WorldWideScience

Sample records for sources understanding copyright

  1. Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ‘Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.’ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled ‘An Act for the Encouragement of Learning’, and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author’s right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas – just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor

  2. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  3. Copyright Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Copyright Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/copyright.html Copyright Information To use ... the Magazine and NIH MedlinePlus Salud The FAQs ( https://medlineplus.gov/faq/faq.html ) The same content ...

  4. Copyright protection

    OpenAIRE

    Plchotová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to offer a straightforward manual to anyone who authors their own original work or who utilises the original work of other creators. As such, it is necessary to briefly and clearly explain the historical development and essential terms of authorship as a concept and the origin of the need for copyright protection. Furthermore, this thesis includes chapters on copyright protection development specifically in the Czech Republic and the current definition of related law...

  5. Understanding social acceptance of electricity generation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Jiménez, Raquel B.; Arévalo, Pilar C.; Cifuentes, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.

  6. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  7. Copyright protection in music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kammermayerová, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the copyright protection in the music industry is discussed. I am focusing in particular on the description of copyright, rights related to copyright, collective management and protection of these rights. In the beginning, I mention the national, international and European sources of copyright and I am explaining the concepts of copyright, copyright work (including musical and processed work of art), and authoring. Furthermore, I explore the copyright law in terms of its origin,...

  8. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  9. Before Photocopying This Article or Videotaping That Television Show, Make Sure You Understand the "Fair Use" Provision of the Copyright Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    1984-01-01

    School boards can formulate policies concerning the reproduction and use of copyrighted materials based on recent court interpretations of the following general factors in "fair use" exemption: reasons for copying, nature of reproduced material, amount of work as a whole copied, and effect of copying on potential market for copyrighted…

  10. Copyright: A Survival Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Presentation for HASS PhD students given on 24th October 2017. The presentation provides an overview about copyright, Fair Dealing, and how to seek permission for Third Party copyrighted material. The presentation does not include legal advice.

  11. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  12. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The focus of this article is on copyright issues with specific reference to lexicography and terminography. Lexicographers and terminographers are in the peculiar position of being both creators of copyrightable products and users of copyrighted products. An inventory of accrued rights, the nature of dictionaries as subjects of copyright, national laws and international conventions, terminographical and lexicographical practice, the copyright status of dictionary elements, as well as infringement pitfalls, is made in order to propose guidelines on the legal position of the compilation and publishing of dictionaries. Electronic publications and dissemination on the Internet is considered and discussed, and contractual agreements protecting mutual rights is offered as a final conclusion.

    Keywords: author’s right (copyright; copyright (author's right; copyright infringement; copyright issue; copyright law; copyrightable product; copyrighted product; database storage system; denominator; economic right; electronic communication network; fair use; infringement; intellectual property; intellectual property right; lexicographer; lexicography; macrostructure; microstructure; moral right; tangible medium; terminographer; terminography; terminologist; terminology

     

    Leksikografie, terminografie en outeursreg

    In hierdie artikel word gefokus op outeursregkwessies met spesifieke verwysing na die leksikografie en terminografie. Leksikograwe en terminograwe bevind hulle in 'n vreemde situasie deurdat hulle sowel skeppers van outeursregbare produkte is as gebruikers van outeursberegte produkte. 'n Inventaris word opgestel van toegevalle regte, die aard van woordeboeke as onderworpe aan outeursreg, nasionale wette en internasionale konvensies, terminografiese en leksikografiese praktyk, die outeursregstatus van woordeboekelemente, asook van slaggate rakende outeursregskending ten einde riglyne vir die regsposisie van die samestelling

  13. Logotheoretical Understanding of Existential Sources of Bullying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Dědová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach of logotheory is one of many approaches to understanding of man. Logotheory sees a human being in his complexity, as a three-dimensional unity of somatic, psychic, and noetic dimensions. Through logotheory, man discovers the possible sources for not loving himself and others. The logotheoretical approach points out that individuals involved in bullying presentun developed noetic dimension. This becomes a source of existential frustration or existential vacuum leading to the occurrence of various forms of pathological behaviour including bullying. It emphasises that aggressors present insufficient development of two fundamental capacities of the noetic dimension allowing the contact with other people: self-detachment and self-transcendence. The uniqueness of this approach lies in the search for answers to one’s existence that bring more than just a temporary satisfaction. Uncovering existential sources of bullying behaviour could be instrumental in finding solutions to prevention and intervention of bullying.

  14. Screenshots and Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The present article attempts to show how important and easy it is to use authentic material in the classroom. However, the teacher who copies news reports from the Internet may infringe the copyright law. The article offers a comparative analysis of copyright laws in Common Law countries and the EU countries in relation to fair use. The article…

  15. The Copyright Royalty Tribunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylawski, E. Fulton

    1977-01-01

    The regulatory and adjudicative structure of the newly-created Copyright Royalty Tribunal is described and guidelines for its functioning are examined. Problems in data reporting and in the determination of ownership of copyrights of works used by compulsory licensees are among the issues addressed. (LBH)

  16. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  17. The Copyright Agency Limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    The evolution and functions of Australia's Copyright Agency Limited are described. The agency is a copyright collecting organization which collectively administers the rights of authors and publishers whose works are copied in education, and enters into blanket agreements with educational authorities outside the existing statutory license. Some…

  18. Introduction, Copyright's Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Netanel, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court famously labeled copyright “the engine of free expression” because it provides a vital economic incentive for much of the literature, commentary, music, art, and film that makes up our public discourse. Yet today’s greatly expanded copyright law often does the opposite—it can be used to quash news reporting, political commentary, church dissent, historical scholarship, cultural critique, and artistic expression. In Copyright’s Paradox, Neil Weinstock ...

  19. Contra Copyright, Again

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy McElroy

    2011-01-01

    This revised version of the author’s 1985 article “Contra Copyright” includes a new, introductory section explaining the background of the author’s path to copyright abolitionism. The main article surveys various libertarian debates on this issue, including the anti-intellectual property (IP) views of Benjamin Tucker and the pro-IP views of Lysander Spooner. McElroy argues that the issue of copyright hinges on the question: can ideas be property? Because only scarce goods can be property, and...

  20. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  1. Understanding mental health through reading selected literature sources: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, A; Gass, J P

    2001-04-01

    The increasing use of the humanities in nurse education provides an alternative means of facilitating students' understanding of health issues. In part, this contributes to a critique of rationalist-technological approaches to education where knowledge is reduced to abstract, discernable and measured units. A more communal approach to education recognises the place of interpretation as part of learning and, within this, the significance of dialogue, identity, tradition, attachment and partnership. The reading of works of literature is one way in which the reader interprets texts in a multiplicity of ways in order to more fully understand the 'real' world. Mental health offers particular opportunities for literary descriptions. The evaluation of a learning unit within a mental health nursing branch programme where students read a number of works of literature is outlined. Results indicate a variety of student responses to use of such an approach. The authors assert the usefulness of these approaches in encouraging deeper understanding of complex issues faced in mental health nursing practice. At the same time, however, careful consideration is given to the place of such approaches within the overall philosophy of a curriculum programme. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  4. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  5. Towards Evidence-Based Understanding of Electronic Data Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lianping; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zhang, He

    2010-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from various Electronic Data Sources (EDS) is one of the key activities of conducting these kinds of studies. Hence, the selection of EDS for searching the potentially relevant papers is an important decision, which can affect a study’s coverage of relevant papers...... the two studies and that from literature to provide initial evidence-based heuristics for EDS selection....

  6. Stealing the Goose: Copyright and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory McGreal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the world's largest knowledge common and the information source of first resort. Much of this information is open and freely available. However, there are organizations and companies today that are trying to close off the Internet commons and make it proprietary. These are the “copyright controllers.” The preservation of the commons and expanding access to digital content and applications are very important for distance educators. The educational exemptions for “fair use” in the United States and “fair dealing” in the Commonwealth countries are integral to any understanding of copyright, which was instituted for the dissemination of knowledge, and not, as is commonly believed, to protect the rights of the copyright owners. Copyright law was expressly introduced to limit their rights. Yet, these controllers are successfully turning a “copy” right into a property right. The traditional rights of learning institutions are being taken away. The balance for researchers should be restored. Research and learning must be allowed the broad interpretation that was intended in the original laws.

  7. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  8. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mark L.; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S.; Raven, John A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Helliwell, Katherine E.; Smith, Alison G.; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H.

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, ...

  9. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark L; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S; Raven, John A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

  10. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  11. Global crowd data to understand risk taking behavior: Understanding the costs of crowd sourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Crowd sourcing is an increasingly common approach to collect data from a large number of places, people, or both, for a given phenomenon or observation. It is often thought of as a very cost effective approach to collect data from large spatial domains, or from difficult to reach areas, or for spatially discrete observations. While crowd sourcing data can provide a wealth of data beyond that which most research teams can collect themselves, there are many associated, and sometime unexpected costs with this approach. We present a case study of a crowd-sourced data collection campaign to collect GPS tracks of back country recreationalists in avalanche terrain. We ask the volunteers to track their outings using the GPS on their smart phone using a free application, and on the completion of their trip email us their track. On receipt of this track we automatically reply with a link to a decision making survey. In this way we collect data on both the physical attributes of their trip, as well as the social, psychological and demographic data about the person. While this approach has been very successful, it has come at a high cost time-wise. Much like the role of an online course instructor, instructor (or in this case researcher) presence is essential. Replying to emails, updating webpages, posting on social media, and connecting with your volunteer data collectors can become a full time job - and that's even before you start the data analysis. We encourage future researchers to plan ahead for this when starting a crowd sourcing project involving the general public, and seek advice and training in social media, web site development and communication techniques like semi-automated email.

  12. Copyright protection in online media

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Thuy Duong

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with protection of copyright within online media, with a focus on personal blogs. The author presents definition of basic terms of copyright, especially definition of usage of the work and description of way of use, and deals with the issue of liability for copyright infringement and identification of persons who carry the responsibility. This thesis is also dedicated to copyrights itself and its instruments of enforcement. Increased focus is put on available jurisdi...

  13. Copyright Resources for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a collection of annotated citations for online resources of interest to school librarians; the focus is on copyright law, related information, and guidelines. The citations are organized by themes based on common issues. Copyright protects originally created works, including movies, recorded music performances, novels,…

  14. Comics, Copyright and Academic Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Deazley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the extent to which UK-based academics can rely upon the copyright regime to reproduce extracts and excerpts from published comics and graphic novels without having to ask the copyright owner of those works for permission. In doing so, it invites readers to engage with a broader debate about the nature, demands and process of academic publishing.

  15. Economics of copyright: Challenges and perspectives | Stojkov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article outlines the prominence of economic analysis of copyright, not only within the academic community, but also in the legal practice. The successful cooperation of law and economics in the field of copyright calls for advanced microeconomic analytical skills and a high level of legal understanding of intellectual ...

  16. Criteria for Copyrightability in Russian Copyright Doctrine and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kashanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current state of the debate on the minimum level of creativity needed for works to be copyrightable, including dominant principles in Russian jurisprudence and judicial practice, principal trends and contradictions that arise in the course of the application of various criteria for copyrightability. An analysis of the judicial practice of recent years warrants the conclusion that standards of creativity as a criterion for copyrightability have dropped drastically. Today’s standards are similar to those of the former American ‘sweat of the brow’ doctrine. But, unlike foreign legal systems that set comparatively low standards of protectability, the Russian judiciary has not yet evolved mechanisms of compensation for risks of monopolization of public domain content. First of all, there is no practice of granting exclusive rights to a work that is similar to an earlier work but has been created independently. Secondly, the practice of refusing protection to non-unique, standard, generally known, and generally available content is dying out. Thirdly, there is currently a trend for giving a large scope of protection to works of low authorship. As a result, exclusive rights are granted to standard or generally accessible content – content that must belong to the public domain – which puts unjustified restrictions on the creative activities of other authors. Moreover, it makes their legal status unpredictable as it establishes a basis for unintended copyright violations being penalized. This amounts to a classical case of overprotection.

  17. Copyright, an Incentive or a Burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A copyright provides protection for original artistic or literary work and is valid for the life of the owner plus 70 years. There is a growing tension between creative practices that require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. Very recently this has played out in the law suit between the media corporation Viacom and the Internet portal YouTube, which is owned by Google. This is against the background of a steadily emerging open source and creative commons culture. Milestones in the open source movement are the OpenOffice office suite, Netscape's publication of the source code for its product as open software, Google's library project, various free archives for scientific dissemination, such as Cornell University's ArXiv.

  18. Stealing the Goose: Copyright and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is the world's largest knowledge common and the information source of first resort. Much of this information is open and freely available. However, there are organizations and companies today that are trying to close off the Internet commons and make it proprietary. These are the "copyright controllers." The preservation of the…

  19. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  20. Open Source in Higher Education: Towards an Understanding of Networked Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the question of understanding more about networked universities by looking at open source software developers working in academic contexts. It sketches their identities and work as an emerging professional community that both relies upon and develops digitally mediated networks and contributes to the progress of academic…

  1. What Does a Verbal Test Measure? A New Approach to Understanding Sources of Item Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Eric J. Vanden; Lohman, David F.; Cassata, Jennifer Coyne

    Assessing the construct relevance of mental test results continues to present many challenges, and it has proven to be particularly difficult to assess the construct relevance of verbal items. This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conceptual sources of verbal item difficulty using a unique approach that integrates…

  2. Lexicography, terminography and copyright | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: author's right (copyright); copyright (author's right); copyright infringement; copyright issue; copyright law; copyrightable product; copyrighted product; database storage system; denominator; economic right; electronic communication network; fair use; infringement; intellectual property; intellectual property right; ...

  3. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  4. ThinkHazard!: an open-source, global tool for understanding hazard information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Nunez, Ariel; Deparday, Vivien; Saito, Keiko; Murnane, Richard; Balog, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Rapid and simple access to added-value natural hazard and disaster risk information is a key issue for various stakeholders of the development and disaster risk management (DRM) domains. Accessing available data often requires specialist knowledge of heterogeneous data, which are often highly technical and can be difficult for non-specialists in DRM to find and exploit. Thus, availability, accessibility and processing of these information sources are crucial issues, and an important reason why many development projects suffer significant impacts from natural hazards. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is currently developing a new open-source tool to address this knowledge gap: ThinkHazard! The main aim of the ThinkHazard! project is to develop an analytical tool dedicated to facilitating improvements in knowledge and understanding of natural hazards among non-specialists in DRM. It also aims at providing users with relevant guidance and information on handling the threats posed by the natural hazards present in a chosen location. Furthermore, all aspects of this tool will be open and transparent, in order to give users enough information to understand its operational principles. In this presentation, we will explain the technical approach behind the tool, which translates state-of-the-art probabilistic natural hazard data into understandable hazard classifications and practical recommendations. We will also demonstrate the functionality of the tool, and discuss limitations from a scientific as well as an operational perspective.

  5. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  6. Copyright and the Use of Images as Biodiversity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy is the discipline responsible for charting the world’s organismic diversity, understanding ancestor/descendant relationships, and organizing all species according to a unified taxonomic classification system. Taxonomists document the attributes (characters of organisms, with emphasis on those can be used to distinguish species from each other. Character information is compiled in the scientific literature as text, tables, and images. The information is presented according to conventions that vary among taxonomic domains; such conventions facilitate comparison among similar species, even when descriptions are published by different authors. There is considerable uncertainty within the taxonomic community as to how to re-use images that were included in taxonomic publications, especially in regard to whether copyright applies. This article deals with the principles and application of copyright law, database protection, and protection against unfair competition, as applied to images. We conclude that copyright does not apply to most images in taxonomic literature because they are presented in a standardized way and lack the individuality that is required to qualify as ‘copyrightable works’. There are exceptions, such as wildlife photographs, drawings and artwork produced in a distinctive individual form and intended for other than comparative purposes (such as visual art. Further exceptions may apply to collections of images that qualify as a database in the sense of European database protection law. In a few European countries, there is legal protection for photographs that do not qualify as works in the usual sense of copyright. It follows that most images found in taxonomic literature can be re-used for research or many other purposes without seeking permission, regardless of any copyright declaration. In observance of ethical and scholarly standards, re-users are expected to cite the author and original source of any image that

  7. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  8. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT. Furthermore, the paper examines international provisions related to copyright and reviews the Copyright Law Model. The paper also identifies gaps in the Uganda Copyright Bill, 2002 and ...

  9. 77 FR 3506 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... creativity. The copyright law itself is designed to promote and protect authorship and this includes... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office [Docket No. 2012-1] Copyright Office Fees AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of Inquiry; Fees. SUMMARY: The U.S. Copyright Office is in...

  10. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A method to harness global crowd-sourced data to understand travel behavior in avalanche terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2015-12-01

    To date, most studies of the human dimensions of decision making in avalanche terrain has focused on two areas - post-accident analysis using accident reports/interviews and, the development of tools as decision forcing aids. We present an alternate method using crowd-sourced citizen science, for understanding decision-making in avalanche terrain. Our project combines real-time GPS tracking via a smartphone application, with internet based surveys of winter backcountry users as a method to describe and quantify travel practices in concert with group decision-making dynamics, and demographic data of participants during excursions. Effectively, we use the recorded GPS track taken within the landscape as an expression of the decision making processes and terrain usage by the group. Preliminary data analysis shows that individual experience levels, gender, avalanche hazard, and group composition all influence the ways in which people travel in avalanche terrain. Our results provide the first analysis of coupled real-time GPS tracking of the crowd while moving in avalanche terrain combined with psychographic and demographic correlates. This research will lead to an improved understanding of real-time decision making in avalanche terrain. In this paper we will specifically focus on the presentation of the methods used to solicit, and then harness the crowd to obtain data in a unique and innovative application of citizen science where the movements within the terrain are the desired output data (Figure 1). Figure 1: Example GPS tracks sourced from backcountry winter users in the Teton Pass area (Wyoming), from the 2014-15 winter season, where tracks in red represent those recorded as self-assessed experts (as per our survey), and where tracks in blue represent those recorded as self-assessed intermediates. All tracks shown were obtained under similar avalanche conditions. Statistical analysis of terrain metrics showed that the experts used steeper terrain than the

  12. Design Copyright: The Latest Judicial Hint

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Hemphill; Jeannie Suk

    2013-01-01

    The most intriguing aspect of the debate over fashion copyright is the occasion it presents for rethinking the expansive copyright law we currently have. C. Scott Hemphill (Columbia Law) & Jeannie Suk (Harvard Law)

  13. The Teacher and the Copyright Law: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the Alex Caughran article on the teacher and the copyright law, concluding that copyright law is a complicated field and to oversimplify it is a disservice to teachers. See also CS 705 949. (RD)

  14. Copyright Updates for K-12 Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2016-01-01

    Copyright concerns continue to bedevil K-12 librarians, who are often called upon to act as the copyright officers in public schools. This article describes recent copyright developments of concern to these librarians in three areas: a recent court case involving a university library, pending legislation supported by ALA, and a regulatory update.…

  15. 48 CFR 227.7203-9 - Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-9 Copyright. (a) Copyright license. (1) The clause at... rights licenses obtained under the clause. When non-standard license rights in computer software or computer software documentation will be negotiated, negotiate the extent of the copyright license...

  16. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Woody

    2016-03-01

    for that model is estimated to be too low by about 7 × . From source-apportioned model results, we found most of the CMAQ-VBS modeled POA at the Pasadena CalNex site was attributable to meat cooking emissions (48 %, consistent with a substantial fraction of cooking OA in the observations. This is compared to 18 % from gasoline vehicle emissions, 13 % from biomass burning (in the form of residential wood combustion, and 8 % from diesel vehicle emissions. All "other" inventoried emission sources (e.g., industrial, point, and area sources comprised the final 13 %. The CMAQ-VBS semivolatile POA treatment underpredicted AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA + cooking-influenced OA (CIOA at Pasadena by a factor of 1.8 compared to a factor of 1.4 overprediction of POA in CMAQ-AE6, but it did capture the AMS diurnal profile of HOA and CIOA well, with the exception of the midday peak. Overall, the CMAQ-VBS with its semivolatile treatment of POA, SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs, and aging of SOA improves SOA model performance (though SOA formation efficiency is still 1.6–2 ×  too low. However, continued efforts are needed to better understand assumptions in the parameterization (e.g., SOA aging and provide additional certainty to how best to apply existing emission inventories in a framework that treats POA as semivolatile, which currently degrades existing model performance at routine monitoring networks. The VBS and other approaches (e.g., AE6 require additional work to appropriately incorporate IVOC emissions and subsequent SOA formation.

  17. The copyright book a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, William S

    2014-01-01

    Through five editions since 1981, this book has offered the most comprehensive accessible guide available to all aspects of copyright law. Now, with the sixth edition, The Copyright Book has been thoroughly updated to cover copyright for the Internet age, discussing a range of developments in the law since 2000. The only book written for nonlawyers that covers the entire field of copyright law, it is essential reading for authors, artists, creative people in every medium, the companies that hire them, users of copyrighted material, and anyone with an interest in copyright law from a policy perspective. New material includes greatly expanded coverage of infringement and fair use, with detailed discussion of recent decisions, including the Grateful Dead, Google, and HathiTrust cases. The new edition considers such topics as open access, the defeat of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), file sharing, e-reserves, the status of "orphan works," and the latest developments under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (...

  18. Source-critical studies in Luke-Acts: Implications for understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), focusing on Luke's use of the oral Gospel he internalised during his kerygma performance, to demonstrate how an author's use of his sources in a literature is dialogically governed by his rhetorical goal and his ability to manage his sources.

  19. Update on copyright issues and open access

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    When writing an article an author encounters several moments where he is confronted with copyright whether he likes it or not or whether he is interested in the topic or not. Unfamiliarity or lack of interest with copyright can create an unbalance in the careful package of the balances which copyright is and thus hinder innovation of the process of scholarly communication. The Dutch SURF Foundation together with its British counterpart JISC have developed a © toolkit which supports and assists authors, librarians, legal offices and publishers to (re)phrase publishing agreements and copyright policies of institutions of higher education to achieve maximum access to scientific output.

  20. Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.

    The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.

  1. Developing new copyright services in academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga-Lill Nilsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of academic librarians in handling copyright-related issues, including their required skills and knowledge about copyright. IP (intellectual property issues have become more important in publishing and in accessing and reusing scientific research, and new technology and delivery mechanisms have increased copyright issues. Due to the complications and general confusion about copyright, there is a growing need for official support. Academic librarians often have only an informal mandate to work in this area and therefore lack confidence, sufficient knowledge and training. They seldom have the authority to work with copyright education in a formalized way. Legitimacy can be achieved by collaborating with other university units with an interest in copyright. Co-operation with other libraries and library organizations is also an important way to share experiences and increase knowledge about copyright. Libraries can contribute to improved IP services once they have established that copyright is a library matter, found tools for copyright education and embedded these activities into library routines.

  2. Non-Book Materials and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Paul T.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews Australian copyright laws as they apply to photographs, slides, overhead transparencies, filmstrips, sound and video recordings, and films. Responsibilities of the library as user are discussed. (RAO)

  3. Managing copyright in higher education a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Ferullo, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Written by the director of the University Copyright Office at Purdue University who holds both law and library science degrees, this is complete, authoritative guide is a must-purchase for every institution of higher education seeking to comply with the copyright law and thus avoid potential liability exposure.

  4. Copyright | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Where copyright is held by IDRC Unless otherwise stated, the copyright to material on this website is held by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). IDRC permits reading, downloading, copying, redistributing, printing, linking and searching, for non-commercial or academic purposes, of any of its content, ...

  5. Getting Our Values around Copyright Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessig, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Copyright is essential to a diverse and rich culture. Yet the platform--the technology--through which individuals get access to their culture has changed radically. The existing system of copyright thus cannot work in the digital age and needs also to be changed, radically. In this article, the author shares three observations on the way to…

  6. 45 CFR 602.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements § 602.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable... purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a grant, subgrant, or contract under a grant or...

  7. The Copyright Controversy: Issues and Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Stella, Ed.; Stillman, Mary E., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    The edited transcript of the Copyright Panel at the 9th Information Retrieval Colloquium is presented. In addition to the panel presentation and audience discussion, this issue carries, as appendix material, some of the documents which sparked much of the current copyright debate. (Author/NH)

  8. Copyright and the Assurance of Quality Courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia M.

    Issues related to the illegal copying or piracy of educational software in the schools and its potential effect on quality software availability are discussed. Copyright violation is examined as a reason some software producers may be abandoning the school software market. An explanation of what the copyright allows and prohibits in terms of…

  9. Copyright for librarians the essential handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Berkman Center for Internet and Society

    2012-01-01

    "Copyright for Librarians" (CFL) is an online open curriculum on copyright law that was developed jointly with Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Re-designed as a brand new textbook, "Copyright for Librarians: the essential handbook" can be used as a stand-alone resource or as an adjunct to the online version which contains additional links and references for students who wish to pursue any topic in greater depth. Delve into copyright theory or explore enforcement. With a new index and a handy Glossary, the Handbook is essential reading for librarians who want to hone their skills in 2013, and for anyone learning about or teaching copyright law in the information field.

  10. Navigating the Copyright Landscape: Practical Considerations for Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Carter Conlogue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is central to teaching activities in higher education. Using copyrighted materials in education requires careful analysis and understanding of copyright basics. A review of the literature demonstrates that librarians are the primary resource on campus for information about copyright. A sampling of small to moderate-size, private university and college websites, and a survey of the librarians at those institutions suggest that libraries and librarians are the sole providers of copyright information for their campus. This paper examines how and what kinds of copyright information librarians at private, small to moderate-size institutions provide to their patrons and offers commentary from librarians who are currently the copyright contact on campus. The authors discuss how to use copyright expertise to build a professional niche and serve the profession as well as how to identify new opportunities for professional growth and career advancement.

  11. Copyright, Culture, and Community in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Burk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communities that interact on-line through computer games and other virtual worlds are mediated by the audiovisual content of the game interface. Much of this content is subject to copyright law, which confers on the copyright owner the legal right to prevent certain unauthorized uses of the content. Such exclusive rights impose a limiting factor on the development of communities that are situated around the interface content, as the rights, privileges, and exceptions associated with copyright generally tend to disregard the cultural significance of copyrighted content. This limiting effect of copyright is well illustrated by examination of the copying of content by virtual diaspora communities such as that formed around the game Uru: Ages of Myst; thus, the opportunity for on-line communities to legally access the graphical elements on which those communities are built is fraught with potential legal liability. This presents the reciprocal situation from efforts to protect the cultural properties of indigenous communities as traditional knowledge. Reconsideration of current copyright law would be required in order to accommodate the cohesion of on-line communities and related cultural uses of copyrighted content.

  12. Copyright Ownership in a Networked Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon E.

    1994-01-01

    The explosion of computer communications in the United States has spurred the development of many new technologies. One of these new technologies is Mosaic and the World-Wide Web. Mosaic is a user interface that uses the internet as a backbone for communications. The Mosaic interface enables a user to manipulate text, images and graphics produced by different authors. The flexibility that Mosaic offers raises significant copyright issues. This paper attempts to analyze these issues using current copyright law as a framework. The author then goes on to offer a different analysis that may result from future developments in copyright law.

  13. Seeing the Point: Using Visual Sources to Understand the Arguments for Women's Suffrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Visual sources, Jane Card argues, are a powerful resource for historical learning but using them in the classroom requires careful thought and planning. Card here shares how she has used visual source material in order to teach her students about the women's suffrage movement. In particular, Card shows how a chain of questions that moves from the…

  14. Protecting Government Works: The Copyright Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manz, Paul C; Zelenka, Michael J; Wittig, Raymond S; Smith, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    ...; the alternatives that would permit the Government to own the copyright in government works ; the ability to allow private sector companies to assign coauthored works; and the importance to a federal technology manager of such protection.

  15. Copyright law and distance nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline; White, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors present essential information regarding the copyright law and online education. This information provides the reader specific aids to assist in designing and implementing distance education courses within the bounds of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act and fair use guidelines. From their research, the authors, who are distance education experts, offer a wide array of educational and legal data to inform nurse educators.

  16. Bloomsday: Copyright Estates and Cultural Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rimmer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Copyright estates have been unduly empowered by the extension of the term of copyright protection in Europe, the United States, Australia and elsewhere. The Estate of the Irish novelist, James Joyce, has been particularly aggressive in policing his revived copyrights. The "keepers of the flame" have relied upon threats of legal action to discourage the production of derivative works based upon the canonical texts of the novelist. The Estate has also jealously guarded the reputation of the author by vetoing the use of his work in various scholarly productions. Most radically of all, the grandson Stephen Joyce threatened to take legal action to prevent the staging of "Rejoyce Dublin 2004", a festival celebrating the centenary of Bloomsday. In response, the Irish Parliament rushed through emergency legislation, entitled the Copyright and Related Rights (Amendment Act 2004 (Ireland to safeguard the celebrations. The legislation clarified that a person could place literary and artistic works on public exhibition, without breaching the copyright vested in such cultural texts. Arguably, though, the ad hoc legislation passed by the Irish Parliament is inadequate. The Estate of James Joyce remains free to exercise its suite of economic and moral rights to control the use and adaptation of works of the Irish novelist. It is contended that copyright law needs to be revised to promote the interests of libraries and other cultural institutions. Most notably, the defence of fair dealing should be expanded to allow for the transformative use of copyright works, particularly in respect of adaptations and derived works. There should be greater scope for compulsory licensing and crown acquisition of revived copyrights.

  17. Copyright case a victory for science publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    An important victory for the financial health and future of scientific journals was won July 23 when Judge Pierre Leval of the Federal District Court in New York handed down his decision on the copyright infringement suit, American Geophysical Union, et al. v. Texaco Inc. Leval ruled that profit-making companies cannot photocopy copyrighted journal articles without permission and without compensating the copyright holder.The class action suit was brought in 1985 by AGU and six other scientific publishers on behalf of 8500 publishers worldwide who make their titles available for legal copying under licenses granted by the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This licensing system was designed in cooperation with major corporations to facilitate compliance with the 1976 Copyright Act. Although more than 200 companies now use the center, some corporations, such as Texaco, have not. The suit was initiated to force compliance with copyright law. The current decision is very important because it establishes legal precedents on the “fair use” issue.

  18. The copyright wars three centuries of trans-atlantic battle

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...

  19. Collective management of copyright and related rights

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, collective management organizations (CMOs) have become the nerve centres of copyright licensing in virtually every country. Their expertise and knowledge of copyright law and management have proven essential to make copyright work in the digital age. This book, an extensively revised and updated edition of the only major work on the legal status of CMOs, offers an indepth analysis of the various operating CMO models, their rights and obligations vis-a-vis both users and members, acquisition of legal authority to license, and (most important) the rights to license digital uses of protected material and build (or improve current) information systems to deal with ever more complex rights management and licensing tasks. All the chapters have been updated since the 2005 edition, and a new chapter on multiterritorial licensing has been added. Factors considered include the following: * role of 'families' such as the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers ...

  20. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  1. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  2. Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1995-09-01

    In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude or radio luminosity, the FR 2's produce substantially more optical line emission (by roughly an order of magnitude or more) than do FR 1's. Similarly, FR 2 sources produce orders of magnitude more line luminosity than do radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude, while FR 1 sources and radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude produce similar line luminosities. Combining these results with previous results from the literature, we conclude that while the emission-line gas in the FR 2's is indeed photoionized by a nuclear UV continuum source from the AGN, the emission-line gas in the FR 1's may be energized predominantly by processes associated with the host galaxy itself. The apparent lack of a strong UV continuum source from the central engine in FR 1 sources can be understood in two different ways. In the first scenario, FR l's are much more efficient at covering jet bulk kinetic energy into radio luminosity than FR 2's, such that an FR 1 has a much lower bolometric AGN luminosity (hence nuclear UV continuum source) than does an FR 2 of the same radio luminosity. We discuss the pros and cons of this model and conclude that the efficiency differences needed between FR 2 and FR 1 radio galaxies are quite large and may lead to difficulties with the interpretation since it would suggest that FR 2 radio source deposit very large amounts of kinetic energy into the ISM Intracluster Medium. However, this interpretation remains viable. Alternatively, it may be that the AGNs in FR 1 sources simply produce far less radiant UV energy than do those in FR 2 sources. That is, FR 1 sources may funnel a higher fraction

  3. 28 CFR 66.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyrights. 66.34 Section 66.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... reproduce, publish or otherwise use, and to authorize others to use, for Federal Government purposes: (a...

  4. 7 CFR 3016.34 - Copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copyrights. 3016.34 Section 3016.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  5. 77 FR 18742 - Copyright Office Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... would recover a significant part of the costs to the Office for services that benefit both copyright owners and the public, and provide full cost recovery for many services which benefit only or primarily... public by creating a more robust public record. The Office therefore sees a clear benefit to offering a...

  6. 89 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COPYRIGHT ENFORCEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    developing countries did not have intellectual property ('IP') laws prior to the ... musical and literary works play an important role in the economy of these .... Ekereuwem [2012] 4 NWLR (pt 1290) 207; F.C.D.A v. .... 37 K M Garnett, J E Rayner& G Davies, Copinger and Skone James on Copyright (14th ed., London, Sweet and.

  7. Faculty, Copyright Law and Online Course Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Phyllis C.

    2006-01-01

    Copyright and fair use laws that regulate educational materials seem to be fairly well understood by the U.S. courts and educators for use in face-to-face (f2f) classrooms (Post and Trempus, 1998). Ever-changing revisions to these laws blur the distinction between tangible and intangible materials shared with students in f2f, online and hybrid…

  8. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  9. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  10. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  11. THE COPYRIGHT IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Ioan MURZEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has imposed new demands in the development and application of copyright as a result of structural changes which occur as a result of developments in science, technology and especially communication technologies and of informatics. Legal doctrine highlights axiomatic truth according to which the “environment created by technological developments” brings forward the profound informational dimension of human being in the contemporary society. In this context the integration and the harmonization of legislation of the Member States of the European Union leads to a complex and dynamic process by which the copyright called to legally protect intellectual creation in contemporary society, acquires a universal vocation in the contemporary society, because there are no barriers or impediments in its spreading especially due to the phenomenon of multiplication and improvement of means of information and communication

  12. Molecular Approaches to Understanding Transmission and Source Attribution in Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Application in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Vaughan, Timothy G; French, Nigel P

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a frequent cause of diarrhea around the world, yet in many African countries it is more commonly associated with invasive bacterial disease. Various source attribution models have been developed that utilize microbial subtyping data to assign cases of human NTS infection to different animal populations and foods of animal origin. Advances in molecular microbial subtyping approaches, in particular whole-genome sequencing, provide higher resolution data with which to investigate these sources. In this review, we provide updates on the source attribution models developed for Salmonella, and examine the application of whole-genome sequencing data combined with evolutionary modeling to investigate the putative sources and transmission pathways of NTS, with a focus on the epidemiology of NTS in Africa. This is essential information to decide where, what, and how control strategies might be applied most effectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. JPEG digital watermarking for copyright protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Ivanenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the multimedia technology, copyright protection has become a very important issue, especially for images. The advantages of easy photo distribution are discarded by their possible theft and unauthorized usage on different websites. Therefore, there is a need in securing information with technical methods, for example digital watermarks. This paper reviews digital watermark embedding methods for image copyright protection, advantages and disadvantages of digital watermark usage are produced. Different watermarking algorithms are analyzed. Based on analysis results most effective algorithm is chosen – differential energy watermarking. It is noticed that the method excels at providing image integrity. Digital watermark embedding system should prevent illegal access to the digital watermark and its container. Requirements for digital watermark are produced. Possible image attacks are reviewed. Modern modifications of embedding algorithms are studied. Robustness of the differential energy watermark is investigated. Robustness is a special value, which formulae is given further in the article. DEW method modification is proposed, it’s advantages over original algorithm are described. Digital watermark serves as an additional layer of defense which is in most cases unknown to the violator. Scope of studied image attacks includes compression, filtration, scaling. In conclusion, it’s possible to use DEW watermarking in copyright protection, violator can easily be detected if images with embedded information are exchanged.

  14. Understanding Sources of Knowledge for Coaches of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Beck, Katie; Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has investigated development of coaching knowledge; however, less research has investigated the development of coaches who coach athletes with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand how coaches of athletes with intellectual disabilities gain their knowledge. Method: Forty-five Special…

  15. Understanding Richard Wright's "Black Boy": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgar, Robert

    In "Black Boy," Richard Wright triumphs over an ugly, racist world by fashioning an inspiring, powerful, beautiful, and fictionalized autobiography. To help students understand and appreciate his story in the cultural, political, racial, social, and literary contexts of its time, this casebook provides primary historical documents,…

  16. Understanding Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Thomas

    This casebook of materials about William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" will enrich students' understanding of the historical context of the play and encourage interpretations of its cultural meaning. Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" reflects perennial cultural concerns about order and freedom, particularly as they clash in the…

  17. Understanding Constructions of Danish-ness using Heterogeneous Types of Sources across Historical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Ydesen, Christian

    -state construct ‘disturbing/disquieting behavior’, delinquency, and misbehavior and how these constructions are made into a category that activates educational and other interventions. Using a comparative outlook between the two historical settings the purpose is to understand 1) the boundaries of legitimate...

  18. Understanding How the "Open" of Open Source Software (OSS) Will Improve Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Erin; Blazes, David; Lewis, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Improving global health security will require bold action in all corners of the world, particularly in developing settings, where poverty often contributes to an increase in emerging infectious diseases. In order to mitigate the impact of emerging pandemic threats, enhanced disease surveillance is needed to improve early detection and rapid response to outbreaks. However, the technology to facilitate this surveillance is often unattainable because of high costs, software and hardware maintenance needs, limited technical competence among public health officials, and internet connectivity challenges experienced in the field. One potential solution is to leverage open source software, a concept that is unfortunately often misunderstood. This article describes the principles and characteristics of open source software and how it may be applied to solve global health security challenges.

  19. Understanding data sources to measure patient retention in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Phillips, Tamsin; Myer, Landon

    2017-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards universal treatment, yet the success of these programs is threatened by gaps within the continuum of HIV care. In this commentary, we seek to draw attention to the advantages and limitations of different data sources currently used for measuring retention in HIV care. Within the context of a piecemeal combination of imperfect data sources, selecting a gold standard of collecting retention data is difficult. Currently, our data systems for measuring retention provide an incomplete picture of the health of our national ART systems and, thus, the health of our patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Using multiple isotopes to understand the source of ingredients used in golden beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, beer contains 4 simple ingredients: water, barley, hops and yeast. Each of these ingredients used in the brewing process contributes some combination of a number of "traditional" stable isotopes (i.e., isotopes of H, C, O, N and S) to the final product. As an educational exercise in an "Analytical Techniques in Geology" course, a group of students analyzed the isotopic composition of the gas, liquid and solid phases of a variety of beer samples collected from throughout the world (including other beverages). The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the water followed closely the isotopic composition of local meteoric water at the source of the brewery, although there is a systematic offset from the global meteoric water line that may be due to the effects of CO2-H2O equilibration. The carbon isotopic composition of the CO2 reflected that of the solid residue (the source of carbon used as a fermentation substrate), but may potentially be modified by addition of gas-phase CO2 from an inorganic source. The carbon isotopic composition of the solid residue similarly tracks that of the fermentation substrate, and may indicate some alcohol fermented from added sugars in some cases. The nitrogen isotopic composition of the solid residue was relatively constant, and may track the source of nitrogen in the barley, hops and yeast. Each of the analytical methods used is a relatively standard technique used in geological applications, making this a "fun" exercise for those involved, and gives the students hands-on experience with a variety of analytes from a non-traditional sample material.

  1. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas; Rognstad, Ole-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses and discusses the use of collective management organizations (CMOs) in copyright. More concretely, it examines the use and effects of extended collective licenses (ECL). This model of rights management has been developed in the Nordic countries and has for some time been...... hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...

  2. Palynology after Y2K--Understanding the Source Area of Pollen in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.

    Pollen grains preserved in lake and bog sediment provide a record of past vegetation that has been an important source of information about climate and land cover during the Quaternary Period. Yet from the beginning, questions have been raised about the source area of pollen in sediment. Interpretation has been hampered by the lack of well-developed theory treating the relationship between the spatial distribution of trees on the landscape and the percentages of pollen in sediment. Within the past decade, however, new theory, models, and empirical data show how heterogeneous vegetation is represented by pollen. The distinction between "local" and "regional" pollen is explained by the Prentice-Sugita dispersal/deposition models, which predict how the ratio of regional to local pollen changes with lake size. Sugita's model simulating a landscape with heterogeneous vegetation predicts the size of the relevant source area-the area of vegetation reflected in between-lake variations in pollen loading-while demonstrating that regional pollen from beyond this distance is homogeneous at all lakes of similar size. By predicting the way landscape patterns will be reflected in pollen records, simulation models can improve research design and lead to more detailed and spatially precise records of past vegetation, enhancing continental-scale climate reconstructions.

  3. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation a...

  4. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael B; Shields, Katherine F; Chan, Terence U; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access.

  5. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  6. Revisionary Copyright: A Ghost of the Past or a Current Trap to Assignments of Copyright?

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, Paul L.; Otero García-Castrillón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide copyright assignments that contain a choice of law clause are the norm. National copyright laws in the United Kingdom and Spain do, however, contain provisions on reversionary copyright in their transition provision. These provisions would, if applicable, terminate the assignment 25 years after the death of the author and hand the copyright back to the author's successors in title rather than the assignees. From a choice of law pwerspective this becomes a classification issue. This ...

  7. Making the Transition as the New Copyright Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Regina Algenio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The corpus of academic librarianship literature notes very little material in relation to the work of new copyright librarians. However, the number of academic libraries hiring librarians to fill these positions is increasing, and the need for such literature is real and pertinent. The purpose of this research is to assist incoming copyright librarians with practical, evidence-based guidance for colleagues just starting out in roles focused on copyright issues. The author drew from professional experience as a first-time copyright librarian at a Carnegie One academic institution in the United States. The author highlights the value of constructing a copyright educational foundation for the university community, cultivating a community of practice, establishing best practices around copyright questions and the utility of effective, vetted copyright resources. Understanding the finer details of a copyright librarian’s job are important, as academic libraries are hiring candidates for other scholarly communication positions, and the applicants are expected to know American copyright law.

  8. Librarian Copyright Literacy: Self-Reported Copyright Knowledge among Information Professionals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, Allison; Saunders, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often act as default copyright experts at their institutions and thus must have an awareness of copyright law and practices. Nevertheless, there is little in the scholarly literature about how well informed librarians are about copyright law. Through a national survey of professional librarians, this study illustrates librarians'…

  9. Understanding sediment sources in a peri-urban Mediterranean catchment using geochemical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Blake, Will

    2016-04-01

    One of the main physical environmental impacts of urbanization is an increase in suspended sediment concentrations and loads, particularly in the constructional phase. Impacts in peri-urban catchments characterized by a mosaic of urban and non-urban landscape elements with varying roles in acting as sources and sinks of overland flow and slope wash have received little attention, particularly in Mediterranean environments. The present study uses a sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to determine the main sediment sources in the peri-urban Ribeira dos Covões catchment (6.2km2) in Portugal and how they change during storm events following contrasting antecedent weather. The catchment, rural until 1972, underwent discontinuous urbanization in 1973-1993, followed by an urban consolidation phase. Currently, its land-use is a complex mosaic of woodland (56%), urban (40%) and agricultural (4%) land parcels. Distinct urban patterns include some well-defined urban residential centres, but also areas of discontinuous urban sprawl. Since 2010, a major road was built and an enterprise park has been under construction, covering 1% and 5% of the catchment, respectively. The catchment has a Mediterranean climate. The geology comprises sandstone (56%), limestone (41%) and alluvial deposits (3%). Soils are generally deep (>3.0m), but shallow (urbanized and partly urbanized catchments, and to supporting them in designing and implementing effective land-use mosaics and site-specific measures to mitigate erosion.

  10. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Copyrights and Conversations: Intellectual Property in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janice R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by approaching conventions of citation and prohibitions against plagiarism in the classroom from the perspective of copyright issues, students can come to a greater understanding of the nature of scholarship. Makes recommendations for teaching students about the issues involved, and suggests ways that authors, teachers, and…

  12. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence. PMID:24433246

  13. Solar energetic particles a modern primer on understanding sources, acceleration and propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2017-01-01

    This concise primer introduces the non-specialist reader to the physics of solar energetic particles (SEP) and systematically reviews the evidence for the two main mechanisms which lead to the so-called impulsive and gradual SEP events. More specifically, the timing of the onsets, the longitude distributions, the high-energy spectral shapes, the correlations with other solar phenomena (e.g. coronal mass ejections), as well as the all-important elemental and isotopic abundances of SEPs are investigated. Impulsive SEP events are related to magnetic reconnection in solar flares and jets. The concept of shock acceleration by scattering on self-amplified Alfvén waves is introduced, as is the evidence of reacceleration of impulsive-SEP material in the seed population accessed by the shocks in gradual events. The text then develops processes of transport of ions out to an observer. Finally, a new technique to determine the source plasma temperature in both impulsive and gradual events is demonstrated. Last but not ...

  14. What's Wrong with Copyright: Educator Strategies for Dealing with Analog Copyright Law in a Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, J. Patrick; McGrail, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Current copyright law was formulated before the digital technology became widely available and well before Web 2.0 changed the way that information is created and shared. J. Patrick McGrail and Ewa McGrail argue that copyright law has failed to keep up with the social and legal changes that have accompanied the technological developments of the…

  15. Copyright Catechism II. Practical Answers to Everyday School Dilemmas. Copyright Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This book contains valid, real-world copyright questions posed by real-life educators--all answered by a knowledgeable and experienced school attorney. Poor economic conditions have driven publishers to be more aggressive with pursuing improper use of their copyrighted materials. At the same time, new technologies are complicating old copyright…

  16. Declining Groundwater Levels in North India: Understanding Sources of Irrigation Inefficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last half century, the green revolution has transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country, into the world's third largest grain producer and one of the most intensely irrigated regions on the planet. This is in no small part due to the country's vast water resources along with an increase in tubewells and more advanced abstraction methods. While agricultural intensification has had undeniable benefits, it has, and continues to have a significant impact on water resources. Unless solutions which take into consideration the ever evolving socio-economic, hydrological and climatic conditions are found, India's agricultural future looks bleak.This research examines the irrigation behaviour of farmers, using data collected during field work in the State of Uttar Pradesh within the Ganges Basin of North India. Significant differences in farmer behaviour and irrigation practices are highlighted, not only between State districts but between individual farmers. This includes the volume of irrigation water applied and the price paid, as well as differences in the yields of crops produced. Analyses of results suggest that this is due to a number of factors, particularly the source of irrigation water. Study areas which had access to cheaper, but crucially less reliable, canal water were found to invest in more efficient water saving technologies in order to reduce the overall cost of irrigation during periods where less expensive canal water is not available. As a result, overall water use and irrigation cost is lower and yields are higher despite very similar climatic conditions. While cheap canal water is not an option for all farmers, the results show that the introduction of more efficient water saving technologies, despite the significant capital expenditure is a viable option for many farmers and costs can be recovered in a relatively short space of time. In addition, the reduction of declining water levels mean that water is abstracted from

  17. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  18. Combined use of stable isotopes and hydrologic modeling to better understand nutrient sources and cycling in highly altered systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Guerin, M.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Silva, S. R.; Harter, T.; Parker, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers provide the majority of freshwater for the San Francisco Bay Delta. Both rivers are important sources of drinking and irrigation water for California, and play critical roles in the health of California fisheries. Understanding the factors controlling water quality and primary productivity in these rivers and the Delta is essential for making sound economic and environmental water management decisions. However, these highly altered surface water systems present many challenges for water quality monitoring studies due to factors such as multiple potential nutrient and contaminant inputs, dynamic source water inputs, and changing flow regimes controlled by both natural and engineered conditions. The watersheds for both rivers contain areas of intensive agriculture along with many other land uses, and the Sacramento River receives significant amounts of treated wastewater from the large population around the City of Sacramento. We have used a multi-isotope approach combined with mass balance and hydrodynamic modeling in order to better understand the dominant nutrient sources for each of these rivers, and to track nutrient sources and cycling within the complex Delta region around the confluence of the rivers. High nitrate concentrations within the San Joaquin River fuel summer algal blooms, contributing to low dissolved oxygen conditions. High δ15N-NO3 values combined with the high nitrate concentrations suggest that animal manure is a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River. In contrast, the Sacramento River has lower nitrate concentrations but elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge. Downstream nitrification of the ammonium can be clearly traced using δ15N-NH4. Flow conditions for these rivers and the Delta have strong seasonal and inter-annual variations, resulting in significant changes in nutrient delivery and cycling. Isotopic measurements and estimates of source water contributions

  19. Public licenses and public domain as alternatives to copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Köppel, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The work first introduces the area of public licenses as a space between the copyright law and public domain. After that, consecutively for proprietary software, free and open source software, open hardware and open content, it maps particular types of public licenses and the accompanying social and cultural movements, puts them in mutual as well as historical context, examines their characteristics and compares them to each other, shows how the public licenses are defined by various accompan...

  20. Copyright law and academic radiology: rights of authors and copyright owners and reproduction of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E J; Westenberg, L

    1995-05-01

    Desktop computer hardware and software provide many new and accessible avenues for increased academic productivity, but some activities may have legal implications. The advent of technologies such as scanners, the ever-increasing number of electronic bulletin boards, and the development of the "information superhighway" affect the concept of copyright and require authors and publishers to reconsider their legal rights and obligations when they create or publish new works or modify existing ones. For example, with desktop scanners, almost any image, published or otherwise, can be copied, enhanced, and manipulated. Moreover, many radiologists have access to copyrighted digital radiologic teaching file images, such as those from the University of Iowa or the University of Washington, which are available (and "downloadable") on the Internet. Because "downloading" (or "uploading") a document or image is essentially making a copy of that document or image, copyright laws and the rights that they afford authors are involved.

  1. Copyright in the age of online access : Alternative compensation systems in EU copyright law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Miranda Branco Tomé Quintais, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The large majority of the EU population uses the Internet. For many individuals, their online acts of enjoyment and expression are restricted by copyright. For users and rights holders alike, the existing model of exclusivity with enforcement is problematic. Online enforcement is either impossible

  2. EU Digital Regulation Versus Copyright: A Way to Reconcile Digital Economy and Copyright?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Thiec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2016, the European Commission presented a proposal for a Directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market, part of a package that also includes the transposition into European law of the Marrakesh Treaty and its effects on the European Union’s relations with third countries, as well as the regulation on online transmissions of broadcasting organisations. The copyright directive is of major importance in the context of digital regulation as it proposes a new related right for press publishers and a new mechanism aiming to give rightholders better control over the use and remuneration of their works on Internet. The proposal also narrows the liability exemption under the e-commerce directive, which has given platforms that provide access to protected works a way out of concluding licensing agreements with rightholders. The draft directive proposes three exceptions to copyright to reinforce digital use in education, protection of the cultural heritage and text-and-data mining. The aim of this paper is to present and to comment on the copyright directive and offer an overview of the opinions that are starting to emerge among different stakeholders.

  3. Collaborative Research: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Biomaterial Surface Interactions - Bridging Understanding of APP Sources to Rational Modification of Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David Barry [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-24

    The overriding objective of this work is to bridge the gap between understanding of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) sources and predictive chemical modifications of biomolecules. A key aspect of this problem is to understand what oxidizing species are created in water adjacent to APP jets that would ultimately affect aqueous biomolecules. We report the production of highly oxidative species in solutions exposed to a self-pulsed corona discharge in air. We examine how the properties of the target solution (pH, conductivity) and the discharge power affect the discharge stability and the production of H2O2. Indigo carmine, a common organic dye, is used as an indicator of oxidative strength and in particular, hydroxyl radical (OH•) production. The observed rate of indigo oxidation in contact with the discharge far exceeds that predicted from reactions based on concentrations of species measured in the bulk solution. The generation of H2O2 and the oxidation of indigo carmine indicate a high concentration of highly oxidizing species such as OH• at the plasma-liquid interface. These results indicate that reactions at the air plasma-liquid interface play a dominant role in species oxidation during direct non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NE-APP) treatment.

  4. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  5. Polyester Textiles as a Source of Microplastics from Households: A Mechanistic Study to Understand Microfiber Release During Washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Edgar; Nowack, Bernd; Mitrano, Denise M

    2017-06-20

    Microplastic fibers make up a large proportion of microplastics found in the environment, especially in urban areas. There is good reason to consider synthetic textiles a major source of microplastic fibers, and it will not diminish since the use of synthetic fabrics, especially polyester, continues to increase. In this study we provide quantitative data regarding the size and mass of microplastic fibers released from synthetic (polyester) textiles during simulated home washing under controlled laboratory conditions. Consideration of fabric structure and washing conditions (use of detergents, temperature, wash duration, and sequential washings) allowed us to study the propensity of fiber shedding in a mechanistic way. Thousands of individual fibers were measured (number, length) from each wash solution to provide a robust data set on which to draw conclusions. Among all the variables tested, the use of detergent appeared to affect the total mass of fibers released the most, yet the detergent composition (liquid or powder) or overdosing of detergent did not significantly influence microplastic release. Despite different release quantities due to the addition of a surfactant (approximately 0.025 and 0.1 mg fibers/g textile washed, without and with detergent, respectively), the overall microplastic fiber length profile remained similar regardless of wash condition or fabric structure, with the vast majority of fibers ranging between 100 and 800 μm in length irrespective of wash cycle number. This indicates that the fiber staple length and/or debris encapsulated inside the fabric from the yarn spinning could be directly responsible for releasing stray fibers. This study serves as a first look toward understanding the physical properties of the textile itself to better understand the mechanisms of fiber shedding in the context of microplastic fiber release into laundry wash water.

  6. Copyright for Movie Night: Film Screenings on Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela D. Willi Hooper

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available I undertook this paper so that I, along with other librarians and educators, could better understand how to comply with copyright law, conserve university resources, and streamline services to students regarding the procurement of public performance rights (PPR for films and other audiovisual resources. Student groups frequently screen films on campuses, and accepted legal interpretations of sections 101 and 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act indicate that a specific license should be sought for any public performance of a copyrighted audiovisual work. My review of PPR information on the public websites of the 38 members of the ORBIS-Cascade Alliance (an academic library consortium in the Northwest points to the potential for greater collaboration with student affairs professionals and other campus departments to provide more accurate and complete information about PPR and library audiovisual resources (e.g., DVDs or streaming media that have PPR attached. Campus-focused resources about PPR should include information about fair use, educational exemptions, public domain, open licenses, and library-licensed content that comes with PPR. The academic library community could undertake a project to enhance the accessibility of accurate and supportive PPR information to student groups by creating tools or best practices. This area is ripe for more current research.

  7. THE COPYRIGHT ON THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPERT REPORT. CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin Fântână

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, according to the law, the expert is treated as a witness, and the expertise - presented as a report - is treated as a work implemented in support of justice only. Referring to the intellectual property, an expert report is often a research work with pronounced character of investigation. According to the copyright law, such a unique work should be cited even in the court device resolution, scientifically commented, as bibliographical source. The immediate consequence in support of the act of justice is that, unlike the jurisprudence - which in many countries is not a source of law, having an informative character only, a written report - especially the technical work – cannot be commented by any court. Evaluated as technical work, an expert report on the one hand should be treated as such - cited - by the courts of law and on the other hand implemented according to the rules imposed in the scientific works: documented, with a minimum number of references to and quotations from serious sources, including previous expert reports from completed files. We think that such an approach of the expert report would lead to a significant improvement of the justice act at least in Business Law.

  8. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  9. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  10. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  11. 37 CFR 354.1 - Material questions of copyright law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright law. 354.1 Section 354.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... Material questions of copyright law. (a) Discretionary referrals. The Copyright Royalty Judges may seek guidance from the Register of Copyrights with respect to a material question of substantive law, concerning...

  12. 37 CFR 201.1 - Communication with the Copyright Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with the Copyright Office. 201.1 Section 201.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.1 Communication with the Copyright Office...

  13. Educational Implications for Copyright in a Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Schleyer, Titus K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews copyright issues, fair use guidelines, and applicable principles of copyright and ownership, the rights of copyright holders, and the conditions under which copyrighted material can be used by others. Notes possible affects of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act and intellectual property issues on dental schools. (Author/DB)

  14. Understanding Sediment Sources, Pathways, and Sinks in Regional Sediment Management: Application of Wash Load and Bed-Material Load Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biedenham, David S; Hubbard, Lisa C; Thome, Colin R; Watson, Chester C

    2006-01-01

    ... through the fluvial system for sediments derived from various bed, bank, gully, and catchment sources thereby providing a reliable analytical foundation for effective regional sediment management...

  15. Conference Session I: Mitigating Risk at the Front Lines: The Copyright First Responders Program. Presented by Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, the Office for Scholarly Communication, Harvard University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Benson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of Kyle Courtney's Invited Presentation at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference titled "Mitigating Risk at the Front Lines:  The Copyright First Responders Program."  After reading this article you will better understand the method and purpose of the First Responders Program and, hopefully, like me, you will be ready to volunteer your institution to add to the growing list of libraries engaged in this hub-and-spoke model of copyright information system.

  16. Private Copyright and Public Communication: Free Speech Endangered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lyman Ray

    1975-01-01

    Contending that potential conflict between copyright and free speech inevitable if present provisions of the copyright bill providing copyright for television are enacted, the author suggests an alternative approach based on analysis of English and American background, copyright and the law of unfair competition, and policies of the copyright…

  17. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Royalty and Distribution Reform Act of 2004 was signed into law creating the Copyright Royalty Judges, Public Law 108-419, 118 Stat. 2341. The Act replaced the royalty panels with three Copyright Royalty... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 [Docket No. 2011-5] Copyright Arbitration...

  18. Copyright Law and the Leadership Classroom: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Cindy; Jones, David

    2008-01-01

    For many educators the fair use provision of the Copyright Act of 1976 and the subsequent Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act offer "carte blanche" use of various forms of media in the classroom. As Siva Vaidhyanathan (2001) notes, "Copyright myths have had as much power as copyright laws" (p. 5). The…

  19. Broken Links and Broken Laws: Copyright Confusion Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Discusses copyright laws and litigation that have implications for online copyright. Highlights include the Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act; the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA); Eldred v. Ashcroft; tradeoffs between private interests and the public domain; and intellectual property licensing. (LRW)

  20. Copyright and the Professoriate: A Primer and Some Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Copyright branch of American law is summarized and two copyright issues of interest to academics are discussed. Ownership of copyright in works produced in the university and what "fair uses" of copyrighted works may be made by teacher-scholars are discussed. The Salinger v. Random House, Inc. case is described. (MLW)

  1. Using ILD or ITD Cues for Sound Source Localization and Speech Understanding in a Complex Listening Environment by Listeners with Bilateral and with Hearing-Preservation Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Louise H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Yost, William A.; Cook, Sarah J.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of interaural time differences and interaural level differences in (a) sound-source localization, and (b) speech understanding in a cocktail party listening environment for listeners with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) and for listeners with hearing-preservation CIs. Methods: Eleven bilateral listeners with MED-EL…

  2. Understanding meaning and bridging divides: the use of an African metaphor for the South African Open Source Centre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Byrne, E

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , University of South Africa (UNISA), Tshwane, South Africa 3. Open Source Centre (OSC), Meraka Institute, Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Tshwane, South Africa * corresponding author: jollirm@unisa.ac.za Abstract This paper... illustrates how metaphors can be used in organizational change and how the use of a particular metaphor (meraka2) was used strategically to effect such a change in the Open Source Centre (OSC) at the Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR...

  3. Breakout Session: “Workshopping” Copyright Questions and Practical Solutions. Presented by Kyle Courtney, Copyright Advisor, the Office for Scholarly Communication, Harvard University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Van Stanley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During a breakout session at the 2017 copyright conference, Kyle K. Courtney led a discussion focused on practical solutions to common copyright issues. Foremost among these is risk assessments, which involve judgments of risk versus reward. Kyle recommends taking reasonable steps to minimize risk through steps such as disclaimers, fair use, and identifying authorship. To combat copyright issues, copyright professionals must have proper awareness of each individual situation. Given the resources and skills available to librarians, Kyle advises that librarians have special abilities to handle issues such as orphan works. To make judgment calls, individuals must take information on a case-by-case basis. In addition to understanding individual objects concerning their copyright status, information professionals must also understand the different views taken by rights holders, as some are more open than others to use of the copyrighted object. Kyle also discussed what is copyrightable based on measures such as tangibility in a fixed medium and the somewhat unreliable “sweat of the brow” test. Kyle also gave useful tips such as utilizing 17 U.S. Code § 108(h to copy works in their last 20 years of copyright terms without permission under certain circumstances. Kyle recommended continued exploration of potential solutions for copyright issues as new and novel issues arise.

  4. Complete Copyright for K-12 Librarians and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    School librarians and educators have specific copyright questions that are often glossed over in larger books on the subject. Now, thanks to best-selling copyright authority Carrie Russell, there's a resource just for them, offering clear guidance for providing materials to students while carefully observing copyright law. Using whimsical…

  5. Clash of cultures: integrating copyright and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This article seeks to deal with the fundamental conceptual differences between consumer law and copyright law that render the application of consumer law to copyright-law related conflicts difficult. Design/methodology/approach - Following a normative approach to copyright and consumer law

  6. Implication of Copyright Provisions for Literary Works in Films and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emphasis of copyright is on original literary works, films, sound recordings and others. The focus of this paper is to discuss the various provisions of the copyright law as they affect films, video and by extension video CD. The study examines the various interpretations of the provisions of the copyright law as they affect ...

  7. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  8. The Legal Status of the Federal Copyright Law. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Ralph A.; Nolte, M. Chester

    The historical and legal background of the Federal Copyright Law with special implications for education was studied within five general areas of concern. The areas included: (1) historical development, (2) copyright revision issues, (3) principles of copyright law embodied in state and Federal statutes, (4) decisions of the courts pertaining to…

  9. Securing the Future of Copyright Users’ Rights in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Sharieh, Saleh

    2018-01-01

    The Copyright Act includes a set of copyright infringement exceptions that permit the unauthorized use of copyrighted works in order to serve public interest objectives. The Supreme Court of Canada liberally interpreted these exceptions as “users’ rights” by relying on the purpose of the Act,

  10. Copyright Notice, Deposit and Registration Under S. 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, George; Cooper, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 4 of S. 22 requires that works bear a copyright notice, but greatly reduces the penalties for an incorrect or nonexisting notice. It also establishes an optional system of copyright registration. The 12 sections of Chapter 4 are discussed in depth and compared to the existing copyright law. (LBH)

  11. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  12. Editorial: Topical Volume on Earth's Magnetic Field - Understanding Geomagnetic Sources from the Earth's Interior and its Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Richmond, Arthur D.

    2017-01-01

    (seconds to days) magnetic field variations that are caused by currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere when solar activity, and correspondingly the electric currents in Earth’s environment, are enhanced. However, for studying the internal sources of the geomagnetic field, originating in the core...

  13. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright work, examples of copyright works and exceptions related to the duration of copyright for different kinds of copyright works. As there had been no systematic overview of such legal documents in the available literature, they were briefly described in the first part of the paper, highlighting the important articles that stress the role of authors and their copyright work. In the analysis and summary we provide a systematic overview of the main concepts, with a special review of copyright laws in relation to new technologies and artistic forms: it is their relationship that testifies to the complexity of the term 'copyright work'. The paper shows that the basic perception of the author, his/her copyright works and their relations in the analysed copyright legislation has not changed significantly during this period of time. All legal documents refer to the examples of copyright work, and in 1957 a definition of copyright work was included, according to which copyright work is every spiritual (later referred to as intellectual creation. The concept of the author is strongly linked with the concept of author's copyright work. Various examples of copyright works allow us to see the difference between works that are permanent (e.g. literary works, music works, art works and works that are yet to be protected by copyright thanks to the development of technology and new features of artistic expression (e.g. photography, movies, computer programs. The process of

  14. The EtnaPlumeLab (EPL research cluster: advance the understanding of Mt. Etna plume, from source characterisation to downwind impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Sellitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a multidisciplinary research cluster named EtnaPlumeLab (EPL was established, gathering experts from volcanology and atmospheric science communities. Target of EPL is to advance the understanding of Mt. Etna's gas and aerosol emissions and the related processes, from source to its regional climatic impact in the Mediterranean area. Here, we present the cluster and its three interacting modules: EPL-RADIO (Radioactive Aerosols and other source parameters for better atmospheric Dispersion and Impact estimatiOns, SMED (Sulfur MEditerranean Dispersion and Med-SuV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes Work Package 5. Preliminary results have for the first time highlighted the relevance of Mt. Etna's plume impact at the Mediterranean regional scale. These results underline that further efforts need to be made to get insight into a synoptic volcanogenic-atmospheric chemistry/climatic understanding of volcanic plumes impact.

  15. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Velagić, Zoran; Hocenski, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments) were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright w...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  18. Copyright Renewal for Libraries: Seven Steps toward a User-Friendly Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin L.

    2010-01-01

    Copyright law is a source of a great deal of bewilderment and frustration to academic librarians. Beyond the basics of copyright protection and fair use, most librarians struggle to grasp the complexity of the law and the roadblocks it presents to access and use. This article attempts to elucidate some of those complexities by suggesting seven…

  19. The Graphic Arts and the New Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Wayne

    This paper briefly summarizes the Copyright Act recently passed by the United States Congress as it relates to graphic arts and points out that the law ignores the major problem facing that field: the lack of copyright protection for typography and typeface designs. It then explains the reasoning used for denying protection to typography and…

  20. Royalty Fees Part I: The Copyright Clearance Center and Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiblum, Paula; Ardito, Stephanie C.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of copyrights, royalty fees, and intellectual property focuses on the Copyright Clearance Center and publishers. Topics include results of a survey of library and information science journal publishers; how users verify royalty fees; how publishers determine fees; royalty fee reporting; and terms and conditions imposed on electronic…

  1. Development, concept and scope of copyright protection in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development, concept and scope of copyright protection in Nigeria: an overview. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This forms the aim of this paper which focuses essentially on basic issues relating to the development, concept and the scope of protection afforded copyright in ...

  2. Copyright law and freedom of expression in South Africa | Holland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article acknowledges the conflict between copyright law and freedom of expression right in South Africa; it recognises the tension and conflict of the fundamental rights that is evident in the two case laws discussed. The author laments the absence of copyright provisions under the Bill of Rights of the Constitution as laid ...

  3. IMPOSITION OF A COPYRIGHT LEVY IN NIGERIA: LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as well as cinematograph films. ... adversely affect production of cultural goods or creativity in the society. In order to ... for future production of creative and cultural goods. ..... of copyright and constitutional provisions, which provide for freedom of speech.52 Copyright in itself restrains others from using the expression of the.

  4. 42 CFR 61.19 - Copyright and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright and reproduction. 61.19 Section 61.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.19 Copyright and reproduction. Where the work accomplished...

  5. Filtering the internet for copyrighted content in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2009-01-01

    One issue that has been frequently discussed in the IRIS plus series is the unauthorised supply of copyright protected works via the Internet. The resulting threat of copyright infringements could, at least partly, be prevented through the use of Internet filters, an option that forms the subject of

  6. Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Educational institutions continually work to balance between providing students with access to data and protecting copyright owner's exclusive rights. The Copyright Act of 1976, effective in 1978, provided exemptions for live and distance education. As digital technology grew in capability, its capabilities were incorporated in distance education,…

  7. In Depth: Interactive Copyright Education for 3D Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of makerspaces and 3D services in libraries means new opportunities to utilize library expertise, partnerships, and exemptions to inform patrons about copyright in creative environments. Wide access to 3D printing, trademarks, and patents are relevant topics, but this paper only focuses on copyright. Little to no literature has been produced about how to educate makers about copyright for 3D objects. This paper will present a framework to encourage creators of 3D objects to analyze and interpret copyright information for their own purposes. It also discusses the process of designing and embedding learning tools into the database for SHAPES, a project for inter-library loans of 3D renderings. NOTE: New information about the methods and progress of this project has been added since the Kraemer Copyright Conference.

  8. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law...

  9. EU DIRECTIVES IN THE FIELD OF COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to underline the evolution and the importance of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights, their contribution to the development of the law and the national implementation, namely their transposition into Romanian Law no. 8/1996 on copyright and related rights. For this purpose, the article will analyze the historical evolution of the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights and their most important dispositions. Given the wide range of subject matter with which it is concerned, the European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address to enforcement, protection of databases, protection of computer programs, resale right, satellite and cable, term of protection, rental and lending rights, copyright and related rights in the information society, orphan works and management of copyright and related rights. Taking into account the wild range of subjects that European Directives in the field of copyright and related rights address, it is important to observe the permanent interest of the European legislator on the harmonization of the law on copyright and related rights. In this way, the result was the adoption of 7 directives in a 10-year interval between 1991 and 2001, and of 4 directives, including the one for the modification of the Directive on the term of protection, also in a 10-year interval between 2004 and 2014. Despite the extensive process of harmonization, copyright law in the Member States of the European Union is still largely linked to geographical boundaries of sovereign states.

  10. African Copyright and Access to Knowledge Network (ACA2K ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... copyright climate could limit access to knowledge goods and thereby hinder ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows! ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  11. 76 FR 66758 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... instructions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine Rowland, Counsel, Office of Policy and International... Involvement: State courts do not have expertise in copyright jurisprudence. As noted above, Section 1338 of...

  12. Copyright and mass digitization a cross-jurisdictional perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In an age where works are increasingly being used, not only as works in the traditional sense, but also as carriers of data from which information may be automatically extracted for various purposes, Borghi and Karapapa consider whether mass digitisation is consistent with existing copyright principles, and ultimately whether copyright protection needs to be redefined, and if so how? The work considers the activities involved in the process of mass digitization identifying impediments to the increasing number of such projects such as the inapplicability of copyright exceptions, difficulties in rights clearance, and the issue of 'orphan' and out-of-print works. It goes on to examine the concept of 'use' of works in light of mass digital technologies and how it impinges on copyright law and principles; for example considering whether scanning and using optical character recognition in mass digital projects qualify as transformative use, or whether text mining on digitial repositories should be a permitted act...

  13. Demystifying the role of copyright as a tool for economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    ... regard is one of creating a conducive environment through political (and economic) stability, and not one of actually ..... Coach 2010 ..... influenced by the civil law tradition, have incorporated bad civil law elements into English copyright law ...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  15. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  16. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Edit

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of intellectual property and copyright issues as they relate to online learning environments. Includes a historical perspective; laws and regulations; liability; Web-related issues; higher education; distance learning; compliance strategies; and policy recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  17. The Necessity to collectivize copyright - and dangers thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    This article describes and discusses the effects of collective rights administration of (individual) copyright. It points out that collectivization is driven either by en economic argument relating to the reduction of transaction costs or a cultural one relating to the protection of authors....... It then claims that collectivization has the potential to affect copyright as it is perceived in the Berne Convention and in traditional copyright legislation fundamentally. The effects include a basic shift in copyright from a system based on property rules to a system based also on liability rules. The article...... then discusses how to best deal with these effects. It recommends that action is considered to identify and possibly remove internal barriers to beneficial collectivization, regulate societies effectively to secure innovation-interest, and  to protect the interests of authors more effectively....

  18. EU copyright protection of works created by artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Helene Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with copyright regulation of works created by artificial intelligence systems. The rapid advances in artificial intelligence are calling into question some of the fundamental assumptions upon which intellectual property law rests. Currently, the European framework of copyright law does not take non-human innovation into account. Meanwhile, advances in artificial intelligence are quickly making machine-generation of creative works a reality. Institutions of the Europea...

  19. Sedimentological and geochemical investigations to understand source of sediments and processes of recent past in Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shabnam; Tiwari, Anoop Kumar; Nayak, G. N.; Bejugam, Purnima

    2018-03-01

    Three sediment cores collected from GL-1, V-1(Vetehiya) and L-6 lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica were studied for sediment components (sand, silt, clay, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, TOC/TN ratio and biogenic silica), major elements (Aluminium, Iron and Manganese) and trace metals (Chromium, Zinc, Lead, Cobalt, Cadmium and Nickel). High sand content in all the three cores revealed the release of coarser sediments through mechanical weathering in fluvio-glacial environment. Relatively, high biogenic silica along with high total organic carbon associated with high clay in some sections indicated high primary productivity due to the warming and exposure of the lakes to the ice-melt water influx. TOC/TN ratio for all the cores was found to be < 10 which indicated that the major source of organic matter was autochthonous. Metals were found to be strongly associated with clay and organic carbon in core V-1, with sand and clay in core L-6 while, with silt and organic matter in core GL-1 indicating their role in regulating the distribution of metals. Cadmium in lake GL-1 was found to be associated with total organic carbon and showed largely biogenic origin, while, Cd and Pb in lakes L-6 and V-1 were found to be of anthropogenic origin. All the other metals showed signatures of lithogenic origin.

  20. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Improving nuclear utility generation capacity, understanding the sources of forced outage and learning how to prevent them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, D.L.; Todreas, N.E.; Angus, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    MIT and PECO Energy have completed a detailed examination of the sources of forced outages at the Limerick Generating Station (LGS) Boiling Water Reactor Class IV (BWR IV) site over a five year period and contrasted that information to similar BWR IV utilities in the United States over the same period. Each forced outage was attributed to one system and assigned causal codes of equipment versus human factors and failure attributes such as weak design, poor craftsmanship, and worn parts. It was found that fifty four percent of the lost power at LGS was the result of Balance of Plant failures. Industry wide data identifies fifty nine percent of the lost power as attributed to Balance of Plant failures. Balance of Plant systems are those systems not included in the primary and safety related system category. Considering failure causal factors, forty six percent of the lost power at the utility under study was the result of equipment factors such as weak design or worn parts. Significantly, the study showed a high variance between those systems which caused significant forced outage at the two sister LGS units. This demonstrated the infrequent nature of plant forced outages within a given system. This was supported by the observation that dominant systems attributing to forced outage at LGS were not equally represented in industry data. It is suggested that for individual utilities to dramatically improve unit capability factors with regard to Balance of Plant systems, they must learn from industry wide experiences and develop cooperative means of exchanging lessons learned among similarly designed plants and systems. With the broad knowledge base of system failures, current designs must be frequently assessed and altered until each system poses an acceptable level of risk to generation capacity. (author)

  2. Should copyright be transferred before a manuscript is accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2017-10-01

    Academic journals that undergo a process of academic scrutiny often pass a stage of peer review and subsequent editorial approval. In a process that can take weeks or months (in some cases, even years), an author aims to satisfy the requirements of peer reviewer and editorial scrutiny that would merit publication of their work. It is customary to, in traditional, non-open access journals, to then sign over copyright to the publisher, upon which the publisher then issues a proof, and the manuscript is then published. Even though it is obvious that an author would not submit to a journal with the objective of having it rejected, the issue of the timing of copyright transfer is one which does not appear to have been discussed in the literature, possibly because the order of transfer, i.e., after acceptance of a paper for publication, seems naturally logical. With the modernization of online submission systems, the transfer of copyright tends to occur online, after acceptance. However, on occasion, some journals request the transfer of copyright before peer review and editorial processing occurs, i.e., upon the act of submission. This letter examines three cases of Springer Nature plant science journals that demand the transfer of copyright to the journal's society upon submission, in direct violation of their instructions for authors. Authors have no right to challenge this discrepancy, nor can they complete submission in accordance with the instructions for authors because they are forced to submit copyright upon submission. Not only does transfer of copyright at such an early stage of the publishing process constitute a waste of authors' time-a precious commodity in a cut-throat field of science-in the three cases indicated in this paper, they may constitute a violation of authors' rights. The ethics of this request by the journals and publisher need to be debated.

  3. The Copyright/Design Interface in Denmark (and Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Rosenmeier, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the interface in copyright and design law in Denmark and with accounts also for Norway and Sweden. It is pointed out how Scandinavian courts have historically employed several strategies to limit copyright protection of works of applied art including 1) “raising the bar......” to keep works with “clear functional intentions” out of copyright (as seen in Norway and until recently also in Sweden) and 2) narrowing the scope of protection (seen in all three nations). It is finally pointed out how, presently, it is doubtful to what extent the de-velopment in EU law will allow...... these models developed in national law to continue....

  4. Recalibrating Some Copyright Conceptions: Toward a Shared and Balanced Approach to Educational Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Graham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Canada’s publicly-funded educational institutions have operated since the 1990s under blanket reprographic licences. But recent Copyright Act amendments and Supreme Court decisions in several copyright cases have added legislative and judicial weight to the idea that copyright encompasses both private owners’ rights and public users’ rights in the form of infringement exceptions such as fair dealing. Many educational institutions have responded to these changes by moving toward greater reliance on statutory users’ rights and direct licensing with copyright owners, and by moving away from blanket collective licensing. Not unexpectedly, copyright owners and the societies and collectives that represent them see the changes in copyright law in a different light. Copyright owners’ and educators’ variant conceptions of the kinds of educational copying that are compensable pose a challenging policy problem in need of a principled solution that upholds the legislative underpinnings of copyright law and is perceived to be fair. This article attempts to frame a balanced understanding of underlying issues by considering the nature and purpose of copyright, the purpose of copyright collectives, what is meant by fair dealing, and, ultimately, how we should think about copyright. It suggests that meaningful change may not be achievable without concerted attention paid to the language we use to think and talk about copyright in order to construct a combat-free shared space in which learning, inquiry, and the production of creative works are fostered and, when appropriate, rewarded fairly.

  5. Where Does Creativity Come From? and Other Stories of Copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This Commentary on Lydia Pallas Loren, Untangling the Web of Music Copyrights, 53 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 673 (2003), observes that debates over a variety of copyright law issues can be - and in fact, often are - structured in narrative terms, rather than in terms of doctrine, policy, or empirical inquiry. I suggest a series of such narratives, each framed by a theme drawn from a feature film. The Commentary suggests that we should recognize more clearly the role of narrative in intellectual pro...

  6. Nigerian popular films: copyright and originality | Effiong | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay attempts to examine the effect of copyright activities on Nigerian popular films. To an extent, it is to show how these activities have affected the distribution of films produced by Nigerians and the rising wave of returning to the cinema halls. Movie producers have expressed disappointment in the loss of their ...

  7. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  8. 37 CFR 202.3 - Registration of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separate continuation sheet, CON 2, must be used to list contents titles, i.e., titles of independent works... on current events, either local, national, or international in scope. A newspaper contains a broad... other copyright claimant of a work, or the owner of any exclusive right in a work, or the duly...

  9. "Originality" and "Reproduction" in Copyright Law with Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turning to lessons from foreign jurisdictions, this note explores from a copyright perspective the fact that photographs are produced mechanically and more often than not without any effort or mental input. A minute number are taken for anything but personal use and in the digital age photographs tend to have a high degree ...

  10. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  11. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... who is entitled to receive a royalty payment under this part, they shall retain the required fee in a... royalty fees shall be valid after the expiration of the three-year period. Public broadcasting entities... make available to the Copyright Royalty Judges, upon request, information concerning fees deposited in...

  12. Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Patricia; Jaszi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and combative arena of copyright in the digital age, record companies sue college students over peer-to-peer music sharing, YouTube removes home movies because of a song playing in the background, and filmmakers are denied a distribution deal when some permissions "i" proves undottable. Patricia Aufderheide and Peter…

  13. Facing the Grim Realities in CBI: Copyright and Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This paper focuses on two major issues in the third stage of the implementation and dissemination process for computer based instruction (CBI)--copyright and documentation. The purpose, special problems, and different approaches or methods of copywriting and documenting CBI materials are discussed. Tables outline the types of information required…

  14. The United States Copyright Law: A Guide for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    On October 19, 1976, President Ford signed the nation's first comprehensive revision of our copyright law since 1909. It became fully effective on January 1, 1978 and it is a law that will need to be understood by music educators both to improve their teaching and to protect themselves and their schools from incurring liability or being sued. This…

  15. A century of Dutch copyright law: auteurswet 1912-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, B.; Quaedvlieg, A.; Visser, D.

    2012-01-01

    On September 23, 1912, the Dutch Copyright Act - Auteurswet - was enacted. A century after its enactment the Dutch law is one of the world's oldest 'living' acts of the author's rights tradition. While the Act has seen many small and large amendments since its adoption in 1912, it has never been

  16. The Film Collector, the FBI, and the Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Francis M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Current developments in both the civil and criminal law as they relate to the hobby of film collecting are analyzed. The first-sale doctrine, court cases involving copyrights of films, and the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in confiscating films on behalf of the Film Security Office of the Motion Picture Association of America are…

  17. Some Optimism About Fair Use and Copyright Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This short paper reflects on the emergence of codes of best practices in fair use, highlighting both the relationship between the best practices approach and an institutional perspective on copyright and the relationship between the best practices approach and social processes of innovation and creativity.

  18. Access to Knowledge in Africa: The Role of Copyright | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... ... IP will benefit immensely from this book and the broader ACA2K project's work. ... scholarly publications, journals and learning materials in general. ... This book is based on the work of the African Copyright and Access to ...

  19. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of prospective intent to award exclusive license. SUMMARY: The... Technologies Group, Inc., 253 Portman Lane, Suite 107, Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1...

  20. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  1. Online Copyright Enforcement, Consumer Behavior, and Market Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, Luis; Claussen, Jörg; Peukert, Christian

    Taking down copyright-infringing websites is a way to reduce consumption of pirated media content and increase licensed consumption. We analyze the consequences of the shutdown of the most popular German video streaming website - kino.to - in June 2011. Using individual-level clickstream data, we...

  2. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  3. Approaches to Copyright Education for Faculty in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zerkee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed copyright administrators at Canadian universities about their methods of providing copyright training to faculty and non-faculty instructors, the frequency and topics of education provided, and the modes of communication used to reach instructors. Copyright administrators were also asked to rate the perceived effectiveness of their educational opportunities. Respondents feel that in-person education is most effective for providing copyright training to instructors, though a significant number of respondents do not believe that all instructors at their institutions are made adequately aware of copyright educational opportunities. Lack of time and staffing resources affect many copyright administrators. These challenges are leading many to develop more systematic approaches to reaching instructors. Communication and education are being provided directly to individual departments and by working with administrators and others at the department level. Considering the siloed nature of many copyright offices and positions, this study aims to share the approaches being taken by copyright administrators to educate instructors about their rights and responsibilities with regard to copyright and teaching. Introduction Cette étude a sondé des agents du droit d’auteur des universités canadiennes sur les méthodes utilisées pour offrir des formations à des professeurs et autres employés, la fréquence et les sujets abordés lors de ces formations ainsi que les moyens utilisés pour communiquer avec cette clientèle. Les agents du droit d’auteur ont également évalué l’efficacité perçue de leurs formations. Les répondants croient que la formation en personne est la façon la plus efficace de former les professeurs même si un nombre significatif de répondants croient que les professeurs à leur établissement ne soient pas suffisamment informés des possibilités d’enseignement portant sur le droit d’auteur. Le manque

  4. KEEPING THE NATION'S ASSETS THROUGH THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF COPYRIGHT WORKS OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Makkawaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia positioned copyright art and culture based on its strength as a nation or community rights over an Alliance grouping of the society which can give the effect of distortions in its protection. Which institution can be megurus and oversee the interests between countriesCultivate ideas/ideas in the fields of art, literature and science in the context of intellectual property rights (HKI categorized into areas of HKI named Copyright (Copyright. The scope of the rights provided for the protection of copyright in the context of this very broad following elements known in several countries. There is a different understanding about the copyright status of culture from both the substance of the right nor of the appreciation of the case which threatens foreign claims copyright over the culture of Indonesia

  5. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  6. The Aereo dilemma and copyright in the cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Horten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aereo is a cloud-based startup company that offers people the possibility to watch live (or nearly live television on computing devices and smartphones. It was sued by the major US broadcasters for copyright liability and the case went to the Supreme Court where Aereo lost. It encapsulates a dilemma facing courts in the US and EU – that a ruling to shut down Aereo, on the basis that it is unlawful under copyright law, could threaten innovation in areas such as the cloud. The Aereo case turned on a narrow point of US copyright law, which this paper discusses. The core issue for this paper was to analyse the legal dispute between Aereo and the broadcasters as documented in the court papers, including transcripts of the hearing, and submissions in support of both parties. A key finding was that the technical design and characterisation of the service lay at the heart of the argument over copyright. The US courts deliberated at length as whether Aereo is more like a cable TV company, or is it merely an equipment provider, providing a digital video recorder in the cloud. The paper discusses whether technical design matters or whether the substantive effect could be the determining factor. The paper then broadens the perspective to examine the position of cloud service providers. It does so in general terms, using amicus curiae briefs and other documentation from the US court case, before concluding with a consideration of the EU position. An important finding is that the complexities of content acquisition, transmission and format-shifting will generate considerable legal uncertainty.

  7. Streaming Video Games: Copyright Infringement or Protected Speech?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Evert Elias Jungar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.

  8. Image Right and Copyright Law in Europe: Divergences and Convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Synodinou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multiplicity of image rights in Europe and the classical conflictual relationship between the right to one’s own image and copyright law. First, the paper analyses the main mechanisms of legal protection of a person’s image in selected jurisdictions, in both the civil law and the common law tradition. It is deduced that the civil law approach based on the right of privacy or the right of personality is expressed mainly either via a duality, reflecting the extra-patrimonial and the patrimonial attributes to one’s own image, or via the recognition of a single right with a dual nature. On the other hand, the protection granted to the right to one’s own image in the United Kingdom is piecemeal in nature, since it is based on a broad interpretation of the classic torts of breach of confidence and passing off, which fails to provide a coherent and effective legal framework for protecting the intangible asset of a person’s image, both in terms of its dignitary and its economic identity. After pinpointing the major differences in terms of protecting the right to one’s own image in Europe, the emphasis is placed on the relationship between image rights and copyright law. A classic approach considers image rights as an external limitation of copyright law, and therefore typifies the relationship between image rights and copyright law as being primarily conflictual in nature. Nonetheless, it is also possible to focus on the convergences between the right to one’s own image and copyright law, since both refer to intangible assets that combine both extra-patrimonial and patrimonial interests. In this respect, copyright law could serve as a model for the eventual creation of a European patrimonial right to one’s own image. While the idea of promoting the recognition or establishment of a new intellectual property right for protecting the economic attributes of a person’s image in EU Member States’ domestic

  9. Image Right and Copyright Law in Europe: Divergences and Convergences

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Synodinou

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the multiplicity of image rights in Europe and the classical conflictual relationship between the right to one’s own image and copyright law. First, the paper analyses the main mechanisms of legal protection of a person’s image in selected jurisdictions, in both the civil law and the common law tradition. It is deduced that the civil law approach based on the right of privacy or the right of personality is expressed mainly either via a duality, reflecting the extra-patrimo...

  10. Copyright over Works Reproduced and Published Online by Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are an important technological tool that facilitates the dissemination and access to information on the Internet. However, when it comes to works protected by authors rights, in the case of continental law, or Copyright, for the Anglo-Saxon tradition, it is difficult to define if search engines infringe the rights of the owners of these works. In the face of this situation, the US and Europe have employed the exceptions to autorights and Fair Use to decide whether search engines infringes owners rights. This article carries out a comparative analysis of the different judicial decisions in the US and Europe on search engines and protected works.

  11. Strong Copyright + DRM + Weak Net Neutrality = Digital Dystopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Bailey Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three critical issues—a dramatic expansion of the scope, duration, and punitive nature of copyright laws; the ability of Digital Rights Management (DRM systems to lock-down digital content in an unprecedented fashion; and the erosion of Net neutrality, which ensures that all Internet traffic is treated equally—are examined in detail and their potential impact on libraries is assessed. How legislatures, the courts, and the commercial marketplace treat these issues will strongly influence the future of digital information for good or ill.

  12. Copyright Failure and the Protection for Tables and Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K W Khong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Current copyright laws in all jurisdictions are lacking explicit provisions for protecting many types of contemporary art. It remains unclear to what extent ideas should be copyrightable as art, if at all; or whether an artwork’s commercial nature provides a decisive factor regarding appropriation. Certain situations seem plainly inappropriate, such as artists needing to seek legal counsel in conjunction with creating their artwork: inappropriate in its financial extravagance and in its inevitable curb on creativity. As such, it is incumbent upon courts and legislatures to analyze the issue and to provide guidance. It is the author’s finding that strong moral rights and a vibrant public domain are not necessarily at odds with each other, especially when parties are open to communication. Laws operate to provide structure when parties do not make other arrangements amongst themselves; contracts between artists and galleries, artists and publishers, even artists and other artists may provide the highest degree of satisfaction for specific parties to a specific situation. Not surprisingly, parties with legal or business interests in art and parties with artistic interests in art would communicate better if they understood each other’s situations. Hopefully the issues will continue to be the focus of some thought on all platforms such that informed legal decisions can be made and artists can pursue and protect their creative productions, no matter their format.

  13. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  14. Author’s contract in the Albanian copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltion Spiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the author and his/her artistic creation is very specific and at the same time a strong one. Such relation defies any property and affective connection that an individual may have with an object (Caron, 2011, 25. Copyright constitutes precisely the legal embodiment of the author’s intimate relationship with his/her work. Copyright is a plurality of legal provisions that belongs to the author of the work, in order to protect his/her ownership and eventually the commercial exploitation of such work. In this context, the author, through legal provisions and international conventions duly ratified by Albania, enjoys a relevant legal arsenal in order to defend his/her artistic works so that such works may have a live of its own (Vivant & Bruguière 2009, 23. One of these legal measures is the contract, which in legal doctrine is well known as the author’s contract. By means of such contract, the author has the right to distribute, reproduce, license or certify rights related to his/her artistic work. In this regard, the contract is an irreplaceable tool in the hands of the author to distribute the work and to give it an undeniable value, turning it into one of the most valuable intangible assets in civil circulation. The contract of the author, as the name indicates it, is a contract that obeys to the rules of civil law with respect to the quality of the parties, the characteristics of the object of the contract, its conclusion, the determination of remuneration and the term of duration. On the other hand, it is undeniable that the contract of the author contains rules which are not specifically contemplated by the Civil Code, such as rules relating to the form, interpretation and existence of some sui generis contracts provided in Law 9380 / 2005 “On copyright and related rights” (hereinafter referred to as “Law 9380/2005” or “Law on Copyright” as well as in the Draft Law On Authors Rights (hereinafter referred

  15. Copyright and personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    (La version française sera en ligne prochainement)The rules covering the personal use of CERN’s computing infrastructure are defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its Subsidiary Rules (see http://cern.ch/ComputingRules). All users of CERN’s computing infrastructure must comply with these rules, whether they access CERN’s computing facilities from within the Organization’s site or at another location. In particular, OC5 clause 17 requires that proprietary rights (the rights in software, music, video, etc.) must be respected. The user is liable for damages resulting from non-compliance. Recently, there have been several violations of OC5, where copyright material was discovered on public world-readable disk space. Please ensure that all material under your responsibility (in particular in files owned by your account) respects proprietary rights, including with respect to the restriction of access by third parties. CERN Security Team

  16. Robust watermarking on copyright protection of digital originals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C; Hu, X Y, E-mail: guchong527@gmail.co, E-mail: emma_huxy@yahoo.com.c [College of Packaging and Printing Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222 (China)

    2010-06-01

    The issues about the difference between digital vector originals and raster originals were discussed. A new algorithm based on displacing vertices to realize the embedding and extracting of digital watermarking in vector data was proposed after that. The results showed that the watermark produced by the method is resistant against translation, scaling, rotation, additive random noise; it is also resistant, to some extent, against cropping. This paper also modified the DCT raster image watermarking algorithm, using a bitmap image as watermark embedded into target images, instead of some meaningless serial numbers or simple symbols. The embedding and extraction part of these two digital watermark systems achieved with software. Experiments proved that both algorithms are not only imperceptible, but also have strong resistance against the common attracts, which can prove the copyright more effectively.

  17. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  18. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  19. Investigating the issue of copyright and security measures in digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ahmadi Fasih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, digital libraries have been the primary source of retrieving necessary information. IT helps many scholars have the access to recently published value added researches around the world. However, information security and copyright concerns are among the most important issues and there must be good rules and regulation to protect authors against any sort of copyright violation. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out about the status of copyright issues in one of Iranian libraries. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 96 librarian experts. Cronbach alpha is equal to 0.76, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results of our investigation indicate that although expert believe the status of copyright is in desirable level when the level of significance is five percent, there are some concerns on some issues. In other words, experts believed that all copyrights are not well protected and digital libraries do not follow governmental rules and regulation on fully protecting authors’ rights. In addition, experts believed that the security of sources available on digital libraries is not well protected.

  20. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Comite, Valeria; La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  1. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A., E-mail: silvestro.ruffolo@unical.it [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Comite, Valeria [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); La Russa, Mauro F. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Barca, Donatella [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Bonazza, Alessandra [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Crisci, Gino M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Pezzino, Antonino [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  2. Understanding medical travel from a source country perspective: a cross sectional study of the experiences of medical travelers from the Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, Mariyam; Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2018-06-19

    The resolution adopted in 2006 by the World Health Organization on international trade and health urges Member States to understand the implications of international trade and trade agreements for health and to address any challenges arising through policies and regulations. The government of Maldives is an importer of health services (with outgoing medical travelers), through offering a comprehensive universal health care package for its people that includes subsidized treatment abroad for services unavailable in the country. By the end of the first year of the scheme approximately US$11.6 m had been spent by the government of Maldives to treat patients abroad. In this study, affordability, continuity and quality of this care were assessed from the perspective of the medical traveler to provide recommendations for safer and more cost effective medical travel policy. Despite universal health care, a substantial proportion of Maldivian travelers have not accessed the government subsidy, and a third reported not having sufficient funds for the treatment episode abroad. Among the five most visited hospitals in this study, none were JCI accredited at the time of the study period and only three from India had undergone the National Accreditation Board for Hospitals (NABH) in India. Satisfaction with treatment received was high amongst travelers but concern for the continuity of care was very high, and more than a third of the patients had experienced complications arising from the treatment overseas. Source countries can use their bargaining power in the trade of health services to offer a more comprehensive package for medical travelers. Source countries with largely public funded health systems need to ensure that medical travel is truly affordable and universal, with measures for quality control such as the use of accredited foreign hospitals to make it safer and to impose measures that ensure the continuity of care for travelers.

  3. The Oak Ridge Field Research Center : Advancing Scientific Understanding of the Transportation, Fate, and Remediation of Subsurface Contamination Sources and Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Watson

    2005-01-01

    Historical research, development, and testing of nuclear materials across this country resulted in subsurface contamination that has been identified at over 7,000 discrete sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. With the end of the Cold War threat, DOE has shifted its emphasis to remediation, decommissioning, and decontamination of the immense volumes of contaminated groundwater, sediments, and structures at its sites. DOE currently is responsible for remediating 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to approximately four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of contaminated soil, enough to fill approximately 17 professional sports stadiums.* DOE also sponsors research intended to improve or develop remediation technologies, especially for difficult, currently intractable contaminants or conditions. The Oak Ridge FRC is representative of some difficult sites, contaminants, and conditions. Buried wastes in contact with a shallow water table have created huge reservoirs of contamination. Rainfall patterns affect the water table level seasonally and over time. Further, the hydrogeology of the area, with its fractures and karst geology, affects the movement of contaminant plumes. Plumes have migrated long distances and to surface discharge points through ill-defined preferred flowpaths created by the fractures and karst conditions. From the standpoint of technical effectiveness, remediation options are limited, especially for contaminated groundwater. Moreover, current remediation practices for the source areas, such as capping, can affect coupled processes that, in turn, may affect the movement of subsurface contaminants in unknown ways. Research conducted at the FRC or with FRC samples therefore promotes understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of extant remediation options, and the

  4. Knowledgeability of Copyright Law among Librarians and Library Paraprofessionals Employed in Adult Services at a Large Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget M.

    Since public libraries contain copyrighted works in the form of print, electronic or audiovisual sources, librarians and library paraprofessionals need to possess sufficient knowledge of United States copyright law to meet the information needs of patrons successfully and legally. A literature review revealed that minimal works address this topic.…

  5. Copyright in a Digital Age: Practical Guidance for Information Professionals in the Midst of Legal Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues pertaining to information use on the Internet. Topics include digital copyright interpretations; court rulings on copyright infringement; copyright advice from the Copyright Clearance Center; rights management models; technology as a solution; and developing corporate copyright policies. (LRW)

  6. The Transmission of Environmental Values from Sources of Influence to Young Adults: Toward an Understanding of the Process Leading to Environmental Values Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depper, Gina L.

    2017-01-01

    The world faces significant environmental challenges due largely to unsustainable human behavior. Values have been found to be a direct and indirect predictor of human behavior and understanding how they are formed/influenced is critical to any strategy of behavioral change. Our understanding of how environmental values are transmitted and…

  7. Conference Session II: Creation or Evolution: Can Copyright Bring the Peace? Presented by Kenneth D. Crews, attorney, Gipson Hoffman & Pancione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley C. Nelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Kenneth Crews gives an overview of the history of copyright law, using creation and evolution as touchstones for the quick leaps and long crawls made in this discipline.  Using multiple examples, the often-contentious history of copyright law is presented in an approachable and understandable manner.  Tensions between many of the forces that have shaped, and still are shaping, copyright law are discussed, including the tension between creators and consumers of copyrightable materials.  In the end, both forces are shown to be not only important to, but necessary for, the development of U.S. copyright law.  The program closed with a call to action for attendees to speak out on copyright law and to become part of the forces that continue to create change in this discipline.

  8. Understanding the Impacts of Land Uses on the Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Contamination By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons throughout a Small State in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants that enter the environment through combustion processes and are often found in higher concentration of urban areas. However, once released, these compounds can travel long distances via transport through the atmosphere and can be deposited on the landscape far away from their original source. This PAH deposition pattern can slowly lead to the diffuse contamination of whole landscapes. Since most of the air masses entering the northeastern United States originate from the Midwest where coal burning power plants are plentiful, several atmospheric pollutants are introduced to the region in addition to local sources. Here, atmospheric deposition of PAHs in six different locations throughout Rhode Island was measured using passive bulk-deposition samplers for 3 years. The data were analyzed statistically by principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify the source of contamination and respective apportionment. The data clearly show that an urban-to- rural gradient exists where deposition rates are significantly higher in urban areas (up to 12325 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) compared to rural areas (as low as 11 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) and also follow seasonal trends that show higher deposition rates in the fall and winter compared to the summer and spring time. Further, based on PAH source apportionment ratios, contamination origins differ spatially. For example, fossil fuel, coal, and vehicle combustion is present in all samples; however fossil fuel combustion is dominant in urban samples. In Rural areas biomass combustion is much more prevalent and is not as greatly represented in urban or suburban areas. Therefore, even in a small state such as Rhode Island airborne PAH contamination can be fingerprinted readily for different sampling areas, indicating that distant emission sources have a widespread impact on regional air quality.

  9. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Sexual Understanding, Sources of Information and Social Networks; the Reports of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Non-Disabled Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A.; Pownall, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual development plays a vital part in young people's emotional adjustment. Method: This study compared the sexual understanding of 30 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 30 non-disabled adolescents, along with their reports of where they obtained sexual information, and the nature of their social networks…

  11. Using Multi-Isotope Tracer Methods to Understand the Sources of Nitrate in Aerosols, Fog and River Water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L. A.; Dominguez, G.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Andean rainforests of Ecuador possess some of the highest plant biodiversity found on the planet; however, these ecosystems are in jeopardy because region is experiences one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. This rainforest characterized by high acidity and low nutrient soils and experiences natural process which are both destabilizing and stabilizing to biodiversity rendering this a unique, though sensitive environment. There is increased concern that anthropogenic activities especially biomass burning are affecting the rainforests and could lead to higher extinction rates, changes in the biodiversity and far reaching effects on the global troposphere. Measurements of nitrate and sulfate in rain and fog water have shown periods of elevated concentrations in the Podocarpus National Park near Loja, Ecuador. These high episodes contribute to annual deposition rates that are comparable to polluted regions of North America and Europe. Significant anthropogenic sources such as large scale industry or a major city, near this forest are lacking. It is believed that the majority of the nitrate and sulfate pollution is due to the large amount of biomass burning during the dry season in the Amazon Basin. In recent years it has been shown that large amount of dust is transported across the Atlantic from Africa which reaches South America. Concentration measurements do not elucidate the source of high nitrate and sulfate pollution; however, by measuring all three stable isotopes of oxygen in nitrate and sulfate from fog and river water provides a new way to examine the impacts of biomass burning on the region. By using stable isotope techniques atmospheric nitrate and sulfate can be resolved from terrestrial sources. This provides a unique way to trace the contributions from the biomass burning and farming sources. Current research at the field station, Estación Científica San Francisco in the Podocarpus National Forest monitors

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Taleby Ahvanooey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ceaseless usage of web and other online services, it has turned out that copying, sharing, and transmitting digital media over the Internet are amazingly simple. Since the text is one of the main available data sources and most widely used digital media on the Internet, the significant part of websites, books, articles, daily papers, and so on is just the plain text. Therefore, copyrights protection of plain texts is still a remaining issue that must be improved in order to provide proof of ownership and obtain the desired accuracy. During the last decade, digital watermarking and steganography techniques have been used as alternatives to prevent tampering, distortion, and media forgery and also to protect both copyright and authentication. This paper presents a comparative analysis of information hiding techniques, especially on those ones which are focused on modifying the structure and content of digital texts. Herein, various text watermarking and text steganography techniques characteristics are highlighted along with their applications. In addition, various types of attacks are described and their effects are analyzed in order to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of current techniques. Finally, some guidelines and directions are suggested for future works.

  13. Lessons in Copyright Activism: K-12 Education and the DMCA 1201 Exemption Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Digital learning is being transformed by changes in copyright law. This article discusses the author's personal journey as a copyright education activist through two rounds of rulemaking proceedings before the Copyright Office concerning the anti-circumvention provisions of one part of the copyright law, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act…

  14. 37 CFR 201.23 - Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. 201.23 Section 201.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.23 Transfer of unpublished copyright deposits to the Library of Congress. (a) General. This section prescribes...

  15. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed…

  16. Earthquake statistics, spatiotemporal distribution of foci and source mechanisms - a key to understanding of the West Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horálek, Josef; Čermáková, Hana; Fischer, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake swarms are sequences of numerous events closely clustered in space and time and do not have a single dominant mainshock. A few of the largest events in a swarm reach similar magnitudes and usually occur throughout the course of the earthquake sequence. These attributes differentiate earthquake swarms from ordinary mainshock-aftershock sequences. Earthquake swarms occur worldwide, in diverse geological units. The swarms typically accompany volcanic activity at margins of the tectonic plate but also occur in intracontinental areas where strain from tectonic-plate movement is small. The origin of earthquake swarms is still unclear. The swarms typically occur at the plate margins but also in intracontinental areas. West Bohemia-Vogtland represents one of the most active intraplate earthquake-swarm areas in Europe. It is characterised by a frequent reoccurrence of ML 2.8 swarm events are located in a few dense clusters which implies step by step rupturing of one or a few asperities during the individual swarms. The source mechanism patters (moment-tensor description, MT) of the individual swarms indicate several families of the mechanisms, which fit well geometry of respective fault segments. MTs of the most events signify pure shears except for the 1997-swarm events the MTs of which indicates a combine sources including both shear and tensile components. The origin of earthquake swarms is still unclear. Nevertheless, we infer that the individual earthquake swarms in West Bohemia-Vogtland are mixture of the mainshock-aftershock sequences which correspond to step by step rupturing of one or a few asperities. The swarms occur on short fault segments with heterogeneous stress and strength, which may be affected by pressurized crustal fluids reducing normal component of the tectonic stress and lower friction. This way critically loaded faults are brought to failure and the swarm activity is driven by the differential local stress.

  17. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright... nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing the prohibition against circumvention of technological... the final rule governing exemption to prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems for...

  18. Copyright Laws and Fair Use in the Digital Era: Implications for Distance-Education Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Tommie; Ennis-Cole, Demetria; Lawhon, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Practical information on the necessity for community colleges, instructors, and students to understand and abide by the copyright laws is essential. Whether developing, structuring, maintaining, or presenting courses, or instructing students on the development of their own papers, one must be knowledgeable about plagiarism, the Fair Use Act, and…

  19. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Calmer, Radiance; Nicoll, Keri; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Preissler, Jana; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2017-08-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment

  20. Copyrights of the judge. What if we can prove that the Copyrights could improve –in some aspects– the Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier André Murillo Chávez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How to make that our Judges improve the quality of their Decisions? We know that the search for an answer to that question has become the hunting of the “Holy Grail”. In this sense, this work constitutes a proposal of using copyrights as a mean to achieve this goal. We believe that giving some copyrights over the Decisions to the Judges could generate incentives to improve their quality. Although some national legislations exclude these official texts from the Copyright system, the international normative frame allow the National Governments to give copyrights over the Judge’s Decisions. We believe this will encourage the improvement in the elaboration of these key documents for the Justice in our Countries. Having in mind this, taking the Peruvian, Spanish and Colombian normative, this paper studies this possibility.

  1. Understanding the mechanism of direct electrochemistry of mitochondria-modified electrodes from yeast, potato and bovine sources at carbon paper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, Fabien; Nicolo, Tera A.; Koepke, Sara J.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria have been used for bio-electrochemistry for over 5 years, little is known about their direct electrochemistry mechanism. This paper focuses on developing a better understanding of the electron transfer mechanism of mitochondria from three different organisms at carbon electrodes. Yeast, potato and bovine mitochondria have been successfully isolated and immobilized onto Toray paper electrodes via vapor deposited silica. Organelle-modified electrodes were first characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Similar electrochemical signals were obtained for all organisms. Direct electron transfer was observed when a metabolite of the Krebs cycle was present in the buffer solution. Control experiments based on the immobilization of two electron carriers contained in mitochondria, cytochrome c and a quinone (coenzyme Q 10 ), tend to show the electron transfer mechanism to the carbon material comes from the quinone pool of the organelles. As quinones are known to be pH-dependent, we further investigated the response of the electrochemical signal of the three isolated mitochondria and the two electron carriers separately. The half wave potentials obtained from the organelles appeared to be pH-dependent and their variations are comparable to coenzyme Q 10 rather than cytochrome c. Finally, extraction of both the cytochrome c and the quinone pool from intact mitochondria was performed to validate our hypothesis that direct electrochemistry of mitochondria happens via the quinone pool. Electrochemistry of immobilized quinone-depleted mitochondria validated the hypothesis that the mitochondria are communicating with the electrodes through the quinone pool

  2. 37 CFR 201.14 - Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by certain libraries and archives. 201.14 Section 201.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.14 Warnings of copyright for use by certain libraries and archives. (a) Definitions. (1) A Display Warning of...

  3. 37 CFR 251.2 - Purpose of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier royalty fees and digital audio recording devices and media payments deposited with the Register of... Arbitration Royalty Panels. 251.2 Section 251.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY...

  4. Teaching via the Internet: A Brief Review of Copyright Law and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jiang; Dagley, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on legal problems related to copyright that might arise from teaching via the Internet. Discusses the basics of copyright law; owner's rights; subject matter of copyright; copyright requirements; infringement action and remedies; the fair-use doctrine; guidelines for classroom copying; two views about controls on the Internet; the White…

  5. 75 FR 26278 - The Register of Copyrights’ and the Copyright Royalty Judges’ authority to determine the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... law were referred to the Register of Copyrights concerning the authority of the Register of Copyrights... questions of substantive law for her consideration: Does the Register of Copyrights have the authority under... law. That motion was denied by the Copyright Royalty Judges on March 30, 2010. Order Denying Motion...

  6. Copyrighted Software | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copyrighted Software Software, for which the originating site HAS asserted copyright, is not publicly terms of the developer's contract with DOE. Requests for copyrighted software from those other than DOE contractors or governmental entities are referred by ESTSC to the copyright holder for licensing. Software on

  7. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Sanchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM. UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF by between 25 and 60 W m−2. After

  8. High-resolution measurements of elemental mercury in surface water for an improved quantitative understanding of the Baltic Sea as a source of atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Joachim; Krüger, Siegfried; Ruickoldt, Johann; Wlost, Klaus-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Marginal seas are directly subjected to anthropogenic and natural influences from land in addition to receiving inputs from the atmosphere and open ocean. Together these lead to pronounced gradients and strong dynamic changes. However, in the case of mercury emissions from these seas, estimates often fail to adequately account for the spatial and temporal variability of the elemental mercury concentration in surface water (Hg0wat). In this study, a method to measure Hg0wat at high resolution was devised and subsequently validated. The better-resolved Hg0wat dataset, consisting of about one measurement per nautical mile, yielded insight into the sea's small-scale variability and thus improved the quantification of the sea's Hg0 emission. This is important because global marine Hg0 emissions constitute a major source of atmospheric mercury. Research campaigns in the Baltic Sea were carried out between 2011 and 2015 during which Hg0 both in surface water and in ambient air were measured. For the former, two types of equilibrators were used. A membrane equilibrator enabled continuous equilibration and a bottle equilibrator assured that equilibrium was reached for validation. The measurements were combined with data obtained in the Baltic Sea in 2006 from a bottle equilibrator only. The Hg0 sea-air flux was newly calculated with the combined dataset based on current knowledge of the Hg0 Schmidt number, Henry's law constant, and a widely used gas exchange transfer velocity parameterization. By using a newly developed pump-CTD with increased pumping capability in the Hg0 equilibrator measurements, Hg0wat could also be characterized in deeper water layers. A process study carried out near the Swedish island Øland in August 2015 showed that the upwelling of Hg0-depleted water contributed to Hg0 emissions of the Baltic Sea. However, a delay of a few days after contact between the upwelled water and light was apparently necessary before the biotic and abiotic transformations

  9. DMCA Section 104 Report: A Report of the Register of Copyrights Pursuant to [Section] 104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    As required under section 104 of Public Law No. 105-304, this Report evaluates the effects of title I of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 and the development of electronic commerce and associated technology on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, U.S.C. It also evaluates the relationship between existing and…

  10. A Touchy Question for Trainers: Are You Guilty of Copyright Rip Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents an interview with Jack L. Copeland, President of Training Media Distributors Association on training and the copyright-piracy problem. Discusses video piracy and other unauthorized uses of materials in relation to the new copyright law. (CSS)

  11. Modification, translation and adaptation of questionnaires: should copyright laws be observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Elizabeth F

    2009-06-01

    This commentary is intended to start a discussion about whether people should be allowed to modify, translate, adapt or sell copyrighted questionnaires without the permission of the developer (copyright-holder).

  12. Cost recovery in geographic information systems and conflicts with copyright law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jon L.

    1993-10-01

    The ability to recover cost by the sale of geographic information is dependent upon the ownership of the copyright in and to that information. The ownership of the copyright turns upon whether one entity is an employee of the other or whether the copyrightable work falls within certain statutorily defined categories in the copyright law. Absent the specific requirements being fulfilled the ownership of the data may not be exactly as the parties expect.

  13. Copyright as Innovation Policy: Google Book Search from a Law and Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Lichtman

    2009-01-01

    The copyright system has long been understood to play a critical role when it comes to the development and distribution of creative work. Copyright serves a second fundamental purpose, however: it encourages the development and distribution of related technologies such as hardware that might be used to duplicate creative work and software that can manipulate it. When it comes to issues of online infringement, then, copyright policy serves two goals, not one: protect the incentives copyright h...

  14. 78 FR 42872 - Communication with the U.S. Copyright Office: Revised Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... required by that form and its accompanying instructions. Computation of the copyright royalty fee shall be... distant signal equivalents and the copyright royalty fee shall be in accordance with the procedures set... Office and to make advance deposits into that account. Deposit Account holders can charge copyright fees...

  15. 37 CFR 201.6 - Payment and refund of Copyright Office fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Return of deposit copies. Copies of works deposited in the Copyright Office pursuant to law are either... Congress, or disposed of according to law. When an application is rejected, the Copyright Office reserves... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment and refund of...

  16. Copyright Issues for the Creators and Users of Information in the Electronic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues that deal with the interface of copyright law and online systems. Areas of change needed to maintain the balance between users and creators of electronic information are identified, limits of the Copyright Act are explored, and it is suggested that existing copyright law can be applied to electronic information. (four references)…

  17. Copyright in Alberta Schools. Information about the Print License with CANCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Issues connected with copyright and the copying of published print materials are discussed in question and answer form for teachers in Alberta (Canada) schools. Twenty-five questions are answered. The Copyright Act gives the copyright owner, usually the author or publisher, the sole right to copy or permit someone to copy his or her work. It also…

  18. 78 FR 45196 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all... cite OMB Control No. 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all correspondence. Dated: July 18...; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  19. 75 FR 13764 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    .... Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0090, Rights in Data and Copyrights, in all correspondence. Dated: March...; Information Collection; Rights in Data and Copyrights AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning rights in data and copyrights. Public comments are...

  20. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... packaging that contains the computer program which is lent by a nonprofit library for nonprofit purposes. (b...

  1. Bits and Pieces--Copyright Law and Australian Libraries in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Annabelle

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in Australian libraries related to copyright in the digital environment. Examines what constitutes a digital copy; exceptions/limitations; the extent of liability of those who communicate/transmit digital copyright-protected works; how uses of material can be monitored/controlled; and the process of copyright reform in Australia…

  2. Copyright Law in Australia--Fair Dealing for Research or Study Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar (Andy); Hancock, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Explores several issues involving provisions of the Australian copyright law that allow for "fair dealing for the purpose of research and study" in the use of copyrighted materials. Discusses liability of libraries for improper oversight of illegal photocopying of books and other copyrighted materials. Reviews recent efforts to improve…

  3. 26 CFR 509.110 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.110 Patent and copyright... copyrights, artistic and scientific works, patents, designs, plans, secret processes and formulae, trademarks...

  4. 26 CFR 514.5 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.5 Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. (a) Exemption from tax. Royalties for the right to use copyrights, patents, designs, secret...

  5. Teaching an Invisible Subject: How are we Educating Faculty about Copyright?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zerkee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Copyright can be an invisible issue for instructors because infringement or improper use of copyright-protected material will not impede teaching. Copyright law is nuanced and open to interpretation; it is not always clear whether a particular action is compliant or not. This poster will share the results of the presenter’s Canada-wide survey of university copyright administrators, exploring institutions’ provision of copyright education to instructors. The presenter found more questions rather than answers as a result of the survey. Most respondents do no assessment of their copyright instruction, and instead are comfortable relying on experience, questions from faculty, and anecdotal evidence to form an impression of instructors’ familiarity with copyright rules. Is informal appraisal adequate for ensuring that libraries and copyright offices are fulfilling their responsibility to encourage and enable the confident and lawful use of copyright-protected material? What other evidence could be gathered to inform copyright administrators’ efforts? This poster will encourage participants to think about copyright education at their institutions, will share the results of the survey, including approaches being taken by universities across Canada, and will share Simon Fraser University's approaches to instructor education

  6. Technology Management in Services: Understanding Sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Developing Countries and Copyright in the Information Age - The Functional Equivalent Implementation of the WCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Pistorius

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital technology has had a profound impact on copyright law. The implementation of the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT and the enforcement of technological protection measures have led to disparate forms of copyright protection for digital and analogue media. The balance between authors’ rights and the right of the public to access copyright works has been distorted. Copyright law is playing an ever-increasing crucial role in the Information Society. Developing countries are especially disadvantaged by diminished access to works. In this article it is argued that adherence to the principle of functional equivalence in implementing the anti-circumvention provisions of the WCT will ensure that the copyright balance is maintained and will advance the development agenda.

  8. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  9. IP Things as Boundary Objects: The Case of the Copyright Work

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate the exploration of the meanings and functions of the things of intellectual property: the work of authorship (or copyright work) in copyright, the invention in patent, and the mark and the sign in trademark. The article focuses firstly on the example of copyright work. Relevant challenges are both technological and conceptual, because these things blend the material and the immaterial. Works are neither as clearly defined nor as clearly limited as copyr...

  10. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Terms that describe Internet functionality pose interpretative challenges for the courts as they determine how these activities relate to a copyright holder's traditional right to control reproduction...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... other income from the rental, sales, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  13. Off with their heads! Copyright infringement in the Canadian online higher educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Edmonds

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of copyright infringement are contentious for academia in the online environment. The educational community on campus must carefully consider how digital materials are used, created and disseminated online given that present laws that regulate these actions are not well developed. It can seem like anyone’s guess on how to proceed in order to avoid copyright infringement. This paper offers current descriptions of intellectual property, copyright laws, infringements, and plagiarism in a Canadian context with a view on creating, using and disseminating digital works. The impact of copyright infringement on students and faculty in higher education is explored and some suggestions are made for protective practice.

  14. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... ``access'' to copyrighted works, e.g., decryption or hacking of access controls such as passwords or serial... availability for use of copyrighted works is whether the measure supports a distribution model that benefits... work, those limitations may benefit the public by providing ``use-facilitating'' models that allow...

  15. Gateway or Gatekeeper: The Implications of Copyright and Digitalization on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Leigh; McCain, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a conceptual framework to consider the issues surrounding copyright, education, and the digitalization of society. Traces the history of copyright through the evolution of communication media--its role in creating and distributing knowledge. Considers the dialectical relationship between communication as transmission and communication as…

  16. Differences and similarities between patents, registered designs and copyrights : Empirical evidence from the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Mischa C.; Masurel, Enno

    2012-01-01

    Most of the literature on intellectual property protection focuses on patenting and neglects alternatives, such as registered designs and copyrights. The literature that includes these alternatives generally treats them as nominal alternatives, and ignores the fact that copyrights are cheaper and

  17. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  18. Basic copyright law for use of materials in childbirth education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Nayna C

    2005-01-01

    Copyright is federal law that creates a monopoly to protect the property rights of authors and creators and their original works. Copyright law creates an exception for classroom use, but educators must always give full attribution for any work they use in teaching.

  19. Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators: Creative Strategies and Practical Solutions. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Copyright in the world of digital information is changing at a fevered pace, even as educators and librarians digitize, upload, download, draw on databases, and incorporate materials into Web-based instruction. It's essential to stay abreast of the basics of copyright law and fair use. Kenneth D. Crews has completely revised his classic text to…

  20. Asking for Permission: A Survey of Copyright Workflows for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Ann; Ramirez, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of institutional repository (IR) managers identified copyright clearance trends in staffing and workflows. The majority of respondents followed a mediated deposit model, and reported that library personnel, instead of authors, engaged in copyright clearance activities for IRs. The most common "information gaps" pertained to the…

  1. Safe Harbor for Service Providers Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Brian; Jeweler, Robin

    2004-01-01

    .... Title II of the DMCA amended chapter 5 of the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. 501 et seq., and created a new 512 to limit the liability of service providers for claims of copyright infringement relating to materials on-line...

  2. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not,

  3. From "Piracy" to Payment: Audio-Visual Copyright and Teaching Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The changing circumstances in Australia governing the use of broadcast television and radio material in education are examined, from the uncertainty of the early 1980s to current management of copyrighted audiovisual material under the statutory licensing agreement between universities and an audiovisual copyright agency. (MSE)

  4. 26 CFR 513.4 - Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patent and copyright royalties and film rentals. 513.4 Section 513.4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.4 Patent and copyright royalties and film...

  5. Of Steeds and Stalking Horses: Academics Meet Publishers on the Field of Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the issues involved in reforming the copyright law and redefining fair use as it applies to electronic documents. Highlights include access to and privileges of the Internet, technological development, the evolution of copyright, licenses and fees, the position of publishers and academics, costs, and conditions for creating a stable…

  6. Copyright Question: Using Audiovisual Works in a Satellite-Delivered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jamie S.; Switzer, Ralph V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the question of copyright violation of audiovisual materials when used in a Master's of Business Administration (MBA) degree offered via satellite transmission through Colorado State University. Topics discussed include fair use; definitions of literary works, performance, and transmission; and the need to revise the 1976 Copyright Act to…

  7. Copyright and Computer Generated Materials – Is it Time to Reboot the Discussion About Authorship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fitzgerald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated materials are ubiquitous and we encounter them on a daily basis, even though most people are unaware that this is the case. Blockbuster movies, television weather reports and telephone directories all include material that is produced by utilising computer technologies. Copyright protection for materials generated by a programmed computer was considered by the Federal Court and Full Court of the Federal Court in Telstra Corporation Limited v Phone Directories Company Pty Ltd.  The court held that the White and Yellow pages telephone directories produced by Telstra and its subsidiary, Sensis, were not protected by copyright because they were computer-generated works which lacked the requisite human authorship.The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth does not contain specific provisions on the subsistence of copyright in computer-generated materials. Although the issue of copyright protection for computer-generated materials has been examined in Australia on two separate occasions by independently-constituted Copyright Law Review Committees over a period of 10 years (1988 to 1998, the Committees’ recommendations for legislative clarification by the enactment of specific amendments to the Copyright Act have not yet been implemented and the legal position remains unclear. In the light of the decision of the Full Federal Court in Telstra v Phone Directories it is timely to consider whether specific provisions should be enacted to clarify the position of computer-generated works under copyright law and, in particular, whether the requirement of human authorship for original works protected under Part III of the Copyright Act should now be reconceptualised to align with the realities of how copyright materials are created in the digital era.

  8. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  9. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 1: Using the Work of Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2015-01-01

    This article covers the basics of Copyright Law as applicable to the use of protected resources and the sharing of information by nurse professionals. It explores frequently cited justifications for copyright violation, including the doctrine of Fair Use and the Technology and Copyright Harmonization Act. It also discusses why those justifications may or may not apply to the nurse professional who teaches in a clinical setting or at a conference.(See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A2).

  10. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  11. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research...

  12. A Secure Watermarking Scheme for Buyer-Seller Identification and Copyright Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan

    2006-12-01

    We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.

  13. Internet Search Engines: Copyright's "Fair Use" in Reproduction and Public Display Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeweler, Robin

    2007-01-01

    .... If so, is the activity a "fair use" protected by the Copyright Act? These issues frequently implicate search engines, which scan the web to allow users to find content for uses, both legitimate and illegitimate...

  14. 75 FR 61419 - Inquiry on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the relationship between the availability and protection of online copyrighted works and innovation in the Internet economy. The Department, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) seek public comment from all interested stakeholders, including rights holders, Internet service providers, and consumers on the challenges of protecting copyrighted works online and the relationship between copyright law and innovation in the Internet economy. After analyzing the comments submitted in response to this Notice, the Internet Policy Task Force intends to issue a report that will contribute to the Administration's domestic policy and international engagement in the area of online copyright protection and innovation.

  15. 75 FR 74749 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ..., Room LM-401, James Madison Building, 101 Independence Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20559, between 8:30 a.m... of the General Counsel, U.S. Copyright Office, LM-403, James Madison Building, 101 Independence...

  16. Slip-sliding away - Some Reflections on Recent Developments in Copyright and their Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Nilsson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Copyright is undoubtedly a very complicated matter. For that very reason it might be useful now and again to look beyond the jungle of treaties, directives, laws, decrees and contracts, and try to establish where we are actually heading. Then we can ask ourselves whether the direction taken is the one we would like to see. My purpose in writing this article is to demonstrate how the ‘balance’, which was always considered to be a crucial goal of copyright regulation, has been gradually undermined, to the detriment of the consumers of information and culture. I will also try to illustrate how copyright has become distanced from what was once its very foundations. If we look more closely at recent developments there are primarily two factors which merit special attention, namely 1 the widespread revision of copyright legislation and 2 The increasing regulation by contract.

  17. Law of the cloud: on the supremacy of the user interface over copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are commonly used for delivering content or information to users who no longer need to store this data onto their own devices. This is likely to have an important impact on the effectivity of copyright law in the context of online applications, insofar as the underlying infrastructure of the cloud is such that is allows cloud operators to control the manner in which and the extent to which users can exploit such content - regardless of whether it is protected by copyright law or it has already fallen in the public domain. This article analyses the extent to which the provisions of copyright law can potentially be bypassed by cloud computing applications whose interface is designed to regulate the access, use and reuse of online content, and how these online applications can be used to establish private regimes of regulation that often go beyond the scope of the traditional copyright regime.

  18. Copyright on the internet: achieving security through electronic devices an artificial intelligence approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niebla Zatarain, Jesus Manuel

    2018-01-01

    This thesis aims to provide a novel approach to ensure copyright compliance online, appropriate for the Internet of Things and the robotic revolution. To achieve this, three different aims are pursued: - A novel application of “by design” solutions to copyright protection is introduced and its advantages and disadvantages discussed from a jurisprudential and doctrinal perspective. - On the basis of this, a new theoretical framework for legal AI is developed that draws on ...

  19. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 2: Protecting Your Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2016-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the discussion of Copyright Law (found in JNPD 31:5) as it applies to nursing professionals. This part focuses on the definition of "work made for hire" and how nursing professional development specialists can both protect and share their own work. Many nurses assume that they own the works they create, but authorship is not necessarily the same as ownership. Misunderstanding copyrights could put one's job and hard work at risk!

  20. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  1. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  2. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  3. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  4. Website Blocking: Evolution or Revolution? 10 Years of Copyright Enforcement by Private Third Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marja Wesselingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Copyright enforcement by private third parties – does it work uniformly across the EU? Since the inception of Napster, home copying of digital files has taken flight. The first providers of software or infrastructure for the illegal exchange of files were held contributory or vicariously liable for copyright infringement. In response, they quickly diluted the chain of liability to such an extent that neither the software producers, nor the service providers could be held liable. Moving further down the communication chain, the rights holders are now requiring Internet Service Providers (ISPs that provide access to end customers to help them with the enforcement of their rights. This article discusses case law regarding the enforcement of copyright by Internet Access Providers throughout Europe. At first glance, copyright enforcement has been harmonised by means of a number of directives, and article 8(3 of the Copyright Directive (2001/29/EC regulates that EU Member States must ensure the position of rights holders with regard to injunctions against ISPs. Problem solved? Case law from Denmark, Ireland, Belgium, Norway, England, The Netherlands, Austria and the Court of Justice of the EU was studied. In addition, the legal practice in Germany was examined. The period of time covered by case law is from 2003 to 2013; the case law gives insight into the differences that still exist after implementation of the directive.

  5. Sports Uniforms and Copyright: Implications for Applied Art Educators from the Star Athletica Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Benson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of one decision, Star Athletica, the Supreme Court selected the appropriate test to delineate the line between copyrightable creative expression and non-copyrightable functional work, reversed a long-standing rule about the inability to copyright fashion, and changed the game for graphic and industrial designers wishing to protect the more pragmatic pieces of their art. This article proceeds with a brief history of the Star Athletica case, including the lower court judgments, a discussion of the Supreme Court holding in the case, the applicability of the Supreme Court holding to fashion, graphic design, and industrial design industries going forward, and concludes with some final thoughts about the implications of the outcome of the case.

  6. User illusion: ideological construction of ‘user-generated content’ in the EC consultation on copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy consultations by the UK Intellectual Property Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office and the European Commission (EC have highlighted the importance of user-generated content in debates to reform copyright. User-generated content (UGC – often combining existing copyright material with transformative creativity – remains a contested terrain, with no clear or widely accepted definition. This paper examines how various stakeholders in the 2014 EC consultation on copyright attempted to shape the definition of UGC in order to suit their interests, sometimes aligning or conflicting with other stakeholder groups. Data from 203 written responses by registered stakeholders (authors, platform intermediaries and users were subjected to a discourse analysis methodology. Key arguments and policy preferences from each stakeholder group are identified and discussed.

  7. Revealing Originality of Song Works: An Analysis to the Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derezka Gunti Larasati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to describe the defining criteria of originality of song works. The aspect of originality is important to make such work be protected by Copyright Law. In this research, the criteria to define originality are based on certain doctrines and/or theories of originality that may vary case by case. The use of such doctrines and/or theories are necessary, since the stipulations regarding originality in the Indonesian Copyright Act has not been considered suffice. With regard to the song works, the criteria of originality may be different from other works. Therefore, a comprehensive research on the characteristics of song as a work is also important. This research is a qualitative research with prescriptive design. The research depicts the use of certain doctrines and/or theories as supplementary provisions to the Copyright Law in defining the originality of songs, which have specific characteristics resulted from their author’s creations and intellectuals.

  8. a Review of Digital Watermarking and Copyright Control Technology for Cultural Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Hou, M.; Hu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid growth of the application and sharing of the 3-D model data in the protection of cultural relics, the problem of Shared security and copyright control of the three-dimensional model of cultural relics is becoming increasingly prominent. Followed by a digital watermarking copyright control has become the frontier technology of 3-D model security protection of cultural relics and effective means, related technology research and application in recent years also got further development. 3-D model based on cultural relics digital watermarking and copyright control technology, introduces the research background and demand, its unique characteristics were described, and its development and application of the algorithm are discussed, and the prospects of the future development trend and some problems and the solution.

  9. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  10. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  11. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  12. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  13. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  14. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  15. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  16. Book review: ‘Digital Libraries: Reconciling Copyright Law and Cultural Heritage Policy’, Estelle Derclaye (ed.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringnalda, Allard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/305951696

    2014-01-01

    Copyright law and cultural heritage policy are an odd couple. Although they have the same aims – or, more accurately, should have the same aims – they are often in conflict. Cultural heritage policy aims to preserve and make accessible works that are deemed to be part of our shared culture – books,

  17. To copyright Dikoša tsa setšo or not: Pondering the challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this feat, the article will touch on and address both the following aspects:(a) intangible cultural expression (music) in the context of intellectual property and copyright regimes; and (b) intangible cultural expression (music) in the context of indigenous traditional knowledge systems. Lastly, a brief review will be given of the ...

  18. 77 FR 15327 - Notice of Public Hearings: Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... not guarantee an opportunity to testify at these hearings. The Office stresses that factual arguments are at least as important as legal arguments. The hearings provide an opportunity to explain and, in... presentations of facts and legal argument, followed by questions from Copyright Office staff. In addition to the...

  19. A Robust Blind Quantum Copyright Protection Method for Colored Images Based on Owner's Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Gheibi, Reza; Houshmand, Monireh; Nagata, Koji

    2017-08-01

    Watermarking is the imperceptible embedding of watermark bits into multimedia data in order to use for different applications. Among all its applications, copyright protection is the most prominent usage which conceals information about the owner in the carrier, so as to prohibit others from assertion copyright. This application requires high level of robustness. In this paper, a new blind quantum copyright protection method based on owners's signature in RGB images is proposed. The method utilizes one of the RGB channels as indicator and two remained channels are used for embedding information about the owner. In our contribution the owner's signature is considered as a text. Therefore, in order to embed in colored image as watermark, a new quantum representation of text based on ASCII character set is offered. Experimental results which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the presented scheme shows good performance against attacks and can be used to find out who the real owner is. Finally, the discussed quantum copyright protection method is compared with a related work that our analysis confirm that the presented scheme is more secure and applicable than the previous ones currently found in the literature.

  20. Juggling copyright and open access in the 21st century: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswelanto, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the establishment of an Institutional Repository (IR) one of the first questions the organisation should ask is: ‘How could we promote Open Access (OA) and still adhere to the restrictions of copyright? The Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  1. The Pedagogical Potential of Video Remix: Critical Conversations about Culture, Creativity, and Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Appropriation, transformation and remix are increasingly recognized as significant aspects of digital literacy. This article considers how one form of digital remix--the video remix--might be used in classrooms to introduce critical conversations about representation, appropriation, creativity and copyright. The first half of the article explores…

  2. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 16(1), 2017. Copyright © 2017 ... Linear regression showed that males are more likely to abuse alcohol than females. (β= -.17; t = -3.47; ..... gerians through depression, suicide, road traffic accidents ...

  3. 78 FR 61337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... music licensing, the Copyright Office's work on orphan works and mass digitization, and the Intellectual... practices and industry-specific guidelines to help those looking to use existing works make informed choices... primarily driven by the industries involved. But [[Page 61340

  4. On the Improvement of the "Copyright Law" of Korea for Library Services for Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee-Yoon; Kim, Sin-Young

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues for world libraries at the present time is to extend copyright limitations and exceptions for reproduction, for library preservation and distribution services including lending and ILL/DDS, the printout and transmission of Internet information resources, copying of library materials which are rarely available…

  5. 76 FR 26769 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... protection of other kinds of potentially copyrightable works. It also discussed the belief of some in the... appropriate for discussion. Day 1, Session 1--Assessing the Landscape: What are the legal and cultural...--Effects of Federalization on Preservation, Access, and Value: What benefits would federalization have with...

  6. Your Introduction to Film-T.V. Copyright, Contracts and Other Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Johnny; Hale, William Storm

    This introductory-level book surveys all legal aspects of film and television production. In addition to central issues of copyright, lawsuits, dealing with lawyers, libel, insurance, taxes, union contracts and the Federal Communications Commission, important peripheral topics--such as raising money, buying equipment, distribution, pirate usage,…

  7. 75 FR 72790 - Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force announces that the closing deadline for submission of comments responsive to the October 5, 2010 Notice of Inquiry on copyright policy and innovation in the Internet economy has been reopened and will extend until 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on December 10, 2010.

  8. 76 FR 78866 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... educational purposes by kindergarten through twelfth grade educators. Proponent: Media Education Lab at the... Knowledge. 10B. Legally acquired digital media (motion pictures, sound recordings, and e-books) for personal... initiated a rulemaking proceeding in accordance with provisions added by the Digital Millennium Copyright...

  9. Software, Copyright, and Site-License Agreements: Publishers' Perspective of Library Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Stephanie K.

    Thirty-one academic publishers of stand-alone software and book/disk packages were surveyed to determine whether publishers have addressed the copyright issues inherent in circulating these packages within the library environment. Twenty-two questionnaires were returned, providing a 71% return rate. There were 18 usable questionnaires. Publishers…

  10. Copyright or copyleft? An analysis of property regimes for software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, PB

    2005-01-01

    Two property regimes for software development may be distinguished. Within corporations, on the one hand, a Private Regime obtains which excludes all outsiders from access to a firm's software assets. It is shown how the protective instruments of secrecy and both copyright and patent have been

  11. Computer Software: Copyright and Licensing Considerations for Schools and Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mary Hutchings

    This digest notes that the terms and conditions of computer software package license agreements control the use of software in schools and libraries, and examines the implications of computer software license agreements for classroom use and for library lending policies. Guidelines are provided for interpreting the Copyright Act, and insuring the…

  12. Training Your Faculty about Copyright When the Lawyer Isn't Looking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators in higher-education institutions are faced with an often-conflicting landscape of laws, court cases, adopted practices, rules of thumb, and folk wisdom related to copyright concerns on their campuses. Ask any ten faculty member and receive ten different responses about what constitutes fair use, who owns content created for courses,…

  13. 78 FR 13094 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Third Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... comments regarding how a small copyright claims system might be structured and function, including from... sides--especially in cases with a degree of legal complexity--and the system should be designed to... claims system, including how the voluntary or mandatory nature of such a system might affect the analysis...

  14. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  15. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  16. Copyright Policies and the Deciphering of Fair Use in the Creation of Reserves at University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Thomas H. P.; Lipinski, Tomas A.; Buchanan, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper stems from the results of a systematic study of research library policy regarding application and interpretation of copyright law to reserves and electronic reserves. A thorough legal framework is provided from which the study's results are interpreted, and suggestions for research library compliance are provided.

  17. Awareness and Perception of Copyright Among Teaching Faculty at Canadian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Di Valentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the background, methodology, and results of a study undertaken in 2014 to determine university faculty awareness and perceptions of copyright as it affects their teaching. An online survey questionnaire was distributed to teaching faculty across Canada, seeking feedback about the copyright policies and training opportunities at their institutions, where they go for copyright assistance, and how they would respond to various copyright-related scenarios that may arise in the course of teaching. Most of the respondents are aware of the copyright policies or guidelines at their universities, but much fewer know whether or not their institution offers copyright training. Of those who are aware of training opportunities, only one third have taken advantage of them. When needing assistance, faculty members are most likely to go to a librarian or to the institution’s copyright policy. Responses to the four scenarios suggest that faculty members are more likely to share digital copyrighted materials (including online works with their students, whereas they are more likely to ask permission or guidance when it comes to print materials. Comments from the respondents touch upon issues of the complexity of copyright, and the often time-consuming process of obtaining permissions for the use of copyrighted materials in teaching. This study was supported by an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. Cet article décrit le contexte, la méthodologie, et les résultats d’une étude préliminaire entreprise en 2014 pour déterminer la sensibilisation et les perceptions du personnel universitaire du droit d’auteur en ce qui concerne l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Un questionnaire d’un sondage en ligne était distribué (via les associations universitaires à l’équipe enseignante dans tout le Canada, cherchant des commentaires sur les politiques du droit d’auteur et les possibilités de formation aux institutions, où elle recherche

  18. The Missing Link: The Lack of Citations and Copyright Notices in Multimedia Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Many of the projects and assignments we have our students complete for our classes include a multimedia presentation. Why are we not teaching our students how to cite their sources for these presentations? Writing style (APA, MLA, or Chicago) does not matter. Regardless of whether it is a paper or multimedia presentation students should always…

  19. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  20. Technological measures for controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship in the information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Vidoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has given rise to the problem of controlling the use of copyrighted works of authorship from their unauthorized use. In this context, one of the effective solutions is the application of technological protection measures, which are aimed at a more efficient application of the protection measures prescribed by the law. Technological protection measures imply the use of any technology, device or component which may be aimed at preventing or restricting an unauthorized use of a protected work of authorship, which has not been approved by the author or holder of some related right. Generally, all these measures may be classified into three basic groups: technological measures aimed at controlling access, technological measured aimed at controlling exploitation, and technological measures aimed at protecting the integrity of the work of authorship. Considering their technical characteristics and mode of application, they may be hardware-based measures, software-based measures, or a combination thereof. Modern technology has enabled the development of digital systems which entail a controlled use of copyrighted works and facilitate obtaining licences for their exploitation. They are commonly known as digital rights management (DRM. The DRM system should provide for a compromise between safeguarding the intellectual property rights of the copyright holder, the end user privacy, and system costs. The envisaged goals are achieved by employing various cryptographic measures. The process of developing technological protection measures is accompanied by concurrent attempts to circumvent the application of these measures. Thus, the effectiveness of these measures primarily depends on their legal protection, which has been recognized by a vast majority of legal systems, we now know the most modern legal system. However, the normative solutions are not uniform. The observed differences actually reflect problems in finding adequate forms

  1. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  2. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  3. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  4. The Legal Nature of Video Games – Adapting Copyright Law to Multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Simon Stein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Copyright Law, video games are still a contentious matter. The multimedia nature of games brings up the question on how to define their legal nature. While there are several original underlying works in video games such as computer programs, artistic works, musical works, dramatic works etc., video games enjoy protection as films or audiovisual works respectively in many jurisdictions, making video games an arrangement of a multiplicity of works. However, some have argued to define video games as a single 'multimedia work' rather than a product of many works of copyright.This article analyses the different types of original and derivative works contained in video games before evaluating the necessity and feasibility of a multimedia category of work, arguing in favour of the current system.

  5. PROTECTION OF WORKS TITLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND TRADEMARK PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Mihai IRIMESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is assessing the possibilities of protecting the titles of works. One possibility is the protection by means of registered or unregistered trademarks. This route presents difficulties because of the distinctiveness perspective. In this sense, the European case-law has recently developed a constant practice and outlined a series of criteria that should be taken into consideration when examining a trademark consisting of a title. Another possibility is protecting the title under the provisions of the copyright law. From this respect, the practice has not yet determined a constant practice. However, the dominant opinion is that the originality criterion should be taken into consideration when assessing the protection of a tile. Finally, brief conclusion are made, including short remarks on the cumulative protection of titles, both as trademarks and under the copyright law.

  6. "Originality" and "Reproduction" in Copyright Law with Special Reference to Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Harms

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Turning to lessons from foreign jurisdictions, this note explores from a copyright perspective the fact that photographs are produced mechanically and more often than not without any effort or mental input. A minute number are taken for anything but personal use and in the digital age photographs tend to have a high degree of mobility and are also ephemeral and without any commercial value. It is accordingly difficult to justify in general terms copyright protection for photographs. Two of the main legal issues in this context are the criteria for originality and the meaning of the reproduction of a photograph. These two issues form the central point of discussion in this contribution.

  7. Some Problems Associated With the Application of Copyright Law Within the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Skoro

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the historical, philosophical and legal particulars relating to copyright law and intellectual property as an intangible work, as well as, the practical application of those rights with emphasis on the particular effects of computerisation and the emergance of the internet on the business results of the music industry. A question is raised as to whether it is businessly ethical for a legal entity to accrue considerable material gain as the result of illegal usage of copywri...

  8. Language, copyright and geographic segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for music and film

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens

    2015-01-01

    The EU seeks to create a seamless online Digital Single Market for media products such as digital music and film. The territoriality of the copyright regime is often perceived as an obstacle that induces geographical segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence on the extent of market segmentation in the EU on the supply and demand side and measures the contribution of several drivers of this market segmentation. We use data from the Apple iTunes country stores in 27 EU Member States ...

  9. Games as Cultural Heritage: Copyright Challenges for Preserving (Orphan) Video Games in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The long-term preservation of complex works such as video games comes with many challenges. Emulation, currently the most adequate preservation strategy for video games, requires several acts that are technically possible, but closely governed and restricted by copyright law and technical protection measures. Without prior authorisation from the rightsholder(s), it is therefore difficult to legally emulate these works. However, games often have several rightsholders that are in some cases nea...

  10. Copyright, Crime and Computers: New Legislative Frameworks for Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers intellectual property rights (IPR) enforcement from the perspective of criminal law, and in particular, drawing on recent Australian legislative reforms concerning copyright, cybercrime, covert investigations, mutual assistance and extradition, prosecution and sentencing options, as well as proceeds of crime recovery. The complex interaction of these laws suggests that the field of IPR enforcement offers numerous investigative, prosecutorial and judicial options beyond ...

  11. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  12. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  13. COPYRIGHT – OVERVIEW; COPYRIGHT CONTENTS – PARTICULARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia IONESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Art, under its various forms, including writings, drawings, inventions, represents the material externalization of the human intellect. The creator, i.e. the author, must benefit from all the rights resulting from his/her creation and protect it, so that the latter is recognized to belong to them, throughout time. The property right over the creation is different, depending on who has created it, its importance, if the creation has been produced in collaboration with others or by exclusivity, the type thereof. Once acknowledging and registering the property right over the creation, the author shall benefit also from all the other related rights, respectively the right to reproduce, distribute, import, lend, broadcast the creation on television, respectively any right aiding in bringing it to the knowledge of third parties in a controlled fashion and with the appropriate pay due for it.

  14. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  15. Setenta anos depois: direitos autorais em Noel Rosa Seventy years later: Noel Rosa's copyrights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel do Amaral Arbix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um regime ótimo de direitos autorais, ao tomar fundamento no estímulo ao desenvolvimento de novos bens intelectuais, depende de limites bem traçados. Este artigo procura aferir a funcionalidade desses direitos no que diz respeito a composições musicais, de sorte a avaliar, nesse campo específico, a maleabilidade da proteção aos direitos autorais e sua adequação à criação de novas obras. Para tanto, remete-se à experiência criativa de e sobre noel rosa, expoente do samba brasileiro. A marcada assunção de riscos por autores de obras derivadas, a formalização irregular das relações jurídicas entre titulares de direitos autorais e a profissionalização de determinados autores são constatadas como respostas diretas aos incentivos legais pertinentes. A incerteza decorrente dessas respostas expõe a dessintonia entre alguns dos objetivos das normas analisadas e seus efeitos práticos.An optimal copyright regime, based on fostering the development of new intellectual works, depends on well designed limitations. This article aims to analyze such rights' functionality with respect to musical works, in order to evaluate, in this field specifically, the flexibility of copyright protection and its adequacy for the creation of new works. To perform such task, the creative process of brazilian samba expert, noel rosa, is examined. A remarkable assumption of risks by derivative works' authors, the irregular formalization of legal relations between copyright owners and the profissionalization of certain authors are seen as direct answers to the legal incentives currently in force. The uncertainty derived from such answers exposes the tension between some of the analyzed norms' objectives and their actual effects.

  16. Daddy’s Car: Artificial Intelligence as a Creative Tool for Copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Díaz Limón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This year on September 19th, Sony CSL, a software developer company, announced to the world, the creation of the first musical work whose ownership belongs to Artificial Intelligence. This paper analyzes the legal consequences of such a statement, and it’s conceptual and legal limits within the Copyright Universe (with fundament on International Treaties; in order to assess whether we are in presence of new legal-authorial figure that invite us to think over the subjects of protection in our laws or whether the applicable normativity may resolve these hypotheses in favor Artificial Intelligence, instead of juridical persons.

  17. Copyright for Interactive Systems: Stratagems for Tourism and Cultural Heritage Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla-Ficarra, Francisco V.; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Ficarra, Valeria M.

    We present a series of strategies followed from the interactive design for the realization of a hypermedia system aimed at promoting in an original, simple and universal way the cultural and tourism heritage of a wide rural area in two Italian regions: Emilia Romagna and Lombardy. Besides, the main stratagems followed are disclosed to overcome the existing hurdles when it comes to copyright for the free diffusion of the tourism view of the area, such as can be photography or video, for instance. Finally, we present the first vademecum to be considered before making on-line and off-line interactive systems in Italy.

  18. Copyright protection of remote sensing imagery by means of digital watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Cappellini, Vito; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella; Zanini, R.

    2001-12-01

    The demand for remote sensing data has increased dramatically mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable to exploit remotely sensed data and images. As in many other fields, along with the increase of market potential and product diffusion, the need arises for some sort of protection of the image products from unauthorized use. Such a need is a very crucial one even because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred and effective means of data exchange. An important issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. Before applying watermarking techniques developed for multimedia applications to remote sensing applications, it is important that the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are carefully analyzed to investigate whether they are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: (1) assessment of the requirements imposed by the characteristics of remotely sensed images on watermark-based copyright protection; (2) discussion of a case study where the performance of two popular, state-of-the-art watermarking techniques are evaluated by the light of the requirements at the previous point.

  19. Access to digital representations of color images: a copyright and communications law perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrice A.

    1996-03-01

    There has been work going forward on the development of a frame of reference for locating and invoking digital information services and objects over communications systems and pathways having computational capabilities. An important concept in this context is the notion of a `digital object' as a set of sequences of bits, including a unique identifier for the object called a `handle.' A digital object may incorporate digital works and other representations of digital information in which copyright, patent, trade secret or other rights or interest are claimed, although this need not always be the case. For commercial enterprise to take full advantage of the global information infrastructure, it is helpful to develop a flexible terminology for thinking about digital information from a copyright perspective; in this regard, the concept of `digital work' will be suggested. Clearance of rights and interests in connection with the contents of digital objects should be treated separately from compliance with procedures for accessing digital objects viewed as entities that incorporate and identify contents. A suggested legal framework will be discussed.

  20. A copyright protection scheme for digital images based on shuffled singular value decomposition and visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B Pushpa; Singh, Kh Manglem; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new watermarking algorithm based on the shuffled singular value decomposition and the visual cryptography for copyright protection of digital images. It generates the ownership and identification shares of the image based on visual cryptography. It decomposes the image into low and high frequency sub-bands. The low frequency sub-band is further divided into blocks of same size after shuffling it and then the singular value decomposition is applied to each randomly selected block. Shares are generated by comparing one of the elements in the first column of the left orthogonal matrix with its corresponding element in the right orthogonal matrix of the singular value decomposition of the block of the low frequency sub-band. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme clearly verifies the copyright of the digital images, and is robust to withstand several image processing attacks. Comparison with the other related visual cryptography-based algorithms reveals that the proposed method gives better performance. The proposed method is especially resilient against the rotation attack.

  1. Possibilities for retracing of copyright violations on current video game consoles by optical disk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, Frank; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of retracing copyright violations on current video game consoles (e.g. Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation, ...) by studying the corresponding optical storage media DVD and Blu-ray. The possibilities of forensic investigation of DVD and Blu-ray Discs are presented. It is shown which information can be read by using freeware and commercial software for forensic examination. A detailed analysis is given on the visualization of hidden content and the possibility to find out information about the burning hardware used for writing on the optical discs. In connection with a forensic analysis of the Windows registry of a suspects PC a detailed overview of the crime scene for forged DVD and Blu-ray Discs can be obtained. Optical discs are examined under forensic aspects and the obtained results are implemented into automatic analysis scripts for the commercial forensics program EnCase Forensic. It is shown that for the optical storage media a possibility of identification of the drive used for writing can be obtained. In particular Blu-ray Discs contain the serial number of the burner. These and other findings were incorporated into the creation of various EnCase scripts for the professional forensic investigation with EnCase Forensic. Furthermore, a detailed flowchart for a forensic investigation of copyright infringement was developed.

  2. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  3. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  4. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  5. Copy-Right for Software and Computer Games: Strategies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Ayoubi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Copy-right has been initially used in cultural and art industries. From that time there have been two different approaches to the matter: the commercial-economic approach which is concerned with the rights of suppliers and investors; and the other approach, the cultural one, which is especially concerned with the rights of author. First approach is rooted in Anglo-American countries, while the other is originally French. Expansion of the computer market, and separating software and hardware markets caused to the so-called velvet-rubbery, which refers to the illegal reproduction in the market. Therefore, there were some struggles all over the world to protect rights of their producers. In present study, beside the domestic and international difficulties these strategies would encounter, this article has reviewed different strategies to face this challenge.

  6. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-901-039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing compliance pressures require careful consideration and adaptation. The Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) provides a measure (i.e., a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement. The basis, objectives and capabilities for the CSES including inputs/outputs as well as the structural and mathematical underpinnings contained in this copyright.

  7. 37 CFR 201.31 - Procedures for copyright restoration in the United States for certain motion pictures and their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and before March 1, 1989, without the notice required by U.S. copyright law. I certify that the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for copyright... American Free Trade Agreement. 201.31 Section 201.31 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE...

  8. The issue of exceptions from the transmission and operation of radio and television broadcasting in the Copyright Act

    OpenAIRE

    Petera, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Parliament of the Czech Republic adopted an amendment of Act No. 121/2000 on Copyright Law and Rights Related to Copyright [hereinafter Copyright Act]. The Copyright Act amendment set up three new exceptions to the author's exclusive right to exploit his or her work. The author deals with harmony of these three exceptions with international copyright law system and European copyright law. In the broad context the author discusses problems related to the changing scope of the excep...

  9. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  10. Music, empathy and cultural understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "I spy, with my little sensor": fair data handling practices for robots between privacy, copyright and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Burkhard; Edwards, Lilian

    2017-07-01

    The paper suggests an amendment to Principle 4 of ethical robot design, and a demand for "transparency by design". It argues that while misleading vulnerable users as to the nature of a robot is a serious ethical issue, other forms of intentionally deceptive or unintentionally misleading aspects of robotic design pose challenges that are on the one hand more universal and harmful in their application, on the other more difficult to address consistently through design choices. The focus will be on transparent design regarding the sensory capacities of robots. Intuitive, low-tech but highly efficient privacy preserving behaviour is regularly dependent on an accurate understanding of surveillance risks. Design choices that hide, camouflage or misrepresent these capacities can undermine these strategies. However, formulating an ethical principle of "sensor transparency" is not straightforward, as openness can also lead to greater vulnerability and with that security risks. We argue that the discussion on sensor transparency needs to be embedded in a broader discussion of "fair data handling principles" for robots that involve issues of privacy, but also intellectual property rights such as copyright.

  12. CHALLENGES OF INTERPRETING THE NOTION OF SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRAȘCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Every country has it’ s own interpretation and enforcement of copyrights. The challenge is in case of a conflict of interpretations to create a common structure accepted by all parties as a base of mutual understanding and agreement. ESCIA guidelines seek to provide a scalable assessment framework which in turn can be a tool for research and development of structures to deal with the different cultural and social economic circumstances of the different countries / the assessment of which system is dominant is an ongoing, ever-changing debate for which you need the guideline tools to steer the discussion in the right direction which is a challenge on it’s own.the digital economy is the most important part of the global economy.The digital transformation of international production requires regulation,governing, investor behaviour. The negative impact of manipulation of data obtained from consumers by global powerfull multinationals is to be considered a major insentive for a rigourus monitorization and regulation of international productions. The diversity of interests, political and finacial, make fair regulations covering all aspects of the situation, extremlely difficult, in addition to the ever chainging parameters governing the subject as such. The complexity of the matter should not prevent an indepth assassement and solution seeking policy.

  13. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  14. Source and replica calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  15. Apports de l’archéobotanique à la compréhension de la Source des Roches, Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme The archaeobotanic contribution to the understanding of la Source des Roches, Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Prat

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Au tout début de la période romaine, un taux d’arbres inhabituellement élevé a été mis en évidence par la palynologie sur le site de la Source des Roches à Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme, gisement qui a livré plus de 3500 ex-voto en bois au début des années 70. Durant le second âge du Fer et l’époque romaine, un tel niveau de boisement n’est observé nulle part ailleurs, ni en plaine de Limagne, ni sur le plateau des Dômes. L’hypothèse d’un sanctuaire de plein air, soutenue par Anne-Marie Romeuf qui a dirigé la fouille, se trouve ainsi confortée par l’analyse pollinique, qui permet d’envisager la possibilité de la présence d’un « bois sacré » composé principalement de chênes. La combinaison des données archéobotaniques issues de la palynologie et de la carpologie contribue à renforcer la compréhension du site d’un point de vue paysager et nous renseigne également sur les types d’offrandes végétales associées au dépôt des ex-voto.Unusually high levels of tree pollen were revealed by palynology on the site of the Source des Roches in Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme for the very beginning of the Roman period. The site had yielded more than 3500 wooden offerings in the early 70s. Such a high density of woodland can be found nowhere else for the Second Iron Age and the Roman period, neither in the plain of Limagne, nor on the plateau of Les Dômes. The hypothesis of an open air sanctuary, first advanced by Anne-Marie Romeuf, director of excavation, is therefore reinforced by the pollen analysis which leads us to consider the possibility that a “sacred grove” made up principally of oaks was present. The correlation of the archaeobotanic data from palynology and paleœthnobotany contributes to the strengthening of the site’s knowledge from the landscape’s point of view. We also have a better understanding of the vegetal offerings associated with the wooden statues.

  16. 77 FR 71101 - Electronic Filing in the Copyright Office of Notices of Intention To Obtain a Section 115...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... available at: http://www.copyright.gov/laws/rulemaking.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Section... whether a Notice filed in the Copyright Office is sufficient as a matter of law under this section, that... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 [Docket No. RM 2012-4] Electronic Filing in...

  17. 77 FR 31237 - Electronic Filing in the Copyright Office of Notices of Intention To Obtain a Section 115...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... law, such notices may be filed in the Office only when the public records of the Copyright Office do... filed in the Copyright Office is sufficient as a matter of law under this section, that issue shall be... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 [Docket No. RM 2012-4] Electronic Filing in...

  18. Freedom as in a Self-Sustainable Community: The Free Software Movement and Its Challenge to Copyright Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Copyright law, together with the market logic it carries, penetrates deeply into our daily life. The copyright regime is so restrictive that it turns a normal learning process into a series of potential copyright violations. The Free Software Movement (FSM) represents a substantial community effort to counter this trend. It seeks to supersede the…

  19. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material... Distribution of United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100 What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright...

  20. Copyright Law and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langran, Elizabeth; Langran, Robert; Bull, Glen

    2005-01-01

    Consumers are inundated with sound and images. A child today may see more images in a week than an individual in the 19th century viewed in a lifetime. These images were presented in a read-only format throughout the 20th century. A child watching television was a passive observer. The inclusion of authoring programs such as iMovie and Movie Maker…

  1. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stern from the very nature of a dictionary as a specific kind of intellectual pro- perty type, because of ... --The most important convention that binds us today, is still the Berne Con- ention, as ..... These units or data element categories are described ... terminologist to use these terms as well as their definitions to a large extent.

  2. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  3. Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

  4. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  5. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of 37 Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useh, Nicodemus M; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Akange, Nguavese; Thomas, Milton; Foley, Andrew; Keena, Mitchel Chan; Nelson, Eric; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Tomita, Masaru; Suzuki, Haruo; Scaria, Joy

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the availability of draft genomes of several Salmonella serotypes, isolated from poultry sources from Nigeria. These genomes will help to further understand the biological diversity of S. enterica and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. Copyright © 2016 Useh et al.

  7. El mito Darwinista en el aula de clase: un análisis de fuentes de información al gran público The Darwinist myth in clasroom: an analysis of information sources for public understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelio Bizzo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar como certas fontes secundárias de informação sobre Darwinismo apresentam conceitos centrais da teoria. Essa análise é considerada importante para o contexto educacional, uma vez que fontes primárias de informação raramente são utilizadas com esse propósito. O livro de Huxley e Kettlewell "Darwin and his World" foi estudado, bem como o livro de Richard Dawkins "O Relojoeiro Cego". Estes dois livros têm sido referências muito importantes para professores e estudantes. Este artigo mostra algumas distorções de alguns conceitos, bem como de evidências factuais sobre a cronologia da construção da teoria.This article aims at analyzing how secondary sources of information of Darwinism present key-concepts of the theory. This analysis is considered important for educational purposes as primary sources rarely are used . Huxley and Kettlewell's book, "Darwin and His World" was studied, as well as Richard Dawkins' "The Blind Watchmaker". These two books have been major references for teachers and students. This article shows how distorted some concepts are, as well as some factual evidence about the chronology of the construction of the theory.

  8. When Push Comes to Shove: A Hype-Free Guide to Evaluating Technical Solutions to Copyright Infringement on Campus Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic Frontier Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to help institutions of higher education critically evaluate the principal technological tools and policies being used to enforce copyright on campus networks. It first explores where the goals of copyright holders and universities overlap and where they conflict. It then discusses the pros and cons of the major solutions…

  9. Organizational Placement and Perceived Legitimacy and Authority of Copyright Information Dissemination and Management in the Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitz, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Copyright plays a central role in numerous activities within higher education, and educating a university community about copyright law should be a priority, if only to protect the institution from lawsuits. But, based upon a literature review, institutions devote a more resources to other intellectual property activities--plagiarism detection,…

  10. Wired in the Ivory Tower: Access and Copyright Issues Surrounding the Internet and Higher Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    1995-01-01

    Examines issues of access, copyright, and intellectual property in the global information infrastructure. Highlights include policy application to higher education; policy platforms; access and gender equity; copyright and intellectual property; the National Information Infrastructure; digital libraries and electronic publishing; and balancing the…

  11. National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU), Meeting Number One (Washington, D.C., October 8, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    The first meeting of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) established some basic premises and procedures. Commissioners representing various interests concerned with copyright legislation (librarians, publishers, consumers and lawyers) discussed the responsibility of the Commission to review copyright…

  12. OER Quality and Adaptation in K-12: Comparing Teacher Evaluations of Copyright-Restricted, Open, and Open/Adapted Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2015-01-01

    Conducted in conjunction with an institute on open textbook adaptation, this study compares textbook evaluations from practicing K-12 classroom teachers (n = 30) on three different types of textbooks utilized in their contexts: copyright-restricted, open, and open/adapted. Copyright-restricted textbooks consisted of those textbooks already in use…

  13. Photocopying and the Law: A Guide for Librarians and Teachers and Other Suppliers and Users of Photocopies of Copyright Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Copyright Council, Sydney.

    Some possible uses to which the photocopying of copyright works can be put under the Copyright Act of 1968 are explored. The topics considered are "substantial part," fair dealing in relation to research, private study and published criticisms or reviews, photocopying limitations, illustrations and multiple copies. The law, as…

  14. Analysis of the relation of copyright and work content in judicial verdicts of USA, UK and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to copyright system, the normal standard for protecting literary and artistic works is originality hence the international copyright treaties such as Berne convention, while emphasizing on originality are avoiding imposing other mandatory standards for protecting such works. However, these works are different forms of expression of various ideas and accordingly, comprise different contents. In some cases, the works contents are inconsistent with religious and national values and norms or society custom and laws. There are conflicts between protecting copyright as an intellectual property right and other moral, religious and legal priorities in the society. For resolving this conflict and answering the question whether work content will affect copyright protection, countries have adopted different approaches. From the perspective of the work content, this article through a comparative study of approaches and judicial verdicts of the USA, the UK and Canada, infers two general views: the work content does not have any impacts on copyright protection and the work content have impacts on copyright protection. In addition, some supporters of second view believe in content impact on existence of copyright in a work and other supporters believe that content has impacts on some enforcements of copyright.

  15. Copyright and Industrial Design, How a Line Should be Drawn? Works of Applied Arts, its Protection in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Felipe Álvarez Amézquita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As works of applied arts have been situated normally at the grey area between copyright and industrial property, this article discusses three different approaches about how they should be protected. It particularly focuses on the case of industrial designs which might be considered as copyrighted works. Subject to the fulfilment of copyright criterions and particularly the requisites for works of art and for the work of applied arts, the article proposes that Colombian and Andean Communitarian Law should embrace the partial accumulation system of protection for such creations.

  16. Of Otakus and Fansubs: A Critical Look at Anime Online in Light of Current Issues in Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Hatcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of digital technology and increased global connectivity has, to put it mildly, caused some ripples for the entertainment industry specifically and copyright law generally. In the aftermath, many are searching for new ways to incorporate the benefits of digital copies and the internet while minimizing the harms. To some, the anime industry and its fans offer examples of how an industry can benefit and even grow from allowing copyright infringement. This article examines the anime industry in-depth with this suggestion in mind and places the industry among current copyright policy debates, such as those suggested by Lawrence Lessig.

  17. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  18. Students' understandings of electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady-Morris, Kathryn

    Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory

  19. Copyright, and the Regulation of Orphan Works: A comparative review of seven jurisdictions and a rights clearance simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Favale, Marcella; Homberg, Fabian; Kretschmer, Martin; Mendis, Dinusha; Secchi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    About This report is a collaboration between the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management (www.cippm.org.uk), Bournemouth University (BU), the Department for Human Resources & Organisational Behaviour, The Business School, BU, and CREATe, the RCUK Centre for Copyright & New Business Models (www.create.ac.uk). The Hargreaves Review stated: “The problem of orphan works – works to which access is effectively barred because the copyright holder cannot be traced – represents th...

  20. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  1. Understanding the disease of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disease. Drug addiction manifests as a compulsive obsession to use a substance despite serious detrimental and sometimes irreversible consequences. Drug addiction is not the same as drug dependency because dependency may not manifest as an addictive behavior. This problem is fundamental to understanding the disease of addiction. This article discusses the neurobiology and genetics of drug addiction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Emotion impairs extrinsic source memory--An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinrui; You, Yuqi; Li, Wen; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-09-01

    Substantial advancements in understanding emotional modulation of item memory notwithstanding, controversies remain as to how emotion influences source memory. Using an emotional extrinsic source memory paradigm combined with remember/know judgments and two key event-related potentials (ERPs)-the FN400 (a frontal potential at 300-500 ms related to familiarity) and the LPC (a later parietal potential at 500-700 ms related to recollection), our research investigated the impact of emotion on extrinsic source memory and the underlying processes. We varied a semantic prompt (either "people" or "scene") preceding a study item to manipulate the extrinsic source. Behavioral data indicated a significant effect of emotion on "remember" responses to extrinsic source details, suggesting impaired recollection-based source memory in emotional (both positive and negative) relative to neutral conditions. In parallel, differential FN400 and LPC amplitudes (correctly remembered - incorrectly remembered sources) revealed emotion-related interference, suggesting impaired familiarity and recollection memory of extrinsic sources associated with positive or negative items. These findings thus lend support to the notion of emotion-induced memory trade off: while enhancing memory of central items and intrinsic/integral source details, emotion nevertheless disrupts memory of peripheral contextual details, potentially impairing both familiarity and recollection. Importantly, that positive and negative items result in comparable memory impairment suggests that arousal (vs. affective valence) plays a critical role in modulating dynamic interactions among automatic and elaborate processes involved in memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firm...

  4. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  5. Improving the use of historical written sources in paleopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-12-01

    The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology. This article aims to help researchers use historical written sources and artwork responsibly, thus improving our understanding of health and disease in the past. It explores a broad range of historical sources, from medical texts and histories to legal documents and tax records, and it highlights how the key to interpreting any past text is to understand who wrote it, when it was written, and why it was written. Case studies of plague epidemics, crucifixion, and the spinal deformity of King Richard III are then used to highlight how we might better integrate archaeological and historical evidence. When done well, integrating evidence from both archaeological and historical sources increases the probability of a complete and well-balanced understanding of disease in past societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Text in the Machine: American Copyright Law and the Many Natures of Software, 1974-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gerardo Con

    This article is a case study in the history of software copyright in the United States from 1974 to 1978. It focuses on the work of a group called the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works. CONTU, as this group was known, faced the problem of choosing which ontology of software-by which I mean a conception of the nature of software as an invention-should serve as the conceptual underpinning for the law of software copyright. In particular, the commissioners needed to decide whether computer programs are texts, machines, means to communicate with machines, or many of these things at once. CONTU's history shows how the discursive emergence of software as a new technology has been shaped by the convergence of commercial interests, the transmission of technical knowledge to lay audiences, and idiosyncratic views on the nature of information technology and human creativity.

  7. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  8. Are blocking injunctions against ISPs allowed in Europe? Copyright enforcement in the post-Telekabel EU legal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the national courts of the EU Member States, in an attempt to stem the flow of rampant online copyright infringement, have increasingly turned to the issuance of blocking injunctions against the intermediaries whose websites and networks are used by third parties to commit

  9. Perceptions of Pennsylvania School Librarians Regarding Their Role in Providing Copyright Advice to Students, Teacher, and Administrators in Their School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of Pennsylvania school librarians about the role they play in providing copyright guidance to the students, teachers, and administrators in their school during the 2011-2012 school year. Using two electronic mailing lists for Pennsylvania school librarians, the researcher posted an email asking…

  10. Quality, merit, aesthetics and purpose: an inquiry into EU copyright law's eschewal of other criteria than originality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gompel, S.; Lavik, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the rule that no other criteria than originality shall be applied to determine the eligibility for protection of works, as contained in a few EU Directives on copyright (i.e. the Computer Programs Directive, the Term Directive and the Database Directive). While aimed to

  11. 26 CFR 1.871-11 - Gains from sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, or similar property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., copyright, secret process or formula, goodwill, trademark, trade brand, franchise, or other like property... which is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the..., relating to transfers of franchises, trademarks, and trade names, do not apply in determining whether a...

  12. Pirates and Samaritans : a decade of measurements on peer production and their implications for net neutrality and copyright

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwelse, J.A.; Garbacki, P.; Epema, D.H.J.; Sips, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of commons-based peer production by a measurement-based analysis of case studies and discusses the impact of peer production on net neutrality and copyright law. The measurements include websites such as suprnova.org, youtube.com, and facebook.com, and the

  13. 37 CFR 201.34 - Procedures for filing Correction Notices of Intent to Enforce a Copyright Restored under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office History Documents (COHD) file through the Library of Congress electronic information system... Congress Information System (LOCIS). Alternative ways to connect through Internet are the World Wide Web... them through the Library of Congress Home Page on the World Wide Web by selecting the copyright link...

  14. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  15. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  16. Propiedad intelectual y conocimiento público: Derechos del investigador y del ciudadano sobre el copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltrero Oreja, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property is meant to be the key concept to drive the development of information society in the 21st century. The ethical, moral and social principles underlying both early design of Internet architecture and intellectual property laws provide a framework to claim for the publicity of information as the main requirement for cultural, technical and scientific knowledge development. However, new information technologies allow copyright owners to extend their control of both legitimate uses and misuses of copyrighted material. New models of copyright licenses are analyzed and proposed to protect fair use of cognitive work, particularly public scientific and humanistic knowledge, to the extent decided by the author himself.

    El concepto de propiedad intelectual está llamado a ser la clave que oriente el desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en el siglo XXI. Los principios éticos, morales y sociales que subyacen tanto al diseño de las arquitecturas primitivas de Internet como a las leyes vigentes sobre propiedad intelectual se fundamentan en la publicidad de la información como el requisito básico para el desarrollo de conocimientos culturales, técnicos y científicos. Sin embargo, las nuevas tecnologías de la información también proporcionan los medios para extender el control tecnológico de todos los usos, legítimos e ilegítimos, del material protegido con copyright. Se analizan nuevos modelos de copyright y se proponen las licencias libres como forma de protección activa por el propio autor de los usos legítimos de su trabajo cognitivo, especialmente si se trata de conocimiento científico o humanístico subvencionado públicamente.

  17. Understanding clinical papers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, David, Dr; House, Allan; Bowers, David

    2006-01-01

    ... of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP, UK, without the permission i...

  18. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country; (D... actors, screenwriter, animator; for photographs or books: subject matter; for books: editor, publisher.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture, sound...

  19. Open source molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2018-05-01

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we critically review three major paradigms facing Salmonella source attribution today: (i) the use of genotyping data, particularly Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA), which is replacing traditional Salmonella phenotyping beyond serotyping; (ii) the integration of case-control data into source attribution to improve risk factor identification/characterization; (iii) the investigation of non-food sources, as attributions tend to focus on foods of animal origin only. Population genetics models or simplified MLVA schemes may provide feasible options for source attribution, although there is a strong need to explore novel modelling options as we move towards whole-genome sequencing as the standard. Classical case-control studies are enhanced by incorporating source attribution results, as individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different sources have different associated risk factors. Thus, the more such analyses are performed the better Salmonella epidemiology will be understood. Reparametrizing current models allows for inclusion of sources like reptiles, the study of which improves our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology beyond food to tackle the pathogen in a more holistic way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fundamentals of establishment of the European model of implementation of copyright and related rights of national scientific and educational staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyova Tetiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available National higher education system has considerable scientific and educational potential. In higher education the educational process and scientific research are interrelated, and the scientific and teaching staff are the main participants of intellectual creative activity, that creates scientific works. Declaratively the state creates conditions for motivation (encouragement of scientists’ creativity, but universities generally do not pay compensation to the authors (performers for using the results of their intellectual activity, which indicates the absence of civilized mechanism of implementing the rights in this area. It is also an indicator of the absence of effective methods of copyright protection by the state. The study does not cover all the aspects of the target problem, because the prospect of the further study is seen in the matters, related to the emergence and implementation of copyright in higher education.

  2. Legal Realism in Action: Indirect Copyright Liability's Continuing Tort Framework and Sony’s de facto Demise

    OpenAIRE

    Menell, Peter S.; Nimmer, David

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court’s indirect copyright liability standard, derived in Sony Corporation of America v. Universal City Studios from patent law and reasserted in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd, is widely seen as creating a safe harbor for distributors of dual use technologies. Yet, when one looks to cases decided since Sony, legislative enactments, and the decisions of technology companies in the marketplace, a very different reality emerges. This article explores and explains ...

  3. Propiedad intelectual y conocimiento público: Derechos del investigador y del ciudadano sobre el copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Feltrero Oreja, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Intellectual property is meant to be the key concept to drive the development of information society in the 21st century. The ethical, moral and social principles underlying both early design of Internet architecture and intellectual property laws provide a framework to claim for the publicity of information as the main requirement for cultural, technical and scientific knowledge development. However, new information technologies allow copyright owners to extend their control of both legitima...

  4. Author's rights in the digital age: how Internet and peer-to-peer file sharing technology shape the perception of copyrights and copywrongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana Micunovic

    2016-01-01

    . That is one of the main reasons why copyright holders and creative industry constantly find new ways to fight peer-to-peer networking technology, especially commercial file sharing, thus sometimes restraining cultural production and even technological development. This leads to conclusion that this new dynamic, decentralized and distributed networked environment grounded in digital democracy and participating culture of prosumers asks for new legal initiatives and solutions. The research shows that the basic understanding of authorship and the right's of authors and other creative workers in the context of Internet culture and digital media hasn't changed a lot, but, by reason of new available digital means of production and tools of consumption, users attitudes, habits and practices towards them have. To resolve this conflict, law needs to find new mechanisms

  5. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  6. Understand Your Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > Asthma > Living with Asthma > Managing Asthma Understand Your Asthma Medication There are a variety of ... healthcare team. They can help make sure you understand the correct way to take the medicines, or ...

  7. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  8. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  10. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  11. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  12. Understanding the source of multifractality in financial markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.; Liu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 391, č. 17 (2012), s. 4234-4251 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multifractality * Financial markets * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437112002890

  13. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  14. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC{copyright}1 for oil well capacity evaluation; Sistema de medicion de flujo multifasico mediante tecnologia ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 para aforo de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Alcantar, J. M; Cervantes-Martinez, G; Cruz-Maya, J. A; Hernandez-Buenfil, M. A; Ramirez-Antonio, I [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgodoy@imp.mx

    2008-10-15

    This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC{copyright}1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of designs sofware GLCCV7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de un sistema portatil para la medicion de flujo multifasico, basado en la tecnologia de separacion ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 y su utilizacion el aforo de pozos petroleros. El desarrollo del sistema se compone de tres fases, la primera se orienta hacia el diseno geometrico de un separador tipo ciclonico por medio del simulador GLCCV 7.8, asi como el dimensionamiento y la seleccion de los instrumentos de medicion y valvulas de control de flujo. En la segunda fase, se lleva a cabo la etapa de diseno del control automatico del sistema, el cual se fundamenta en el desarrollo e implantacion de cuatro estrategias de control basadas en el comportamiento dinamico de las variables de produccion del pozo; la tercera fase, la constituye el desarrollo de una interfaz para la integracion y operacion conjunta de los componentes de medicion y control del sistema, asi como de visualizacion, procesamiento y almacenamiento de la informacion. Se muestran los resultados experimentales de una prueba de medicion realizada en campo, las mediciones obtenidas muestran la

  15. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  16. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  17. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  18. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  19. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  20. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights – The Case of Collective Management and Extended Collective Licenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas; Rognstad, Ole-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses and discusses the use of collective management organizations (CMOs) in copyright. More concretely, it examines the use and effects of extended collective licenses (ECL). This model of rights management has been developed in the Nordic countries and has for some time been...... hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...... agreements entered into by representative CMOs. In the final part some of the challenges to ECLs arising from internationalisation and individualisation are identified and discussed. The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this....

  1. A Pirate too Needs to be Heard: Procedural Compromises in Online Copyright Infringement Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorna Mysoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Online copyright infringement is one of the toughest challenges the content industry has faced in the twenty first century. Article 8(3 of the Information Society Directive, implemented under section 97A of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, provides an injunctive remedy in response to such online infringement. Given the elusive nature of the website operators and the sheer number of their users, rights owners have turned to the Internet Service Providers (ISPs to implement the injunctions granted under section 97A to block websites with infringing content. In their battle to keep pace with online infringers, the UK courts have permitted significant compromises to the procedures while granting these injunctive blocking orders. One of the pioneers in this line of cases in the UK is the Pirate Bay case (TPB case, which ruled as a matter of law that the procedure under Section 97A does not require the alleged infringers to be made parties to those proceedings. TPB case also marks the trend of the ISPs consenting to an order of injunction, and not defending the proceedings. This has resulted in the absence of any adverse party in the proceedings under section 97A. This threatens the basic tenets of procedural fairness and propriety, having adverse consequences on both the substantive and procedural aspects, evident in the cases that followed TPB case. This article examines the aspects of the judgment in TPB case that led to these procedural compromises, whether it had any basis in the pre-existing case law, what the nature of an injunction under section 97A is and how the subsequent line of cases have followed TPB case as a precedent. It further explores the adverse consequences of the procedural compromises and whether any safeguards are available against such compromises.

  2. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  3. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  5. 論電視節目版式之著作權保護 Copyright Protection for TV Program Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張瑞星 Ruey-Hsing Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 電視節目版式(TV program format)的國際授權產值已達千億臺幣之多,但法律對電視節目版式究竟是否給予保護並無確定見解,此亦造成電視節目版式遭抄襲的情況嚴重。本文自分析電視節目版式之內涵及國際間各相關案例之處理情形著手,認為未經授權利用他人已公開節目版式的類型,就節目版式的高價值性、創作的高經濟誘因、版式的高具體表達性而言,若將此階段的電視節目版式歸類為概念,其著作權法保護似有不周;本文亦自各國案例的推論、概念與表達二分原則及美國最高法院Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co.之法理發現:凡將節目元素(包含抽象節目概念及具體場景、音樂、圖像、劇本等)加以創作性的選擇編排而使演出的結構、順序、組織、流程及風格具備特殊性,並可使觀眾明顯識別其為同一系列電視節目;凡達到此具體程度者,可受著作權法保護,若否,則應認定為概念而不受著作權法保護。 International licensing of TV program formats is worth hundreds of billions of dollars. The lack of legal consequences for plagiarizing another’s program format naturally leads to a great tendency to engage in copyright infringement. Most international courts support that an advanced published TV program format which is definitely not a simple idea but a more concrete expression is eligible for copyright protection because of its high resource investment and strong economic incentive for creators. This article argues that if an creative compilation of “facts” can be protected, according to the US Supreme Court Case in Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co., an creative compilation of “ideas” must also be worthy of protection. Along with analyzing international cases and Idea/Expression Dichotomy, this article concludes that if creativity and specificity is

  6. Indústria criativa: direitos de autor e acesso à cultura | Creative Industry: copyrights and access to culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Márcio Buainain

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma breve reflexão sobre a indústria criativa – pontuando sua gênese, evolução, delimitação de seu objeto e atividades que a compõem – e o acesso aos bens culturais. Reconhece-se a importância da lei de direitos autorais como marco básico para o funcionamento e crescimento sustentável e harmônico da indústria criativa, mas aqui se argumenta, com base no amplo levantamento feito pelo IBGE, que as dificuldades de acesso à cultura enfrentadas pela maioria da população brasileira são pouco relacionadas às falhas da legislação autoral. Para tanto, o artigo contem duas partes. Na primeira se apresenta a indústria criativa, tendo como base as metodologias que a Conferência das Nações Unidas para Comércio e Desenvolvimento (UNCTAD e a Organização Mundial da Propriedade Intelectual (OMPI utilizam para delimitar a importância socioeconômica desta indústria. Na segunda resumem-se informações do Suplemento de Cultura da Pesquisa de Informações Básicas Municipais (MUNIC-IBGE, de 2006, procurando indicar a precariedade das condições de acesso à cultura na maior parte do território nacional. As conclusões apontam que, a despeito da lei autoralista ser imperfeita e incompleta – características imanentes de leis que não conseguem acompanhar o dinamismo dos avanços sociais e tecnológicos –, ela não obsta de todo o acesso a bens culturais; fatores de ordem pessoal e material contribuem para o maior ou menor acesso a estes bens, tais como nível educacional, políticas públicas, fomento do governo na área da cultura, disponibilidade de bens culturais públicos e infraestrutura de cultura. Palavras-chave indústria criativa, acesso à cultura, lei de direito autoral Abstract The article presents an overview of the creative industries and access to cultural goods in Brazil. The copyright laws are relevant but insufficient for the development of this industry. To the

  7. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  9. Orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pust, R.; Urbancik, L.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes how the stable detection systems (hereinafter referred to as S DS ) have contributed to reveal the uncontrolled sources of ionizing radiation on the territory of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) Brno Regional Centre (RC Brno). It also describes the emergencies which were solved by or in which the workers from the Brno. Regional Centre participated in. The contribution is divided into the following chapters: A. SDS systems installed on the territory of SONS RC Brno; B. Selected unusual emergencies; C. Comments to individual emergencies; D. Aspects of SDS operation in term of their users; E. Aspects of SDS operation and related activities in term of radiation protection; F. Current state of orphan sources. (authors)

  10. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  11. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  12. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  13. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied...... a residential home where mutual understanding is an everyday challenge, namely the Danish Acquired Brain Injury Centre North....

  14. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  15. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  16. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  17. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  18. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  20. Natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S

    1982-04-01

    Language understanding is essential for intelligent information processing. Processing of language itself involves configuration element analysis, syntactic analysis (parsing), and semantic analysis. They are not carried out in isolation. These are described for the Japanese language and their usage in understanding-systems is examined. 30 references.

  1. Muon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10 -17 sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10 11 μ/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities

  2. The ethics of DeCSS posting: towards assessing the morality of the Internet posting of DVD copyright circumvention software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Eschenfelder

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We investigate the conditions under which posting software known as 'DeCSS' on the Internet is ethical. DeCSS circumvents the access and copy control protection measures on commercial DVDs. Through our investigation, we point to limitations in current frameworks used to assess ethical computer based civil disobedience. Method. The paper draws on empirical findings of actual DeCSS posting to consider the limitations of current frameworks. Findings were generated from content analysis of Web sites that post DeCSS using search engine sampling with file name, language, and server location delimiters. Content analysis examined the number of Websites hosting DeCSS, the presence or absence of speech related to DeCSS and Free or Open Source software, and the arguments explaining DeCSS posting. Analysis. Drawing on theorizing from political philosophy and the existing frameworks, the paper compares characteristics of actual DeCSS posting to the existing frameworks. Results. The paper points out six areas that require further attention in ethical frameworks: determining motivation for posting, deciding whether some groups have more moral standing to post, assessing knowledge of the laws related to circumvention and posting, determining if protesters have taken related political actions, the legality of various formats of circumvention devices, and the physical geography of the participants.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute USA.gov ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage treatment side effects How to deal with financial and legal matters Many people want to know ... Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  6. Assessment of RELAP5-3D copyright using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The capability of the RELAP5-3D copyright computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code's logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved

  7. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  8. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  9. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  11. Investigating scintillometer source areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelet, A. O.; Ward, H. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Scintillometry is an indirect ground-based method for measuring line-averaged surface heat and moisture fluxes on length scales of 0.5 - 10 km. These length scales are relevant to urban and other complex areas where setting up traditional instrumentation like eddy covariance is logistically difficult. In order to take full advantage of scintillometry, a better understanding of the flux source area is needed. The source area for a scintillometer is typically calculated as a convolution of point sources along the path. A weighting function is then applied along the path to compensate for a total signal contribution that is biased towards the center of the beam path, and decreasing near the beam ends. While this method of calculating the source area provides an estimate of the contribution of the total flux along the beam, there are still questions regarding the physical meaning of the weighted source area. These questions are addressed using data from an idealized experiment near the Salt Lake City International Airport in northern Utah, U.S.A. The site is a flat agricultural area consisting of two different land uses. This simple heterogeneity in the land use facilitates hypothesis testing related to source areas. Measurements were made with a two wavelength scintillometer system spanning 740 m along with three standard open-path infrared gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance stations along the beam path. This configuration allows for direct observations of fluxes along the beam and comparisons to the scintillometer average. The scintillometer system employed measures the refractive index structure parameter of air for two wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, 880 μm and 1.86 cm to simultaneously estimate path-averaged heat and moisture fluxes, respectively. Meteorological structure parameters (CT2, Cq2, and CTq) as well as surface fluxes are compared for various amounts of source area overlap between eddy covariance and scintillometry. Additionally, surface

  12. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital The copyright, the intellectual property and the digital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib

    2001-12-01

    transference of information. The present article seeks to sketch out the broad topic of intellectual property in the digitalized world so that the librarian may use it to venture into the juridical field and then deepen his understanding.

  13. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital = The Copyright, The intellectual Property and the Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib

    2001-12-01

    transference of information. The present article seeks to sketch out the broad topic of intellectual property in the digitalized world so that the librarian may use it to venture into the juridical field and then deepen his understanding.

  14. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  15. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  16. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  18. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  19. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  20. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  3. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she' ... understand what prognosis means and also hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that ... Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones make decisions. ...

  7. Understanding your cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about: Treatment Palliative care Personal matters such as finances Knowing what to expect may make it easier ... treatment. www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/understanding-statistics-used-guide-prognosis-and-evaluate-treatment . ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  9. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  10. Understanding Yugoslavia's Killing Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swigert, James W

    1994-01-01

    Since Yugoslavia disintegrated in violence 3 years ago, observers have struggled to understand why the Yugoslav conflict has been so brutal and has involved such extensive violence against civilian populations...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  13. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  14. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  15. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  16. Co-providing: understanding the logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2011-11-01

    Continuing nursing education providers have sometimes said that they don't want to co-provide because "it's too much trouble" or they "won't be able to control what happens" or because they don't understand the process. This column clarifies the logistics of the co-provider relationship. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  18. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  19. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  20. Open source in Finnish software companies

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, Arto

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores survey data focusing on open source software supply collected from 170 Finnish software firms using descriptive statistical analysis. The first half of the report contains general data about software companies and the differences between proprietary and open source firms. The second half focuses on open source firms. A subject of analysis are copyrights, products and services supply, the firms’ relationships with the open source community, and their views on opportunities ...