, and students. The research findings highlight the importance of the social context in shaping participation in HIV prevention trials, beyond focusing solely on individual characteristics. This points to the need to focus interventions to improve visit attendance by promoting a culture of

  19. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  20. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabile Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, South Africa. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to cover a range of experiences including onset of disease, treatment, environmental barriers and facilitators, employment, and social inclusion in family and community life. The outcomes are described according the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability framework at the body, person and societal levels and looking at both personal and environmental factors. Results The main features of living with RA were pain, muscle stiffness at the body level, difficulties in doing various activities such as mobility, washing, dressing, domestic activities, using transport and obtaining and maintaining employment at the person level. At the societal level the participants described difficulties moving around, interacting socially and taking part in community activities, fulfilling social roles and earning a living. Environmental facilitators such as assistive devices and health care services improved functioning. Barriers such as physical environments, lack of transport and basic services, such as electricity, and attitudes of others lead to social exclusion, loss of a sense of self and independence. Low income, lack of sufficient public transport, and sparse basic services were poverty features that exacerbated negative experiences. Conclusion The experiences of living with RA in a low resource context are similar to those in mid- and high resource contexts, but are exacerbated by

  1. Implementing intimate partner violence care in a rural sub-district of South Africa: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rees

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high burden of disease, in South Africa, intimate partner violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed. To address this gap, an innovative intersectoral model for the delivery of comprehensive IPV care was piloted in a rural sub-district. Objective: To evaluate the initiative from the perspectives of women using the service, service providers, and managers. Design: A qualitative evaluation was conducted. Service users were interviewed, focus groups were conducted amongst health care workers (HCW, and a focus group and interviews were conducted with the intersectoral implementation team to explore their experiences of the intervention. A thematic analysis approach was used, triangulating the various sources of data. Results: During the pilot, 75 women received the intervention. Study participants described their experience as overwhelmingly positive, with some experiencing improvements in their home lives. Significant access barriers included unaffordable indirect costs, fear of loss of confidentiality, and fear of children being removed from the home. For HCW, barriers to inquiry about IPV included its normalisation in this community, poor understanding of the complexities of living with violence and frustration in managing a difficult emotional problem. Health system constraints affected continuity of care, privacy, and integration of the intervention into routine functioning, and the process of intersectoral action was hindered by the formation of alliances. Contextual factors, for example, high levels of alcohol misuse and socio-economic disempowerment, highlighted the need for a multifaceted approach to addressing IPV. Conclusions: This evaluation draws attention to the need to take a systems approach and focus on contextual factors when implementing complex interventions. The results will be used to inform decisions about instituting appropriate IPV care in the rest of the province. In addition, there is

  2. Young women's perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Meghna; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey; Kahn, Kathleen; Khoza, Nomhle; Twine, Rhian; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2017-08-22

    Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to have an association with HIV infection. Using five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with young women enrolled in the HPTN 068 conditional cash transfer trial (2011-2015), this qualitative study explores young women's perceptions of transactional sex within the structural and cultural context of rural South Africa. The analysis also considers the degree to which young women perceive themselves as active agents in such relationships and whether they recognise a link between transactional sex and HIV risk. Young women believe that securing their own financial resources will ultimately improve their bargaining position in their sexual relationships, and open doors to a more financially independent future. Findings suggest there is a nuanced relationship between sex, love and gifts: money has symbolic meaning, and money transfers, when framed as gifts, indicates a young woman's value and commitment from the man. This illustrates the complexity of transactional sex; the way it is positioned in the HIV literature ignores that "exchanges" serve as fulcrums around which romantic relationships are organised. Finally, young women express agency in their choice of partner, but their agency weakens once they are in a relationship characterised by exchange, which may undermine their ability to translate perceived agency into STI and HIV risk reduction efforts. This research underscores the need to recognise that transactional sex is embedded in adolescent romantic relationships, but that certain aspects make young women particularly vulnerable to HIV. This is especially true in situations of restricted choice and circumscribed employment opportunities. HIV prevention

  3. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  4. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  5. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To strengthen competition authorities in the region, IDRC supported the creation of the African Competition. Forum in 2010. IDRC-funded research also helped ... Saving lives, money, and ecosystems. Funding: $675,000. Duration: 2013–2016. Grantee: University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Environmental economists seek to ...

  6. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ... Matsumoto Culture and Psychology 16: "…the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of ... Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour (PHC) unreported case no 59521/2007 of 18 June 2008 ...

  7. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skills, talent identification, financial implications and sci- entific support for swimmers in South Africa. The top 45 swimmers ... potential, capacity and raw talent to compete at interna- tional leveL Scientific and medical support, administration ..... Human Kinstie811, 1999. 7-8. . 3 . Bruckner P, Khan K. Clinical Sport8 Medicine.

  8. Understanding Treatment Refusal Among Adults Presenting for HIV-Testing in Soweto, South Africa: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Ingrid T.; Dietrich, Janan; Tshabalala, Gugu; Essien, Thandekile; Rough, Kathryn; Wright, Alexi A.; Bangsberg, David R.; Gray, Glenda E.; Ware, Norma C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV treatment initiatives have focused on increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is growing evidence, however, that treatment availability alone is insufficient to stop the epidemic. In South Africa, only one third of individuals living with HIV are actually on treatment. Treatment refusal has been identified as a phenomenon among people who are asymptomatic, however, factors driving refusal remain poorly understood. We interviewed 50 purposively sampled participants who pre...

  9. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies to Study the Effects of an Academic Boycott on Academics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricombe, Lorraine J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that used quantitative data from a mailed survey and qualitative data produced from focused interviews to explore what effects an academic boycott had on faculty members at South African universities. Differences in the effects of the boycott in science and technology, humanities, and social science are examined. (Contains 15…

  10. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages.

  11. Uranium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The history, sources, mineralogy, extraction metallurgy, conversion, and enrichment of uranium in South Africa is reviewed. Over the past 40 years extraction plants were built at 27 sites, and over 140 kt of uranium have been produced. Older plants have had to adapt to changing market conditions, no single technology has had the opportunity to become entrenched, and the costs have been reduced to a third of those of the original flowsheet. The research efforts aimed at developing the country's nuclear raw materials have been particularly rewarding, as they have enabled South Africa to become a world leader in the extraction of uranium from low-grade ores and to develop methods for uranium enrichment and the production of nuclear fuels. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  12. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  13. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...

  14. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  15. A qualitative assessment of decisions affecting contraceptive utilization and fertility intentions among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Fatima; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Phofa, Rebecca; Behane, Xoliswa; Mohapi, Lerato; Gray, Glenda

    2009-06-01

    The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. The increasing provision of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) with improved prognosis and maternal-fetal outcomes calls for an understanding of fertility planning for HIV-positive women. We describe the effect of HIV and HAART on pregnancy desires and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Soweto, South Africa. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive women of reproductive age. Analysis was performed using ATLAS-ti (ATLAS-ti Center, Berlin). Emergent themes were impact of HIV diagnosis on pregnancy intentions; factors affecting contraceptive uptake including real and normative side effects, body image, and perceived vaginal wetness; and the mitigating influence of partnership on both pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use. Routine counseling about pregnancy desires and contraception should be offered to HIV-positive women.

  16. Newspaper coverage of maternal health in Bangladesh, Rwanda and South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugsa, Frey; Karmarkar, Ellora; Cheyne, Andrew; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine newspaper coverage of maternal health in three countries that have made varying progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5): Bangladesh (on track), Rwanda (making progress, but not on track) and South Africa (no progress). Design We analysed each country's leading national English-language newspaper: Bangladesh's The Daily Star, Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times, and South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times. We quantified the number of maternal health articles published from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013. We conducted a content analysis of subset of 190 articles published from 1 October 2010 to 31 March 2013. Results Bangladesh's The Daily Star published 579 articles related to maternal health from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013, compared to 342 in Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times and 253 in South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times over the same time period. The Daily Star had the highest proportion of stories advocating for or raising awareness of maternal health. Most maternal health articles in The Daily Star (83%) and The New Times/The Sunday Times (69%) used a ‘human-rights’ or ‘policy-based’ frame compared to 41% of articles from Sunday Times/The Times. Conclusions In the three countries included in this study, which are on different trajectories towards MDG 5, there were differences in the frequency, tone and content of their newspaper coverage of maternal health. However, no causal conclusions can be drawn about this association between progress on MDG 5 and the amount and type of media coverage of maternal health. PMID:26769780

  17. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  18. Understanding treatment refusal among adults presenting for HIV-testing in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ingrid T; Dietrich, Janan; Tshabalala, Gugu; Essien, Thandekile; Rough, Kathryn; Wright, Alexi A; Bangsberg, David R; Gray, Glenda E; Ware, Norma C

    2015-04-01

    HIV treatment initiatives have focused on increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is growing evidence, however, that treatment availability alone is insufficient to stop the epidemic. In South Africa, only one third of individuals living with HIV are actually on treatment. Treatment refusal has been identified as a phenomenon among people who are asymptomatic, however, factors driving refusal remain poorly understood. We interviewed 50 purposively sampled participants who presented for voluntary counseling and testing in Soweto to elicit a broad range of detailed perspectives on ART refusal. We then integrated our core findings into an explanatory framework. Participants described feeling "too healthy" to start treatment, despite often having a diagnosis of AIDS. This subjective view of wellness was framed within the context of treatment being reserved for the sick. Taking ART could also lead to unintended disclosure and social isolation. These data provide a novel explanatory model of treatment refusal, recognizing perceived risks and social costs incurred when disclosing one's status through treatment initiation. Our findings suggest that improving engagement in care for people living with HIV in South Africa will require optimizing social integration and connectivity for those who test positive.

  19. "It was pain. That's it. It was pain." Lack of oral health care among otherwise healthy young adults living with HIV in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Frederick Lambert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand engagement with and availability of dental services among people living with HIV in a low-income community of South Africa.In depth qualitative interviewing was used to collect data, which was analyzed using an inductive content analytical approach. The study was conducted in Gugulethu, a township community located outside of Cape Town, South Africa. Local public sector health services provided free of charge are the main source of primary health and dental care for this population. Participants included South African adults (age 18-35 recently diagnosed with HIV who had a CD4 count >350 cells/mm3.Many participants had little to no experience with dental care, did not know which health care providers are appropriate to address oral health concerns, were not aware of available dental services, utilized home remedies to treat oral health problems, harbored many misperceptions of dental care, avoided dental services due to fear, and experienced poverty as a barrier to dental services.Our findings suggest that integration of oral healthcare into medical care may increase patient knowledge about oral health and access to care. Leveraging the relatively robust HIV infrastructure to address oral disease may also be an effective approach to reaching these participants and those living in resource poor communities generally.

  20. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  1. ?Money talks, bullshit walks? interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekstr?m, Anna Mia

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa?s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur am...

  2. I am not "umqwayito'': a qualitative study of peer pressure and sexual risk behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru

    2009-06-01

    Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.

  3. Arbitration Foundation of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O. Kramarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author explores the history and legal framework for the creation and operation of international commercial arbitration in South Africa. Author notes that South Africa is the most economically developed country in Africa, it is among dozens of major international organizations. From the point of view of the development of the system of law, legal proceedings and arbitration, South Africa is an attractive state for study. Author emphasizes that the South African Republic throughout its existence has been influenced by two legal families: Anglo-Saxon and Romano-Germanic. Therefore, it is important to note that South Africa refers to a mixed system of law. To date, South Africa has two international commercial arbitration: the Arbitration Foundation of South Africa and the Association of Arbitrators. In the conclusion author points out that the development and establishment of the centers of the arbitration fund continues: new centers are being established, and the system of procedures for dealing with cases in already established centers is being improved.

  4. Health system weaknesses constrain access to PMTCT and maternal HIV services in South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich Matthew F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV remains responsible for an estimated 40% of mortality in South African pregnant women and their children. To address these avoidable deaths, eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy (ART in pregnant women were revised in 2010 to enhance ART coverage. With greater availability of HIV services in public health settings and increasing government attention to poor maternal-child health outcomes, this study used the patient's journey through the continuum of maternal and child care as a framework to track and document women's experiences of accessing ART and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes in the Eastern Cape (three peri-urban facilities and Gauteng provinces (one academic hospital. Results In-depth interviews identified considerable weaknesses within operational HIV service delivery. These manifested as missed opportunities for HIV testing in antenatal care due to shortages of test kits; insufficient staff assigned to HIV services; late payment of lay counsellors, with consequent absenteeism; and delayed transcription of CD4 cell count results into patient files (required for ART initiation. By contrast, individual factors undermining access encompassed psychosocial concerns, such as fear of a positive test result or a partner's reaction; and stigma. Data and information systems for monitoring in the three peri-urban facilities were markedly inadequate. Conclusions A single system- or individual-level delay reduced the likelihood of women accessing ART or PMTCT interventions. These delays, when concurrent, often signalled wholesale denial of prevention and treatment. There is great scope for health systems' reforms to address constraints and weaknesses within PMTCT and ART services in South Africa. Recommendations from this study include: ensuring autonomy over resources at lower levels; linking performance management to facility-wide human resources interventions; developing

  5. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  6. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews at two primary healthcare centres in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality of the OR Tambo district, South Africa. Twenty-four purposive sample of mothers of HIV-exposed infants took part in the study. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and field notes were obtained. The findings were triangulated with two focus group discussions in order to enrich and validate the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The participants have fairly good knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the risks during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The majority of participants were confident of the protection offered by anti-retroviral drugs provided during pregnancy, however, lack knowledge of optimal time for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Reasons for not accessing EID included fear of finding out that their child is HIV positive, feelings of guilt and/or shame and embarrassment with respect to raising an HIV infected infant. Personal experiences of HIV diagnosis and HAART were associated with participants' attitudes and beliefs toward care-seeking behaviours. Stigma resulting from their own disclosure to others reduced their likelihood of recommending EID to other members of

  7. Bibliographic Control in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiker, Reuben

    1972-01-01

    The author sets as his task the consideration of the present state of bibliographical control of South Africa's bookstock with special reference to centralization and decentralization. (20 references) (Author/SJ)

  8. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  9. Energy Crisis Racks South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwijs, H.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will struggle with energy capacity shortages until at least 2015. Giant coal-fired power plants are now being built to solve the problem - but they will not prevent the problem of climate change

  10. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  11. The importance of choice in the rollout of ARV-based prevention to user groups in Kenya and South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Natasha; Evens, Emily M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Brelsford, Kate; Mackenzie, Caroline; Milford, Cecilia; Smit, Jennifer A; Kimani, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders continue to discuss the appropriateness of antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among sub-Saharan African and other women. In particular, women need formulations they can adhere to given that effectiveness has been found to correlate with adherence. Evidence from family planning shows that contraceptive use, continuation and adherence may be increased by expanding choices. To explore the potential role of choice in women's use of HIV prevention methods, we conducted a secondary analysis of research with female sex workers (FSWs) and men and women in serodiscordant couples (SDCs) in Kenya, and adolescent and young women in South Africa. Our objective here is to present their interest in and preferences for PrEP formulations - pills, gel and injectable. In this qualitative study, in Kenya we conducted three focus groups with FSWs, and three with SDCs. In South Africa, we conducted two focus groups with adolescent girls, and two with young women. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English as needed. We structurally and thematically coded transcripts using a codebook and QSR NVivo 9.0; generated code reports; and conducted inductive thematic analysis to identify major trends and themes. All groups expressed strong interest in PrEP products. In Kenya, FSWs said the products might help them earn more money, because they would feel safer accepting more clients or having sex without condoms for a higher price. SDCs said the products might replace condoms and reanimate couples' sex lives. Most sex workers and SDCs preferred an injectable because it would last longer, required little intervention and was private. In South Africa, adolescent girls believed it would be possible to obtain the products more privately than condoms. Young women were excited about PrEP but concerned about interactions with alcohol and drug use, which often precede sex. Adolescents did not prefer a particular

  12. Perceptions of diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health among black daughter-mother pairs in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise in South Africa, particularly among females living in urban environments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the emic perspectives of black young adult daughter and mother pairs living in Soweto, South Africa on diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health within their social and cultural context. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to recruit daughters with a normal body mass index (BMI who have obese mothers. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 daughters (age 24 years and 15 of their mothers in Soweto, South Africa. Interview questions related to: a eating and physical activity behaviors and perceptions, b perceptions of social and community level factors, c cultural beliefs about diet and body image, and d intergenerational relationships. Data were analyzed using four-phases of thematic analysis and the constant comparison approach. Results Daughters and mothers had similar ideas of the definition of healthy food and the importance of eating healthy, but mothers were more likely to report eating healthy because of their age, adverse health experiences, and a desire to live longer. Daughters and mothers engaged in physical activity for reasons related to weight maintenance and feeling better, but mothers reported being more likely to start exercising as a result of a health concern. Daughters and mothers had comparable views of what makes a person healthy. Daughters and mothers relied on each other for food purchasing and food preparation. Conclusion Daughters and mothers shared some similar perceptions of diet, physical activity, and health that were rooted in their daily life in Soweto. However, mothers generally reported being more likely to exhibit healthy eating and physical activity behaviors despite being obese. The mothers may have adopted these perceptions and behaviors later in life linked to ageing

  13. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision

  14. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmore John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers

  15. Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2010-06-14

    Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving situation as a means of reducing the

  16. Are we monitoring the quality of cataract surgery services? A qualitative situation analysis of attitudes and practices in a large city in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Oluwatosin O O; Buchan, John C; Cassels-Brown, Andy; Cook, Colin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current quality "assurance" and "improvement" mechanisms, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cataract surgeons in a large South African city. A total of 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ophthalmologists in June 2012 at 2 tertiary institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Recruitment of the purposive sample was supplemented by snowball sampling. The study participants were 5 general ophthalmologists and 2 pediatric ophthalmologists; 4 senior and 4 junior registrars and a medical officer. Participants were interviewed by a trained qualitative interviewer. The interview lasted between 20 and 60 min. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for thematic content. Mechanisms for quality assurance were trainee logbooks and subjective senior staff observation. Clinicians were encouraged, but not obliged to self-audit. Quality improvement is incentivized by personal integrity and ambition. Poorly performing departments are inconspicuous, especially nationally, and ophthalmologists rely on the impression to gauge the quality of service provided by colleagues. Currently, word of mouth is the method for determining the better cataract surgical centers. The quality assurance mechanisms were dependent on insight and integrity of the individual surgeons. No structures were described that would ensure the detection of surgeons with higher than expected complication rates. Currently, audits are not enforced, and surgical outcomes are not well monitored due to concerns that this may lead to lack of openness among ophthalmologists.

  17. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  18. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  19. Stages of change: A qualitative study on the implementation of a perinatal audit programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit and feedback is an established strategy for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP, implemented in South African public hospitals in the late 1990s, measures perinatal mortality rates and identifies avoidable factors associated with each death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the processes involved in the implementation and sustainability of this programme. Methods Clinicians' experiences of the implementation and maintenance of PPIP were explored qualitatively in two workshop sessions. An analytical framework comprising six stages of change, divided into three phases, was used: pre-implementation (create awareness, commit to implementation; implementation (prepare to implement, implement and institutionalisation (integrate into routine practice, sustain new practices. Results Four essential factors emerged as important for the successful implementation and sustainability of an audit system throughout the different stages of change: 1 drivers (agents of change and team work, 2 clinical outreach visits and supervisory activities, 3 institutional perinatal review and feedback meetings, and 4 communication and networking between health system levels, health care facilities and different role-players. During the pre-implementation phase high perinatal mortality rates highlighted the problem and indicated the need to implement an audit programme (stage 1. Commitment to implementing the programme was achieved by obtaining buy-in from management, administration and health care practitioners (stage 2. Preparations in the implementation phase included the procurement and installation of software and training in its use (stage 3. Implementation began with the collection of data, followed by feedback at perinatal review meetings (stage 4. The institutionalisation phase was reached when the results of the audit were integrated into routine practice (stage 5 and

  20. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  1. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  2. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.

  3. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair

    Full Text Available Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.

  4. Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women’s perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women’s perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  5. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Anton; Visser Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s s...

  6. Paediatric triage in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-07

    May 7, 2013 ... There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this ... So opens the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Countdown to 2015, the .... walk as normal. 27 or more. 160 or more. Unrespon- sive. Reacts to. Pain ... Each time the IMCI or.

  7. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  8. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  9. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-07-29

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus. 

  10. Nutrition in contemporary South Africa#

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa. 2 Division ... based diet that is inadequate in energy and of low nutrient density. ..... Vitamin A deficiency impacts on mortality of women of ... increased risk of heavy metal (e.g. lead) poisoning in children;.

  11. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  12. Sedating children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bRed Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. cSedation and Pain ... As the authors indicate, there is increasing pressure from practitioners, funders and patients or parents for procedures to take place outside the ...

  13. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  14. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  15. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  16. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  17. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  18. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Anton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s secondary cities. The paper draws attention to the economic, socio-cultural, and physical characteristics of this form of student housing on host locations. It is argued that studentification holds both positive and negative impacts for the host communities of Bloemfontein. Finally, it is suggested that studentification in South Africa requires greater research attention.

  19. The DEPICT model for participatory qualitative health promotion research analysis piloted in Canada, Zambia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Health promotion researchers are increasingly conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in an effort to reduce health disparities. Despite efforts towards greater inclusion, research teams continue to regularly exclude diverse representation from data analysis efforts. The DEPICT model for collaborative qualitative analysis is a democratic approach to enhancing rigour through inclusion of diverse stakeholders. It is broken down into six sequential steps. Strong leadership, coordination and facilitation skills are needed; however, the process is flexible enough to adapt to most environments and varying levels of expertise. Including diverse stakeholders on an analysis team can enrich data analysis and provide more nuanced understandings of complicated health problems. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. 'I think it's about experiencing, like, life': a qualitative exploration of contemporary adolescent intimate relationships in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Anik; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Cathy; Flisher, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Intimate or dating relationships play an important role in young people's psychosocial development and well-being. Yet, we know relatively little about how teenagers conceptualise and experience them. Research knowledge about young people's intimate relationships is largely gleaned from studies whose primary focus has been on adolescent sexuality and violence. This study explored intimate relationships using qualitative data from 12 focus-group discussions and 25 in-depth individual interviews with Grade 8 (mean age = 14.6 years) and Grade 11 (mean age = 17.2 years) young people recruited from Cape Town schools. Although there is overlap between these findings and previous research, this study delved into the microdynamics of teenagers' relationship practices and conceptualisations. Their discussions provide insight into a nebulous dating landscape that is highly gendered and greatly influenced by peer relations. There was a heterogeneity of experience with relationships and sex. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  1. Women's experiences with oral and vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis: the VOICE-C qualitative study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane van der Straten

    Full Text Available In VOICE, a multisite HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP trial, plasma drug levels pointed to widespread product nonuse, despite high adherence estimated by self-reports and clinic product counts. Using a socio-ecological framework (SEF, we explored socio-cultural and contextual factors that influenced participants' experience of daily vaginal gel and oral tablet regimens in VOICE.In Johannesburg, a qualitative ancillary study was concurrently conducted among randomly selected VOICE participants assigned to in-depth interviews (n = 41, serial ethnographic interviews (n = 21, or focus group discussions (n = 40. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded thematically for analysis.Of the 102 participants, the mean age was 27 years, and 96% had a primary sex partner with whom 43% cohabitated. Few women reported lasting nonuse, which they typically attributed to missed visits, lack of product replenishments, and family-related travel or work. Women acknowledged occasionally skipping or mistiming doses because they forgot, were busy, felt lazy or bored, feared or experienced side effects. However, nearly all knew or heard of other study participants who did not use products daily. Three overarching themes emerged from further analyses: ambivalence toward research, preserving a healthy status, and managing social relationships. These themes highlighted the profound and complex meanings associated with participating in a blinded HIV PrEP trial and taking antiretroviral-based products. The unknown efficacy of products, their connection with HIV infection, challenges with daily regimen given social risks, lack of support-from partners and significant others-and the relationship tradeoffs entailed by using the products appear to discourage adequate product use.Personal acknowledgment of product nonuse was challenging. This qualitative inquiry highlighted key influences at all SEF levels that shaped women's perceptions of trial

  2. Women's experiences with oral and vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis: the VOICE-C qualitative study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busiswe; Mathebula, Florence; Schwartz, Katie; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In VOICE, a multisite HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, plasma drug levels pointed to widespread product nonuse, despite high adherence estimated by self-reports and clinic product counts. Using a socio-ecological framework (SEF), we explored socio-cultural and contextual factors that influenced participants' experience of daily vaginal gel and oral tablet regimens in VOICE. In Johannesburg, a qualitative ancillary study was concurrently conducted among randomly selected VOICE participants assigned to in-depth interviews (n = 41), serial ethnographic interviews (n = 21), or focus group discussions (n = 40). Audiotaped interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded thematically for analysis. Of the 102 participants, the mean age was 27 years, and 96% had a primary sex partner with whom 43% cohabitated. Few women reported lasting nonuse, which they typically attributed to missed visits, lack of product replenishments, and family-related travel or work. Women acknowledged occasionally skipping or mistiming doses because they forgot, were busy, felt lazy or bored, feared or experienced side effects. However, nearly all knew or heard of other study participants who did not use products daily. Three overarching themes emerged from further analyses: ambivalence toward research, preserving a healthy status, and managing social relationships. These themes highlighted the profound and complex meanings associated with participating in a blinded HIV PrEP trial and taking antiretroviral-based products. The unknown efficacy of products, their connection with HIV infection, challenges with daily regimen given social risks, lack of support-from partners and significant others-and the relationship tradeoffs entailed by using the products appear to discourage adequate product use. Personal acknowledgment of product nonuse was challenging. This qualitative inquiry highlighted key influences at all SEF levels that shaped women's perceptions of trial participation and

  3. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.

  4. “Not on the agenda”: A qualitative study of influences on health services use among poor young women who use drugs in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Carney, Tara; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor young women who use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) in Cape Town, South Africa, need access to health services to prevent HIV. Efforts to link young women to services are hampered by limited information on what influences service initiation. We explored perceptions of factors that influence poor AOD-using young women’s use of health services. Methods We conducted four focus groups with young women (aged 16 to 21) who used AODs and were recruited from two township communities in Cape Town. We also conducted 14 in-depth interviews with health and social welfare service planners and providers. Discussion topics included young women’s use of health services and perceived influences on service use. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. Results The findings highlighted structural, contextual, and systemic influences on the use of health services by young women who use AODs. First, young women were absent from the health agenda, which had an impact on the provision of women-specific services. Resource constraints and gender inequality were thought to contribute to this absence. Second, gender inequality and stigma toward young women who used AODs led to their social exclusion from education and employment opportunities and health care. Third, community poverty resulted in the emergence of perverse social capital and social disorder that limited social support for treatment. Fourth, the health care system was unresponsive to the multiple service needs of these young women. Conclusion To reach young women who use AODs, interventions need to take cognisance of young women’s risk environment and health systems need to adapt to respond better to their needs. For these interventions to be effective, gender must be placed on the policy agenda. PMID:26797188

  5. "Not on the agenda": A qualitative study of influences on health services use among poor young women who use drugs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Carney, Tara; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2016-04-01

    Poor young women who use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) in Cape Town, South Africa, need access to health services to prevent HIV. Efforts to link young women to services are hampered by limited information on what influences service initiation. We explored perceptions of factors that influence poor AOD-using young women's use of health services. We conducted four focus groups with young women (aged 16-21) who used AODs and were recruited from two township communities in Cape Town. We also conducted 14 in-depth interviews with health and social welfare service planners and providers. Discussion topics included young women's use of health services and perceived influences on service use. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework approach. The findings highlighted structural, contextual, and systemic influences on the use of health services by young women who use AODs. First, young women were absent from the health agenda, which had an impact on the provision of women-specific services. Resource constraints and gender inequality were thought to contribute to this absence. Second, gender inequality and stigma toward young women who used AODs led to their social exclusion from education and employment opportunities and health care. Third, community poverty resulted in the emergence of perverse social capital and social disorder that limited social support for treatment. Fourth, the health care system was unresponsive to the multiple service needs of these young women. To reach young women who use AODs, interventions need to take cognisance of young women's risk environment and health systems need to adapt to respond better to their needs. For these interventions to be effective, gender must be placed on the policy agenda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS OF THE ATTACK PHASIS AT THE WORLD CUP IN GERMANY 2006th AND SOUTH AFRICA 2010th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peko Vujović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the recording of predefined hypothetical significant predictors for achieving goals in modern football. Concretely, the object of this study is the mode of play of top teams and individual characteristics of ellite players and comparative analysis of the last two world championships. The aim of the research was to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences between the successfully completed attacks on the World Cup in Germany in 2006 and South Africa in 2010, using a pre-defined variables. Task of the paper is to identify the set of variables that represent a good predictor for efficacy in attack phase, and which tendencies of play can be seen using of variables recorded on the sample matches in the last two world championships. The steps of work are the followers. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions of the players in the team, who scored a goals and assisted on two observed world championships. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the time intervals in which the goals was scored in the two above-mentioned competition. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the number of contacts with the ball at players just before successfuly implementation of attack on the mentioned competitions. And to determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions on the ground from which the goal has been scored, and from which is assisted for the goal. On the basis on the processed variables, the conclusions which have a foothold in the relevant and reliable parameters were drawn.

  7. Young women’s perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Ranganathan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to have an association with HIV infection. Methods Using five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with young women enrolled in the HPTN 068 conditional cash transfer trial (2011–2015, this qualitative study explores young women’s perceptions of transactional sex within the structural and cultural context of rural South Africa. The analysis also considers the degree to which young women perceive themselves as active agents in such relationships and whether they recognise a link between transactional sex and HIV risk. Results Young women believe that securing their own financial resources will ultimately improve their bargaining position in their sexual relationships, and open doors to a more financially independent future. Findings suggest there is a nuanced relationship between sex, love and gifts: money has symbolic meaning, and money transfers, when framed as gifts, indicates a young woman’s value and commitment from the man. This illustrates the complexity of transactional sex; the way it is positioned in the HIV literature ignores that “exchanges” serve as fulcrums around which romantic relationships are organised. Finally, young women express agency in their choice of partner, but their agency weakens once they are in a relationship characterised by exchange, which may undermine their ability to translate perceived agency into STI and HIV risk reduction efforts. Conclusions This research underscores the need to recognise that transactional sex is embedded in adolescent romantic relationships, but that certain aspects make young women particularly vulnerable to HIV. This is especially true in situations of

  8. The Role of Relationship Dynamics and Gender Inequalities As Barriers to HIV-Serostatus Disclosure: Qualitative Study among Women and Men Living with HIV in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya S. Bhatia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis qualitative study investigated gender power inequalities as they contribute to relationship dynamics and HIV-serostatus disclosure among men and women living with HIV in Durban, South Africa. HIV serodiscordance among men and women within stable partnerships contributes to high HIV incidence in southern Africa, yet disclosure rates remain low. Given the emphasis on prevention for HIV-serodiscordant couples, this research supports the urgent need to explore how best to support couples to recognize that they are part of this priority population and to access appropriate prevention and treatment.MethodsThirty-five in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 15 HIV-positive men and 20 HIV-positive women (not couples receiving care at public-sector clinics near Durban. A structured coding scheme was developed to investigate men’s and women’s attitudes toward HIV-serostatus disclosure and behaviors of sharing (or not sharing HIV serostatus with a partner. Narratives were analyzed for barriers and facilitators of disclosure through the lens of sociocultural gender inequality, focusing on reasons for non-disclosure.ResultsAmong 35 participants: median age was 33 years (men and 30 years (women; average years since HIV diagnosis was 1 (men and 1.5 (women. Four themes related to gender inequality and HIV-serostatus disclosure emerged: (1 Men and women fear disclosing to partners due to concerns about stigma and relationship dissolution, (2 suspicions and mistrust between partners underlies decisions for non-disclosure, (3 unequal, gendered power in relationships causes differential likelihood and safety of disclosure among men and women, and (4 incomplete or implicit disclosure are strategies to navigate disclosure challenges. Findings illustrate HIV-serostatus disclosure as a complex process evolving over time, rather than a one-time event.ConclusionPartner communication about HIV serostatus is infrequent and complicated

  9. Reconstructing masculinity? A qualitative evaluation of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures interventions in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows the importance of working with men to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-risk. Two claims dominate this work. The first is that interventions 'reconstruct' masculinities--these new formations of masculinity exist in opposition to existing ones and are healthier for men and less harmful for women. The second is that to be successful, such interventions need to address men's exclusion from the economy. Using a qualitative longitudinal cohort study of young men who participated in a gender transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention, as well as dyadic interviews with men's main female partners, we explore these claims. Data suggests men saw some improvements in livelihoods and relationships. However, challenging social contexts, including high rates of unemployment, peer networks and a dominant youth masculinity, limited change. Rather than reconstructing masculinity, a more subtle shift was seen with men moving away from 'harmful' aspects of a dominant youth masculinity towards a form of masculinity whereby male power is buttressed by economic provision and attempting to form and support 'households'. Working with men on their livelihoods at an instrumental level encouraged participation in the intervention. Beyond encouragement, men's improving livelihoods afforded men the opportunity to materially demonstrate the social changes - in the form of shifts in masculinity--they were seeking to enact.

  10. Expectations of medical specialists about image-based teleconsultation - A qualitative study on acute burns in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Lisa; Laflamme, Lucie; Mölsted Alvesson, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation. Purposive sampling included male and female physicians at different stages of their career, employed at different referral hospitals and all potential future tele-experts in remote teleconsultation using the App. Positioning theory was used to analyse the data. The experts are already facing changes in their diagnostic practices due to the informal use of open access applications like WhatsApp. Additional changes are expected when the new App is launched. Four positions of medical experts were identified in situations of diagnostic advice, two related to patient flow-clinical specialist and gatekeeper-and two to point of care staff-educator and mentor. The experts move flexibly between the positions during diagnostic practices with remote colleagues. A new position in relation to previous research on medical roles-the mentor-came to light in this setting. The App is expected to have an important educational impact, streamline the diagnostic process, improve both triage and referrals and be a more secure option for remote diagnosis compared to current practices. Verbal communication is however expected to remain important for certain situations, in particular those related to the mentor position. The quality and security of referrals are expected to be improved through the App but the medical experts see less potential for conveying moral support via the App during remote consultations. Experts

  11. Expectations of medical specialists about image-based teleconsultation – A qualitative study on acute burns in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Mölsted Alvesson, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Background Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. Methods In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation. Purposive sampling included male and female physicians at different stages of their career, employed at different referral hospitals and all potential future tele-experts in remote teleconsultation using the App. Positioning theory was used to analyse the data. Results The experts are already facing changes in their diagnostic practices due to the informal use of open access applications like WhatsApp. Additional changes are expected when the new App is launched. Four positions of medical experts were identified in situations of diagnostic advice, two related to patient flow–clinical specialist and gatekeeper–and two to point of care staff–educator and mentor. The experts move flexibly between the positions during diagnostic practices with remote colleagues. A new position in relation to previous research on medical roles–the mentor–came to light in this setting. The App is expected to have an important educational impact, streamline the diagnostic process, improve both triage and referrals and be a more secure option for remote diagnosis compared to current practices. Verbal communication is however expected to remain important for certain situations, in particular those related to the mentor position. Conclusion The quality and security of referrals are expected to be improved through the App but the medical experts see less potential for conveying moral support via the App

  12. Expectations of medical specialists about image-based teleconsultation - A qualitative study on acute burns in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Blom

    Full Text Available Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care.In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation. Purposive sampling included male and female physicians at different stages of their career, employed at different referral hospitals and all potential future tele-experts in remote teleconsultation using the App. Positioning theory was used to analyse the data.The experts are already facing changes in their diagnostic practices due to the informal use of open access applications like WhatsApp. Additional changes are expected when the new App is launched. Four positions of medical experts were identified in situations of diagnostic advice, two related to patient flow-clinical specialist and gatekeeper-and two to point of care staff-educator and mentor. The experts move flexibly between the positions during diagnostic practices with remote colleagues. A new position in relation to previous research on medical roles-the mentor-came to light in this setting. The App is expected to have an important educational impact, streamline the diagnostic process, improve both triage and referrals and be a more secure option for remote diagnosis compared to current practices. Verbal communication is however expected to remain important for certain situations, in particular those related to the mentor position.The quality and security of referrals are expected to be improved through the App but the medical experts see less potential for conveying moral support via the App during remote consultations

  13. Qualitative evaluation of primary care providers experiences of a training programme to offer brief behaviour change counselling on risk factors for non-communicable diseases in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Zelra; Mash, Robert; Everett-Murphy, Katherine

    2015-08-19

    The global epidemic of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has been linked with four modifiable risky lifestyle behaviours, namely smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol abuse. Primary care providers (PCPs) can play an important role in changing patient's risky behaviours. It is recommended that PCPs provide individual brief behaviour change counselling (BBCC) as part of everyday primary care. This study is part of a larger project that re-designed the current training for PCPs in South Africa, to offer a standardized approach to BBCC based on the 5 As and a guiding style. This article reports on a qualitative sub-study, which explored whether the training intervention changed PCPs perception of their confidence in their ability to offer BBCC, whether they believed that the new approach could overcome the barriers to implementation in clinical practice and be sustained, and their recommendations on future training and integration of BBCC into curricula and clinical practice. This was a qualitative study that used verbal feedback from participants at the beginning and end of the training course, and twelve individual in-depth interviews with participants once they had returned to their clinical practice. Although PCP's confidence in their ability to counselling improved, and some thought that time constraints could be overcome, they still reported that understaffing, lack of support from within the facility and poor continuity of care were barriers to counselling. However, the current organisational culture was not congruent with the patient-centred guiding style of BBCC. Training should be incorporated into undergraduate curricula of PCPs for both nurses and doctors, to ensure that counselling skills are embedded from the start. Existing PCPs should be offered training as part of continued professional development programmes. This study showed that although training changed PCPs perception of their ability to offer BBCC, and increased their confidence

  14. Radiation technology in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of the relatively new field of radiation technology in South Africa. Attention is drawn particularly to the role which radioactive radiation can play in the spheres of medicine, polymer chemistry and agriculture. The possibilities inherent in ionizing radiation in the synthesis of chemicals and new synthetic materials, are dealt with briefly, and the promising results already achieved in the manufacture of polymer-wood are considered [af

  15. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  16. INTERNATIONALCAREEREXPERIENCESOFEXPATRIATEACADEMICS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashika Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africais facingamajor staffing shortageinscarce skills disciplines.Expatriateacademics have been sourcedbyuniversities to run programmes inthese disciplinesto create ‘home grown’ talent tosolvethis problem.This study isbased on Lazarova, Westman and Shaffer’s(2010modelrelating to expatriatework and family performance.It seeksto examine the experiencesof academics atUKZN,as well as provide recommendationson howto improve theirexperience.The key question ofthepaper, deals with the how expatriate academics haveadjusted to their new environment based onjob andwork environment challenges,family and lifestyle challenges, organisational support and contextual challengesin the host country.The results showedthat the majorityof respondentsare welladjusted in terms of their relationships with their host country colleagues and theirrelationships with family and friendsin theirhomecountry,as well as in terms ofthe fulfilment of theirworkplaceexpectations.Their experience oforganisationalsupport couldhoweverbeimproved.It was found that theydidnot share closeties with other expatriates or local South Africansat the universityorintheircommunities.Thestudy is exploratory and involves a single professional group,as such the findings are not generalisable to other contexts or respondents.Adescriptive quantitative analysis of the career experiences of 83 expatriateacademics was done. Thestudywasuniquein that itexaminedall levels ofacademiain conjunction withmanagement and takes place in a South Africancontext.To improve organisational support,the institution should establishsupport systems forinternational facultyFurthermore, itwassuggestedin thestudy, thatthereshouldbe the creation of a mentorship or buddy programme bythe university to support the adjustment of newinternational staff. Universitymanagement should set up an international staff office similar to the InternationalStudent Office manned by dedicated staff who deal only with matters

  17. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  18. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  19. "Money talks, bullshit walks" interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2013-07-18

    Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing

  20. South Africa : an opportunity for Western Europe ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Of the six threshold countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa), South Africa is the only one that, by a judicious application of pressures and incentives might be induced to accede the Non-Proliferation Treaty. There are several reasons for this, which derive chiefly from South Africa's political isolation and economic vulnerability and the absence of any credible military threat from beyond the country's borders. (author)

  1. Where are general surgeons located in South Africa? | Dell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery ... Methods: A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the 1 October 2014 until 31 ...

  2. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  3. Wind energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    Wind, in South Africa, has been a source of energy for many years but at the same time it is taking as much time and effort to receive the recognition it deserves as anywhere else in the world. The wind resource is comparable to a number of areas in the world wind is exploited as a grid connected source of electrical energy. Although the environmental impact of conventional sources of energy is not as widespread as most of the industrial nations some areas should be looked at critically. Wind as a bulk generator of energy is tentatively being looked at with some demonstration projects being planned. (author)

  4. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  5. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  6. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  7. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  8. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  9. Robotics and automation activities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Utete, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...

  10. The Black Journalist in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachten, William A.

    The role of the black journalist in South Africa is contradictory, precarious, and permeated with politics. There is little freedom of expression for blacks in South Africa, yet white-owned newspapers have expanded their coverage of black news, and some have special editions for black readers. As a result, the English language press is using more…

  11. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  12. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One goal was to transform structures and institutions of global governance while another aim was to place developmental goals on the global agenda. As South Africa targeted UN agencies, notably the Security Council, the IMF, World Bank, WTO and more recently the G20, the curious question begs: will South Africa ...

  13. R-HPDC in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...

  14. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  15. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  16. Privatising Public Schooling in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Equity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Shireen

    2009-01-01

    Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education,…

  17. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  18. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South...... African Defence Force (SADF) during the apartheid era. The transition to peacemaker has imposed constraints on the use of force and required fundamental changes to the way military force is employed. South Africa’s transition has therefore transformed the international role of the SANDF. The destabilizing....... Introduction – Setting the Scene Chapter 2. Foreign Policy and Military Power in South Africa – framing the debate on RSA foreign policy in relation to Africa, Chapter 3. South Africa and the Concept of National Security Chapter 4. The SANDF: Capacity and Capabilities Chapter 5. Sorry Mr. Chairman, can we stop...

  19. Predictors of vaginal practices for sex and hygiene in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: findings of a household survey and qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Smit, Jennifer A; Kunene, Busisiwe; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Beksinska, Mags; Chersich, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    Vaginal practices in sub-Saharan Africa may increase HIV transmission and have important implications for development of microbicides and future HIV prevention technologies. It remains unclear which women undertake vaginal practices and what factors predict prevalence, practice type and choice of products. Using cross-sectional data from mixed research methods, we identify factors associated with vaginal practices among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were gathered through focus group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, followed by a province-wide, multi-stage cluster household survey, using structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with 867 women. This paper details six types of vaginal practices, which--despite their individual distinctiveness and diverse motivations--may be clustered into two broad groups: those undertaken for purposes of 'hygiene' (genital washing, douching and application) and those for 'sexual motivations' (application, insertion, ingestion and incisions). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between 'hygiene' practices and media access, religiosity and transactional sex. 'Sexual' practices were associated with partner concurrency, religiosity and use of injectable hormonal contraceptives. Future interventions relating to vaginal practices as well as microbicides need to reflect this characterisation of practices as sexual- and/or hygiene-related.

  20. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  2. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available were pooled according to health regions and related to population ... Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron. Machine energy beam. Tvl .... Remote afrerloading brachytherapy devices have developed ...

  3. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Abstract .... cognitive functioning could be influenced by the type of housing.26 ..... Weisman AG, Lopez SR, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH, Goldstein MJ,.

  4. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  5. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  6. RETAINING PROFESSIONAL NURSES IN SOUTH AFRICA: NURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... were vacant throughout South Africa (Health Systems Trust 2008). The provinces with the highest ... monetary rewards), the manager or supervisor (enhancing ... theory is one of nurse retention and not motivation. The shape.

  7. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...

  8. Memory of Lithuania in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskienė, Aušra

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania remains a constant in the memory of Jews of the world. Lithuania is remembered in English literature of South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, especially in works by Rose Zwi and Dan Jacobson. Lithuania is still remembered in the South Africa not only because of nostalgic feelings Lithuanian Jews of this country have. After the truth about the Jewish community destroyed in Lithuania, descendants of immigrants felt guilt because of their privileged position in the commu...

  9. National infrastructure maintenance strategy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MULTISECTORAL APPROACHES A National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy for South Africa Kevin Wall, South Africa [OFFICE USE ONLY: REVIEWED...; − effects on human health and economic growth; − lack of effective countermeasures in the event of failure of the service; and − the risk generally to government's growth objectives. Wastewater treatment works are often problematic, as are water...

  10. South Africa: The Good International Nuclear Citizen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Since South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal, it has claimed the status of 'good international nuclear citizen', a position confirmed by its engagement in the nonproliferation regime. Pretoria plays a bridge-building role between states with and without nuclear weapons as well as in instances of proliferation. Recent changes have raised doubts around its position, a movement which could threaten South Africa's nuclear diplomacy

  11. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  12. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  13. NIASA: Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollard, P.; Louf, P.H.; Gentet, G.; Doix, G.

    2015-01-01

    NIASA (Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa) aims at promoting the highest standards in the development and use of nuclear technologies. NIASA was founded in 2007. South-Africa has a long history in nuclear activity since the construction of the first nuclear power plant ever built on African soil was commissioned in 1984 in South-Africa (Koeberg plant equipped with two 900 MW reactors). There is also an important center for nuclear research near Pretoria that was founded in 1948 to regulate the prospecting for uranium. NECSA (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation is a state-owned public company) that manages nuclear research, operates the Safari-1 (2 MWe - commissioned in 1965) research reactor and manages the national radioactive waste center located at Vaalputs. The South African nuclear industry employs about 4000 people. (A.C.)

  14. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  15. Radiology and the law in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, C.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In terms of regulations gazetted in 1973, the Department of Health has control of the practice of medical radiology in South Africa. The regulations and the rules of the South African Medical and Dental Council that apply to radiology are discussed, and the legal position of workers is noted

  16. Court supervised institutional transformation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions ...

  17. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  18. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  19. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  20. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  1. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  2. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  3. Dried blood spot specimen quality and validation of a new pre-analytical processing method for qualitative HIV-1 PCR, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Kerusha; Parboosing, Raveen; Siyaca, Ntombizandile; Moodley, Pravikrishnen

    2016-01-01

    Poor quality dried blood spot (DBS) specimens are usually rejected by virology laboratories, affecting early infant diagnosis of HIV. The practice of combining two incompletely-filled DBS in one specimen preparation tube during pre-analytical specimen processing (i.e., the two-spot method) has been implemented to reduce the number of specimens being rejected for insufficient volume. This study analysed laboratory data to describe the quality of DBS specimens and the use of the two-spot method over a one-year period, then validated the two-spot method against the standard (one-spot) method. Data on HIV-1 PCR test requests submitted in 2014 to the Department of Virology at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa were analysed to describe reasons for specimen rejection, as well as results of the two-spot method. The accuracy, lower limit of detection and precision of the two-spot method were assessed. Of the 88 481 specimens received, 3.7% were rejected for pre-analytical problems. Of those, 48.9% were rejected as a result of insufficient specimen volume. Two health facilities had significantly more specimen rejections than other facilities. The two-spot method prevented 10 504 specimen rejections. The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the standard to the two-spot method was 0.997. The two-spot method was comparable with the standard method of pre-analytical specimen processing. Two health facilities were identified for targeted retraining on specimen quality. The two-spot method of DBS specimen processing can be used as an adjunct to retraining, to reduce the number of specimens rejected and improve linkage to care.

  4. Pregnant in a foreign city: A qualitative analysis of diet and nutrition for cross-border migrant women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Adams, Jo; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-08-01

    How do migrant women navigate their food environment during pregnancy? Foods are imbued with new meanings in a new place, and in low-and-middle-income countries including South Africa, a changing food environment leaves the poor, including many migrants, vulnerable to malnutrition. Thus, one of the ways economic and social vulnerability may be experienced and reproduced is via the foods one consumes. Examining food perceptions in the context of pregnancy offers a potentially powerful lens on wellbeing. Nine focus group discussions (N = 48) with Somali, Congolese, and Zimbabwean men and women, and 23 in-depth interviews with Congolese, Somali and Zimbabwean women living in Cape Town were conducted, exploring maternal and infant nutrition. We used thematic analysis to guide analysis. (1) Participants described longing for self-categorised "traditional" foods, yet had limited access and little time and space to prepare these foods in the manner they had back home. (2) Sought-after foods available-and even celebratory-for migrants in Cape Town during pregnancy tended to be calorie-dense, nutrient poor fast foods and junk foods. (3) The fulfilment of cravings was presented as the embodiment of health during pregnancy. (4) Iron-folic acid supplementation was perceived as curative rather than preventive. (5) While participants did not describe hunger during pregnancy, food scarcity seemed possible. Food perceptions during pregnancy reflected migrants' orientation towards home. Fast foods were widely acceptable and available during pregnancy. These foods were not perceived to have negative health consequences. Nutrition interventions targeting migrants should consider the symbolic nature of food, the increasingly globalised food environment in urban LMIC settings, as well as the contexts in which health perceptions evolve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dried blood spot specimen quality and validation of a new pre-analytical processing method for qualitative HIV-1 PCR, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parboosing, Raveen; Siyaca, Ntombizandile; Moodley, Pravikrishnen

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor quality dried blood spot (DBS) specimens are usually rejected by virology laboratories, affecting early infant diagnosis of HIV. The practice of combining two incompletely-filled DBS in one specimen preparation tube during pre-analytical specimen processing (i.e., the two-spot method) has been implemented to reduce the number of specimens being rejected for insufficient volume. Objectives This study analysed laboratory data to describe the quality of DBS specimens and the use of the two-spot method over a one-year period, then validated the two-spot method against the standard (one-spot) method. Methods Data on HIV-1 PCR test requests submitted in 2014 to the Department of Virology at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa were analysed to describe reasons for specimen rejection, as well as results of the two-spot method. The accuracy, lower limit of detection and precision of the two-spot method were assessed. Results Of the 88 481 specimens received, 3.7% were rejected for pre-analytical problems. Of those, 48.9% were rejected as a result of insufficient specimen volume. Two health facilities had significantly more specimen rejections than other facilities. The two-spot method prevented 10 504 specimen rejections. The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the standard to the two-spot method was 0.997. Conclusions The two-spot method was comparable with the standard method of pre-analytical specimen processing. Two health facilities were identified for targeted retraining on specimen quality. The two-spot method of DBS specimen processing can be used as an adjunct to retraining, to reduce the number of specimens rejected and improve linkage to care. PMID:28879108

  6. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  7. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, T A; Stevens, R C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs.

  8. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    Background With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the

  9. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  10. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  11. 'To be a woman is to make a plan': a qualitative study exploring mothers' experiences of the Child Support Grant in supporting children's diets and nutrition in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Surender, Rebecca; Sanders, David; Swart, Rina; Ramokolo, Vundli; Wright, Gemma; Doherty, Tanya

    2018-04-24

    Food security and good nutrition are key determinants of child well-being. There is strong evidence that cash transfers such as South Africa's Child Support Grant (CSG) have the potential to help address some of the underlying drivers of food insecurity and malnutrition by providing income to caregivers in poor households, but it is unclear how precisely they work to affect child well-being and nutrition. We present results from a qualitative study conducted to explore the role of the CSG in food security and child well-being in poor households in an urban and a rural setting in South Africa. Mt Frere, Eastern Cape (rural area); Langa, Western Cape (urban township). CSG recipient caregivers and community members in the two sites . We conducted a total of 40 in-depth interviews with mothers or primary caregivers in receipt of the CSG for children under the age of 5 years. In addition, five focus group discussions with approximately eight members per group were conducted. Data were analysed using manifest and latent thematic content analysis methods. The CSG is too small on its own to improve child nutrition and well-being. Providing for children's diets and nutrition competes with other priorities that are equally important for child well-being and nutrition. In addition to raising the value of the CSG so that it is linked to the cost of a nutritious basket of food, more emphasis should be placed on parallel structural solutions that are vital for good child nutrition outcomes and well-being, such as access to free quality early child development services that provide adequate nutritious meals, access to adequate basic services and the promotion of appropriate feeding, hygiene and care practices. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 96 of 96 ... (2) “Hospitality Management Education” is devoted to articles about ... More information for this journal can be found here. ... Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to ...

  13. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  14. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  15. Parents' and guardians' perceptions on availability and pricing of medicines and healthcare for children in eThekwini, South Africa - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal-Pillay, Velisha Ann; Suleman, Fatima

    2017-06-19

    Inadequate access to affordable essential medicines poses a challenge to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Access to essential medicines for children has been in the spotlight in recent research. However, information from the end users of medicines, i.e. patients is scarce. Obtaining information at a household level is integral to understanding how people access, obtain and use medicines. This study aimed to gather opinions and perceptions from parents/guardians on availability, affordability and quality of medicines and healthcare for children in SA. Eight Focus group discussions were held with 41 individuals in eThekwini, South Africa (SA), from September-November 2016. Participants were parents/guardians of children up to 12 years from different ethnicities, ages, gender, and socio-economic backgrounds. Key informants identified by the principal researcher recruited participants using snowball sampling. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded by the first author, verified by the second author, reconciled for consensus and imported into NVIVO for data analysis. Medicines and healthcare facilities are accessible in urban and peri-urban areas in eThekwini. Medicines may not always be available in public sector facilities due to medicine shortages, compelling parents to purchase medicines from private sector pharmacies. Common medicines were perceived as affordable for most socio-economic groups except the 'Poor' group. Quality of medicines was perceived as 'good' especially if obtained from the private sector but sometimes perceived as 'poor' and viewed with suspicion when received from public sector clinics. Quality of healthcare was perceived as 'good' but requires improvement for both sectors. This is the first study in SA to report on parent/guardian perceptions on availability, affordability and quality of medicines and healthcare for children. It has the potential to be up-scaled to a country-wide investigation to paint a

  16. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals. ... The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  17. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  18. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  19. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  20. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  1. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  2. Uranium enrichment with lasers - will South Africa lead or lag?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, G.

    1992-01-01

    Over 30 percent of the cost of locally made nuclear fuel in South Africa is associated with increasing the concentration of uranium 235. Cheaper enrichment technologies and, in particular, the decision by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa to concentrate its research efforts on laser techniques are therefore of considerable significance. The laser isotope separation programme in South Africa is reviewed. 1 ill

  3. Forecasting South Africa's performance at the 2010 Commonwealth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...

  4. South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...

  5. Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa: theories, pedagogies and sustainability. ... academics and other stakeholders in education in South Africa. There remains a need for a population proficient ... the relationship between theory, approaches and contexts in language development in South Africa.

  6. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  7. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  8. Reflections on educational research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    research in South Africa as (1) a particular mode of social service (with discussion of an ... by an interest in scientific work, and an interest in theatre. The study provided an apt way to ... the general public, and establish professional autonomy (through ... own affairs responsibly and for societal benefit). ..... In this case, the.

  9. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, E.

    1997-01-01

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  10. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  11. Haemodialysis and Transplantation Facilities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... The provIsion of services in South Africa for patients suffering from chronic renal failure is inadequate in terms· of nationai requirements. A survey of the available facili- ties made in July 1973 showed that 14 maintenance haemodialysis centres had a total of 39 dialysing stations capable of treating 143 ...

  12. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  13. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  14. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  15. Development research in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC Communications ... It would result, some three years later, in a program of development research support designed expressly to prepare ... In South Africa, post-secondary education is a privilege, and many students currently enrol ... Recent research into decision-making in households has produced ...

  16. mHealth implementation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available to incorporate a wide range of Mhealth applications to service the Health System information needs and end user needs. This paper aims to describe the current state of mHealth applications and implementation in South Africa by a review of reported MHealth...

  17. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  18. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  19. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-11-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers.

  20. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Internationally, the development of partnerships between institutions of higher learning and the communities they serve is stressed as a priority. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) is an educational model developed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a response to the scarcity of ...

  1. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the UNFCCC and therefore required to share information on, among other things, the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs). DEAT is the national focal point for climate change activities, and is responsible for co...

  2. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  3. Hydrometeorological Research in South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.

  4. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  5. Emergomyces africanus in Soil, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilan S; Lerm, Barbra; Hoving, J Claire; Kenyon, Chris; Horsnell, William G; Basson, W Joan; Otieno-Odhiambo, Patricia; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Botha, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.

  6. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  7. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the rest of the Free World is presently ... during the Anglo-Boer War, many Europeans joined the Boer ... covetous interest, causing the Dutch East India. Company to .... tween the Boers and the British and the first in which the ...

  8. Ending Apartheid in South Africa: Alternative Approaches,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-07

    you travel backward in its history, confusion develops. It is believed that it has been inhabited for many thousands of years. Black African tribes ...languages - English and Afrikaans - with several African languages like Zulu , Sotho, Xhosa and Swazi.3 Modern day government in South Africa was founded in...Internal African Organizations ...........................12 External Forces.......................................... 14 V. OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO

  9. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  10. "I think it is right": a qualitative exploration of the acceptability and desired future use of oral swab and finger-prick HIV self-tests by lay users in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucia; Makusha, Tawanda; Lim, Jeanette; Peck, Roger; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2017-09-18

    The uptake of HIV testing has increased in sub-Saharan Africa over the past three decades. However, the proportion of people aware of their HIV status remains lower than required to change the pandemic. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may meet this gap. Assessment of readiness for and the acceptability of HIVST by lay users in South Africa is limited. This paper presents results from a formative study designed to assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes. Fifty lay users were purposively selected from rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Acceptability of HIVST was assessed using a simple post-test quantitative assessment tool addressing confidence, ease-of-use, intended future use and willingness to pay. In-depth qualitative interviews explored what participants felt about the HIVST and why, their willingness to recommend and how much they would pay for a test. The key finding is that there is high acceptability regardless of self-test prototype. Acceptability is framed by two domains: usability and perceived need. Perceived usability was explored through perceived ease of use, which, regardless of actual correct usage, was reported by many of the respondents. Acceptability is influenced by perceived need, expressed by many who felt that the need for the self-test to protect privacy and autonomy. Ease of access and widespread availability of the test, not at a significant cost, were also important factors. Many participants would recommend self-test use to others and also indicated that they would choose to conduct the test again if it was free while some also indicated being willing to buy a test. The positive response and readiness amongst lay users for an HIVST in this context prototype suggests that there would be a ready and willing market for HIVST. For scalability and sustainability usability, including access and availability that are here independent indications of acceptability

  11. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. ... Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the .... that affect forage production of rangelands and pastures in Africa.

  12. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  13. health services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.

  14. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  15. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  16. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moolman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  17. Tele-education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained settings. The development of local and

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA, Democracy, Gender. Région: Brazil, South America, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of ... SOCIAL INEQUALITY, COOPERATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS ... d'examiner les liens de cause à effet entre la faiblesse de l'autorité d'État et ...

  19. A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zengeya, TA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the development of a qualitative risk assessment method and its application as a screening tool for determining the risk of establishment and spread of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), within...

  20. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  1. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  2. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa | Blumberg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based ...

  3. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A definition of educational research is proposed: Educational research is a particular mode of social service, using rigorous scientific endeavours for the continuous improvement of educational practice. The key ... It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact.

  4. All projects related to south africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR SUPPLY, LABOUR MARKET, SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL SOUTH, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Madagascar, Tanzania, South Africa. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 717,400.00.

  5. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  6. DNA Profiling and the Law in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SScheepers

    The aim of this article is to provide the legal community with the necessary ... unit of the Forensic Science Laboratory of the South African Police Service ...... In South Africa, the South African National Accreditation System, SANAS, provides.

  7. 'There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business' a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity.

  8. ‘There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business’ a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. Methods A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Results Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. Conclusions No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity. PMID:24915943

  9. Relevance and acceptability of using the Quantiferon gold test (QGIT) to screen CD4 blood draws for latent TB infection among PLHIV in South Africa: formative qualitative research findings from the TEKO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Tudor, Carrie; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Lebina, Limakatso; Qomfu, Cokiswa; Variava, Ebrahim; Chon, Sandy; Martinson, Neil; Golub, Jonathan E

    2018-04-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), despite the availability of effective preventive therapy. The TEKO trial is assessing the impact of using a blood test, Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QGIT), to screen for latent TB compared to the Tuberculin Screening Test (TST) among PLHIV in South Africa. Fifty-six qualitative interviews were conducted with PLHIV and clinical providers participating in the TEKO trial. We explored TB screening, diagnosis, and treatment guidelines and processes and the use of the QGIT to screen for latent TB infection at the time of CD4 blood draw. Thematic content analysis was conducted. Considerable variability in TB screening procedures was documented due to lack of personnel and clarity regarding current national TB guidelines for PLHIV. Few clinics had started using the TST per national guidelines and many patients had never heard of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Nearly all participants supported the idea of latent TB screening using routine blood drawn for CD4 counts. Findings indicate that screening for latent TB infection using QGIT from blood drawn for CD4 counts among PLHIV is an acceptable approach to increase latent TB detection given the challenges associated with ensuring systematic latent TB screening in overburdened public clinics. The results presented here were from formative research related to the TEKO trial (Identifier NCT02119130 , registered 10 April 2014).

  10. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  11. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  12. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  13. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  14. Perceived mHealth barriers and benefits for home-based HIV testing and counseling and other care: Qualitative findings from health officials, community health workers, and persons living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Alastair; Harris, Danielle M; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Ramanathan, Nithya; Ngcobo, Nkosinathi; Mpiyakhe, Zukiswa; Comulada, W Scott

    2017-06-01

    mHealth has been proposed to address inefficiencies in the current South African healthcare system, including home-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) programs. Yet wide-scale adoption of mHealth has not occurred. Even as infrastructure barriers decrease, a need to better understand perceived adoption barriers by stakeholders remains. We conducted focus group discussions (FGD) in South Africa in 2016 with 10 home-based HTC field staff, 12 community health workers (CHWs) and 10 persons living with HIV (PLH). Key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with five health officials. Perceptions about current home-based HTC practices, future mHealth systems and the use of biometrics for patient identification were discussed, recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis. Themes were based on a conceptual model for perceived mHealth service quality. Stakeholders brought up a lack of communication in sharing patient health information between clinics, between clinics and CHWs, and between clinics and patients as major barriers to care that mHealth can address. CHWs need better patient information from clinics in terms of physical location and health status to plan visitation routes and address patient needs. CHWs perceive that communication barriers create distrust towards them by clinic staff. PLH want automated appointment and medication reminders. KI see mHealth as a way to improve health information transfer to government officials to better allocate healthcare resources. Stakeholders are also optimistic about the ability for biometrics to improve patient identification but disagreed as to which biometrics would be acceptable, especially in older patients. All stakeholders provided useful information towards the development of mHealth systems. Hospitals are adopting patient-centered approaches that solicit feedback from patients and incorporate them into decision-making processes. A similar approach is needed in the development of mHealth systems. Further, such

  15. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  16. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. Abstract. South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa and stands at some risk from negative pollution i apa~ To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first attempt toapply the critical loads approach...

  17. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  18. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  19. Biodiversity intactness score for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biggs, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available are to show that the BII can be confidently applied, using available data, at all three gover- nance levels in South Africa (national, provincial, and local), as well as at the ecosystem level. We thereby introduce a tool that could be used to complement... existing methods in reporting on the state of South Africa’s biodiversity, a significant need which has been identified by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).23,38,39 We highlight the implications of our findings for bio...

  20. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  1. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter https://www.policytracker.com/headlines/south­africa­heading­for­dynamic­spectrum­management/?searchterm=lysko 1/2 South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management Sep 26, 2016 by Albert Lysko South... characteristic of rural areas, which traditionally lag behind more commercially attractive urban areas. The technology is a bridge towards fully dynamic spectrum management and 5G. The ability to manage spectrum dynamically should significantly improve the utilization and availability of spectrum, especially in rural areas, as well as...

  2. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  3. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  4. All projects related to south africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South of Sahara, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 503,000.00. Creating a Common Platform for HIV Vaccine Research and HIV Care and Treatment Program. Project. Second only to South Africa in HIV burden, Nigeria's complex ...

  5. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  6. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  7. Post-Apartheid South Africa and United States National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    .... It is based on the realist premise that the U.S. has limited national interests in Sub-Saharan Africa which would be best served by a regional security strategy explicitly predicated on engagement with South Africa...

  8. The uranium industry of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  9. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  10. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  11. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  12. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  13. Women’s Experiences with Oral and Vaginal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: The VOICE-C Qualitative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busiswe; Mathebula, Florence; Schwartz, Katie; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Background In VOICE, a multisite HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, plasma drug levels pointed to widespread product nonuse, despite high adherence estimated by self-reports and clinic product counts. Using a socio-ecological framework (SEF), we explored socio-cultural and contextual factors that influenced participants’ experience of daily vaginal gel and oral tablet regimens in VOICE. Methods In Johannesburg, a qualitative ancillary study was concurrently conducted among randomly selected VOICE participants assigned to in-depth interviews (n = 41), serial ethnographic interviews (n = 21), or focus group discussions (n = 40). Audiotaped interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded thematically for analysis. Results Of the 102 participants, the mean age was 27 years, and 96% had a primary sex partner with whom 43% cohabitated. Few women reported lasting nonuse, which they typically attributed to missed visits, lack of product replenishments, and family-related travel or work. Women acknowledged occasionally skipping or mistiming doses because they forgot, were busy, felt lazy or bored, feared or experienced side effects. However, nearly all knew or heard of other study participants who did not use products daily. Three overarching themes emerged from further analyses: ambivalence toward research, preserving a healthy status, and managing social relationships. These themes highlighted the profound and complex meanings associated with participating in a blinded HIV PrEP trial and taking antiretroviral-based products. The unknown efficacy of products, their connection with HIV infection, challenges with daily regimen given social risks, lack of support–from partners and significant others–and the relationship tradeoffs entailed by using the products appear to discourage adequate product use. Conclusions Personal acknowledgment of product nonuse was challenging. This qualitative inquiry highlighted key influences at all SEF levels that

  14. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  15. Navigating Multiple Sources of Healing in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Wide Availability of Antiretroviral Treatment: A Qualitative Study of Community Participants' Perceptions and Experiences in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuma, Thembelihle; Wight, Daniel; Rochat, Tamsen; Moshabela, Mosa

    2018-01-01

    South Africa introduced the world's largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004 and since 2016 the Department of Health implemented a universal Treatment as Prevention (TasP) strategy. However, some studies have shown that increasing the availability of ART is insufficient for the comprehensive treatment of HIV, since many people still use traditional health practitioners (THPs) to avoid being identified as HIV positive, and for reasons unrelated to HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study explored the factors influencing how both HIV-negative and HIV-positive people choose amongst multiple sources of healing and how they engage with them, in the context of HIV/AIDS and wide availability of ART. Data were collected as part of a larger TasP trial at the Africa Health Research Institute, KwaZulu-Natal. Repeat in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 10 participants. Repeat group discussions were conducted with 42 participants. Group discussion data were triangulated using community walks and photo-voice techniques to give more insight into the perceptions of community members. All data were collected over 18 months. Thematic analysis was used to analyze participants' narratives from both individual interviews and group discussions. In the context of HIV/AIDS and wide availability of ART, use of biomedical and traditional healing systems seemed to be common in this locality. People used THPs to meet family expectations, particularly those of authoritative heads of households such as parents or grandparents. Most participants believed that THPs could address specific types of illnesses, especially those understood to be spiritually caused and which could not be addressed or cured by biomedical practitioners. However, it was not easy for participants to separate some spiritually caused illnesses from biological illnesses in the context of HIV/AIDS. These data demonstrate that in this context, the use of THPs continues regardless of the wide availability

  16. Why are babies born before arrival at health facilities in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka A. Alabi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Babies born before arrival at a health facility have a higher risk of neonatal death and their mothers a higher risk of maternal death compared with those born in-facility. The study explored the reasons for mothers giving birth before arrival (BBA at health facilities and their experiences of BBA. Methods: A qualitative research design was used. Individual and focus group interviews of BBA mothers and of nurses were undertaken at a community health centre and a district hospital in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality. Results: Reasons for BBA included a lack of transport, a lack of security at night that deterred mothers from travelling, precipitate labour, failure to identify true labour, and a lack of waiting areas at health facilities. Traditional and cultural beliefs favouring childbirth at homeand nurses’ negative attitudes during antenatal care and labour influenced mothers to go to health facilities when in advanced labour. Mothers were aware of possible complications associated with BBA. Conclusion: Socio-economic, individual, cultural and health system factors influence the occurrence of BBA. Relevant parties need to address these factors to ensure that all babies in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality are delivered within designated health facilities.

  17. All projects related to south africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and inequality? ... URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, URBAN POPULATION, Gender. Region: Brazil, India, South Africa, United Kingdom.

  18. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  19. Contexts of vulnerability and the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among key populations in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atujuna, Millicent; Newman, Peter A; Wallace, Melissa; Eluhu, Megan; Rubincam, Clara; Brown, Ben; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2018-01-01

    New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs) may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships. We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 48), and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers. The interview guide described pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal rings, rectal microbicides and HIV vaccines, and explored acceptability and product preferences. Focus groups and in-depth interviews (45-80 minutes) were conducted in Xhosa, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded and reviewed using framework analysis with NVivo software. Overall, initial enthusiasm and willingness to use NPTs evolved into concerns about how particular NPTs might affect or require alterations in one's everyday lifestyle and practices. Different product preferences and motivations emerged by population based on similarity to existing practices and contexts of vulnerability. Adult women and female adolescents preferred a vaginal ring and HIV vaccine, motivated by longer duration of protection to mitigate feared repercussions from male partners, including threats to their marriage and safety, and a context of ubiquitous rape. Male adolescents preferred an HIV vaccine, seen as protection in serodiscordant relationships and convenient in obviating the HIV stigma and cost involved in buying condoms. Adult men preferred PrEP, given familiarity with oral medications and mistrust of injections, seen as enabling serodiscordant couples to have a child. MSM preferred a rectal microbicide given familiarity with gel-based lubricants, with concerns about duration of protection in the context of unplanned consensual sex and rape. Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission, rather than

  20. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  1. Decentralization, healthcare access, and inequality in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Margaret S; King, Brian

    2018-04-27

    Healthcare access and utilization remain key challenges in the Global South. South Africa represents this given that more than twenty years after the advent of democratic elections, the national government continues to confront historical systems of spatial manipulation that generated inequities in healthcare access. While the country has made significant advancements, governmental agencies have mirrored international strategies of healthcare decentralization and focused on local provision of primary care to increase healthcare access. In this paper, we show the significance of place in shaping access and health experiences for rural populations. Using data from a structured household survey, focus group discussions, qualitative interviews, and clinic data conducted in northeast South Africa from 2013 to 2016, we argue that decentralization fails to resolve the uneven landscapes of healthcare in the contemporary period. This is evidenced by the continued variability across the study area in terms of government-sponsored healthcare, and constraints in the clinics in terms of staffing, privacy, and patient loads, all of which challenge the access-related assumptions of healthcare decentralization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  3. Contexts of vulnerability and the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among key populations in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millicent Atujuna

    Full Text Available New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships.We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM (n = 48, and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers. The interview guide described pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, vaginal rings, rectal microbicides and HIV vaccines, and explored acceptability and product preferences. Focus groups and in-depth interviews (45-80 minutes were conducted in Xhosa, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded and reviewed using framework analysis with NVivo software.Overall, initial enthusiasm and willingness to use NPTs evolved into concerns about how particular NPTs might affect or require alterations in one's everyday lifestyle and practices. Different product preferences and motivations emerged by population based on similarity to existing practices and contexts of vulnerability. Adult women and female adolescents preferred a vaginal ring and HIV vaccine, motivated by longer duration of protection to mitigate feared repercussions from male partners, including threats to their marriage and safety, and a context of ubiquitous rape. Male adolescents preferred an HIV vaccine, seen as protection in serodiscordant relationships and convenient in obviating the HIV stigma and cost involved in buying condoms. Adult men preferred PrEP, given familiarity with oral medications and mistrust of injections, seen as enabling serodiscordant couples to have a child. MSM preferred a rectal microbicide given familiarity with gel-based lubricants, with concerns about duration of protection in the context of unplanned consensual sex and rape.Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission

  4. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mars

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa.  Future actions are outlined.

  5. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined.

  6. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available as Sustainability Assessment and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been conceptualised and promoted in South Africa. This paper therefore investigates the following questions: Could the South African concept and application of SEA be what is required...

  7. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the kinds of investments and interventions needed to address urban violence. ... in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  9. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  10. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Pillay

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.

  11. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  12. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  13. Consumer attitudes towards radurisation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Olst, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    To gain any insight into consumer attitudes towards radurization in South Africa, it is first of all necessary to pinpoint the consumer. The consumer has to be reached at all levels and must be convinced that radurization is a harmless process. All the indications are there that South African consumer acceptance will come readily once the positive benefits of irradiated food have been adequately publicized. Label and package information create untold problems for the grocery manufacturing and packaging industry. The radiation industry cannot afford to lose consumer confidence. The question is: Must a label be attached to a radurized product or not? The results of the trial marketing campaign have shown that if the correct information is supplied at the right time, the consumer is prepared to accept irradiated food

  14. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  15. Late Departures from Paper-Based to Supported Networked Learning in South Africa: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Illasha; Beter, Petra; Esterhuizen, Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Fragmented connectivity in South Africa is the dominant barrier for digitising initiatives. New insights surfaced when a university-based nursing programme introduced tablets within a supportive network learning environment. A qualitative, explorative design investigated adult nurses' experiences of the realities when moving from paper-based…

  16. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  17. Reflections on Teaching Periodic Table Concepts: A Case Study of Selected Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, Hamza Omari

    2017-01-01

    The Periodic Table of Elements is central to the study of modern Physics and Chemistry. It is however, considered by teachers as difficult to teach. This paper reports on a case study exploring reflections on teaching periodic table concepts in five secondary schools from South Africa. Qualitative methodology of interviews and document analysis…

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  19. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  20. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... With Africa's largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a government eager to play an active role in the promotion of regional peace and stability, South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa...

  1. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  2. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  3. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  4. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavunda, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  5. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  6. Student mobility and doctoral education in South Africa | Sehoole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...

  7. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  8. The contribution of radurization to food provision in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Thomas, A.C.; Hill, N.

    1988-01-01

    The preservation of food by radurization on a limited commercial basis has been practised in South Africa since 1980. High capital costs have, however, had a negative effect on the commercialization of radurization technology. The state of radurization in South Africa is presented. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Government Investment, Growth and Employment in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...

  10. Forest management and water in the Republic of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a semi-arid country with a very limited area of natural forest. The early colonial governments encouraged the establishment of plantations to supply wood for local uses, and South Africa consequently has a long history of plantation...

  11. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  12. Real interest rate persistence in South Africa: Evidence and implications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available literature that examines its long-run properties, surprisingly, there does not exist any study that delves into this issue for South Africa. Given this, using quarterly data (1960:Q2-2010:Q4) for South Africa, our paper endeavors to analyze the long...

  13. All projects related to South Africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will adopt a groundbreaking approach to understanding and responding to urban ... Region: Brazil, South Africa, United Kingdom ... Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it work? ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING, ...

  14. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  15. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  16. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  17. Contextual determinants of adolescent mortality in South Africa | De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...

  18. Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.

  19. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  20. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  1. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  2. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  3. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  4. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  5. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  6. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  7. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  8. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  9. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  10. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO{sub 2} free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible

  11. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO 2 free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible for research and development in

  12. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  13. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  14. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Van de Poel; Christine Fourie; Karen Seberechts

    2013-01-01

    South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet t...

  15. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.; Ainslie, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  16. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynard, H J; Ainslie, L C [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  17. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism. Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education. Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region. Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting South Africa.

  18. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    OpenAIRE

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination. Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African To...

  19. Supply chain bottlenecks in the South African construction industry: Qualitative insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poobalan Pillay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The construction industry in South Africa has a lot of potential but its performance is still restricted by numerous internal and external challenges. Unless these challenges are identified and understood better, further growth of this industry is likely to be hindered, which has negative economic implications for the South African economy. Objectives: This study investigated supply chain bottlenecks faced by the construction industry in South Africa. It also discussed solutions for addressing the identified bottlenecks in order to facilitate the continued development of supply chain management in the construction industry. Method: The study used a qualitative approach in which in-depth interviews were held with purposively selected senior managers drawn from the construction industry in South Africa. Content analysis using ATLAS.ti software was employed to identify the themes from the collected data. Findings: The findings of the study showed that supply chain management in the construction industry in South Africa is constrained by five major bottlenecks: skills and qualifications, procurement practices and systems, supply chain integration, supply chain relationships and the structure of the construction industry. Recommendations for addressing each of these five challenges were put forward. Conclusion: The study concludes that both awareness and application of supply chain management in the construction industry in South Africa remains inhibited, which creates opportunities for further improvements in this area to realise the full potential of the industry.

  20. Psychoanalysis in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Storck-van Reenen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.

  1. Health promotion capacity building in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Health promotion in South Africa is in its early stages and while there is some institutional development and capacity building for managers, there has been relative disregard and lack of attention of the wider health promotion workforce who carry out community-based health promotion activities. This article describes one regional education and training programme for health promoters as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project on learners and organizations. Marked differences before and after the implementation of the training activities were reported in relation to behaviour change communication and project planning, in addition to self-reported positive change in knowledge, confidence and a high level of participant satisfaction. Investment in individual skills development needs to be accompanied by wider workforce development with organizational/institutional development and recognised competencies frameworks.

  2. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V.

    2000-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Matcom 86: Engineering materials in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium MATCOM '86 represents a significant departure from the usual format of scientific and engineering conferences. It provides a unique opportunity for industrialists, economists, the engineering and scientific communities, and research and development establishments to be briefed on critical issues relating to engineering materials and the effect of these materials on the manufacturing, service, health, strategic and minerals industries. Profitability and productivity in industry can often be linked to engineering materials and their in-service performance. Major surveys conducted in South Africa and developed countries have revealed the significance of losses to industry due to materials degradation problems such as fracture, wear, corrosion etc. One of the papers delivered at this symposium focus on the nuclear engineering industry, namely the application of materials in the field of uranium enrichment

  4. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V

    2000-07-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  5. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  6. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  7. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  8. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  9. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  10. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A D; Grobbelaar, C J; Asamoah, J K [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  11. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.

  12. Exploring the epistemology of transdisciplinarity in public policy and administration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka A. Ndaguba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address and direct future research collaboration in public policy and administration from a transdisciplinary perspective in South Africa, by answering three major questions: Firstly, how can public administration be understood from a transdisciplinary perspective? To demonstrate the development of public administration vis-a-vis trends in contemporary public policy and administration in South Africa? And establish the scope for future collaborative research in public policy and administration from a transdisciplinarity perspective in South Africa? This article uses themes in the qualitative realm to provide answers to the research aims: two special editions of Future, Transdisciplinary Manifesto and over 100 journal articles were read and scanned to provide evidence for the arguments in this article. It concludes that the need for transdisciplinarity in public policy and administration cannot be undermined or overlooked as a result of depleting strategies, theories, models and frameworks in resolving complex society quagmires from a disciplinary or interdisciplinary nomenclature.

  13. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  14. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  15. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  16. Regional Dimensions of South Africa's CAADP Process: Lessons from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Staaz, John; Boughton, Duncan; Diallo, Boubacar; Meyer, Ferdinand; Minde, Issac Joseph; Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Tschirley, David

    2015-01-01

    Regional spillovers offer prospects for accelerating Africa’s agricultural productivity growth, market development and food security. West Africa has recognised and embraced the importance of regional technology transfers, agricultural commodity trade, food security monitoring and agricultural planning. In order for the Southern African region to follow suit, South Africa’s country Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) plan will need to recognise the country’s c...

  17. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  18. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ajuruchukwu Obi; Sanelise Tafa

    2016-01-01

    South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN). Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the perc...

  19. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available of such functions, determined from forestry trial data in South Africa, are shown below. Harrison et al. (1994) give the following result for P. patula in Nelshoogte, South Africa: Vste, . = Vf~,,at(1- exp(-0.141 l(1-0.6782exp(-O.OO13TP))i)) 3"°935 with n = 218... an expected life of more than 20 years. In South Africa most construction timber falls into this category, as well as timber destined to be permanently buried underground as mine supports. The C stored in timber products can be calculated as: Cp = ~aVkPk E...

  20. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhabor Sunday Idemudia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life’s challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. METHODS: Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. RESULTS: Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration, during the immigration journey (mid-migration, and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration. While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed

  1. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday; Williams, John K; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life's challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration), during the immigration journey (mid-migration), and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration). While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed. Recommendations advocating for culturally congruent mental health research

  2. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  3. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  4. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  5. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurner, Thomas W.; Varughese, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  6. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  7. Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency departments and nuclear medicine.1 Added to this is the periodic need ... electrophysiology in the paediatric population in South Africa were not found. ..... to inadequate information technology infrastructure as well as limited data ...

  8. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  9. All projects related to South Africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / South Africa ... WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender ... over minor variants of existing products, both in developed and developing countries.

  10. an introduction to the exploration of congregations in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is to describe a framework for doing significant practical theological research, but also ... the research produced through theses, dissertations, journal articles and books make .... The quality of doctoral education in South Africa : A question of.

  11. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal ... will in government, a need to restore citizen trust in government intention and capability ... services, and a failure to up-scale existing water re-use technology.

  12. South Africa's SAFARI From nuclear weapons to nuclear medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, such as power generation and nuclear ... Building on its nuclear expertise, South Africa has become one of the world's ... By converting its nuclear reactor, SAFARI-1, to produce and supply medical ...

  13. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  14. Uptake and early removals of Implanon NXT in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coverage over the past two decades.[3,4]. In South Africa (SA), .... with dealing with implant side-effects, counselling and management, and removal. ..... social franchising: The experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali. Glob Health: Sci ...

  15. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Management of diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prediabetes: a focus on the role of diabetes education in prevention of type 2 ...

  16. South Africa. The dawn of the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forder, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Procurement of renewable energy from Independent Power Producers is well underway in South Africa in a programme that targets 3,725 MW by 2015. Wind and solar feature prominently in the initial phase. (orig.)

  17. Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major championship event. ... from the less developed and developing context from an impact perspective. ... participated in various tourism activities that contributed to the local economy.

  18. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  19. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, 2004. ... Bradshaw D, Kielkowski D, Sitas F. New birth and death registration forms – A foundation for ...

  20. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, coagulopathy may not be identified until the patient manifests with ... To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA). Methods. ... that its greatest value is in identifying those patients who do ...

  1. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. ... Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. ... is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims.

  2. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa. ... whether informed consent as envisioned by the law exists in reality. Cross-cultural research is needed to clarify patients' and parents' expectations of informed consent ...

  3. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  4. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  5. Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatrists in South Africa to meet the country's needs. There are even fewer .... criminal justice system to hospital and or community mental health placements ... administrative meetings, other judicial activities and other clinical services4,9 ...

  6. All projects related to South Africa | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... Region: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Zambia, Poland, South Africa ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  7. Industrial heritage tourism at the 'Big Hole', Kimberley, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as well as lack of leadership and strategic direction for tourism development at the local government level. These issues must be addressed if heritage tourism in South Africa is to contribute successfully to local economic development.

  8. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  9. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  10. Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa | Strydom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the ...

  11. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  12. The transformation of municipal development planning in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): Impressions and impasse. ... Town and Regional Planning ... In South Africa, the government's transformation process, which effectively started in 1994, not only resulted in a new democracy, a new governmental dispensation or a 'new ...

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  14. Methods for design flood estimation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ... This paper reviews methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa and .... transposition of past experience, or a deterministic approach,.

  15. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  16. First-order regional seismotectonic model for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A first-order seismotectonic model was created for South Africa. This was done using four logical steps: geoscientific data collection, characterisation, assimilation and zonation. Through the definition of subunits of concentrations of earthquake...

  17. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers' perspectives. ... This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation ... Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and ...

  18. Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... freshwaters, implemented through a water resource classifica- tion system ... piled for each of South Africa's 19 Water Management Areas, which are ..... et al., 2011) and integrated water and land-use prioritisation. (Nel et al.

  19. Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change and ... Decreasing food availability for wildlife is likely to exacerbate the impacts of climate change ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  20. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  2. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's ... dairy industry and calculated from the number of dairy producers per province .... provincial basis were sourced from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA), the ...

  3. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. South Africa's hydropolitical history: actors, actions, roles, and responsibilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Findlater, KM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the arrival of the Dutch in 1652, water resource development in South Africa has been driven by political ideology and rising demand for limited resources, forcing major changes in policy and institutional capacity over time. Understanding...

  6. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  7. Performance of autopsies in South Africa: Selected legal and ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... In South Africa, academic and/or anatomical pathology autopsies are conducted in terms ... She is involved in the co-ordination of the academic programme in the department and teaching of undergraduate ... The incidence.

  8. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources...

  9. Access to Justice in South Africa: Are there Enough Lawyers?

    OpenAIRE

    David Mcquoid-Mason

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses head on the contention by a prominent legal practitioner in South Africa that there are too many lawyers in the country. It does not canvass the complex issues involved in determining the meaning of access to justice or the relationship between law and society in the context of legal services, and deals with access to justice in the narrow sense of the delivery of legal services in South Africa. The paper analyses the evidence presented to substantiate the contention that...

  10. Some examples of tactical crime mapping in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica AntonyCooperandPeterSchmitz icomtek,CSIR,POBox395,Pretoria,0001,SouthAfrica Email:acooper@csir.co.za,pschmitz@csir.co.za 7January2002 1.Background TheCouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR)isoneofeightstatutoryScienceCouncils in...,especiallyPietByleveld,Andrew Davidson,BarkiesBarkhuizen,GerritRobbertse,KevinRossouwandChrisNaude. 6.References AntonyKCooper,PietByleveldandPeterMUSchmitz,“UsingGIStoreconcilecrimesceneswith thoseindicatedbyserialcriminals”,paperpresentedattheFifthInternationalCrime Mapping...

  11. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  12. Theories of distributive justice and post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Carl

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism rec...

  13. Intellectual capital management in a retail company in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. The competitive landscape in the retail sector in South Africa is changing, and new models of competitiveness are needed to deal with the challenges ahead. The responses that usually occur in relation to the above statement reveal a new competitive reality, demanding that the organisation’s capabilities will enable the retail company in South Africa to better serve their customers and to differentiate them from competitors. This dissertation is about determining the status of the meas...

  14. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  15. South Africa: time is ripe for independent power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.

    2009-09-15

    Africa's biggest producer of electricity Eskom, is at a crossroad. Almost 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated by coal-fired power stations. On-off plans for nuclear power seem to be 'on' again and the regulatory red tape that has thwarted independent power producers could be cut. 3 photos.

  16. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  17. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  18. Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-Saharan Africa. However, the country has also experienced defi cits in net international migration relative to the core Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) region of the world system. The tentative conclusion to be drawn from. South Africa's involvement in international migration is that it has ...

  19. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  20. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  1. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  2. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  4. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  5. Marine fisheries monitoring programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayekiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was an early leader in multidisciplinary studies of marine resources, particularly with the Benguela Ecology Programme in the 1980s and 1990s and catch records are available for some species dating back more than a century. Resources data have focused on trends in catches, fishing effort and changes in distribution and abundance of harvested resources, which often account for a major part of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Data have been collected by means of fishery-dependent and fishery-independent survey techniques appropriate to each particular stock and analysed using traditional single species stock assessment techniques. The data are complemented by comprehensive information on the environment and top predators and have been analysed using trophodynamic models such as Ecopath with Ecosim. Future approaches include a shift to an ecosystem approach to fisheries monitoring and management, in an attempt to reconcile utilisation and biodiversity conservation objectives. Despite these scientific achievements, the single species approach to the management of most resources still persists, with only limited interactions between competing species or predators and prey being formally taken into account when modelling the stock dynamics and providing management advice to the authorities.

  6. Costs involved in using a cochlear implant in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Robyn Kerr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation is an expensive but effective lifelong intervention for individuals with a severe-to-profound hearing loss. The primary aim of this study was to survey the short- and long-term costs of cochlear implantation. Individuals (N=154 using cochlear implants obtained from the University of Stellenbosch-Tygerberg Hospital Cochlear Implant Unit in Cape Town, South Africa were surveyed using a questionnaire and patient record review. The questionnaire used a combination of closed and open-ended questions to gather both quantitative and qualitative information. Costs were categorised as short- and long-term costs. All costs were converted to constant rands (June 2010 using the Consumer Price Index to allow for comparison in real terms over time. In the first 10 years of implantation the average estimated costs incurred by adults totalled R379 626, and by children R455 225. The initial purchase of the implant system was the most substantial cost, followed by upgrading of the processor. Travel and accommodation costs peaked in the first 2 years. On average the participants spent R2 550 per year on batteries and spares. Rehabilitation for children cost an average of R7 200. Insurance costs averaged R4 040 per year, and processor repairs R3 000 each. In addition to the upfront expense of obtaining the cochlear implant system, individuals using a cochlear implant in South Africa should be prepared for the long-term costs of maintenance, accessing the unit, support services and additional costs associated with use. Knowledge of these costs is important to ensure that individuals are successful users of their cochlear implants in the long term.

  7. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million, respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future.

  8. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  9. South Africa. Closure plan of an operation at LILW repository in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Vaalputs, the South African, National Radioactive Waste Management Facility, is situated in an area of the Northern Cape Province and is operated by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited. Screening and site selection lasted from 1978-1984, construction took place from 1984 to 1986. The waste received is predominantly from the Koeberg nuclear power station and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste is disposed of in a near surface disposal facility in clay. Two trenches were excavated for use, one is used for concrete containers and one for other waste, mostly compressed trash in 200-liter drums. No capping of trenches has taken place as it was originally anticipated that the trenches would be capped after being filled. Much slower delivery of waste packages and other problems has led to a process of temporary capping

  10. The impact of fear, secrecy, and stigma on parental disclosure of HIV status to children: a qualitative exploration with HIV positive parents attending an ART clinic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Sphiwe

    2012-11-28

    South Africa is one of the sub Saharan countries where considerable progress in providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been made. The increased access to ART contributes to improvements in the prognosis of HIV and parents are more likely to raise their children than ever before. The study examined the social context influencing disclosure of parental HIV status to children from the perspectives of fathers and mothers accessing ART from an academic hospital in South Africa. Three focus group interviews were conducted with 26 non-disclosed biological parents of children aged between 7 and 18 years. Their ages ranged between 20-60 years and they cared for a total of 60 children. Parental decision not to disclose their HIV status to children was influenced by the fear of death and dying, the influence of television and media, stigma and discrimination. Parents delayed disclosure of their HIV status to children because children believed that AIDS kills. Parents also feared that the child may not be able to keep the parent's HIV status secret and might result in the family being subjected to stigma, discrimination, and isolation. Fear of stigma and discrimination were also responsible for the continuous efforts by parents to protect their HIV status from their children, family and neighbour's. Parents also delayed disclosure to children because they lacked disclosure skills and needed support for disclosure from health care providers. Healthcare providers are in a unique position to provide such support and guidance and assist parents to disclose and children to cope with parental HIV infection.

  11. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  12. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  13. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country's infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country's energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry

  14. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  15. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa | Mokgoro | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not ... In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a ... Ubuntu can therefore become central to a new South African jurisprudence ...

  16. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  17. Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events. Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, ...

  18. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  19. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  20. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL ... Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, Europe, Russia, North and ... Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... area and makes a substantial contribution to the country's balance of payments.

  1. Experience in marketing irradiated food in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.P.N.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is acknowledged as being one of the leaders in the field of food irradiation. This paper will be divided into three major sections: 1. A background of South African radiation facilities, population demographics and the retail market. 2. Commercial marketing trials, reasons and consumer reaction. 3. The future of radiation for possible food processing and its safe introduction to society

  2. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  3. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  4. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  5. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  6. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  7. Stem cell tourism in South Africa: The legal position | Mahomed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem cell tourism has become a common phenomenon worldwide and is increasingly affecting South Africa, as is evident from recent media reports. We examine the South African legal framework regulating stem cell therapy, focusing first on the effects of unproven stem cell treatments, and provide recommendations that ...

  8. A strategic promotion of language use in multilingual South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents and discusses strategies for encouraging the use of all official languages in South Africa from a language management perspective. Although the South African language policy has been commended for its multilingual nature, the implementation of the policy is still problematic. Hence, I argue that we ...

  9. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, ...

  10. Quality assurance in diabetic retinal screening in South Africa | Cook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... external quality assurance (EQA) on graders registered in the Ophthalmological Society of South Africa DR screening programme. Methods. Graders registered on the South African (SA) Diabetic Register website were invited to participate in the study. The Scottish EQA software system was used to enable on-line grading ...

  11. Chemistry in South Africa - yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The jubilee convention of the South African Chemical Institute covered the development of chemistry in South Africa. Specialists in the field of chemistry covered topics with reference to organic chemistry, extraction metallurgy, analytical chemistry, mass spectroscopy, instrumentation, theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry, chromatography, industrial chemistry and solid state chemistry

  12. Religion and Political Violence in Apartheid South Africa | Matheba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In analyzing religion and violence in apartheid South Africa, the article expresses the hope that churches and other civil society organs will reclaim their watchdog role in entrenching democracy even more deeply in a post-apartheid South African society. (The Journal of Cultural Studies: 2001 3(1): 108-123) ...

  13. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, up to 70% of children of school-going age with disabilities are out of school. Of those who do attend, most are still in separate, “special” schools for learners with disabilities. This situation prevails despite the push for the educational inclusion of learners with disabilities over twelve years ago by the South ...

  14. Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Projections and the Spectrum model program developed by the Futures Group were used to model the South African HIV epidemic, project future trends in HIV/AIDS and estimate the demographic impact of AIDS.

  15. Evaluating 5 years' NIMART mentoring in South Africa's HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating 5 years' NIMART mentoring in South Africa's HIV treatment programme: Successes, challenges and future needs. ... South African Medical Journal ... targeted mentoring was introduced; this increased the percentage of primary nurses eligible for DoH certificates of clinical competence in NIMART from 12%, ...

  16. Inflation perceptions and inflation expectation in South Africa: trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a multinomial analysis of inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in South Africa. Inflation perceptions surveys among South African individuals have been undertaken since 2006. The introduction of these surveys followed on domestic inflation expectation surveys conducted in 2000, ...

  17. All projects related to south africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CUSTOMARY LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY. Region: South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 314,700.00. Involvement of the Private Security Sector in African Conflicts, Peacekeeping and ...

  18. All projects related to south africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political Participation Help? ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, United Kingdom, United States, South ... Livestock production is a critical industry in Africa, but suffers large losses to ... A Critical Assessment of Whether Forgiving Crimes of the Past Contributes to ...

  19. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All

  20. Exploring writing institutes for teachers in South Africa | Dippenaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thousand teachers in the US participate each year in these invitational summer institutes, which are based on the NWP's model of teachers teaching teachers. The US Embassy's Regional English Language Office in South Africa collaborated with directors of writing projects in the United States, and South Africans ...

  1. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING, RESEARCH RESULTS, PERIODICALS. Région: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa. Financement total : CA$ 128,000.00. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits exploitants aux marchés dynamiques. Projet. Les marchés ...

  2. South Africa's Nuclear Diplomacy Since the Termination of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South ...

  3. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  4. South African Corporations and post-Apartheid Expansion in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the early 2000s, South African mining and industrial corporations, financial institutions and even some medium-sized enterprises have once again asserted their role as a dominant force in the SADC region. South Africa's economic expansion is sometimes portrayed as a one-way process, where local environments and ...

  5. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diale, M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available acknowledged the success of women in Physics in South Africa (WiPiSA) by continuous funding. Different universities have graduated a woman in physics PhD while there are women professors in different institutions. The president of the South African institute...

  6. Looking Back at Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative picture of doctoral education in South Africa up to 2010, from the time the first doctorate was awarded in 1899. It identifies the different institutional profiles and emphases of doctoral graduation in South African universities at various periods of time in the context of economic, political and social…

  7. Epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandir Ramlagan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance

  8. Molecular diagnostics of Rickettsia africae infection in travelers returning from South Africa to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Groen, Emilie J.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Vries, Peter J.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Sprong, Hein; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is frequently diagnosed in The Netherlands in travelers returning from South Africa. It is caused by Rickettsia africae and diagnosis is based on travel history and clinical presentation and usually confirmed by detecting serum antibodies against rickettsiae of the

  9. Advantages and pitfalls of South Africa-Angola strategic alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Owing to a shortage of South African research focusing on international strategic alliances, this study aimed to determine whether the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances referred to in international business publications are also applicable to South African international strategic alliances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This was a formal, empirical study that targeted the 163 South African enterprises which were members of the South African-Angolan Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and 2006. Findings: The results identified joint ventures as the most prominent mode of entry when expanding into developing countries and, with few exceptions, the findings support the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances identified in other international publications. Value of the research: A great deal of international management research over the years has been focused on the importance of strategic alliances as a mode of entry, as well as on the pitfalls experienced by alliance partners, particularly in developed countries. However, the lack of such research in Africa in general and South Africa in particular means that South African enterprises must base their entry mode selection on non-South African research findings, and although this sample size was small, the lack of other Africa-specific research makes this research significant. Implications: With South Africa being the largest source of FDI into the rest of Africa, the findings of this paper show that South African enterprises can attain the advantages associated with international strategic alliances when using this mode of entry into Africa. In terms of pitfalls, the findings highlight the need for multinational enterprises to pay specific attention to the role of governments when forming strategic alliances.

  10. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  11. South Africa after sanctions. Reentering the aerospace market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anon

    1994-09-01

    South Africa has reentered the world market with a closely focused, aggressive series of industrial programs. Nowhere is this more evident than in aeronautics and space disciplines, particularly those in which the nation has long experience. The South African Air Force (SAAF), affected by the worldwide defense drawdown, has centered its efforts on bush war-fighting capability, an area where it has unique experience. In the same way Denel, one of South Africa's most secret defense companies, has opened its once classified doors, converted its military satellite program into Greensat, and is now looking for civilian customers.

  12. Journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Hoskins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on part of a survey that investigated journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa. A study population consisting of 17 university libraries in South Africa was surveyed by means of an online questionnaire to establish the factors that influenced journal cancellations. Interpretation of the results revealed that South African university libraries, like most academic and research libraries world wide, have been adversely affected by high priced journal subscriptions and many libraries have simply cancelled subscriptions to pay for ongoing subscriptions. Recommendations are made about enhancing library budgets and access to usage statistics, supporting consortia and avoiding restrictive journal packages.

  13. Hearing screening procedures and protocols in use at immunisation clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Petrocchi-Bartal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There exists a need for context-relevant research aimed at facilitating the efficacious provision of early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the hearing screening procedures and protocols as well as referral protocols in use at maternal child woman’s health (MCWH immunisation clinics in South Africa. Method: Thirty primary health care immunisation clinic managers or acting managers were interviewed in two South African sample groups. An exploratory, non-experimental,qualitative research design was employed incorporating both quantitative and qualitative information. An interview using a questionnaire was administered with all participants. The questionnaire encompassed areas such as work contexts, hearing screening contexts and information management systems, as well as quality control measures in place at these clinics.Content analysis was then used to code emergent themes into specific categories. Frequency calculations of these themes were calculated and results described qualitatively. Results: No primary health care (PHC clinics placed within the identified sites provided formalised new-born/infant hearing screening and none of these facilities had equipment to do so. Most sites attributed the lack of formalised hearing screening to budgetary and human resource issues, staff training in particular. Non-formalised hearing screening protocols in place demonstrated inconsistencies in application across districts and none complied with Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA clinic guidelines or any international guidelines. Conclusion: Results from the current study have assisted in identifying procedural and logistical assets and barriers to implementation of HPCSA clinic guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI at immunisation clinics in South Africa.

  14. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, F.C. de [Radiation Sciences, Research and Development, Necsa (South Africa)], E-mail: Frikkie.DeBeer@necsa.co.za; Botha, H. [South African Institute for Objects Conservation, Twee Riviere, Eastern Cape (South Africa); Ferg, E. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Grundlingh, R. [South African Institute for Objects Conservation, Twee Riviere, Eastern Cape (South Africa); Smith, A. [National Cultural History Museum, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-06-21

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  15. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  16. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Botha, H.; Ferg, E.; Grundlingh, R.; Smith, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  17. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  18. South Africa National Presentation on RAF 0033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpoza, N

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Policy was approved in June 2008 focusing on ring-fencing nuclear activities and giving them dedication that contributes towards climate change mitigation. Contributing towards security of supply, efforts through diversification of the electricity generation mix, calls for the formation of a nuclear industry in South Africa (SA). To promote nuclear energy as an important electricity supply option, there was establishment of national industrial capability for the design, manufacture and construction of energy systems. This contribute to national program of social and economic transformation, growth and development, and Guide in the actions to develop, promote, support, enhance, sustain and monitor the nuclear energy sector in SA. Attainment of global leadership and self-sufficiency in the nuclear energy sector is a long term exercise that will control over unprocessed uranium ore for export purposes for the benefit of SA economy. There is an endeavour to implement or obtain interest in the complete nuclear fuel cycle and allow participation of public entities in the uranium value chain. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and skills development related to nuclear energy need to be improved. The Nuclear Energy Strategy and Implementation Plan Working Group was established in order to finalize the strategy to implement the Nuclear Energy Policy, as guided by the Country’s Integrated Resource Plan (IRP). To analyze the current legislative framework governing the nuclear sector and Identify gaps in current legislative and regulatory framework and the international legal instruments required to facilitate the decision. NEPIC (Nuclear Energy Policy Implementing Committee) was mandated to study issues and conditions necessary for successful implementation of nuclear power

  19. Hydropedological interpretation of arid soilscapes, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnefeld, Martin; Van Tol, Jacobus; Le Roux, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Hydropedological investigations in arid regions are scarce due to the low the low contribution of these areas to water resources. Infrequent rainfall and few flow events also complicates measurements hydrological studies. Hydropedological studies, relating soil morphological properties and their spatial distribution to hydrological response, have been studied in detail in semi-arid, temperate, and sub-humid regions. In this paper, we investigated the relation between soil morphological properties and selected hydrological properties of soils in an arid landscape. We also studied the spatial distribution of the morphological properties to conceptualise the hydrological behaviour of different soilscapes in the area. A total of 806 soil profiles, covering an area of 4836 ha in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa were described and classified. The geology is dominated by Dwyka tillite overlain by aeolian sands with scattered Dolerite buttes. Thirteen modal profiles, representing the dominant soils types were selected, sampled at horizon level, and analysed for pH, CEC, iron, manganese, carbonate content. In situ measurements of saturated and near saturated (tension) hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were conducted to determine the water conducting macroporosity (WCM). Undisturbed cores were collected on which water retention characteristics were determined under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that dry soil colour, degree of structure development and the presence, absence, and abundance of carbonates as well as the degree of precipitation, are important indicators of hydrological response. For example; grey soils typically have lower Ks with higher storage capacity than soils dominated by red colours, whereas abundant carbonate precipitations in the soil matrix have lower WCM due to clogging of macropores. The dominant soil distribution pattern indicates that rapid vertical flow, through and out of the pedon, might contribute to recharge of an accumulative

  20. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  1. Internal audit disclosures in annual reports of metropolitan municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of internal audit in governance contributes significantly to accountability. However, its work is limited to internal use, and as such, it does not provide external stakeholders with information about the accountability contributions made by the internal audit function (IAF. The assurance provided by internal audit is equally important as the assurance provided by external auditors. Arguments exist that the inclusion of internal audit disclosure in public annual reports could contribute significantly to transparency and accountability in respect of municipalities. Literature suggest that the advantages of internal audit disclosure outweigh its disadvantages. This paper reports on the extent of internal audit disclosure in the eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa for the 2012/2013 financial year. To achieve the objective set out in this paper, a mixed method approach was followed. A qualitative content analysis (deductive and inductive was performed. Qualitative text was displayed showing evidence of the disclosure item (visual presentation of quotes. To complement the qualitative text, Atlas.Ti was further utilised to quantify the codes which showed the differences in the disclosure practices of IAFs across metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results of this study show evidence of internal audit disclosure in annual reports despite the fact that no legislative requirements exist for internal audit to report in annual reports of municipalities. The extent and the nature of disclosure varied across metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results of this paper could be used to assist with establishing policy guidelines for internal audit disclosure.

  2. The transition to general management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Mallaby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the nature and challenges of making the transition from a functional role to a general management role in South African organisations. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to gain insight into the obstacles that affect the transition from functional to general management and identify steps that may be taken to overcome these challenges. Motivation for the study: One of the most difficult crossroads for a manager is making the shift from being a functional specialist to becoming a general manager. New competencies and behaviours are required, as well as a more strategic mind set. If the transition is not made successfully, the manager and the organisation suffer. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative design was used consisting of in-depth, semi-structured interviews, with 19 senior business leaders who had successfully made the transition. The interviews were used to gather insights into the challenges they faced during their transitions, and how these were overcome. Main findings: To make the transition successfully, functional managers need to gain relevant experience to prepare them for the broader scope of a general management role. They need to develop appropriate skills, attitudes and personal characteristics. Mentoring is an effective development process. Newly appointed general managers need to learn to let go of control while maintaining ownership, build relationships and strike the right balance between strategic thinking and execution. There are unique aspects of being a general manager in South Africa, such as dealing with Black Economic Empowerment and challenges of race and identity, given the country’s history. Practical and managerial implications: Specific interventions are suggested which are directed at both aspiring general managers and organisations seeking to assist middle managers to make the transition to general managers. Contribution: This study contributes to

  3. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The Union of South Africa's military involvement in the Korean War was an exercise in political maneuvering as opposed to one of any great military significance.1 South Africa's new right wing ...

  4. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  6. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Surona; Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-02-18

    The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors' hours.

  7. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  8. Psychiatric Contributions from South Africa: Ex Africa Semper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that humans originated in Africa, it is likely that many seminal psychological observations and interventions originate in the continent. Relatively little attention has been paid, however, to more recent African contributions to the scientific fields of psychiatry and clinical psychology. This article notes that a number of ...

  9. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanga, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  10. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  11. Introduction to South Africa's safety classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung Jun; Wu, Sang Ik; Yoon, Juh Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The safety functions of nuclear reactor facilities such as research reactors have to be maintained for all initiating events, incidents and accidents. From the position of licensee, it is a very important issue and design challenge to meet the licensing requirements for the final goal of proper safety functions from nuclear regulator. This paper intends to introduce and understand South Africa's licensing requirements and processing for safety classification of SSCs. South Africa's licensing requirements are shown in Table 1. Three categories A, B and C are categorized based on the occurrence frequency and the dose limitation of worker and public exposure. The Defense in Depth (DiD) and ALARA principle are forced to apply to a nuclear reactor facility design. Also, South Africa's safety and quality class compare with that of ANSI 51.1.

  12. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa......, that recognized the injustices of the past and would be built on fundamental human rights and justice for all no matter their race, ethnicity, or economic power. South Africa has moved a long way in developing a democratic society. The emergence of this book is the result of a collaborative effort of people...... with diverse cultural, social and ethnic roots, who share a common belief in the development of a just and equal society, and who share a specific interest in developing schools as a fundamental element in developing this equal and just society....

  13. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist.  Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.

  14. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  15. The specialist physician's approach to rheumatoid arthritis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Frederik C J; Bosch, Fredricka J; van Rensburg, Barend J Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase in Africa and South Africa. Due to the low numbers of rheumatologists in South Africa, specialist physicians also have to care for patients with RA. Furthermore several new developments have taken place in recent years which improved the management and outcome of RA. Classification criteria were updated, assessment follow-up tools were refined and above all, several new biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were developed. Therefore it is imperative for specialist physicians to update themselves with the newest developments in the management of RA. This article provides an overview of the newest developments in the management of RA in the South African context. This approach may well apply to countries with similar specialist to patient ratios and disease profiles.

  16. A brief description of South Africa's present-day climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available positive chill units. 31 Winter (Apr - Sep) CASE STUDY - Global change impacts on agriculture and water: South Africa?s Garden Route 33 7 Global change and human health 35 CASE STUDY - Environmental health: Bridging the gap between traditional... days). Annual (Jan - Dec) 31 Map 6.2 Intermediate future - present (degree days). Accumulated heat units. 31 Annual (Jan - Dec) Map 6.3 Accumulated positive chill units. Winter (Apr - Sep) 31 Map 6.4 Intermediate future - present. Accumulated...

  17. Adventure tourism in South Africa: Challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Giddy, Julia Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    There is great potential for the development of adventure tourism in Southern Africa for a number of reasons. One is the variety of landscapes provided by South Africa's natural environment that are suitable for adventure tourism activities, many of which remain relatively pristine. In addition, the development of adventure tourism has significant potential to uplift local communities through local economic development strategies due to the relatively low capital needed to establish many acti...

  18. Formative Reflections of University Recreation Science Students in South Africa as Catalyst for an Adapted Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Anneliese; van der Klashorst, Engela; Kluka, Darlene A.; van Wyk, Johannes G. U.

    2016-01-01

    Community-university partnerships through service-learning have progressively developed as part of institutions of higher education's mission statements. This paper explores the qualitative reflections of 410 undergraduate students enrolled in an academic recreation science course on a first time service-learning experience in South Africa. The…

  19. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa at the global education market: role of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil Ravilevich Asmyatullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of the higher education in Sub-Saharan countries, particularly to the topic of internationalization of education. Most African countries have underdeveloped education systems. The quality and availability of higher education is a formidable obstacle for economic and social development. There is a growing demand for higher education in the SSA, but national education systems can’t cope fully with it. Hence many students go abroad, mostly in other African countries. The article focuses on the position of South Africa in the global and regional education market. As it’s a regional leader in this field South Africa attracts more than a half of international students within the Sub-Saharan Africa. The main reasons why African students choose South Africa are geographic proximity, familiar culture, lack of wanted higher education programs in their countries. However, there are as well disadvantages like xenophobia and race discrimination. South Africa has become a leader in Africa in the field of higher education, but it plays still small part at a global scale.

  2. phobia and women's sport in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex tests (or 'gender verification' and 'femininity tests' as they are also sometimes ..... sports, self-identified lesbian women, such as Phumla Masuku, Gloria. Hlalele and Portia ..... Sexual diversity in Africa: Politics, theory, citizenship. Quebec ...

  3. South Africa prepares for democracy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    -apartheid movement both inside the country and in exile ... Malaria - Africa's silent tsunami ... The search for an HIV vaccine is shifting from labs in North America and Europe, to include a greater number of African institutions.

  4. Substance Use and Abuse in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa: Insights from Brain and. Behavioural ... and neuro-psychology, and human genetics to economics and mathematics. As such, it represents an active cohort of researchers and practitioners working in the area of substance use and abuse.

  5. Production, Inequality and Poverty linkages in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Ngepah

    2011-01-01

    The Kuznets inequality-development hypothesis can be tested with time-series data rather than the cross-section analyses found in earlier literature. Single-country time-series analysis cannot be done without addressing endogeneity between output and inequality. South Africa has been under-researched in this area due to a lack of data. Recent data released by the Presidency of South Africa makes such analysis possible. Besides, the use of a single inequality index in such a multiracial societ...

  6. Dye solar cells ( and PV's) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available ’s) in South Africa Lukas le Roux February 2006 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Various institutions are doing research on photovoltaics in South Africa. Although the CSIR is the only one that does research on DSC's there is significant... as the DSC research at the CSIR, which will include specific topics and problems. More information will be give on the "collaboration plan" between the CSIR and Dyesol. Abstract © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Geographical Location UWC...

  7. Financial Globalisation and Sectoral Reallocation of Capital in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ziv Chinzara; Radhika Lahiri; En Te chen

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of financial globalisation on intra-sector and inter-sector firm level reallocation of capital in South Africa using panel data for the period 1991-2008. The measure of efficient reallocation of capital is based on the variation of firm's marginal returns to capital around the optimal level, while the measure of financial globalisation is constructed by tracing the financial reforms/restrictions that took place in South Africa since the 1970s. We find that financ...

  8. Sleights of Hand: South Africa's Gold Mines and Occupational Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Jock

    2016-02-01

    South Africa's gold mines were the first to compensate silicosis and tuberculosis as occupational diseases. They were also the first mines to introduce a state-sanctioned regime of medical surveillance. Despite those innovations, the major mining houses are currently facing class actions by former miners with occupational lung disease. The obvious reason for this medical and legislative failure is to be found in the economic fabric of South Africa's gold industry. In this article, I will argue that it is also found in the system of mine medicine, which was designed to hide rather than reveal the actual disease rates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Mexico 1968 and South Africa 2010: development, leadership and legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsmann, Chris H.; Brewster, Keith

    2009-01-01

    In this essay we compare the rationales for hosting the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City with the FIFA World Cup 2010 to be held in South Africa. We draw on in-depth interviews, archival materials and a range of press coverage. We argue that three broad overlapping themes are apparent in both case studies. These are the developmental rhetoric both hosts employ in the justification of holding the events in their respective countries. Mexico and South Africa convey a leadership role that stret...

  10. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  11. Intensity and spatial extension of drought in South Africa at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensity and spatial extension of drought in South Africa at different time scales. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... of the spatial extension and intensity of droughts in South Africa since 1921.

  12. Women entrepreneurship in South Africa: Understanding the role of competencies in business success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget N.O. Irene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Environmental factors alone cannot determine the success of small, medium and micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs and female entrepreneurs; there is a need to closely examine the internal factors that also contribute to business success. This is necessary because, despite the considerable government support and support of bodies interested in promoting gender equality in all areas (business included, 20% of female-owned businesses still fail annually. Consequently, even though, according to a report from the Department of Trade and Industry in South Africa, millions of Rands have been allocated to support female-owned SMMEs by way of government funding, training, grants and consultative support services, the failure rates of these female-owned businesses remain high. The main reason for this can be that over-dependence on these incentives often weakens rather than strengthens female entrepreneurs’ ability to manage their businesses and reduces their competitiveness by laying emphasis on external, contextual factors rather than internal, competence variables for success. Researchers in the past have suggested that focusing on the internal factors, especially the ‘people issues’ facing the entrepreneurs (in this case female entrepreneurs, may give the business a better chance of success. Design/methodology/approach: A ‘mixed-method’ approach, conducted in two parts, was adopted for this study and appropriate tools and techniques were used to collect and analyse the data drawn from a sample of female entrepreneurs in South Africa. The study applies culturally instantiated facets of the debate on gender entrepreneurship as part of a detailed and empirically sophisticated consideration of the status of female entrepreneurship within South Africa. The qualitative aspect utilised semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative aspect utilised survey questionnaires developed from the findings of the

  13. South African adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative exploration of their ... years) who had the defining characteristics of CF and were living in Gauteng province. ... The fundamental human need to be understood and to understand was ...

  14. A synoptic decomposition of rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewers: Alice Favre afavre@csag.uct.ac.za Expert in cut-off lows occurring over South Africa Chris Reason chris.reason@uct.ac.za Expert in southern Africa climate variability Michael Pook mike.pook@csiro.au Expert in developing synoptic climatology...

  15. The Existence Of Revenue Gap In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamae Retselisitsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic factors that enhance revenue gap in South Africa using the multivariate cointegration techniques for the period 1965 to 2012. The results from the cointegration analysis indicate that the revenue gap in South Africa is negatively associated with the level of imports while positively related to external debt and underground economy. The former finding is consistent with the notion that imports are subjected to more taxation than domestic activities because of certain features of international trade that tend to make tax evasion difficult. On the other hand, the positive relationship between external debt and tax gap shows that the South African government relies upon external debt to finance its budget deficit resulting from missing revenues. Furthermore, the observed negative effect of the post-apartheid dummy confirms that the tax policy reforms that South Africa introduced following the liberation in 1994 have led to a reduction in missing revenues. The results from the Granger causality test also show that there is a unidirectional causality running from imports and underground economy to revenue gap, while revenue gap on the other hand is found to Granger-cause national income and external debt in South Africa.

  16. Uranium Exploration, Resources and Production in South Africa 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainslie, L.C., E-mail: lee.ainslie@necsa.co.za [South African Nuclear Energy Agency (Necsa), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2014-05-15

    The paper gives a brief history of uranium mining in South Africa. The types of uranium deposits in South Africa are described and their distribution given. The majority of uranium is hosted as a by-product in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin with lesser amounts in tabular sandstone and coal hosted deposits. The exploration activities of companies operating in South Africa are discussed and the reserves and resources identified are presented. A substantial increase in reserves has been recorded over the last two years because of intensive investigation of known deposits. Only a marginal increase in total resources was reported because of a lack of “greenfield” exploration. Production is far down from the levels achieved in the 1970s and 1980s. The surge in the uranium market resulted in a number of companies investigating their production options. The recent decline in the market has slowed down some of these activities and forced the closure of an operating mine. However a new mine has come into production and feasibility studies are being carried out on other deposits. The recently promulgated Nuclear Energy Policy for the Republic of South Africa defines Necsa’s role in nuclear fuel cycle and the uranium mining industry emphasizing security of supply. South African uranium resources will be able to supply all local needs for the foreseeable future. (author)

  17. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  18. Transnational entrepreneurship in the Global South: evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Jayne M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational entrepreneurship is an evolving field of research which occupies an interface between social and regional sciences. The phenomenon of transnational entrepreneurship is driven by entrepreneurs that migrate from one country to another whilst maintaining business-related linkages with their former country of origin and the adopted country. The most critical distinguishing feature of transnational entrepreneurs is bifocality or the ability to function across two different business environments. Most writings on transnational entrepreneurship concentrate on business individuals from the global South operating enterprises in the global North. Absent are empirical studies of the nature and behaviour of transnational migrant entrepreneurs who operate across or between emerging or developing economies. This South-South gap in international research concerning transnational entrepreneurship is addressed in the paper which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of transnational entrepreneurship occurring in Southern Africa using evidence of Zimbabwean transnational entrepreneurs based in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  19. Psychological capital, a requisite for organisational performance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Du Plessis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131 as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model for the PCQ, renamed the Potential South African PsyCap (PSA-PsyCap instrument. All dimensions displayed acceptable reliabilities. Statistically significant differences exist in the POB of demographic groups, relating to age, marital status, home language, seniority and qualifications. This research reveals that South African HR practitioners and managers should fully embrace psychological capital to effectively create caring workplaces taking cognizance of the broader economic and social issues affecting employees and their performance.

  20. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.