WorldWideScience

Sample records for source water assessments

  1. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  2. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  3. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  4. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  5. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  6. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  7. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  8. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  10. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  11. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  12. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  13. Quality assessment of drinking water from different sources in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treated pipe borne water, sachet water and water sold in open containers were also investigated. Standard plate count technique, multiple tube fermentation technique, and membrane filtration technique were employed in determining the microbial quality of the water. The study showed uniform temperature range of 27.5 to ...

  14. Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources ... These untreated water sources are used for drinking and domestic purposes and pose a serious threat to ... These diseases cause crippling, devastating and debilitating effects ..... gastrointestinal illness, due mainly by enteric viruses in sewage.

  15. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  16. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  17. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  18. Assessment of bacteriological quality of drinking water from various sources in Amritsar district of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sita; Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Devi, Pushpa

    2015-08-29

    Safe water is a precondition for health and development and is a basic human right, yet it is still denied to hundreds of millions of people throughout the developing world. Water-related diseases caused by insufficient safe water supplies, coupled with poor sanitation and hygiene, cause 3.4 million deaths a year, mostly in children. The present study was conducted on 1,317 drinking water samples from various water sources in Amritsar district in northern India. All the samples were analyzed to assess bacteriological quality of water for presumptive coliform count by the multiple tube test. A total of 42.9% (565/1,317) samples from various sources were found to be unfit for human consumption. Of the total 565 unsatisfactory samples, 253 were from submersible pumps, 197 were from taps of piped supply (domestic/public), 79 were from hand pumps, and 36 were from various other sources A significantly high level of contamination was observed in samples collected from submersible pumps (47.6%) and water tanks (47.3%), as these sources of water are more exposed and liable to contamination. Despite continuous efforts by the government, civil society, and the international community, over a billion people still do not have access to improved water resources. Bacteriological assessment of all sources of drinking should be planned and conducted on regular basis to prevent waterborne dissemination of diseases.

  19. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  20. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to

  1. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N; Mohamed, R A; Abouelenien, F

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens' health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality

  2. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  3. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  4. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  5. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space

  6. Health risk assessment for arsenic in water sources of cankiri province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caylak, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the levels of arsenic (As) in the water sources of Cankiri Province, the samples were collected from the stations of central Cankiri (n = 27) and Kursunlu town (n = 12) during 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of As were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and then compared with permissible limit, 10 μg/L in drinking water, by Turkish legislation and World Health Organization (WHO). The As levels were higher than this limit (mean value 10-30 μg/L in 26 stations), whereas, they were found to be >30 μg/L in 12 sampling points. The water sources were categorized for health risk assessment such as reservoir, tap, well, and spring, and then chronic daily intake for oral and dermal exposure to As via drinking water, hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index were calculated by using indices. The HQ values were found to be >1 in all samples of Cankiri Province. The effects of As on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR). CR values for As were also estimated to be >10 -5 in drinking water samples of Cankiri Province and might exert potential CR for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Application of water quality index for the assessment of suitability of natural sources of water for drinking in rural areas of east Sikkim, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubra Poonia; T Shantikumar Singh; Dechen C Tsering

    2015-01-01

    In Sikkim, especially in the rural areas where there is no supply of treated water for drinking and other domestic uses, natural surface water is the only source. The objective was to assess the water quality of natural sources of water in the rural areas of East Sikkim using a water quality index (WQI) for different seasons. A total of 225 samples, that is, 75 in winter, 75 in summer, and 75 in monsoon were collected from different sources for physicochemical analysis, and a WQI was calculat...

  8. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  9. In vitro assessment of thyroid hormone disrupting activities in drinking water sources along the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xinxin; Shi Wei; Zhang Fengxian; Cao Fu; Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun; Wei Si; Wang Xinru; Yu Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid hormone disrupting activities of drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River were examined using a reporter gene assay based on African green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cells. None of the eleven tested samples showed thyroid receptor (TR) agonist activity. Nine water samples exhibited TR antagonist activities with the equivalents referring to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) (TR antagonist activity equivalents, ATR-EQ 50 s) ranging from 6.92 × 10 1 to 2.85 × 10 2 μg DNBP/L. The ATR-EQ 50 s and TR antagonist equivalent ranges (ATR-EQ 30–80 ranges) for TR antagonist activities indicated that the water sample from site WX-8 posed the greatest health risks. The ATR-EQ 80 s of the water samples ranging from 1.56 × 10 3 to 6.14 × 10 3 μg DNBP/L were higher than the NOEC of DNBP. The results from instrumental analysis showed that DNBP might be responsible for the TR antagonist activities in these water samples. Water sources along Yangtze River had thyroid hormone disrupting potential. - Highlights: ► We examined thyroidal activities of drinking water sources at lower reaches of Yangtze River. ► Nine sites showed TR antagonist activities and no site exhibited TR agonist activity. ► ATR-EQ 50 s and ATR-EQ 30–80 ranges showed that the tested water samples had potential risks. ► The drinking water after water treatment processes may pose potential risks to residents. ► DBP, DEHP, NP and OP might contribute to TR antagonist activities in the aquatic environment. - Drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River showed thyroid hormone disrupting potential in reporter gene assays.

  10. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  11. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potable water as a source of airborne 222Rn in US dwellings: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Doyle, S.M.; Nero, A.V.; Sextro, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Using a long-term-average, single-cell model and available data for U.S. housing, the concentration of 222 Rn in indoor air due to the use of potable water is assessed. The ratio of the airborne 222 Rn concentration to the concentration in water is represented by a lognormal distribution with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.65 X 10(-4) and 2.88, respectively, in fair agreement with the previously reported results of direct measurements of the ratio in 13 houses. By combining this result with data on 222 Rn concentrations in U.S. water supplies, potable water is estimated to contribute an average of 24, 1.3, and 0.1 Bq m-3 to the airborne 222 Rn concentration in residences served by private wells, public ground water, and surface water supplies, respectively

  13. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p0.8, being influenced by exogenous humanimpact. The results of this study confirms that untreated water used in rural areas can affect public health andmicrobiological indicators have predictive value for the presence of Aeromonas spp only reporting to surface sources.

  14. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises.

  15. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  16. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  17. Risk Assessment of Pollution Emergencies in Water Source Areas of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luyao; Feng, Minquan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] This study quantitatively evaluated risk probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents under the influence of risk sources, thus providing an important guarantee for risk source identification during water diversion from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River. [Methods] The research used Bayesian networks to represent the correlation between accidental risk sources. It also adopted the sequential Monte Carlo algorithm to combine water quality simulation with state simulation of risk sources, thereby determining standard-exceeding probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents. [Results] When the upstream inflow was 138.15 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0416 and 0.0056 separately. When the upstream inflow was 55.29 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0225 and 0.0028 separately. [Conclusions] The research conducted a risk assessment on sudden water pollution accidents, thereby providing an important guarantee for the smooth implementation, operation, and water quality of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project.

  18. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Sources From Enyigba Pb-Zn District South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabo Paulinus N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of thirty 30 water samples were collected from the Enyigba PbZn mining district to assess the contamination of the water sources as a result of mining of lead and zinc minerals in the area. This comprises of 12 samples of surface water 14 from mine ponds and 4 from underground borehole water. The samples were acidified to stabilize the metals for periods more than four days without the use of refrigeration. The acidified water samples were analysed by a commercial laboratory at Projects Development Institute PRODA Enugu using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAS. The elements determined by this method are lead Pb zinc Zn copper Cu arsenic As cadmium Cd nickel Ni manganese Mn and cobalt Co. The result and analysis of contamination factor showed that in surface water Cd had the highest concentration followed by As and Pb while Ni had the lowest. In mine ponds Cd also had the highest concentration and followed by Pb and As and Ni the lowest. In borehole water Cd has the highest concentration followed by Pb and As while Ni had the lowest concentration. Compared to WHO permissible limits the contamination of the heavy metals in all water sources are in order CdAsPbNiZnCu. In surface water the order is CdAsPbNiZnCu in mine ponds it is CdPbAsNiZnCu and in borehole water the order is CdAsPbZnNiCu. The calculated contamination factors show very high contamination status for Cd Pb and As. These levels of contamination and values indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria the mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to the water sources.

  20. Source Water Identification and Chemical Typing for Nitrogen at the Kissimmee River, Pool C, Florida--Preliminary Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, G. G

    2002-01-01

    As part of the South Florida Water Management District's Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Study, a project was undertaken to identify the ages and sources of water in the area of Pool C, Kissimmee River, Florida...

  1. Health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the source water and drinking water of China: Quantitative analysis based on published monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2011-12-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in source water and drinking water of China was conducted using probabilistic techniques from a national perspective. The published monitoring data of PAHs were gathered and converted into BaP equivalent (BaP(eq)) concentrations. Based on the transformed data, comprehensive risk assessment was performed by considering different age groups and exposure pathways. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The risk analysis indicated that, the risk values for children and teens were lower than the accepted value (1.00E-05), indicating no significant carcinogenic risk. The probability of risk values above 1.00E-05 was 5.8% and 6.7% for adults and lifetime groups, respectively. Overall, carcinogenic risks of PAHs in source water and drinking water of China were mostly accepted. However, specific regions, such as Yellow river of Lanzhou reach and Qiantang river should be paid more attention. Notwithstanding the uncertainties inherent in the risk assessment, this study is the first attempt to provide information on carcinogenic risk of PAHs in source water and drinking water of China, and might be useful for potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  3. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in superficial water from a tropical estuarine system: Distribution, seasonal variations, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ewerton; Souza, Michel R R; Vilela Junior, Antônio R; Soares, Laiane S; Frena, Morgana; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the PAH distribution, sources, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment in superficial water from the Japaratuba River, Brazil. PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 119ngL -1 . It was observed that the PAH total concentrations and profiles showed significant differences when comparing the dry season (summer) with the rainy season (winter). Furthermore, most of the PAH originated from pyrogenic sources in the winter, whereas a mixture of sources was observed in the summer. PAH concentration levels found in this study were considered lower than those obtained in other estuarine systems. Ecological risk assessment was determined for individual PAH, based on the risk quotient (RQ) to evaluate the risk of aquatic biota's exposure to PAH. Results suggested that the Japaratuba River has achieved a moderate degree of ecological risk for high molecular weight, showing the importance of identifying these carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of perceptions, sources and uses of water among six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... Keywords: African, beliefs/attitudes towards water, human-water interactions, perceptions about water, water conservation ... Given the recent changes and challenges related ... 2010) this gap in existing research is significant.

  7. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  8. Integrated cryptosporidium assay to determine oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype for risk assessment of source and reuse water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brendon; Fanok, Stella; Phillips, Renae; Swaffer, Brooke; Monis, Paul

    2015-05-15

    Cryptosporidium continues to be problematic for the water industry, with risk assessments often indicating that treatment barriers may fail under extreme conditions. However, risk analyses have historically used oocyst densities and not considered either oocyst infectivity or species/genotype, which can result in an overestimation of risk if the oocysts are not human infective. We describe an integrated assay for determining oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype from a single-sample concentrate, an important advance that overcomes the need for processing multiple-grab samples or splitting sample concentrates for separate analyses. The assay incorporates an oocyst recovery control and is compatible with standard primary concentration techniques. Oocysts were purified from primary concentrates using immunomagnetic separation prior to processing by an infectivity assay. Plate-based cell culture was used to detect infectious foci, with a monolayer washing protocol developed to allow recovery and enumeration of oocysts. A simple DNA extraction protocol was developed to allow typing of any wells containing infectious Cryptosporidium. Water samples from a variety of source water and wastewater matrices, including a semirural catchment, wastewater, an aquifer recharge site, and storm water, were analyzed using the assay. Results demonstrate that the assay can reliably determine oocyst densities, infectivity, and genotype from single-grab samples for a variety of water matrices and emphasize the varying nature of Cryptosporidium risk extant throughout source waters and wastewaters. This assay should therefore enable a more comprehensive understanding of Cryptosporidium risk for different water sources, assisting in the selection of appropriate risk mitigation measures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A critical assessment of flux and source term closures in shallow water models with porosity for urban flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The validity of flux and source term formulae used in shallow water models with porosity for urban flood simulations is assessed by solving the two-dimensional shallow water equations over computational domains representing periodic building layouts. The models under assessment are the Single Porosity (SP), the Integral Porosity (IP) and the Dual Integral Porosity (DIP) models. 9 different geometries are considered. 18 two-dimensional initial value problems and 6 two-dimensional boundary value problems are defined. This results in a set of 96 fine grid simulations. Analysing the simulation results leads to the following conclusions: (i) the DIP flux and source term models outperform those of the SP and IP models when the Riemann problem is aligned with the main street directions, (ii) all models give erroneous flux closures when is the Riemann problem is not aligned with one of the main street directions or when the main street directions are not orthogonal, (iii) the solution of the Riemann problem is self-similar in space-time when the street directions are orthogonal and the Riemann problem is aligned with one of them, (iv) a momentum balance confirms the existence of the transient momentum dissipation model presented in the DIP model, (v) none of the source term models presented so far in the literature allows all flow configurations to be accounted for(vi) future laboratory experiments aiming at the validation of flux and source term closures should focus on the high-resolution, two-dimensional monitoring of both water depth and flow velocity fields.

  10. Priority organic micropollutants in water sources in Flanders and the Netherlands and assessment of removal possibilities with nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verliefde, Arne; Cornelissen, Emile; Amy, Gary; Bruggen, Bart van der; Dijk, Hans van

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of organic micropollutants in ground- and surface waters has become an important concern for the drinking water industry, mainly because of possible related health effects. Due to the polar nature of some of these pollutants, they are not completely removed by traditional water treatment barriers. This paper offers an overview of priority organic micropollutants and their occurrence in Flemish and Dutch water sources. Furthermore, rejection by nanofiltration is qualitatively predicted for the selected priority micropollutants. The qualitative prediction is based on the values of key solute and membrane parameters in nanofiltration. Predicted values are then compared with experimental values obtained from literature. Overall, the qualitative predictions are roughly in agreement with literature values. Prediction based on key parameters may thus prove to be a very quick and useful technique to assess the implementation of nanofiltration as a treatment step for organic micropollutants in drinking water plant design. - The article provides a quick and powerful prediction tool for the removal of organic micropollutants by nanofiltration, based on readily available parameter values

  11. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inácio

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 Bq/L, being that 1690 Bq/L was the highest measured value.

  12. Treatment planning source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J.

    2000-01-01

    The reactor RA-6 NCT system was improved during the last year mainly in two aspects: the facility itself getting lower contamination factors and using better measurements techniques to obtain lower uncertainties in its characterization. In this job we show the different steps to get the source to be used in the treatment planning code representing the NCT facility. The first one was to compare the dosimetry in a water phantom between the calculation using the entire facility including core, filter and shields and a surface source at the end of the beam. The second one was to transform this particle by particle source in a distribution one regarding the minimum spatial, energy and angular resolution to get similar results. Finally we compare calculation and experimental values with and without the water phantom to adjust the distribution source. The results are discussed. (author)

  13. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  14. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  15. Assessment of potential health impacts on surface water sources in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZD Umar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern Nigeria represents the most populous region in Nigeria and adequate water supply and sanitation typically leaves a lot to be desired in the region in order to prevent water related diseases to the vulnerable communities of the region. This research work was carried out in Kano state with specific emphasis on Tomas dam which is one of the largest dams established for multipurpose use in Nigeria. The research was aimed at evaluating Physico-chemical and Bacteriological quality of Tomas Dam in Kano State. 240 water samples from 5 sampling stations within eight months were analyzed for bacteriological and physico-chemical quality. The physico-chemical parameters indicated Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Water Current Speed results were not significantly different (P>0.05, while other physico-chemical parameters analyzed varied significantly (P<0.05. The study also revealed that Dissolved Oxygen (DO, BOD, Turbidity, and Nitrates recorded higher values than WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria (FEPA limits. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TBC and total coliform counts (TCC were determined using pour plate and Most Probable Number (MPN techniques. TBC and TCC were high and exceeded acceptable limits. Faecal coliforms, faecal Streptococciand Klebsiella species constituted 25% of the indicator organisms identified.The observed parameters indicated the Dam was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Variations in the weather conditions, animal and anthropogenic interferences were all directly or indirectly related to faecal contamination in the dam. Preventing indiscriminate faecal discharge close to the Dam and sufficient water treatment before consumption are of prime importance to public health as the dam was established for agricultural purposes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10523 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 125-136

  16. Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1.0 x 101 cfu·ml-1 and 2.5. x 104 cfu·ml-1 for enterococci and 0 and 13 pfu·100 ml-1 for somatic coliphages. The results for the indicators were higher than the acceptable maximum limits prescribed by the Department of Water and Forestry of South Africa. According to these guidelines, the maximum values are as follows: ...

  17. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  18. Assessment of toxic metals in wheat crops grown on selected soils, irrigated by different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid A. Al-Othman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a comparative study of the concentration of different metals (e.g., Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cr in various parts of wheat plants (e.g., roots, stem, leaves and seeds collected at several locations in Khyber Pukhtoon Khaw, Pakistan. The wheat crop in these areas was irrigated using different irrigation sources, including rain, tube well, river, and canal. In wheat samples, the concentration of metals was analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant, the roots had the highest levels of heavy metals, followed by the vegetative parts. By comparison, the seeds and grains had the lowest levels of heavy metals. The levels of heavy metals in all of the studied areas were not significantly localized to any particular area. The general order for the accumulation of studied metals in wheat was found to be Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Pb > Cd.

  19. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.

  20. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level in rural Zimbabwe - A case study of Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsi, Luckson; Siwadi, Japson; Guzha, Edward; Makoni, Fungai S.; Smits, Stef

    Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural livelihoods, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for small-scale productive uses should be encouraged to enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty. This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005-May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as discussions, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water sources at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into domestic and productive water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors. The study recommends that water service providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate that people’s water needs are integrated and are part and parcel of their multifaceted livelihood strategies.

  2. Assessing the Hydrologic Performance of the EPA's Nonpoint Source Water Quality Assessment Decision Support Tool Using North American Land Data Assimilation System (Products)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ni-Meister, W.; Toll, D.; Nigro, J.; Guiterrez-Magness, A.; Engman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of streamflow predictions in the EPA's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) decision support tool is affected by the sparse meteorological data contained in BASINS. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data with high spatial and temporal resolutions provide an alternative to the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s station data. This study assessed the improvement of streamflow prediction of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model contained within BASINS using the NLDAS 118 degree hourly precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates in seven watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Our results demonstrated consistent improvements of daily streamflow predictions in five of the seven watersheds when NLDAS precipitation and evapotranspiration data was incorporated into BASINS. The improvement of using the NLDAS data is significant when watershed's meteorological station is either far away or not in a similar climatic region. When the station is nearby, using the NLDAS data produces similar results. The correlation coefficients of the analyses using the NLDAS data were greater than 0.8, the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model fit efficiency greater than 0.6, and the error in the water balance was less than 5%. Our analyses also showed that the streamflow improvements were mainly contributed by the NLDAS's precipitation data and that the improvement from using NLDAS's evapotranspiration data was not significant; partially due to the constraints of current BASINS-HSPF settings. However, NLDAS's evapotranspiration data did improve the baseflow prediction. This study demonstrates the NLDAS data has the potential to improve stream flow predictions, thus aid the water quality assessment in the EPA nonpoint water quality assessment decision tool.

  3. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baborowski, Martina [Department of River Ecology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg (Germany); Simeonov, Vasil [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria); Einax, Juergen W. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, Martina; Simeonov, Vasil; Einax, Juergen W.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Performance of two quantitative PCR methods for microbial source tracking of human sewage and implications for microbial risk assessment in recreational waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before new, rapid quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for recreational water quality assessment and microbial source tracking (MST) can be useful in a regulatory context, an understanding of the ability of the method to detect a DNA target (marker) when the contaminant soure has been...

  6. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirauda, Domenica; Ostoich, Marco

    2018-02-23

    The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC-WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  7. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC—WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  8. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  10. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources using APCS-MLR and PMF receptor modeling techniques in three major rivers of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Gholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and the absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) receptor modeling technique were used to assess the water quality and identify and quantify the potential pollution sources affecting the water quality of three major rivers of South Florida. For this purpose, 15years (2000-2014) dataset of 12 water quality variables covering 16 monitoring stations, and approximately 35,000 observations was used. The PCA/FA method identified five and four potential pollution sources in wet and dry seasons, respectively, and the effective mechanisms, rules and causes were explained. The APCS-MLR apportioned their contributions to each water quality variable. Results showed that the point source pollution discharges from anthropogenic factors due to the discharge of agriculture waste and domestic and industrial wastewater were the major sources of river water contamination. Also, the studied variables were categorized into three groups of nutrients (total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, total phosphate, and ammonia-N), water murkiness conducive parameters (total suspended solids, turbidity, and chlorophyll-a), and salt ions (magnesium, chloride, and sodium), and average contributions of different potential pollution sources to these categories were considered separately. The data matrix was also subjected to PMF receptor model using the EPA PMF-5.0 program and the two-way model described was performed for the PMF analyses. Comparison of the obtained results of PMF and APCS-MLR models showed that there were some significant differences in estimated contribution for each potential pollution source, especially in the wet season. Eventually, it was concluded that the APCS-MLR receptor modeling approach appears to be more physically plausible for the current study. It is believed that the results of apportionment could be very useful to the local authorities for the control and

  11. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Gomti river (India) using multivariate statistical techniques--a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Malik, Amrita; Sinha, Sarita

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the data set on water quality of the Gomti river (India), generated during three years (1999-2001) monitoring at eight different sites for 34 parameters (9792 observations). This study presents usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and interpretation of large complex water quality data sets and apportionment of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Three significant groups, upper catchments (UC), middle catchments (MC) and lower catchments (LC) of sampling sites were obtained through CA on the basis of similarity between them. FA/PCA applied to the data sets pertaining to three catchments regions of the river resulted in seven, seven and six latent factors, respectively responsible for the data structure, explaining 74.3, 73.6 and 81.4% of the total variance of the respective data sets. These included the trace metals group (leaching from soil and industrial waste disposal sites), organic pollution group (municipal and industrial effluents), nutrients group (agricultural runoff), alkalinity, hardness, EC and solids (soil leaching and runoff process). DA showed the best results for data reduction and pattern recognition during both temporal and spatial analysis. It rendered five parameters (temperature, total alkalinity, Cl, Na and K) affording more than 94% right assignations in temporal analysis, while 10 parameters (river discharge, pH, BOD, Cl, F, PO 4 , NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, TKN and Zn) to afford 97% right assignations in spatial analysis of three different regions in the basin. Thus, DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set, delineating a few indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. Further

  12. Source Apportionment and Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants: An Approach of Pharmaco-Signature in Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng Jie; Lee, Chon Lin; Fang, Meng Der; Boyd, Kenneth G.; Gibb, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on multivariate data analysis for characterizing potential source contributions of emerging contaminants (ECs) detected in 26 river water samples across multi-scape regions during dry and wet seasons. Based on this methodology, we unveil an approach toward potential source contributions of ECs, a concept we refer to as the “Pharmaco-signature.” Exploratory analysis of data points has been carried out by unsupervised pattern recognition (hierarchical cluster analysis, HCA) and receptor model (principal component analysis-multiple linear regression, PCA-MLR) in an attempt to demonstrate significant source contributions of ECs in different land-use zone. Robust cluster solutions grouped the database according to different EC profiles. PCA-MLR identified that 58.9% of the mean summed ECs were contributed by domestic impact, 9.7% by antibiotics application, and 31.4% by drug abuse. Diclofenac, ibuprofen, codeine, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin-H2O have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in Taiwan. PMID:25874375

  13. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA, were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015, characterize spatiotemporal variation in pollution and identify potential pollution sources. The 28 sampling stations were divided into two periods (wet season and dry season and two regions (low pollution and high pollution, respectively, using hierarchical CA method. Four parameters (temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N, and total nitrogen (TN were identified using DA to distinguish temporal groups with close to 97.86% correct assignations. Again using DA, five parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, TN, Fluoride (F, and Sulphide (S led to 93.75% correct assignations for distinguishing spatial groups. Five potential pollution sources including nutrients pollution, oxygen consuming organic pollution, fluorine chemical pollution, heavy metals pollution and natural pollution, were identified using PCA/FA techniques for both the low pollution region and the high pollution region. Heavy metals (Cuprum (Cu, chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn, fluoride and sulfide are of particular concern in the study region because of many open-pit copper mines such as Dexing Copper Mine. Results obtained from this study offer a reasonable classification scheme for low-cost monitoring networks. The results also inform understanding of spatio-temporal variation in water quality as these topics relate to water resources management.

  14. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for a Simple and Effective Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Water Sources in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Alyexandra; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Emeric Guetiya; Losito, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, "safe drinking-water must not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages". Traditional methods of water analysis are usually complex, time consuming and require an appropriately equipped laboratory, specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. The aim of this work was to apply an alternative method, the Micro Biological Survey (MBS), to analyse for contaminants in drinking water. Preliminary experiments were carried out to demonstrate the linearity and accuracy of the MBS method and to verify the possibility of using the evaluation of total coliforms in 1 mL of water as a sufficient parameter to roughly though accurately determine water microbiological quality. The MBS method was then tested "on field" to assess the microbiological quality of water sources in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Central Africa). Analyses were performed on both dug and drilled wells in different periods of the year. Results confirm that the MBS method appears to be a valid and accurate method to evaluate the microbiological quality of many water sources and it can be of valuable aid in developing countries.

  15. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  16. The natural radioactivity in the Serido Pegmatite Province - Rio Grande do Norte State (Brazil): assessment and monitoring of water's source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Thomas F.C; Petta, Reinaldo A.; Malanca, Alberto; Guimaraes Guedes, Anderson; Pastura, Valeria F.S.; Sindern, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This abstract show the preliminary considerations of a study accomplished on the radioactive minerals, primary and secondary uranium minerals that occur in the pegmatites of the Serido Region, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil and their influence on the several sources of water provision and on population nuclei of the area from the municipal district of Parelhas and Ecuador. In general, the pegmatite from the area of Ecuador-Parelhas present high environmental radioactivity so much due to the dispersed uranium in the crystalline structure of minerals (columbite-tantalite, albite, microcline, quartz, phosphate minerals, tourmaline, lepidolite and apatite), as primary and secondary uranium minerals (uraninite, pitchblende, gummite, autunite, torbernite, and uranium-bearing opal, etc.). These uranium minerals appear associates to the fracture and voids in the pegmatite and in the tourmaline-bearing granite. These minerals were identified by petrography, X-Rays diffraction, ultraviolet fluorescence analysis, infrared spectroscopy, radioactivity (HPGe gamma spectrometry), thermal behavior and chemical analysis (ICP-MS and AAS, Microprobe). Geochemistry and hydrochemistry preliminary environmental studies on the pegmatites bodies from Serido Region show gamma radiation level which between 150 to 30.000 cps; uranium (U 3 O 8 ) and thorium (ThO 2 ) content in Columbite-Tantalite (and/or polycrase) varying between 0,3% - 3,0% and 0,1% - 0,5% respectively, and the coating existent in these minerals show uranium contents varying between 20% to 60%. While the soil samples gathered in Ecuador/Parelhas districts show an average activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K of 27.1/39.1; 33.74/48.5; 260.1/234.8 (Bq.kg -1 , dry-weight), respectively, and the corresponding kerma rate (l) in air are 50 and 67 nGyh -1 ], suggesting that the acid underground waters and others oxidizers attack and dissolve the radioactive minerals from pegmatite, generating solutions rich in U 6

  17. Arsenic health risk assessment in drinking water and source apportionment using multivariate statistical techniques in Kohistan region, northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Said; Tahir Shah, M; Khan, Sardar

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted in Kohistan region, where mafic and ultramafic rocks (Kohistan island arc and Indus suture zone) and metasedimentary rocks (Indian plate) are exposed. Water samples were collected from the springs, streams and Indus river and analyzed for physical parameters, anions, cations and arsenic (As(3+), As(5+) and arsenic total). The water quality in Kohistan region was evaluated by comparing the physio-chemical parameters with permissible limits set by Pakistan environmental protection agency and world health organization. Most of the studied parameters were found within their respective permissible limits. However in some samples, the iron and arsenic concentrations exceeded their permissible limits. For health risk assessment of arsenic, the average daily dose, hazards quotient (HQ) and cancer risk were calculated by using statistical formulas. The values of HQ were found >1 in the samples collected from Jabba, Dubair, while HQ values were pollution load was also calculated by using multivariate statistical techniques like one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, regression analysis, cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments from a source water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment samples were collected from a source water reservoir in Zhejiang Province, East of China to investigate pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk of heavy metals. The BCR sequential extraction method was used to determine the four chemical fractions of heavy metals such as acid soluble, easily reducible, easily oxidizable and residual fractions. The heavy metals pollution and potential ecological risk were evaluated systematically using geoaccumulation index (Igeo and Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′. The results showed that the sampling sites from the estuaries of tributary flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites. Chemical fractionation showed that Mn existed mainly in acid extractable fraction, Cu and Pb were mainly in reducible fraction, and As existed mainly in residual fraction in the surface sediments despite sampling sites. The sampling sites from the estuary of tributary flowing through downtown showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher proportions of acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other sampling sites, which would pose a potential toxic risk to aquatic organisms as well as a potential threat to drinking water safety. As, Pb, Ni and Cu were at relatively high potential ecological risk with high Igeo values for some sampling locations. Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′ showed the surface sediments from the tributary estuaries with high population density and rapid industrial development showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher heavy metal pollution levels and potential ecological risk in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites.

  19. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-06-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  20. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  1. A Location Intelligence System for the Assessment of Pluvial Flooding Risk and the Identification of Storm Water Pollutant Sources from Roads in Suburbanised Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of an ever-growing number of inhabitants, sprawl development, soil sealing, changes in urban traffic characteristics, as well as observed climate trends gives rise to more frequent pluvial flooding in cities, a higher run-off of water, and an increasing pollution of surface water. The aim of this research is to develop a location intelligence system for the assessment of pluvial flooding risks and the identification of storm water pollutant sources from roads in newly-developed areas. The system combines geographic information systems and business intelligence software, and it is based on the original Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool. The location intelligence system effectively identifies the spatial and temporal distribution of pluvial flood risks, allows to preliminarily evaluate the total run-off from roads, and helps localise potential places for new water management infrastructure. Further improvements concern the modelling of a flow accumulation and drainage system, the application of weather radar precipitation data, and traffic monitoring and modelling.

  2. Assessment of water quality of rivers that serve as water sources for drinking and domestic functions in rural and pre-urban communities in Edo North, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshiru, Abeni; Okareh, Oladapo T; Chigor, Vincent N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2018-06-09

    Surface waters are important to humans because they are a significant water supply source. They are, however, under serious environmental stress and are being threatened as a consequence of developmental activities. The present study describes the physicochemical properties and water quality indices of five different rivers used for drinking and other domestic activities in rural and pre-urban communities in Edo North, Nigeria. The physicochemical variable ranges include pH [wet season (6.47 ± 0.30-6.89 ± 0.11), dry season (6.61 ± 0.14-7.84 ± 0.24)], electrical conductivity (EC) [wet season (3.33 ± 0.57-12.33 ± 2.51 μS/cm), dry season (5.33 ± 0.57-21.33 ± 2.08 μS/cm)], water temperature [wet season (24.23 ± 0.98-25.40 ± 1.15 °C), dry season (26.20 ± 0.55-27.10 ± 0.75 °C)], TDS [wet season (417.00 ± 15.87-433.33 ± 18.50 mg/L), dry season (319.33 ± 16.50-372.66 ± 22.30 mg/L)], turbidity [wet season (1.01 ± 0.11-2.08 ± 0.99 NTU), dry season (3.11 ± 0.01-5.41 ± 0.24 NTU)], and DO [wet season (2.65 ± 0.37-3.99 ± 0.01 mg/L), dry season (2.12 ± 0.11-2.44 ± 0.01 mg/L)]. For the wet and dry seasons, the water quality indices were 120.225 and 585.015 for River Osolo, 119.849 and 445.751 for River Foreign, 200.474 and 587.833 for Ijoh River, 105.261 and 512.498 for Ole River, and 150.114 and 489.992 for Ole Extension River, respectively. The pH was negatively correlated with DO (r = -0.648), and EC was negatively correlated with DO (r = -0.635). Most of the evaluated parameters were within recommended water safety guidelines. However, the water quality index shows that the water quality was very poor and/or unsuitable for drinking and other domestic uses, especially during the dry season. It is suggested that river water be treated prior to its use for drinking and other domestic purposes.

  3. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland; sources, characteristics, analysis and limitations of nutrient and suspended-sediment data, 1975-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Loper, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    data were available. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of nitrogen for the mostly forested basins draining the upper half of the study unit. The estimate of total annual nitrogen load to the study unit from precipitation is 98.8 million pounds. Nonpoint and point sources of nutrients were estimated. Nonpoint and point sources combined, including atmospheric deposition, provide a potential annual load of 390 million pounds of nitrogen and 79.5 million pounds of phosphorus. The range of percentages of the estimated nonpoint and point sources that were measured in the stream was 20 to 47 percent for nitrogen and 6 to 14 percent for phosphorus. On the average, the Susquehanna River discharges 141,000 pounds of nitrogen and 7,920 pounds of phosphorus to the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system each year. About 98 percent of the nitrogen and 60 percent of the phosphorus passes through the reservoir system. Interpretations of available water-quality data and conclusions about the water quality of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin were limited by the scarcity of certain types of water-quality data and current ancillary data. A more complete assessment of the water quality of the basin with respect to nutrients and suspended sediment would be enhanced by the availability of additional data for multiple samples over time from all water environments; samples from streams in the northern and western part of the basin; samples from streams and springs throughout the basin during high base-flow or stormflow conditions; and information on current land-use, and nutrient loading from all types of land-use settings.

  5. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on land such as agriculture and urbanization. However, the relative importance of these human activities for river export of nutrients to Chinese seas is not well studied. There are two important issu...

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei

    2017-09-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-10-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 yr (1998-2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We used a calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of the Gibe III dam using three different approaches - a historical approach, a rainfall based approach, and a statistical approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 1-2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modeled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modeling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of dam commencement. Areas

  8. USEPA/USGS Study of CECs in Source Water and Treated Drinking Water: Assessment of Estrogenic Activity Using an In Vitro Bioassay, T47D-KBluc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are collaborating on a research study to determine the presence of contaminants of emerging concern in treated and untreated drinking water collected from up to 50 drinking water trea...

  9. A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-S.; Collins, A.L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Assessment of the discharge regime and water budget of Belo Vrelo (source of the Tolišnica River, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokorilo-Ilić Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sufficiently long spring discharge regime monitoring data set allows for a large number of analyses, to better understand the process of transformation of precipitation into a discharge hydrograph. It is also possible to determine dynamic groundwater volumes in a karst spring catchment area, the water budget equation parameters and the like. It should be noted that a sufficiently long data set is deemed to be a continuous spring discharge time series of more than 30 years. Such time series are rare in Serbia. They are generally much shorter (less than 15 years, and the respective catchment areas therefore fall into the “ungauged” category. In order to extend existing karst spring discharge time series, we developed a model whose outputs, apart from mean monthly spring discharges, include daily real evapotranspiration rates, catchment size and dynamic volume variation during the analytical period. So far the model has solely been used to assess the discharge regime and water budget of karst springs. The present paper aims to demonstrate that the model also yields good results in the case of springs that drain aquifers developed in marbles. Belo Vrelo (“White Spring”, source of the Tolišnica River, which drains marbles and marbleized limestones and dolomites of Čemerno Mountain, was selected for the present case study. [OI-176022

  11. Assessment of arsenic, fluoride, bacteria, and other contaminants in drinking water sources for rural communities of Kasur and other districts in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nasima; Imran, Saiqa

    2017-01-01

    High levels of arsenic contamination in drinking water of two villages, Badarpur and Ibrahimabad of district Kasur, central Punjab, Pakistan is reported first time in present studies. Groundwater quality situation was found to be impaired when samples of different rural areas of district Kasur were monitored according to Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) for all significant water quality constituents and analyzed for trace elements, physico-chemical, and microbiological parameters. Out of 35water sources, 97 % were found unsafe and only 3 % of the sources were within safe limits. High concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, and bacteria were found in 91, 74, and 77 % sources of drinking water, respectively. Very high concentrations of arsenic ranging 58-3800 μg/L were found in the water samples obtained from Badarpur and Ibrahimabad. A decrease in water contamination was observed with increase in source depth. The health issues like arsenicosis and skeletal/dental flourosis were observed in the residents of the monitored areas. Drinking water quality conditions of some rural areas of northen and southern districts of Punjab was also analyzed and compared with Kasur district. High levels of nitrates were found in the samples of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, while high levels of arsenic, iron, fluoride, and TDS were found in Bahawalpur district. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  13. Water: Source of Health, Source of Illness. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  14. Isotope-based partitioning of streamflow in the oil sands region, northern Alberta: Towards a monitoring strategy for assessing flow sources and water quality controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Gibson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: This study is based on the rapidly developing Athabasca Oil Sands region, northeastern Alberta. Study focus: Hydrograph separation using stable isotopes of water is applied to partition streamflow sources in the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Distinct isotopic labelling of snow, rain, groundwater and surface water are applied to estimate the contribution of these sources to streamflow from analysis of multi-year records of isotopes in streamflow. New hydrological insights for the region: The results provide new insight into runoff generation mechanisms operating in six tributaries and at four stations along the Athabasca River. Groundwater, found to be an important flow source at all stations, is the dominant component of the hydrograph in three tributaries (Steepbank R., Muskeg R., Firebag R., accounting for 39–50% of annual streamflow. Surface water, mainly drainage from peatlands, is also found to be widely important, and dominant in three tributaries (Clearwater R., Mackay R., Ells R., accounting for 45–81% of annual streamflow. Fairly limited contributions from direct precipitation illustrate that most snow and rain events result in indirect displacement of pre-event water by fill and spill mechanisms. Systematic shifts in regional groundwater to surface-water ratios are expected to be an important control on spatial and temporal distribution of water quality parameters and useful for evaluating the susceptibility of rivers to climate and development impacts. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Hydrograph separation, Groundwater, Surface water, Snowmelt, Oil sands

  15. Real time source term and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.; Mlakar, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Dose Projection Programme is a tool for decision making in case of nuclear emergency. The essential input data for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical pressurised water reactor accident are following: source term, core damage assessment, fission product radioactivity, release source term and critical exposure pathways for an early phase of the release. A reduced number of radio-nuclides and simplified calculations can be used in dose calculation algorithm. Simple expert system personal computer programme has been developed for the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for dose projection within the radius of few kilometers from the pressurised water reactor in early phase of an accident. The input data are instantaneous data of core activity, core damage indicators, release fractions, reduction factor of the release pathways, spray operation, release timing, and dispersion coefficient. Main dose projection steps are: accurate in-core radioactivity determination using reactor power input; core damage and in-containment source term assessment based on quick indications of instrumentation or on activity analysis data; user defines release pathway for typical PWR accident scenarius; dose calculation is performed only for exposure pathway critical for decision about evacuation or sheltering in early phase of an accident.(author)

  16. Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek Sewage ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Also, significant pollution of the receiving Keiskamma River was indicated for ...

  17. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  18. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  19. Laurentide Ice-Sheet Meltwater Sources to the Gulf of Mexico During the Last Deglaciation: Assessing Data Reconstructions Using Water Isotope Enabled Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, L.; LeGrande, A. N.; Ullman, D. J.; Carlson, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment cores from the Gulf of Mexico show evidence of meltwater derived from the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last deglaciation. Recent studies using geochemical measurements of individual foraminifera suggest changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the meltwater as deglaciation proceeded. Here we use the water isotope enabled climate model simulations (NASA GISS ModelE-R) to investigate potential sources of meltwater within the ice sheet. We find that initial melting of the ice sheet from the southern margin contributed an oxygen isotope value reflecting a low-elevation, local precipitation source. As deglacial melting proceeded, meltwater delivered to the Gulf of Mexico had a more negative oxygen isotopic value, which the climate model simulates as being sourced from the high-elevation, high-latitude interior of the ice sheet. This study demonstrates the utility of combining stable isotope analyses with climate model simulations to investigate past changes in the hydrologic cycle.

  20. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  1. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  2. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  3. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  4. Aerosol behavior and light water reactor source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, F.; Schikarski, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    The major developments in nuclear aerosol modeling following the accident to pressurized water reactor Unit 2 at Three Mile Island are briefly reviewed and the state of the art summarized. The importance and implications of these developments for severe accident source terms for light water reactors are then discussed in general terms. The treatment is not aimed at identifying specific source term values but is intended rather to illustrate trends, to assess the adequacy of the understanding of major aspects of aerosol behavior for source term prediction, and demonstrate in qualitative terms the effect of various aspects of reactor design. Areas where improved understanding of aerosol behavior might lead to further reductions in current source terms predictions are also considered

  5. Water Assessment as controlled informality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument

  6. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  7. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for the Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Different Water Sources in Horn of Africa and the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Moringa Oleifera in Drinking Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Somma, Daniela; Murgia, Lorenza; Stalio, Ottavia; Zuppi, Paolo; Rossi, Elisabetta; Antonini, Giovanni

    2017-06-23

    Water monitoring requires expensive instrumentations and skilled technicians. In developing Countries as Africa, the severe economic restrictions and lack of technology make water safety monitoring approaches applied in developed Countries, still not sustainable. The need to develop new methods that are suitable, affordable, and sustainable in the African context is urgent. The simple, economic and rapid Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method does not require an equipped laboratory nor special instruments and skilled technicians, but it can be very useful for routine water analysis. The aim of this work was the application of the MBS method to evaluate the microbiological safety of different water sources and the effectiveness of different drinking water treatments in the Horn of Africa. The obtained results have proved that this method could be very helpful to monitor water safety before and after various purification treatments, with the aim to control waterborne diseases especially in developing Countries, whose population is the most exposed to these diseases. In addition, it has been proved that Moringa oleifera water treatment is ineffective in decreasing bacterial load of Eritrea water samples.

  8. Consumer Perception and Preference of Drinking Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source.

  9. Role of water source in the growth of kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of 2 months we watered Kale with tap water, water from turtle bayou, rain water, water from university lake, and deionized water. We found little difference between height and number of seedlings with different water treatments even though nutrient levels were different between these water sources.

  10. Reduction Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, YiCheng; Zang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    NPS (Non-point source) pollution has become a key impact element to watershed environment at present. With the development of technology, application of models to control NPS pollution has become a very common practice for resource management and Pollutant reduction control in the watershed scale of China. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a semi-conceptual model, which was put forward to estimate pollutant production & the influences on water quantity-quality under different...

  11. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  13. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  14. Water Assessment as controlled informality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Judith van; Vlist, Maarten van der; Tatenhove, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument has been monitored continuously and was evaluated two times after the introduction in 2002, by civil servants of ministries, water boards, provinces and municipalities. By combining elements of rational and communicative planning approaches and introducing a three-layered model of power, it was possible to analyse WA as a form of controlled informality, which enables water managers to use the interplay of informal and formal practices strategically at different levels of power.

  15. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  16. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (a)(4) of this section based on the E. coli level that applies to the nearest surface water body. If no surface water body is nearby, the system must comply based on the requirements that apply to... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring...

  17. Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Soulsby, C.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Karlsson, J.; Serikova, S.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

  18. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  19. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  20. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Shana E.; Bassett, P.; McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y 12 National Security Complex (Y 12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y 12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements that could be applied not only at Y-12 but at other Federal facilities as well. FEMP selected Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to coordinate and manage the water assessment. PNNL contracted Water Savers, LLC to lead the technical aspects of the water assessment. Water Savers provided key technical expertise in water auditing, metering, and cooling systems. This is the report of that effort, which concluded that the Y-12 facility could realize considerable water savings by implementing the recommended water efficiency opportunities.

  2. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X-Ray Source: an electronic brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mark J; Davis, Stephen D; DeWerd, Larry A; Rusch, Thomas W; Axelrod, Steve

    2006-11-01

    A new x-ray source, the model S700 Axxent X-Ray Source (Source), has been developed by Xoft Inc. for electronic brachytherapy. Unlike brachytherapy sources containing radionuclides, this Source may be turned on and off at will and may be operated at variable currents and voltages to change the dose rate and penetration properties. The in-water dosimetry parameters for this electronic brachytherapy source have been determined from measurements and calculations at 40, 45, and 50 kV settings. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport utilized the MCNP5 code and the EPDL97-based mcplib04 cross-section library. Inter-tube consistency was assessed for 20 different Sources, measured with a PTW 34013 ionization chamber. As the Source is intended to be used for a maximum of ten treatment fractions, tube stability was also assessed. Photon spectra were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and calculated using MCNP. Parameters used in the two-dimensional (2D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism were determined. While the Source was characterized as a point due to the small anode size, S700 Source exhibited depth dose behavior similar to low-energy photon-emitting low dose rate sources 125I and l03Pd, yet with capability for variable and much higher dose rates and subsequently adjustable penetration capabilities. This paper presents the calculated and measured in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for the model S700 Source at the aforementioned three operating voltages.

  3. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  4. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  5. Assessment of risk from radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, T.; Madhvanath, U.; Somasundaram, S.

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiations from man-made radiation sources and nuclear installations has to be viewed from three aspects, namely, dose-effect relationship (genetic and somatic) for humans, calculation of doses or dose-commitments to population groups, assessment of risk to radiation workers and the population at large from the current levels of exposure from nuclear industry and comparison of risk estimates with other industries in a modern society. These aspects are discussed in brief. On the basis of available data, it is shown that estimated incidence of genetic diseases and cancers due to exposure of population to radiation from nuclear industry is negligible in comparison with their natural incidence, and radiation risks to the workers in nuclear industry are much lower than the risks in other occupations. (M.G.B.)

  6. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water reservoirs is to use the water that has seeped from the irrigation canals and irrigated fields and that has formed a small layer of fresh water on top of the brackish groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of irrigation seepage water for drinking results in less diarrhoea than direct use of irrigation water and how irrigation water management would impact on health. The study was undertaken in an irrigated area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Over a one-year period, drinking water sources used and diarrhoea episodes were recorded each day for all individuals of 200 households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained by the generally poor quality of water in the in-house storage vessels, reflecting considerable in-house contamination of drinking water. Risk factors for diarrhoea were absence of a water connection and water storage facility, lack of a toilet, low standard of hygiene, and low socio-economic status. The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0

  7. Water Sustainability Assessments for Four Net Zero Water Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    average daily water use, in six leaks. While the cost of the lost water might seem insignificant using current valuation methods, the financial impacts...One function of GFEBS is to identify facility maintenance requirements through integrated asset valuation and depreciation. The desired outcome is...considers tapping groundwater reservoirs as an additional water source. The most feasible groundwater source would likely originate in an alluvial valley

  8. Service water system aging assessment - Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, D.B.; Zimmerman, P.W.; Gore, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Service Water System (SWS) represents the final heat transfer loop between decay heat generated in the nuclear core and the safe dispersal of that heat energy in the environment. It is the objective of this investigation to demonstrate that aging phenomena can be identified and quantified such that aging degradation of system components can be detected and mitigated prior to the reduction of system availability to below an acceptable threshold. The approach used during the Phase I task was to (1) perform a literature search of government and private sector reports which relate to service water, aging related degradation, and potential methodologies for analysis; (2) assemble a data base which contains all the commercial power plants in the US, their Service Water System configuration, characteristics, and water source; (3) obtain and examine the available service water data from large generic data bases, i.e. NPRDS, LER, NPE, inspection reports, and other relevant plant reference data; (4) perform a fault tree analysis of a typical plant service water systems to examine failure propagation and understand specific input requirements of probabilistic risk analyses; (5) develop an in-depth questionnaire protocol for examining the information resource at a power plant which is not available through data base query and visit a central station power plant and solicit the required information; (6) analyze the information obtained from the in-depth plant interrogation and draw contrasts and conclusions with the data base information; (7) utilize the plant information to perform an interim assessment of service water system degradation mechanisms and focus future investigations. This paper addresses the elements of this task plan numbered 1, 3, 6, and 7. The remaining items are detailed in the phase-I report

  9. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  10. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  11. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  12. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  13. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  14. Assessment of quality of drinking water in Amasaman, Accra (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarcoo, G.; Hodgson, I. O. A.; Ampofo, J. A.; Cobbina, S. J.; Koku, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and microbial quality attributes of untreated water samples from hand dug wells and treated water delivered by tankers (mobile services) were assessed to determine the susceptibility of Amasaman community to water borne diseases. The physico-chemical parameters of all the water sources for domestic use were within the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and Ghana Standards (GS), with the exception of turbidity and colour which showed higher values for the well waters. With respect to the microbial quality, the waters from the hand-dug wells and tanker services showed presence of both total and faecal coliforms, at levels higher than WHO and GS values of zero counts per 100 mL for drinking water. The poor microbial quality (presence of coliform bacteria) of all the water samples suggested susceptibility and exposure of the community to waterborne diseases on continuously drinking the available water. (au)

  15. Collection methods and quality assessment for Esche-richia coli, water quality, and microbial source tracking data within Tumacácori National Historical Park and the upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas; Coes, Alissa L.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Mayo, Justine

    2018-03-05

    Tumacácori National Historical Park protects the culturally important Mission, San José de Tumacácori, while also managing a portion of the ecologically diverse riparian corridor of the Santa Cruz River. This report describes the methods and quality assurance procedures used in the collection of water samples for the analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli), microbial source tracking markers, suspended sediment, water-quality parameters, turbidity, and the data collection for discharge and stage; the process for data review and approval is also described. Finally, this report provides a quantitative assessment of the quality of the E. coli, microbial source tracking, and suspended sediment data.The data-quality assessment revealed that bias attributed to field and laboratory contamination was minimal, with E. coli detections in only 3 out of 33 field blank samples analyzed. Concentrations in the field blanks were several orders of magnitude lower than environmental concentrations. The microbial source tracking (MST) field blank was below the detection limit for all MST markers analyzed. Laboratory blanks for E. coli at the USGS Arizona Water Science Center and laboratory blanks for MST markers at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory were all below the detection limit. Irreplicate data for E. coli and suspended sediment indicated that bias was not introduced to the data by combining samples collected using discrete sampling methods with samples collected using automatic sampling methods.The split and sequential E. coli replicate data showed consistent analytical variability and a single equation was developed to explain the variability of E. coli concentrations. An additional analysis of analytical variability for E. coli indicated analytical variability around 18 percent relative standard deviation and no trend was observed in the concentration during the processing and analysis of multiple split-replicates. Two replicate samples were

  16. Influence of Chemistry on source term assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz Puebla, L.E.; Lopez Diez, I.; Rodriguez Maroto, J.J.; Martinez Lopez-Alcorocho, A.

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of a phenomenology analysis of containment during a severe accident situation can be splitedd into the following ones: to know the containment response to the different loads and to predict accurately the fission product and aerosol behavior. In this report, the main results coming from the study of a hypothetical accident scenario, based on LA-4 experiment of LACE project, are presented. In order to do it, several codes have been coupled: CONTEMPT4/MOD5 (thermalhydraulics), NAUA/MOD5 (aerosol physics) and IODE (iodine chemistry). 12 refs. It has been demonstrated the impossibility of assessing with confidence the Source Term if the chemical conduct of some radionuclides is not taken into account. In particular, the influence on the iodine retention efficiency of the sump of variables such as pH has been proven. (Author). 12 refs

  17. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  18. Contamination of community water sources by potentially pathogenic vibrios following sea water inundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P

    2007-12-01

    Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases.

  19. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...... to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...

  20. Water: A Source of Life and Culture. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water as a…

  1. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  2. Assessing Model Characterization of Single Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aircraft measurements made downwind from specific coal fired power plants during the 2013 Southeast Nexus field campaign provide a unique opportunity to evaluate single source photochemical model predictions of both O3 and secondary PM2.5 species. The model did well at predicting downwind plume placement. The model shows similar patterns of an increasing fraction of PM2.5 sulfate ion to the sum of SO2 and PM2.5 sulfate ion by distance from the source compared with ambient based estimates. The model was less consistent in capturing downwind ambient based trends in conversion of NOX to NOY from these sources. Source sensitivity approaches capture near-source O3 titration by fresh NO emissions, in particular subgrid plume treatment. However, capturing this near-source chemical feature did not translate into better downwind peak estimates of single source O3 impacts. The model estimated O3 production from these sources but often was lower than ambient based source production. The downwind transect ambient measurements, in particular secondary PM2.5 and O3, have some level of contribution from other sources which makes direct comparison with model source contribution challenging. Model source attribution results suggest contribution to secondary pollutants from multiple sources even where primary pollutants indicate the presence of a single source. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, deci

  3. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  4. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996–2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water ...

  5. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh -1 /NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  7. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  8. Level of Faecal Coliform Contamination of Drinking Water Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... ... of Drinking Water Sources and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Settings of North Gondar ... of Environmental & Occupational. Health & Safety, Gondar, Ethiopia. 2University of Gondar .... technicians. All sampling bottles ...

  9. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Bonifacio; Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems - source, storage and distribution - the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  10. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  12. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  13. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  15. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  16. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  17. Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the levels of contamination of domestic water sources in Maiduguri Metropolis area of Borno State based on their physicochemical and bacteriological properties. It was informed by the global concern on good drinking water quality which is an indicator of development level; hence the focus on domestic ...

  18. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  19. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  20. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  1. Preparation of water-equivalent radioactive solid sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Ione M.; Koskinas, Marina F.; Dias, Mauro S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of water-equivalent solid sources in two geometries, cylindrical and flat without the need of irradiation in a strong gamma radiation source to obtain polymerization is described. These sources should have density similar to water and good uniformity. Therefore, the density and uniformity of the distribution of radioactive material in the resins were measured. The variation of these parameters in the cylindrical geometry was better than 2.0% for the density and 2.3% for the uniformity and for the flat geometry the values obtained were better than 2.0 % and better than 1.3%, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the literature. (author)

  2. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  3. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  4. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  5. Influence of climate on alpine stream chemistry and water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foks, Sydney; Stets, Edward; Singha, Kamini; Clow, David W.

    2018-01-01

    The resilience of alpine/subalpine watersheds may be viewed as the resistance of streamflow or stream chemistry to change under varying climatic conditions, which is governed by the relative size (volume) and transit time of surface and subsurface water sources. Here, we use end‐member mixing analysis in Andrews Creek, an alpine stream in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from water year 1994 to 2015, to explore how the partitioning of water sources and associated hydrologic resilience change in response to climate. Our results indicate that four water sources are significant contributors to Andrews Creek, including snow, rain, soil water, and talus groundwater. Seasonal patterns in source‐water contributions reflected the seasonal hydrologic cycle, which is driven by the accumulation and melting of seasonal snowpack. Flushing of soil water had a large effect on stream chemistry during spring snowmelt, despite making only a small contribution to streamflow volume. Snow had a large influence on stream chemistry as well, contributing large amounts of water with low concentrations of weathering products. Interannual patterns in end‐member contributions reflected responses to drought and wet periods. Moderate and significant correlations exist between annual end‐member contributions and regional‐scale climate indices (the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index, and the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index). From water year 1994 to 2015, the percent contribution from the talus‐groundwater end member to Andrews Creek increased an average of 0.5% per year (p < 0.0001), whereas the percent contributions from snow plus rain decreased by a similar amount (p = 0.001). Our results show how water and solute sources in alpine environments shift in response to climate variability and highlight the role of talus groundwater and soil water in providing hydrologic resilience to the system.

  6. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  7. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, S.; Leitao, C.; Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Crespo, M.T. Barreto; Pereira, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. → Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. → Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. → The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm 2 , anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  8. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  9. Farm water as a possible source of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water depends on the water sources, but also on the quality of the water distribution system which supplies the water on to the final user. In addition, the possibility of contamination of water used for watering animals in the farm buildings depends on the hygienic conditions on farms. Microbiological quality of water on farms in Serbia has not been one of the main focuses of animal breeders, although according to the Food Safety Law water is considered as food. As feed safety for the animals, which includes microbiological analyses, is an important concern of breeder farmers, it is also important to control the water safety in order not to become a cause of the animal health problems. Change of the water quality is not important only from the sanitary epidemiological point of view, but the presence of different microorganisms, especially fungi, can cause changes in taste and smell, as organoleptic properties of water. According to legal regulations, there is no difference between the quality requirements for drinking water relative to the water supply intended for animals. For the aforementioned reasons, the subject of this study is microbiological control of water samples from the drinkers for animals at farms. The aim of the work is to examine which fungi are possibly present in the water and what their number is. In total, 35 samples of water from pig and poultry farms were tested. The method of direct seeding and filtration was used. The presence of different types of mold (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp., and Candida sp. was determined. The results indicate the necessity of microbiological control of water for watering of farm animals, which implies the analysis for the presence of molds. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31071

  10. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... (attractiveness/ preference) and colour difference estimations for both visual scenes. Forty-five observers with normal colour vision evaluated nine light sources at 3000 K, and 36 observers evaluated eight light sources at 4000 K. Our results indicate that perceived colour differences are better dealt...

  11. Water risk assessment in China based on the improved Water Risk Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G.; Yaqin, Q.; Qiong, L.; Cunwen, N.; Na, W.; Jiajia, L.; Jongde, G.; Na, Z.; Xiangyi, D.

    2014-09-01

    Finding an effective way to deal with the water crisis and the relationship between water and development is a major issue for all levels of government and different economic sectors across the world. Scientific understanding of water risk is the basis for achieving a scientific relationship between water and development, and water risk assessment is currently an important research focus. To effectively deal with the global water crisis, the World Wide Fund for Nature and German Investment and Development Company Limited proposed the concept of water risk and released an online Water Risk Filter in March 2012, which has been applied to at least 85 countries. To comprehensively and accurately reflect the situation of water risk in China, this study adjusts the water risk assessment indicators in the Water Risk Filter, taking the actual situation in China and the difficulty of obtaining the information about the indicators into account, and proposes an index system for water risk evaluation for China which consists of physical risk, regulatory risk and reputational risk. The improved Water Risk Filter is further used to assess the sources and causes of the water risks in 10 first-class and seven second-class water resource areas (WRAs). The results indicate that the water risk for the whole country is generally medium and low, while those for different regions in the country vary greatly, and those for southern regions are generally lower than those for northern regions. Government regulatory and policy implementation as well as media supervision in northern regions should be strengthened to reduce the water risk. The research results may provide decision support and references for both governments and industrial enterprises in identifying water risks, formulating prevention and control policies, and improving water resources management in China.

  12. Water risk assessment in China based on the improved Water Risk Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding an effective way to deal with the water crisis and the relationship between water and development is a major issue for all levels of government and different economic sectors across the world. Scientific understanding of water risk is the basis for achieving a scientific relationship between water and development, and water risk assessment is currently an important research focus. To effectively deal with the global water crisis, the World Wide Fund for Nature and German Investment and Development Company Limited proposed the concept of water risk and released an online Water Risk Filter in March 2012, which has been applied to at least 85 countries. To comprehensively and accurately reflect the situation of water risk in China, this study adjusts the water risk assessment indicators in the Water Risk Filter, taking the actual situation in China and the difficulty of obtaining the information about the indicators into account, and proposes an index system for water risk evaluation for China which consists of physical risk, regulatory risk and reputational risk. The improved Water Risk Filter is further used to assess the sources and causes of the water risks in 10 first-class and seven second-class water resource areas (WRAs. The results indicate that the water risk for the whole country is generally medium and low, while those for different regions in the country vary greatly, and those for southern regions are generally lower than those for northern regions. Government regulatory and policy implementation as well as media supervision in northern regions should be strengthened to reduce the water risk. The research results may provide decision support and references for both governments and industrial enterprises in identifying water risks, formulating prevention and control policies, and improving water resources management in China.

  13. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  14. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  15. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X-Ray Source: An electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Davis, Stephen D.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Rusch, Thomas W.; Axelrod, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A new x-ray source, the model S700 Axxent trade mark sign X-Ray Source (Source), has been developed by Xoft Inc. for electronic brachytherapy. Unlike brachytherapy sources containing radionuclides, this Source may be turned on and off at will and may be operated at variable currents and voltages to change the dose rate and penetration properties. The in-water dosimetry parameters for this electronic brachytherapy source have been determined from measurements and calculations at 40, 45, and 50 kV settings. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport utilized the MCNP5 code and the EPDL97-based mcplib04 cross-section library. Inter-tube consistency was assessed for 20 different Sources, measured with a PTW 34013 ionization chamber. As the Source is intended to be used for a maximum of ten treatment fractions, tube stability was also assessed. Photon spectra were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and calculated using MCNP. Parameters used in the two-dimensional (2D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism were determined. While the Source was characterized as a point due to the small anode size, P (5) were 0.20, 0.24, and 0.29 for the 40, 45, and 50 kV voltage settings, respectively. For 1 125 I and 103 Pd, yet with capability for variable and much higher dose rates and subsequently adjustable penetration capabilities. This paper presents the calculated and measured in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for the model S700 Source at the aforementioned three operating voltages

  16. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  17. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  18. Determination of sources and analysis of micro-pollutants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Pauzi Abdullah; Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to develop and validate selected analytical methods for the analysis of micro organics and metals in water; to identify, monitor and assess the levels of micro organics and metals in drinking water supplies; to evaluate the relevancy of the guidelines set in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality 2001; and to identify the sources of pollution and to carryout risk assessment of exposure to drinking water. The presentation discussed the progress of the work include determination of VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) in drinking water using SPME (Solid phase micro-extraction) extraction techniques, analysis of heavy metals in drinking water, determination of Cr(VI) with ICPES (Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry) and the presence of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs), which is heavily used by agricultural sector, in trace concentrations in waters

  19. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  20. Sources of radioiodine at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Barefoot, E.D.; Hemphill, R.T.; Voilleque, P.G.; Emel, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    The report determines specific components and operations at operating pressurized water reactors that have a potential for being significant emission sources of radioactive iodine. The relative magnitudes of these specific sources in terms of the chemical forms of the radioiodine and the resultant annual averages from major components are established. The data are generalized for broad industry use for predictive purposes. The conclusions of this study indicate that the majority of radioiodine emanating from the primary side of pressurized water reactors comes from a few major areas; in some cases these sources are locally treatable; the interaction of radioiodine with plant interior surfaces is an important phenomenon mediating the source and affecting its release to the atmosphere; the chemical form varies depending on the circumstances of the release

  1. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  2. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  3. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  4. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  5. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  6. Assessment of potential sources of protozoan contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasional screening of food and water quality available to organisms in protected areas could be beneficial to their successful conservation. This is important for areas receiving regular human visitors and exhibiting activities that may be detrimental to ecosystem health. This study determined the intestinal protozoan ...

  7. Representing Water Scarcity in Future Agricultural Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Lopez, Jose R.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Young, Charles A.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is both essential for food production and the largest user of water. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural research communities is assessing the sustainability of irrigated croplands under climate variability and change. Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water supply, water distribution, and agricultural water demand. In this article, we explore the critical interface between water resources and agriculture by motivating, developing, and illustrating the application of an integrated modeling framework to advance simulations of irrigated croplands. We motivate the framework by examining historical dynamics of irrigation water withdrawals in the United States and quantitatively reviewing previous modeling studies of irrigated croplands with a focus on representations of water supply, agricultural water demand, and impacts on crop yields when water demand exceeds water supply. We then describe the integrated modeling framework for simulating irrigated croplands, which links trends and scenarios with water supply, water allocation, and agricultural water demand. Finally, we provide examples of efforts that leverage the framework to improve simulations of irrigated croplands as well as identify opportunities for interventions that increase agricultural productivity, resiliency, and sustainability.

  8. [Regional atmospheric environment risk source identification and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shui-Fen; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Identification and assessment for atmospheric environment risk source plays an important role in regional atmospheric risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control. The likelihood exposure and consequence assessment method (LEC method) and the Delphi method were employed to build a fast and effective method for identification and assessment of regional atmospheric environment risk sources. This method was applied to the case study of a large coal transportation port in North China. The assessment results showed that the risk characteristics and the harm degree of regional atmospheric environment risk source were in line with the actual situation. Fast and effective identification and assessment of risk source has laid an important foundation for the regional atmospheric environmental risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control.

  9. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  10. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  11. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Book cover Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A: Guidelines for an Ethnographic. Auteur(s) : L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto, and H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997.

  12. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 1997 ... Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an Ethnographic Protocol. Couverture du livre Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A : Guidelines for an. Auteur(s):. L. Blum, P.J. Pelto, G.H. Pelto et H.V. Kuhnlein. Maison(s) d'édition: INFDC, CRDI.

  13. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  14. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  15. Estimating the Seasonal Importance of Precipitation to Plant Source Water over Time and Space with Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen are physical properties of water molecules that can carry information on their sources or transport histories. This provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of rainfall at different times of the year for plant growth, provided that rainwater values vary over time and that waters do not partially evaporate after deposition. We tested the viability of this approach using data from samples collected at nineteen sites throughout Europe at monthly intervals over two consecutive growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. We compared isotope measurements of plant xylem water with soil water from multiple depths, and measured and modeled precipitation isotope values. Paired analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotope values were used to screen out a limited number of water samples that were influenced by evaporation, with the majority of all water samples indicating meteoric sources. The isotopic composition of soil and xylem waters varied over the course of an individual growing season, with many trending towards more enriched values, suggesting integration of the plant-relevant water pool at a timescale shorter than the annual mean. We then quantified how soil water residence times varied at each site by calculating the interval between measured xylem water and the most recently preceding match in modeled precipitation isotope values. Results suggest a generally increasing interval between rainfall and plant uptake throughout each year, with source water corresponding to dates in the spring, likely reflecting a combination of spring rain, and mixing with winter and summer precipitation. The seasonally evolving spatial distribution of source water-precipitation lag values was then modeled as a function of location and climatology to develop continental-scale predictions. This spatial portrait of the average date for filling the plant source water pool provides insights on the seasonal importance of rainfall for plant

  16. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Zhao; Yanrui Zhang; Haojun Mi; Yimeng Zhou; Yong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The heat pump water heater (HPWH), as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat...

  17. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  19. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L -1 . Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to examine the association between domestic water sourcing practice and the risk of developing diarrhea. A total of 200 households were studied over an eight week period from 4 June to 31st July 2005 using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Most of ...

  1. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems serving at least 10,000 people must report the results from the initial source water monitoring... reporting monitoring results that EPA approves. (c) Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must report.... PWS ID. 2. Facility ID. 3. Sample collection date. 4. Analytical method number. 5. Method type. 6...

  2. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  3. The quality assessment to drinking water supplied to Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Hussain, F.; Ashraf, H.; Hussain, S.; Rana, N.N.; Anwar, K.; Sami, Z.; Dil, S.

    1997-01-01

    Drinking water supply system of Islamabad draws major quantities of water from sources such as Simli dam, Rawal dam and the underground aquifer through an integrated system of tube wells sunk in different parts of the city. For an extensive assessment of drinking water quality samples were collected at source from 80 CDA tube wells. Samples were also collected from 3 to 5 predetermined consumer points in sectors 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, G-9, G-10, F-9 and F-10. All these samples apart form coliform organisms, cationic and anionic species present, were analyzed for different parameters required to delineate the drinking water quality using the most reliable techniques like ICP-AES, AAS, HPLC, TIMS and Electro-chemistry. The tube well water samples, generally, contained higher amounts of the TDS and hence higher Ca++ and Mg++ concentration as compared with those of dam water samples. Further all these samples contained reasonable concentration of Sr, an element usually associated with calcite deposits. Samples were also checked for the total radioactivity and were found to be free of such contamination. The results have been discussed with a view to assess the quality of drinking water during the stipulated period. (author)

  4. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  5. Man-made organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  6. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  7. Uncertainty assessment of source attribution of PM(2.5) and its water-soluble organic carbon content using different biomass burning tracers in positive matrix factorization analysis--a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Renjian; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Yixi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-02-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing during four one-month periods in 2009-2010, with each period in a different season. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for various chemical components including major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), element carbon (EC), trace elements, anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG), and mannosan (MN). Three sets of source profiles of PM2.5 were first identified through positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis using single or combined biomass tracers - non-sea salt potassium (nss-K(+)), LG, and a combination of nss-K(+) and LG. The six major source factors of PM2.5 included secondary inorganic aerosol, industrial pollution, soil dust, biomass burning, traffic emission, and coal burning, which were estimated to contribute 31±37%, 39±28%, 14±14%, 7±7%, 5±6%, and 4±8%, respectively, to PM2.5 mass if using the nss-K(+) source profiles, 22±19%, 29±17%, 20±20%, 13±13%, 12±10%, and 4±6%, respectively, if using the LG source profiles, and 21±17%, 31±18%, 19±19%, 11±12%, 14±11%, and 4±6%, respectively, if using the combined nss-K(+) and LG source profiles. The uncertainties in the estimation of biomass burning contributions to WSOC due to the different choices of biomass burning tracers were around 3% annually and up to 24% seasonally in terms of absolute percentage contributions, or on a factor of 1.7 annually and up to a factor of 3.3 seasonally in terms of the actual concentrations. The uncertainty from the major source (e.g. industrial pollution) was on a factor of 1.9 annually and up to a factor of 2.5 seasonally in the estimated WSOC concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  9. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  10. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  11. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  12. Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

    2013-10-15

    Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process.

  14. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  15. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  16. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  17. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  18. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

    2012-04-01

    Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment

  19. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H...

  20. Water Adsorption Isotherms on Fly Ash from Several Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navea, Juan G; Richmond, Emily; Stortini, Talia; Greenspan, Jillian

    2017-10-03

    In this study, horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetry to investigate the adsorption isotherms of water on fly ash, a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants. Because of composition variability with the source region, water uptake was studied at room temperature as a function of relative humidity (RH) on fly ash from several regions: United States, India, The Netherlands, and Germany. The FT-IR spectra show water features growth as a function of RH, with water absorbing on the particle surface in both an ordered (ice-like) and a disordered (liquid-like) structure. The QCM data was modeled using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm model. The BET model was found to describe the data well over the entire range of RH, showing that water uptake on fly ash takes place mostly on the surface of the particle, even for poorly combusted samples. In addition, the source region and power-plant efficiency play important roles in the water uptake and ice nucleation (IN) ability of fly ash. The difference in the observed water uptake and IN behavior between the four samples and mullite (3Al 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 ), the aluminosilicate main component of fly ash, is attributed to differences in composition and the density of OH binding sites on the surface of each sample. A discussion is presented on the RH required to reach monolayer coverage on each sample as well as a comparison between surface sites of fly ash samples and enthalpies of adsorption of water between the samples and mullite.

  1. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  2. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  3. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  4. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  5. Enhancing the water management schemes of H08 global hydrological model to attribute human water use to six major water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Kanae, S.

    2017-12-01

    Humans abstract water from various sources to sustain their livelihood and society. Some global hydrological models (GHMs) include explicit schemes of human water management, but the representation and performance of these schemes remain limited. We substantially enhanced the human water management schemes of the H08 GHM by incorporating the latest data and techniques. The model enables us to estimate water abstraction from six major water sources, namely, river flow regulated by global reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs regulating the flow of the world's major rivers), aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, seawater desalination, renewable groundwater, and nonrenewable groundwater. All the interactions were simulated in a single computer program and the water balance was always strictly closed at any place and time during the simulation period. Using this model, we first conducted a historical global hydrological simulation at a spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degree to specify the sources of water for humanity. The results indicated that, in 2000, of the 3628 km3yr-1 global freshwater requirement, 2839 km3yr-1 was taken from surface water and 789 km3yr-1 from groundwater. Streamflow, aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, and seawater desalination accounted for 1786, 199, 106, and 1.8 km3yr-1 of the surface water, respectively. The remaining 747 km3yr-1 freshwater requirement was unmet, or surface water was not available when and where it was needed in our simulation. Renewable and nonrenewable groundwater accounted for 607 and 182 km3yr-1 of the groundwater total, respectively. Second, we evaluated the water stress using our simulations and contrasted it with earlier global assessments based on empirical water scarcity indicators, namely, the Withdrawal to Availability ratio and the Falkenmark index (annual renewable water resources per capita). We found that inclusion of water infrastructures in our model diminished water stress in some parts of the world, on

  6. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  7. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  8. Framework for Shared Drinking Water Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Binning, David [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States); Meszaros, Jenny [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central to protecting our nation's critical infrastructure is the development of methodologies for prioritizing action and supporting resource allocation decisions associated with risk-reduction initiatives. Toward this need a web-based risk assessment framework that promotes the anonymous sharing of results among water utilities is demonstrated. Anonymous sharing of results offers a number of potential advantages such as assistance in recognizing and correcting bias, identification of 'unknown, unknowns', self-assessment and benchmarking for the local utility, treatment of shared assets and/or threats across multiple utilities, and prioritization of actions beyond the scale of a single utility. The constructed framework was demonstrated for three water utilities. Demonstration results were then compared to risk assessment results developed using a different risk assessment application by a different set of analysts.

  9. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... This manual presents a practical step-by-step guide for assessing various aspects of natural food sources of vitamin A within a community and is essential for any research program involved in alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

  10. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  11. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  12. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed

  13. Rural environment study for water from different sources in cluster of villages in Mehsana district of Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Nitasha; Tyagi, Sanjiv; Rawtani, Deepak

    2017-12-07

    Water pollution and water scarcity are major environmental issues in rural and urban areas. They lead to decline in the quality of water, especially drinking water. Proper qualitative assessment of water is thus necessary to ensure that the water consumed is potable. This study aims to analyze the physicochemical parameters in different sources of water in rural areas and assess the quality of water through a classification system based on BIS and CPCB standards. The classification method has defined water quality in six categories, viz., A, B, C, D, E, and F depending on the levels of physicochemical parameters in the water samples. The proposed classification system was applied to nine villages in Kadi Taluka, Mehsana district of Gujarat. The water samples were collected from borewells, lakes, Narmada Canal, and sewerage systems and were analyzed as per APHA and IS methods. It was observed that most of the physicochemical parameters of Narmada Canal and borewell water fell under class A, thus making them most suitable for drinking. Further, a health camp conducted at Karannagar village, Mehsana revealed no incidents of any waterborne diseases. However, there were certain incidents of kidney stones and joint pain in few villages due to high levels of TDS. Toxic metal analysis in all the water sources revealed low to undetectable concentration of toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in all the water sources. It is also recommended that the regular treatment of the Narmada Canal water be continued to maintain its excellent quality.

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  15. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  16. Prevalent glucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; George, Anuja A; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C; Schiltz, R Louis; Blazer, Vicki S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment in Water Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US EPA published guidelines for the application of ecological risk assessment (ERA) in the USA in 1998 (US EPA 1998). The process diagram derived by Murray and Claassen (1999) in an evaluation of the US EPA framework is discussed in the context of the South African National Water Act. The evaluation discusses ...

  18. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  19. Meeting water needs for sustainable development: an overview of approaches, measures and data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik E.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    An essential part of a global transition towards sustainability is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), providing a blueprint of goals to meet human needs. Water is an essential resource in itself, but also a vital factor of production for food, energy and other industrial products. Access to sufficient water has only recently been recognized as a human right. One central MDG is halving the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. To adequately assess the state of development and the potential for a transition towards sustainability, consistent and meaningful measures of water availability and adequate access are thus fundamental. Much work has been done to identify thresholds and definitions to measure water scarcity. This includes some work on defining basic water needs of different sectors. A range of data and approaches has been made available from a variety of sources, but all of these approaches differ in their underlying assumptions, the nature of the data used, and consequently in the final results. We review and compare approaches, methods and data sources on human water use and human water needs. This data review enables identifying levels of consumption in different countries and different sectors. Further comparison is made between actual water needs (based on human and ecological requirements), and recognised levels of water abstraction. The results of our review highlight the differences between different accounts of water use and needs, and reflect the importance of standardised approaches to data definitions and measurements, making studies more comparable across space and time. The comparison of different use and allocation patterns in countries enables levels of water use to be identified which allow for an adequate level of human wellbeing to be maintained within sustainable water abstraction limits. Recommendations are provided of how data can be defined more clearly to make comparisons of water use more meaningful and

  20. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  1. Assessment of the effect of water source of health risk in a pilot project to promote the reuse of reclaimed water in cooling towers; Valoracion del efecto del origen del agua en el riesgo sanitario en una experiencia piloto para promover la reutilizacion de agua regenerada en torres de refrigeracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittipaldi, M.; Codony, F.; Puigdengoles, J. M.; Molist; Morato, J.

    2009-07-01

    Wastewater regeneration and reuse of regenerated water permits to increase the amount of water and guarantees the availability required, in terms of both quantity and quality. In this context, a research project on regenerated water reuse for cooling towers has been carried out by the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), the Water Catalan Agency (ACA) and the Council of Chambers of Commerce. The research consisted of two steps. A first objective was to verify the effect of water source in the colonization of cooling towers by Legionella. In order to achieve those objectives, effluents from different wastewater treatment plant stages were used. The second objective was to evaluate in situ the disinfection process in order to decrease the sanitary risk from water reuse for cooling towers. For the entire duration of the project, both conventional culture methods and new molecular techniques with real times PCR were performed to detect Legionella from water samples. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  3. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  4. Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Regulated Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-10-18

    Universal access to safe drinking water is prioritized in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Collecting reliable and actionable water quality information in low-resource settings, however, is challenging, and little is known about the correspondence between water quality data collected by local monitoring agencies and global frameworks for water safety. Using 42 926 microbial water quality test results from 32 surveillance agencies and water suppliers in seven sub-Saharan African countries, we determined the degree to which water sources were monitored, how water quality varied by source type, and institutional responses to results. Sixty-four percent of the water samples were collected from piped supplies, although the majority of Africans rely on nonpiped sources. Piped supplies had the lowest levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) compared to any other source type: only 4% of samples of water piped to plots and 2% of samples from water piped to public taps/standpipes were positive for FIB (n = 14 948 and n = 12 278, respectively). Among other types of improved sources, samples from harvested rainwater and boreholes were less often positive for FIB (22%, n = 167 and 31%, n = 3329, respectively) than protected springs or protected dug wells (39%, n = 472 and 65%, n = 505). When data from different settings were aggregated, the FIB levels in different source types broadly reflected the source-type water safety framework used by the Joint Monitoring Programme. However, the insufficient testing of nonpiped sources relative to their use indicates important gaps in current assessments. Our results emphasize the importance of local data collection for water safety management and measurement of progress toward universal safe drinking water access.

  5. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  6. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  9. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  10. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  11. Water Footprint Symposium : where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, Martin R.; Liu, Junguo; Guan, Dabo; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, Stephan; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  12. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  13. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  14. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  15. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  16. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  17. Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brömssen, Mattias; Markussen, Lars; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hossain, Mohammed; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Hasan, M. Aziz; Islam, M. Mainul; Rahman, M. Mokhlesur

    2014-10-01

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the vulnerability of low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of the country. Groundwater modelling, conventional pumping test using multilevel piezometers, hydraulic head monitoring in piezometer nests, 14C dating of groundwater and assessment of groundwater abstraction were used. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed the best fit for the calibration evaluation criteria. Irrigation wells in the Matlab area are mostly installed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged from the monsoonal replenishment. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling results and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downward vertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced by calibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although

  18. Hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water sources of Derebogazi Village (Kahramanmaras) and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Yusuf; Uysal, Yagmur; Arikan, Tugba Atilan; Kop, Alican; Caliskan, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sources of drinking water for Derebogazi Village, Kahramanmaras Province, Turkey, in terms of hydrogeochemistry, isotope geochemistry, and medical geology. Water samples were obtained from seven different water sources in the area, all of which are located within quartzite units of Paleozoic age, and isotopic analyses of (18)O and (2)H (deuterium) were conducted on the samples. Samples were collected from the region for 1 year. Water quality of the samples was assessed in terms of various water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, trace element concentrations, anion-cation measurements, and metal concentrations, using ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, ICP-optical emission spectrometry techniques. Regional health surveys had revealed that the heights of local people are significantly below the average for the country. In terms of medical geology, the sampled drinking water from the seven sources was deficient in calcium and magnesium ions, which promote bone development. Bone mineral density screening tests were conducted on ten females using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to investigate possible developmental disorder(s) and potential for mineral loss in the region. Of these ten women, three had T-scores close to the osteoporosis range (T-score < -2.5).

  19. Environmetric data interpretation to assess surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonova, P.; Papazova, P.; Lovchinov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two multivariate statistical methods (Cluster analysis /CA/ and Principal components analysis /PCA/) were applied for model assessment of the water quality of Maritsa River and Tundja River on Bulgarian territory. The study used long-term monitoring data from many sampling sites characterized by various surface water quality indicators. The application of CA to the indicators results in formation of clusters showing the impact of biological, anthropogenic and eutrophication sources. For further assessment of the monitoring data, PCA was implemented, which identified, again, latent factors confirming, in principle, the clustering output. Their identification coincide correctly to the location of real pollution sources along the rivers catchments. The linkage of the sampling sites along the river flow by CA identified several special patterns separated by specific tracers levels. The apportionment models of the pollution determined the contribution of each one of identified pollution factors to the total concentration of each one of the water quality parameters. Thus, a better risk management of the surface water quality is achieved both on local and national level

  20. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from chemicals, 3 compounds were hydrocarbons, 2 compounds were industrial chemicals, 2 compounds were pesticides, 1 compound was of animal source, and 1 compound was a detergent compound. The most frequently detected wastewater compound was phenol, which was detected in 23 wells. N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was detected in water samples from 5 wells. Benzophenone, ethanol- 2-butoxy-phosphate, and tributylphosphate were detected in water samples from 3 wells. Fertilizer was determined to be the possible source of nitrate in samples from 13 of 45 wells sampled, with a15N values ranging from 0.43 to 3.46 permil. The possible source of nitrate for samples from the greatest number of wells (22 wells) was from mixed sources of nitrate from fertilizer, septic or manure, or natural sources. Mixed nitrate sources had a 15N values ranging from 0.25 to 9.83 permil. Septic or manure was determined as the possible

  1. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  2. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  3. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  4. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This...

  5. Impacts of water quality on the corrosion of cast iron pipes for water distribution and proposed source water switch strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Dong, Huiyu; Xu, Qiang; Ling, Wencui; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2018-02-01

    Switch of source water may induce "red water" episodes. This study investigated the impacts of water quality on iron release, dissolved oxygen consumption (ΔDO), corrosion scale evolution and bacterial community succession in cast iron pipes used for drinking water distribution at pilot scale, and proposed a source water switch strategy accordingly. Three sets of old cast iron pipe section (named BP, SP and GP) were excavated on site and assembled in a test base, which had historically transported blended water, surface water and groundwater, respectively. Results indicate that an increasing Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration accelerated iron release, but alkalinity and calcium hardness exhibited an opposite tendency. Disinfectant shift from free chlorine to monochloramine slightly inhibited iron release, while the impact of peroxymonosulfate depended on the source water historically transported in the test pipes. The ΔDO was highly consistent with iron release in all three pipe systems. The mass ratio of magnetite to goethite in the corrosion scales of SP was higher than those of BP and GP and kept almost unchanged over the whole operation period. Siderite and calcite formation confirmed that an increasing alkalinity and hardness inhibited iron release. Iron-reducing bacteria decreased in the BP but increased in the SP and GP; meanwhile, sulfur-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria increased in all three pipe systems. To avoid the occurrence of "red water", a source water switch strategy was proposed based on the difference between local and foreign water qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isotope studies of UK tufa deposits and associated source waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, P.M.

    1981-12-01

    Tufa is a secondary deposit of calcium carbonate precipitated from springs and streams. Previous attempts to date tufa deposits directly with 14 C have had limited success. The major problem is to quantify the amount of carbon incorporated in tufa, derived from the dissolution of carbonate bedrock, essentially free of 14 C. The isotopic composition of tufa-depositing streamwaters is similar to that of water recharging aquifers. The 14 C levels of recent tufa layers, at three sites, were similar to those of the source waters. 14 C dates from tufa at these sites suggested a Postglacial origin when corrected for bedrock carbon dilution of 16 to 24%. This dilution was overestimated by consideration of carbon mass balance using characteristic stable carbon isotope compositions (delta 13 C) for the biogenic and bedrock components. This method of correction is often applied to 14 C dates from groundwaters. The carbon isotope composition of spring waters supplying the tufa-depositing streams was realistically explained by a two stage process of carbonate dissolution under open and then closed conditions with respect to gaseous carbon dioxide. Seasonal variations in the 14 C and delta 13 C composition of stream and spring waters, downstream increases in 14 C and delta 13 C and seasonal variations in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall are explained. (author)

  7. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  8. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  9. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  10. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  12. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  13. A global hydrological simulation to specify the sources of water used by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, Naota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pokhrel, Yadu; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2018-01-01

    0 km3 yr-1 of the surface water, respectively. The remaining 747±45 km3 yr-1 freshwater requirement was unmet, or surface water was not available when and where it was needed in our simulation. Renewable and nonrenewable groundwater accounted for 607±11 and 182±26 km3 yr-1 of the groundwater total, respectively. Each source differed in its renewability, economic costs for development, and environmental consequences of usage. The model is useful for performing global water resource assessments by considering the aspects of sustainability, economy, and environment.

  14. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  15. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  16. Assessment of surface water quality using hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Kumar Dabgerwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the physicochemical quality river Varuna inVaranasi,India. Water samples were collected from 10 sites during January-June 2015. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the direction and strength of relationship between physicochemical parameters. Hierarchical Cluster analysis was also performed to determine the sources of pollution in the river Varuna. The result showed quite high value of DO, Nitrate, BOD, COD and Total Alkalinity, above the BIS permissible limit. The results of correlation analysis identified key water parameters as pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity and nitrate, which influence the concentration of other water parameters. Cluster analysis identified three major clusters of sampling sites out of total 10 sites, according to the similarity in water quality. This study illustrated the usefulness of correlation and cluster analysis for getting better information about the river water quality.International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1 2016,  pp: 32-44

  17. Assessing Water Security in the Amu Darya River Basin, Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiPasquale, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    ...; and water development projects. The thesis evaluated the quantitative techniques employed for their utility in planning, executing, and assessing military operations in relation to water resources. Afghanistan...

  18. Hepatitis E virus infection as a marker for contaminated community drinking water sources in Tibetan villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Michael J; Claridge, Frances; Anderson, David A; Zhuang, Hui; Morgan, Christopher; Otto, Brad; Stewart, Tony

    2006-02-01

    In April-May 2001, a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) among 426 persons 8-49 years of age randomly selected from two groups of rural villages in central Tibet. Group 1 villages were assessed in 1998 as having poor quality water sources; new water systems were then constructed prior to this study. Group 2 villages had higher quality water and were not designated as priority villages for new systems prior to the study. No participants tested positive for IgM; only IgG was detected in the analyzed samples. Overall, 31% of the participants had ever been infected with HEV (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.7-35.7%). The rate was higher in men (36.6%) than women (26.3%) and highest in those 30-39 years of age (49.1%). The rate of past infection was higher in group 1; the risk ratio was 2.77 (95% CI = 1.98-3.88). This difference is most likely the result of the poor quality of the original water sources in these villages. In resource-poor countries, HEV may be a useful health indicator reflecting the degree of contamination in village water sources. This may be especially important in rural areas (such as Tibet) where maternal mortality ratios are high because HEV may be an important cause of deaths during pregnancy in disease-endemic areas.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  20. Water Pollution and Water Quality Assessment of Major Transboundary Rivers from Banat (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Mihaela Dunca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on water resources management and shows the need to enforce the existing international bilateral agreements and to implement the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in order to improve the water quantity and quality received by a downstream country of a common watershed, like Timiş-Bega hydrographical basin, shared by two countries (Romania and Serbia. The spatial trend of water quality index (WQI and its subindexes are important for determining the locations of major pollutant sources that contribute to water quality depletion in this basin. We compared the values of WQI obtained for 10 sections of the two most important rivers from Banat, which have a great importance for socioeconomic life in southwestern part of Romania and in northeastern part of Serbia. In order to assess the water quality, we calculated the WQI for a long period of time (2004–2014, taking into account the maximum, minimum, and the mean annual values of physical, chemical, and biological parameters (DO, pH, BOD5, temperature, total P, N-NO2−, and turbidity. This article highlights the importance of using the water quality index which has not been sufficiently explored in Romania and for transboundary rivers and which is very useful in improving rivers water quality.

  1. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  2. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  3. Crowd-sourced assessment of surgical skills in cricothyrotomy procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Bly, Randall; White, Lee W; Hannaford, Blake; Moe, Kris; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-06-15

    Objective assessment of surgical skills is resource intensive and requires valuable time of expert surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a large group of laypersons using a crowd-sourcing tool to grade a surgical procedure (cricothyrotomy) performed on a simulator. The grading included an assessment of the entire procedure by completing an objective assessment of technical skills survey. Two groups of graders were recruited as follows: (1) Amazon Mechanical Turk users and (2) three expert surgeons from University of Washington Department of Otolaryngology. Graders were presented with a video of participants performing the procedure on the simulator and were asked to grade the video using the objective assessment of technical skills questions. Mechanical Turk users were paid $0.50 for each completed survey. It took 10 h to obtain all responses from 30 Mechanical Turk users for 26 training participants (26 videos/tasks), whereas it took 60 d for three expert surgeons to complete the same 26 tasks. The assessment of surgical performance by a group (n = 30) of laypersons matched the assessment by a group (n = 3) of expert surgeons with a good level of agreement determined by Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.83. We found crowd sourcing was an efficient, accurate, and inexpensive method for skills assessment with a good level of agreement to experts' grading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy

  5. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  6. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of water at the household level can be an added advantage.

  7. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  8. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  9. Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale: Assessing Trait Spirituality More Inclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles J.; Davis, Don E.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Brubaker, Kacy; Choe, Elise; Karaga, Sara; Dooley, Matt; O'Bryant, Brittany L.; Van Tongeren, Daryl R.; Hook, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    We develop the Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale (TSSS), which assesses experiences of closeness to the sacred, within and outside a religious tradition. After using factor analysis to finalize the scale, we examine evidence of construct validity, including latent profile analysis that reveals 5 patterns of how spirituality is experienced.

  10. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  11. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  12. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  13. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  14. A preliminary assessment of sources of nitrate in springwaters, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Hornsby, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is evaluating sources of nitrate in water from selected springs and zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee River Basin. A multi-tracer approach, which consists of the analysis of water samples for naturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, is being used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in the middle Suwannee River region. In July and August 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed from six springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon. These water samples also were analyzed for environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N] to determine sources of water and nitrate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H) were analyzed to assess the apparent ages (residence time) of springwaters and water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Delta 15N-NO3 values in water from the six springs range from 3.94 per mil (Little River Springs) to 8.39 per mil (Lafayette Blue Spring). The range of values indicates that nitrate in the sampled springwaters most likely originates from a mixture of inorganic (fertilizers) and organic (animal wastes) sources, although the higher delta 15N-NO3 value for Lafayette Blue Spring indicates that an organic source of nitrogen is likely at this site. Water samples from the two wells sampled in Lafayette County have high delta 15N-NO3 values of 10.98 and 12.1 per mil, indicating the likelihood of an organic source of nitrate. These two wells are located near dairy and poultry farms, where leachate from animal wastes may contribute nitrate to ground water. Based on analysis of chlorofluorocarbons in ground water, the mean residence time of water in springs ranges from about 12 to 25 years. Chlorofluorocarbons-modeled recharge dates for water samples from the two shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer

  15. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  16. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  18. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  19. Pulsed Source Measurements on a Uranium-Water Subcritical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, I.H.; Walker, J.

    1964-01-01

    An unreflected assembly of natural uranium and light water has been used in conjunction with a pulsed source of neutrons for decay-time measurements at different bucklings. Four different lattice pitches over the range 3.94 cm to 5.08 cm were obtained by using different pairs of accurately machined lattice plates and in each case the uranium was in the form of bars 109.8 cm long and 3.0 cm diameter. The fuel- was mounted horizontally and loadings up to approximately 6 t were involved. Spatial harmonics were eliminated or selected by appropriate placing of a small scintillation detector. Experimental results showing the dependence of decay constant on buckling are presented and compared with theoretical values. (author) [fr

  20. In vitro bioanalysis of drinking water from source to tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Lundqvist, Johan; le Godec, Théo; Ohlsson, Åsa; Tröger, Rikard; Hellman, Björn; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-08-01

    The presence of chemical pollutants in sources of drinking water is a key environmental problem threatening public health. Efficient removal of pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is needed as well as methods for assessment of the total impact of all present chemicals on water quality. In the present study we have analyzed the bioactivity of water samples from source to tap, including effects of various water treatments in a DWTP, using a battery of cell-based bioassays, covering health-relevant endpoints. Reporter gene assays were used to analyze receptor activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and induction of oxidative stress by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). DNA damage was determined by Comet assay. Grab water samples were concentrated by HLB or ENV solid phase extraction and the water samples assayed at a relative enrichment factor of 50. The enrichment procedure did not induce any bioactivity. No bioactivity was detected in Milli-Q water or drinking water control samples. Induction of AhR, ER and Nrf2 activities was revealed in source to tap water samples. No cytotoxicity, PPARα or AR antagonist activity, or DNA damage were observed in any of the water samples. A low AR agonist activity was detected in a few samples of surface water, but not in the samples from the DWTP. The treatment steps at the DWTP, coagulation, granulated activated carbon filtration, UV disinfection and NH 2 Cl dosing had little or no effect on the AhR, Nrf2 and ER bioactivity. However, nanofiltration and passage through the distribution network drastically decreased AhR activity, while the effect on Nrf2 activity was more modest and no apparent effect was observed on ER activity. The present results suggest that bioassays are useful tools for evaluation of the efficiency of different treatment steps in DWTPs in reducing toxic

  1. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Ling, F Q; van der Mark, E J; Zhang, X D; Knezev, A; Verberk, J Q J C; van der Meer, W G J; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; van Dijk, J C

    2016-02-02

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 10(3) cells ml(-1) with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l(-1) ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers' taps and be ingested.

  2. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m 2 , with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m 2 . The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm 2 month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  3. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  4. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  5. Multiple time-reversed guide-sources in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.; Lingevitch, Joseph F.; Gauss, Roger C.; Menis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Detection in a monostatic, broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation-induced spreading. The detection improvement from multiple spatially separated guide sources (GSs) is presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. The improvement of detection by using information in a set of one-way transmissions from a variety of positions is shown using sea data. The experimental area is south of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New Jersey. The data were taken using five elements of a time-reversing VLA. The five elements were contiguous and at midwater depth. The target and guide source was an echo repeater positioned at various ranges and at middepth. The transmitted signals were 3.0- to 3.5-kHz LFMs. The data are analyzed to show the amount of information present in the collection, a baseline probability of detection (PD) not using the collection of GS signals, the improvement in PD from the use of various sets of GS signals. The dependence of the improvement as a function of range is also shown. [The authors acknowledge support from Dr. Jeffrey Simmen, ONR321OS, and the chief scientist Dr. Charles Holland. Work supported by ONR.

  6. Requirements for water assessment tools: An automotive industry perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry A. Mueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is one of the greatest global sustainability challenges. Water is not available in adequate quantity and quality in many areas and water shortfalls are expected to increase. Businesses are facing water-related challenges due to inadequate water availability and poor resource management. Identifying and quantifying impacts is key to enabling companies to make effective management decisions. Several water assessment tools have been developed to help companies understand the complex nature of water challenges; however, there remain significant gaps in the datasets and inconsistencies in measurement and reporting of geographic water shortfalls. There is a need for more complete datasets containing information on water withdrawal and discharge, freshwater availability and depletion (spatially and temporally, water quality monitoring, reuse and recycling. We discuss four of the available water assessment tools (Global Water Tool, India Water Tool, Water Risk Filter and Aqueduct and highlight those elements most critical to water-related business decisions.

  7. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  8. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  10. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  11. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  12. Surface Water Quality Assessment and Prioritize the Factors Pollute This Water Using Topsis Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Komasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, according to growth of industry and increasing population, water resources are seriousely shortened. This lack of water resources will require special management to be considered in industry and agriculture. Among the various sources of water, surface waters are more susceptible to infection. The most important of these sources of pollution are industrial pollution, detergent, pesticides, radioactive materials, heat and salt concentration.  Materials & methods: In this article, at first the importance of each pollutant will be evaluated base on the effects and its results and then quality evaluation of surface water will be studied. In order to assess the relative importance of these pollutants primarily using TOPSIS software, prioritize these factors as one of the hierarchical analysis and then is modeled with decision tree method using Weka software, the importance of each factor is evaluated and if it does not meet the minimal importance of the decision tree will be removed. Results: The results obtained from the Topsis fuzzy analysis indicate that surface water and groundwater are exposed to pollution about 74% and 26% respectively among the six pollutants examined in this study. In addition, results obtaned from the hierarchical tree in software Weka has shown that the heat factor, soluble salts and industrial pollutants give impac factor or purity about 0.1338, 0.0523 and 1.2694 respectively. Conclusion: Surface water is at greater risk of being polluted compared with groundwater. The heat factor and low concentration of dissolved salts have the low impact and industrial pollutants are considered as the most influential factors in surface water pollution.

  13. Source specific risk assessment of indoor aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, A.J.

    2013-05-15

    In the urban environment, atmospheric aerosols consist mainly of pollutants from anthropogenic sources. The majority of these originate from traffic and other combustion processes. A fraction of these pollutants will penetrate indoors via ventilation. However, indoor air concentrations are usually predominated by indoor sources due to the small amount of dilution air. In modern societies, people spend most of their time indoors. Thus, their exposure is controlled mainly by indoor concentrations from indoor sources. During the last decades, engineering of nanosized structures has created a new field of material science. Some of these materials have been shown to be potentially toxic to human health. The greatest potential for exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) occurs in the workplace during production and handling of ENMs. In an exposure assessment, both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants need to be considered. The toxicities of the particles usually depend on the source and age. With time, particle morphology and composition changes due to their tendency to undergo coagulation, condensation and evaporation. The PM exposure risk is related to source specific emissions, and thus, in risk assessment one needs to define source specific exposures. This thesis describes methods for source specific risk assessment of airborne particulate matter. It consists of studies related to workers' ENM exposures during the synthesis of nanoparticles, packing of agglomerated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and handling of nanodiamonds. Background particles were distinguished from the ENM concentrations by using different measurement techniques and indoor aerosol modelings. Risk characterization was performed by using a source specific exposure and calculated dose levels in units of particle number and mass. The exposure risk was estimated by using non-health based occupational exposure limits for ENMs. For the nanosized TiO{sub 2}, the risk was also assessed from dose

  14. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniil, E.I.; Gulliver, J.; Thene, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  15. Feedback data sources that inform physician self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Armson, Heather; Chesluk, Benjamin; Dornan, Timothy; Holmboe, Eric; Loney, Elaine; Mann, Karen; Sargeant, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Self-assessment is a process of interpreting data about one's performance and comparing it to explicit or implicit standards. To examine the external data sources physicians used to monitor themselves. Focus groups were conducted with physicians who participated in three practice improvement activities: a multisource feedback program; a program providing patient and chart audit data; and practice-based learning groups. We used grounded theory strategies to understand the external sources that stimulated self-assessment and how they worked. Data from seven focus groups (49 physicians) were analyzed. Physicians used information from structured programs, other educational activities, professional colleagues, and patients. Data were of varying quality, often from non-formal sources with implicit (not explicit) standards. Mandatory programs elicited variable responses, whereas data and activities the physicians selected themselves were more likely to be accepted. Physicians used the information to create a reference point against which they could weigh their performance using it variably depending on their personal interpretation of its accuracy, application, and utility. Physicians use and interpret data and standards of varying quality to inform self-assessment. Physicians may benefit from regular and routine feedback and guidance on how to seek out data for self-assessment.

  16. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  17. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  18. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  19. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in ... The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total ... Generally, water pollution not only affects water quality ..... regardless of the natural geology and human activities, it has.

  20. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  1. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  2. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo; Holanda, Maísa Viana de; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Sabadia, José Antônio Beltrão; Duarte, Cynthia Romariz; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Frota, Cristiane Cunha

    2017-12-01

    The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  3. Using enteric pathogens to assess sources of fecal contamination in the Silurian Dolomite Aquifer: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Maureen A; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Hunt, Randall J.; Owens, David

    2018-01-01

    The fractured Silurian dolomite aquifer is an important, but vulnerable, source of drinking water in northeast Wisconsin (Sherrill in Geology and ground water in Door County, Wisconsin, with emphasis on contamination potential in the Silurian dolomite, 1978; Bradbury and Muldoon in Hydrogeology and groundwater monitoring of fractured dolomite in the Upper Door Priority Watershed, Door County, Wisconsin, 1992; Muldoon and Bradbury in Assessing seasonal variations in recharge and water quality in the Silurian aquifer in areas with thicker soil cover. p 45, 2010). Areas underlain by the Silurian dolomite aquifer are extremely vulnerable to groundwater contamination from various land-use activities, especially the disposal of human wastewater and dairy manure. Currently there is no consensus as to which source of wastewater generates the greater impact to the aquifer.

  4. Determination of Key Risk Supervision Areas around River-Type Water Sources Affected by Multiple Risk Sources: A Case Study of Water Sources along the Yangtze’s Nanjing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide a reference for risk management of water sources, this study screens the key risk supervision areas around river-type water sources (hereinafter referred to as the water sources threatened by multiple fixed risk sources (the risk sources, and establishes a comprehensive methodological system. Specifically, it comprises: (1 method of partitioning risk source concentrated sub-regions for screening water source perimeter key risk supervision areas; (2 approach of determining sub-regional risk indexes (SrRI, which characterizes the scale of sub-regional risks considering factors like risk distribution intensity within sub-regions, risk indexes of risk sources (RIRS, characterizing the risk scale of risk sources and the number of risk sources; and (3 method of calculating sub-region’s risk threats to the water sources (SrTWS which considers the positional relationship between water sources and sub-regions as well as SrRI, and the criteria for determining key supervision sub-regions. Favorable effects are achieved by applying this methodological system in determining water source perimeter sub-regions distributed along the Yangtze’s Nanjing section. Results revealed that for water sources, the key sub-regions needing supervision were SD16, SD06, SD21, SD26, SD15, SD03, SD02, SD32, SD10, SD11, SD14, SD05, SD27, etc., in the order of criticality. The sub-region with the greatest risk threats on the water sources was SD16, which was located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. In general, sub-regions along the upper Yangtze reaches had greater threats to water sources than the lower reach sub-regions other than SD26 and SD21. Upstream water sources were less subject to the threats of sub-regions than the downstream sources other than NJ09B and NJ03.

  5. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    theory and the sociology of professions. Empirically, we ask whether different measures of individual performance produce different results. The investigated performance measures vary with regard to risk of common data source bias, standardization of assessment criteria, and external verification...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers' self-reported contributions to students' academic skills, the students' marks for the year's work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner....... The associations are systematically stronger when the performance measure comes from the same data source as the explanatory variables, but when separate data sources are used and the measurement scale is institutionalized, the level of external verification does not matter much. Based on institutional theory...

  6. Immediate Dose Assessment for Radiation Accident in Laboratory Containing Gamma Source and/or Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important safety requirements for any place containing radiation sources is an accurate and fast way to assess the dose rate in both normal and accidental case. In normal case, the source is completely protected inside its surrounded shields in case of non use. In some cases this source may stuck outside its shield. In this case the walls of the place act as a shield. Many studies were carried for obtaining the most appropriate materials that may be used as shielding depending on their efficiency and also their cost. As concrete- with different densities- is the most available constructive material, this study presented a theoretical model using MCNP-4B code, based on Monte Carlo method to estimate the dose rate distribution in a laboratory with concrete walls in case of source stuck accident. The study dealt with Cs-137 as gamma source and Am-Be-241 as neutron source. Two different densities of concrete and also different thicknesses of walls were studied. The used model was verified by comparing the results with a practical study concerning with the effect of adding carbon powder to the concrete. The results showed good agreement

  7. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  8. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  9. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development

  10. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Wronna; R. Omira; M. A. Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines – Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seis...

  11. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments of the luan river source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, B.; Cao, J.; Cao, Z.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of heavy metals enrichment in sediment were surveyed including the bio-available form analyzed for assessment of the Luan River source water quality. The approaches of sediment quality guidelines (SQG), risk assessment code and Hakanson potential ecological risk index were used for the ecological risk assessment. According to SQG, The results show that in animal bodies, Hg at the sampling site of Wuliehexia was 1.39 mg/kg, Cr at Sandaohezi was 152.37 mg/kg and Cu at Hanjiaying was 178.61 mg/kg exceeding the severe effect screening level. There were 90% of sampling sites of Cr and Pb and 50% sites of Cu exceeded the lowest effect screening level. At Boluonuo and Wuliehexia, the exchangeable and carbonate fractions for above 50% of sites were at high risk levels and that for above 30% of sites at Xiahenan and Wulieheshang were also at high risk levels. Other sites were at medium risk level. Compared to soil background values of China, Hg and Cd showed very strong ecological risk, and the seven heavy metals of Hg, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, Cr, Zn at ecological risk levels were in the descending order. The results could give insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision-making for water source security. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. The Water Footprint Assessment of Electricity Production: An Overview of the Economic-Water-Energy Nexus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “water-energy nexus” has remarkable implications in the sustainable management of water resources. The aim of this paper is to analyse the production of electricity, from an economic and technical perspective, using the water footprint and economic water productivity approaches. After comparing the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the production of the electricity sector, the study then compares the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the consumptive water footprint of Italian electricity production for each year analysed. Furthermore, distinguishing between renewable and fossil sources, the paper proceeds to assess the total consumptive water footprint generated by each energy source for the electricity production in Italy during the period 2007–2016. The study represents an original contribution for the identification of policies and managerial implications in the context of the energy sector, serving as a practical guide. The results, in fact, confirm the need for scientific and practical efforts to manage electricity production in an integrated perspective and provide a first glance at addressing the optimal design of energy source mix in the Italian regulation context, contributing to reducing the water footprint, without ignoring the economic aspects.

  13. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  14. Chromium in Drinking Water: Sources, Metabolism, and Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor–dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10–20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  15. Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value.

  16. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  17. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  18. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  19. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  1. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  2. Environmental qualitative assessment of water resources in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jafarynasab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water demand and reducing its contaminations are the main concerns and challenges for water resource managers and planner due to its limited sources and high value. This study aims to assess and understand the factors which threaten the quality of groundwater resources and to achieve this, samples were taken from 14 active wells in District 3 of the Municipality of Tehran. After categorizing the parameters to distinct measurable groups containing anions (SO4, Cl, NO2, NO3, HCO3, CO3, cations (Mg, Na, k heavy metals (Ag, Pb, Cd physical parameters (temperature, color and odor chemical parameters (Total Dissolved Solid , Electrical conductivity, Total Suspended Solids and pH, the data  were analyzed  using SPSS (version 16 software. The results revealed that excessive amount of nitrate anion in Paidari and Naji station is related to the slope and sandy texture of the wells and also the surrounding area’s soil. Increased cation concentration was visible in Resalat well, which indicated the use of excessive amount of fertilizers containing sodium and also the clay soil texture. Cadmium was the only heavy metal with the concentrations of more than the standard amount. Domestic sewage and surface runoff and also regional geological structure, the lack of appropriate distance between water wells with sewage wells were among other reasons, causing underground water pollution.

  3. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  4. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  5. Use of a Bayesian isotope mixing model to estimate proportional contributions of multiple nitrate sources in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dongmei; De Baets, Bernard; Van Cleemput, Oswald; Hennessy, Carmel; Berglund, Michael; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    To identify different NO 3 − sources in surface water and to estimate their proportional contribution to the nitrate mixture in surface water, a dual isotope and a Bayesian isotope mixing model have been applied for six different surface waters affected by agriculture, greenhouses in an agricultural area, and households. Annual mean δ 15 N–NO 3 − were between 8.0 and 19.4‰, while annual mean δ 18 O–NO 3 − were given by 4.5–30.7‰. SIAR was used to estimate the proportional contribution of five potential NO 3 − sources (NO 3 − in precipitation, NO 3 − fertilizer, NH 4 + in fertilizer and rain, soil N, and manure and sewage). SIAR showed that “manure and sewage” contributed highest, “soil N”, “NO 3 − fertilizer” and “NH 4 + in fertilizer and rain” contributed middle, and “NO 3 − in precipitation” contributed least. The SIAR output can be considered as a “fingerprint” for the NO 3 − source contributions. However, the wide range of isotope values observed in surface water and of the NO 3 − sources limit its applicability. - Highlights: ► The dual isotope approach (δ 15 N- and δ 18 O–NO 3 − ) identify dominant nitrate sources in 6 surface waters. ► The SIAR model estimate proportional contributions for 5 nitrate sources. ► SIAR is a reliable approach to assess temporal and spatial variations of different NO 3 − sources. ► The wide range of isotope values observed in surface water and of the nitrate sources limit its applicability. - This paper successfully applied a dual isotope approach and Bayesian isotopic mixing model to identify and quantify 5 potential nitrate sources in surface water.

  6. Prevalence and viability of group A rotavirus in dairy farm water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, M; Schild, C; Caffarena, D; Bok, M; Giannitti, F; Armendano, J; Riet-Correa, F; Victoria, M; Parreño, V; Colina, R

    2018-03-01

    To analyse group A rotavirus (RVA) environmental contamination in waters used for calves' consumption and to assess viral viability in dairy farm water sources. We analysed 202 samples of water used for calves' consumption and RVA was detected by RT-qPCR in 35·1% (95% CI: 28·9-42·0%). A marked pattern of seasonality was observed with higher frequency of detection in colder than warmer months (P = 0·002). There was no association between viral load and season or between the number of milking cows in the herd and the detection of RVA in the farm. The viability of the RVA particles detected was confirmed by isolation of RVA in cell culture from 5 of 10 water samples. Furthermore, an RVA waterborne outbreak of neonatal calf diarrhoea was described. We demonstrate that RVA is frequent in dairy farm waters, and that the virus is infectious and capable of generating a diarrhoea outbreak. Neonatal diarrhoea syndrome leads to economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. To determine transmission routes is essential to take action in this regard and reduce the impact that this syndrome has for the livestock production. The results obtained in this work alert the dairy industry and highlight that mitigation strategies are crucial to improve the microbiological quality of this water. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and .... existence of the same problem in other cities and towns in ... (2011). Urine jars were placed in the Panasonic ... were assembled and stored away from direct sunlight, at room .... view was conducted with the Drug and Toxicology Information.

  8. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  9. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents.

  10. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  11. Selection of organic process and source indicator substances for the anthropogenically influenced water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Martin; Dott, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel; Dünnbier, Uwe; Gnirß, Regina; Haist-Gulde, Brigitte; Hamscher, Gerd; Letzel, Marion; Licha, Tobias; Lyko, Sven; Miehe, Ulf; Sacher, Frank; Scheurer, Marco; Schmidt, Carsten K; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of organic micropollutants (OMP) is detected in anthropogenically influenced water cycles. Source control and effective natural and technical barriers are essential to maintain a high quality of drinking water resources under these circumstances. Based on the literature and our own research this study proposes a limited number of OMP that can serve as indicator substances for the major sources of OMP, such as wastewater treatment plants, agriculture and surface runoff. Furthermore functional indicators are proposed that allow assessment of the proper function of natural and technical barriers in the aquatic environment, namely conventional municipal wastewater treatment, advanced treatment (ozonation, activated carbon), bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment as well as self-purification in surface water. These indicator substances include the artificial sweetener acesulfame, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole and the herbicide mecoprop among others. The chemical indicator substances are intended to support comparisons between watersheds and technical and natural processes independent of specific water cycles and to reduce efforts and costs of chemical analyses without losing essential information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (odds ratios around 1.5 for 0 glasses per day relative to 1-3 glasses per day, falling to 0.8 for 4+ glasses per day). THM concentration and dose (concentration x amount) were not related to pregnancy outcome, with the possible exception of an increased risk of miscarriage in the highest sextile of THM concentration (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.7), which was not part of an overall dose-response gradient. These data do not indicate a strong association between chlorination by-products and adverse pregnancy outcome, but given the limited quality of our exposure assessment and the increased miscarriage risk in the highest exposure group, more refined evaluation is warranted. PMID:7556013

  13. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  14. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xeyang@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  15. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  16. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Air source heat pump water heater: Dynamic modeling, optimal energy management and mini-tubes condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Oussama; Fardoun, Farouk; Younes, Rafic; Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to predict the performance of an ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). The developed model is used to assess its performance in the Lebanese context. It is shown that for the four Lebanese climatic zones, the expected monthly values of the average COP (coefficient of performance) varies from 2.9 to 5, leading to high efficiencies compared with conventional electric water heaters. The energy savings and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction are investigated for each zone. Furthermore, it is recommended to use the ASHPWH during the period of highest daily ambient temperatures (noon or afternoon), assuming that the electricity tariff and hot water loads are constant. In addition, an optimal management model for the ASHPWH is developed and applied for a typical winter day of Beirut. Moreover, the developed dynamic model of ASHPWH is used to compare the performance of three similar systems that differ only with the condenser geometry, where results show that using mini-condenser geometries increase the COP (coefficient of performance) and consequently, more energy is saved as well as more GHG emissions are reduced. In addition, the condenser “surface compactness” is increased giving rise to an efficient compact heat exchanger. - Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental validation for ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). • Optimization of the ASHPWH-condenser length. • Comparison of the ASHPWH with conventional electric water heater according to energy efficiency and green gas house emissions. • Development of an energetic-economic optimal management model for ASHPWH. • Energetic and environmental assessment of ASHPWH with mini-tubes condensers

  18. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  19. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources duringthe past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotopemeasurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to thetropical North Atlantic following the

  20. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, Jim [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Aondoakaa, Stephen [Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria); School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hossain, Rifat [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartram, Jamie, E-mail: jbartram@unc.edu [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  1. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  2. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  3. Assessment of evaporative water loss from Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Elbers, J.A.; Brolsma, R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Moors, E.J.; Rodríguez-CarreteroMárquez, M.T.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable estimates of evaporative water loss are required to assess the urban water budget in support of division of water resources among various needs, including heat mitigation measures in cities relying on evaporative cooling. We report on urban evaporative water loss from Arnhem and Rotterdam

  4. Performance Assessment of Water Sectors : Methods and considerations for application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieriks, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of principles for water management in the 1990’s such as concepts as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), many countries have come to review their water policy and sectors. But how does one start in the assessment of a water sector

  5. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Toxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in (sources of) drinking water is required to identify potential health risks and prioritize chemicals for abatement or monitoring. In such assessments, concentrations of chemicals in drinking water or sources are compared to either (i) health-based (statutory) drinking water guideline values, (ii) provisional guideline values based on recent toxicity data in absence of drinking water guidelines, or (iii) generic drinking water target values in absence of toxicity data. Here, we performed a toxicological risk assessment for 163 CEC that were selected as relevant for drinking water. This relevance was based on their presence in drinking water and/or groundwater and surface water sources in downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse, in combination with concentration levels and physicochemical properties. Statutory and provisional drinking water guideline values could be derived from publically available toxicological information for 142 of the CEC. Based on measured concentrations it was concluded that the majority of substances do not occur in concentrations which individually pose an appreciable human health risk. A health concern could however not be excluded for vinylchloride, trichloroethene, bromodichloromethane, aniline, phenol, 2-chlorobenzenamine, mevinphos, 1,4-dioxane, and nitrolotriacetic acid. For part of the selected substances, toxicological risk assessment for drinking water could not be performed since either toxicity data (hazard) or drinking water concentrations (exposure) were lacking. In absence of toxicity data, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach can be applied for screening level risk assessment. The toxicological information on the selected substances was used to evaluate whether drinking water target values based on existing TTC levels are sufficiently protective for drinking water relevant CEC. Generic drinking water target levels of 37 μg/L for

  6. Benthic cyanobacteria: A source of cylindrospermopsin and microcystin in Australian drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, Virginie; Humpage, Andrew R; Huang, Qiong; Monis, Paul; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-11-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a health hazard worldwide due to their production of a range of highly potent toxins in diverse aquatic environments. While planktonic species have been the subject of many investigations in terms of risk assessment, little is known about benthic forms and their impact on water quality or human and animal health. This study aimed to purify isolates from environmental benthic biofilms sampled from three different drinking water reservoirs and to assess their toxin production by using the following methods: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microscopic observation of the isolates allowed the identification of various filamentous cyanobacterial genera: Anabaena (benthic form), Calothrix and Nostoc from the Nostocales and Geitlerinema, Leptolyngbya, Limnothrix, Lyngbya, Oxynema, Phormidium and Pseudanabaena representing non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria. The Phormidium ambiguum strain AWQC-PHO021 was found to produce 739 ng/mg of dry weight (d/w) of cylindrospermopsin and 107 ng/mg (d/w) of deoxy-cylindrospermopsin. The Nostoc linckia strain AWQC-NOS001 produced 400 ng/mg (d/w) of a microcystin analogue. This is the first report of hepatotoxin production by benthic cyanobacteria in temperate Australian drinking water reservoirs. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider benthic cyanobacteria as a potential source of toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and ... acidification, heavy metal contamination, organic pollution .... Table 1 shows 18 sampling stations of water samples for salt water.

  8. Caffeine As An Indicator Of Estrogenic Activity In Source Water.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine ...

  9. Caffeine as an indicator of estrogenic activity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine disruptor activity.

  10. Assessing embryo development using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caujolle, S.; Cernat, R.; Silvestri, G.; Marques, M. J.; Bradu, A.; Feuchter, T.; Robinson, G.; Griffin, D.; Podoleanu, A.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed assessment of embryo development would assist biologists with selecting the most suitable embryos for transfer leading to higher pregnancy rates. Currently, only low resolution microscopy is employed to perform this assessment. Although this method delivers some information on the embryo surface morphology, no specific details are shown related to its inner structure. Using a Master-Slave Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT), images of bovine embryos from day 7 after fertilization were collected from different depths. The dynamic changes inside the embryos were examined, in detail and in real-time from several depths. To prove our ability to characterize the morphology, a single embryo was imaged over 26 hours. The embryo was deprived of its life support environment, leading to its death. Over this period, clear morphological changes were observed.

  11. Assessing TCE source bioremediation by geostatistical analysis of a flux fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Wilson, Ryan D; Lerner, David N

    2012-01-01

    Mass discharge across transect planes is increasingly used as a metric for performance assessment of in situ groundwater remediation systems. Mass discharge estimates using concentrations measured in multilevel transects are often made by assuming a uniform flow field, and uncertainty contributions from spatial concentration and flow field variability are often overlooked. We extend our recently developed geostatistical approach to estimate mass discharge using transect data of concentration and hydraulic conductivity, so accounting for the spatial variability of both datasets. The magnitude and uncertainty of mass discharge were quantified by conditional simulation. An important benefit of the approach is that uncertainty is quantified as an integral part of the mass discharge estimate. We use this approach for performance assessment of a bioremediation experiment of a trichloroethene (TCE) source zone. Analyses of dissolved parent and daughter compounds demonstrated that the engineered bioremediation has elevated the degradation rate of TCE, resulting in a two-thirds reduction in the TCE mass discharge from the source zone. The biologically enhanced dissolution of TCE was not significant (~5%), and was less than expected. However, the discharges of the daughter products cis-1,2, dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) increased, probably because of the rapid transformation of TCE from the source zone to the measurement transect. This suggests that enhancing the biodegradation of cDCE and VC will be crucial to successful engineered bioremediation of TCE source zones. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Water Matters: Assessing the Impacts of Water and Sanitation Infrastructure in the U.S./Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. L.; Del Rio, M.; Korc, M.

    2017-12-01

    Using Health Impact Assessment methods, we determined: 1) the impact of water and sanitation infrastructure installed about 15 years ago in two Texas border communities; 2) the impact of failing septic tanks in a neighborhood where septic systems are more than 20 years old and failing; and 3) the impacts of hauled water as the main household water source in a colonia. We obtained a total of 147 household surveys related to water and sanitation in four communities. Households who had obtained water and sanitation infrastructure had less skin problems, neuropathy, gastrointestinal illness, and stomach infections compared to an earlier time when they relied on local domestic wells or hauled water and septic tanks. Hepatitis A incidence in El Paso County, TX dropped precipitously after the implementation of water and sanitation infrastructure. Hauling water contributed to mental stress and anxiety and was risky in terms of road safety. We also assessed the economic and community development impacts of water and sanitation infrastructure. Communities benefitted from higher property values, expanded health care services, more parks and recreation, more local businesses, and improved fire safety. We argue that though water and sanitation infrastructure is a significant contributor to addressing inequities in the border region, much remains to be done to achieve water justice in this challenging region.

  13. Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D.; Smith, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of produc...

  14. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  15. Physico-Chemical and microbial water quality assessment of Densu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment conducted in the Densu basin of Ghana between July ... High nutrient loads observed in the basin were due to domestic, agricultural and ... a pattern which is an intermediate between fresh and sea water systems.

  16. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely ... East African Medical Journal ... There was a high uptake of households with treated drinking water (92%), availability of hand washing facilities in ...

  17. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. FREEWAT: FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura

    2015-01-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 project financed by the EU Commission under the call WATER INNOVATION: BOOSTING ITS VALUE FOR EUROPE. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and other EU wa...

  20. Assessment of quality of water provided for wildlife in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selebatso, Moses; Maude, Glyn; Fynn, Richard W. S.

    2018-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid environments have low and unpredictable rainfall patterns resulting in limited availability of surface water for wildlife. In the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) wildlife populations have lost access to natural surface water through cordon fences, livestock and human encroachment along the access routes. Artificial waterholes have been developed in the reserve to compensate for this loss. However, there have not been any assessments of the quality of water provided for wildlife and how that may be contributing to populations declines in the CKGR. We assessed water quality from 12 artificial waterholes against both Botswana and international livestock standards for drinking. Overall the quality of water provided is poor and poses a health risk to both animals and humans. Eight out of twelve boreholes tested exceeded the maximum acceptable Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) limits while three and four boreholes have toxic levels of lead and arsenic, respectively. Thus, pumping ground water could have more negative than positive impacts on wildlife thus defeating the intended management purpose. Failure to provide water of acceptable quality is a major concern for wildlife management in the CKGR and it may underlie some wildlife declines in the reserve. These findings confirm that restriction of populations from natural water sources create complex management challenges, especially where safe and sustainable alternative sources are scarce. Restriction of access of the population to natural water sources by fences and provision of poor quality water could compromise the overall fitness of wildlife populations and contribute to their decline.

  1. Tapping Into an Ancient Source. Isotope Hydrology Techniques to Help Manage Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidambi, Misha

    2011-01-01

    The Water Resources Program at the IAEA uses a powerful tool, isotope hydrology, that aids in coping with water scarcity. IAEA scientists are convinced that if we understand how to manage water efficiently, there will be sufficient renewable and non-renewable water sources for meet global needs

  2. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Joseph; Gonzales, Melissa; Shuey, Chris; Barney, Yolanda; Lewis, Johnnye

    2016-01-01

    Regional water pollution and use of unregulated water sources can be an important mixed metals exposure pathway for rural populations located in areas with limited water infrastructure and an extensive mining history.?Using censored data analysis and mapping techniques we analyzed the joint geospatial distribution of arsenic and uranium in unregulated water sources throughout the Navajo Nation, where over 500 abandoned uranium mine sites are located in the rural southwestern United States. Re...

  3. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  4. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  5. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... potential for being 'a powerful tool for restructuring society'. (Dollar et al., 2010) ... this model, central government acts as a trustee, but most water allocation .... in particular for river basins, is challenging in terms of data requirements .... Natal as well as in coastal regions of the Western Cape. Virtual water ...

  6. Chemical assessment of ballast water exchange compliance: Implementation in North America and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca eNoble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (FDOM is a sensitive indicator of ballast water source, with high FDOM in coastal ballast water decreasing typically dramatically when replaced by oceanic seawater during ballast water exchange. In this study, FDOM was measured in 92 ships arriving at Pacific ports on the US west coast and in New Zealand, and used to assess their compliance with ballast water regulations that required 95% replacement of port water to minimize invasive species risks. Fluorescence in many ships that reported ballast water exchange was significantly higher than is usual for oceanic seawater, and in several cases, significantly higher than in other ships with similar provenance and ballast water management. Pre-exchange source port conditions represented the largest source of uncertainty in the analysis, because residual coastal FDOM when highly fluorescent can significantly influence the fluorescence signature of exchanged ballast water. A meta-analysis comparing the intensities of FDOM in un-exchanged ballast tanks with calculated pre-exchange intensities assuming that ships all correctly implemented and reported ballast water exchange revealed notable discrepancies. Thus, the incidence of high-FDOM port waters was seven times lower in reality than would be expected on the basis of these calculations. The results suggest that a significant rate of reporting errors occur due to a combination of factors that may include inadequate ballast water exchange and unintentional or deliberate misreporting of ballast water management.

  7. Novel human-associated Lachnospiraceae genetic markers improve detection of fecal pollution sources in urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuchen; Bootsma, Melinda; McLellan, Sandra L

    2018-05-04

    The human microbiome contains many organisms that could potentially be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. Here we report the development of two novel human-associated genetic marker assays that target organisms within the family Lachnospiraceae Next-generation sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from sewage and animal stool samples identified 40 human-associated marker candidates with a robust signal in sewage and low or no occurrence in nonhuman hosts. Two were chosen for quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay development using longer sequences (V2 to V9 regions) generated from clone libraries. Validation of these assays, designated Lachno3 and Lachno12, was performed using fecal samples (n=55) from cat, dog, pig, cow, deer, and gull sources, and compared with established host-associated assays (Lachno2, and two Human Bacteroides assays; HB and HF183/BacR287). Each of the established assays cross-reacted with at least one other animal, including animals common in urban areas. Lachno3 and Lachno12 were primarily human-associated; however, Lachno12 demonstrated low levels of cross-reactivity with select cows, and non-specific amplification in pigs. This limitation may not be problematic when testing urban waters. These novel markers resolved ambiguous results from previous investigations in stormwater-impacted waters, demonstrating their utility. The complexity of the microbiome in humans and animals suggests no single organism is strictly specific to humans, and multiple complementary markers used in combination will provide the highest resolution and specificity for assessing fecal pollution sources. IMPORTANCE Traditional fecal indicator bacteria do not distinguish animal from human fecal pollution, which is necessary to evaluate health risks and mitigate pollution sources. Assessing urban areas is challenging since water can be impacted by sewage, which has a high likelihood of carrying human pathogens, as well as pet waste and urban wildlife. We

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  9. ASSESSING AND COMBINING RELIABILITY OF PROTEIN INTERACTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEACH, SONIA; GABOW, AARON; HUNTER, LAWRENCE; GOLDBERG, DEBRA S.

    2008-01-01

    Integrating diverse sources of interaction information to create protein networks requires strategies sensitive to differences in accuracy and coverage of each source. Previous integration approaches calculate reliabilities of protein interaction information sources based on congruity to a designated ‘gold standard.’ In this paper, we provide a comparison of the two most popular existing approaches and propose a novel alternative for assessing reliabilities which does not require a gold standard. We identify a new method for combining the resultant reliabilities and compare it against an existing method. Further, we propose an extrinsic approach to evaluation of reliability estimates, considering their influence on the downstream tasks of inferring protein function and learning regulatory networks from expression data. Results using this evaluation method show 1) our method for reliability estimation is an attractive alternative to those requiring a gold standard and 2) the new method for combining reliabilities is less sensitive to noise in reliability assignments than the similar existing technique. PMID:17990508

  10. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-12-15

    Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74-100% and 0-24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0-80% and 19-100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A global probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gareth; Griffin, Jonathan; Lovholt, Finn; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Harbitz, Carl; Thio, Hong Kie; Lorito, Stefano; Basili, Roberto; Selva, Jacopo; Geist, Eric L.; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2017-01-01

    Large tsunamis occur infrequently but have the capacity to cause enormous numbers of casualties, damage to the built environment and critical infrastructure, and economic losses. A sound understanding of tsunami hazard is required to underpin management of these risks, and while tsunami hazard assessments are typically conducted at regional or local scales, globally consistent assessments are required to support international disaster risk reduction efforts, and can serve as a reference for local and regional studies. This study presents a global-scale probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), extending previous global-scale assessments based largely on scenario analysis. Only earthquake sources are considered, as they represent about 80% of the recorded damaging tsunami events. Globally extensive estimates of tsunami run-up height are derived at various exceedance rates, and the associated uncertainties are quantified. Epistemic uncertainties in the exceedance rates of large earthquakes often lead to large uncertainties in tsunami run-up. Deviations between modelled tsunami run-up and event observations are quantified, and found to be larger than suggested in previous studies. Accounting for these deviations in PTHA is important, as it leads to a pronounced increase in predicted tsunami run-up for a given exceedance rate.

  12. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  13. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ''uranium'' and 4n+3 ''actinium'' decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides

  14. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    On a global scale, pathogenic contamination of drinking water poses the most significant health risk to humans, and there have been countless numbers of disease outbreaks and poisonings throughout history resulting from exposure to untreated or poorly treated drinking water. However, significant risks to human health may also result from exposure to nonpathogenic, toxic contaminants that are often globally ubiquitous in waters from which drinking water is derived. With this latter point in mind, the objective of this commission paper is to discuss the primary sources of toxic contaminants in surface waters and groundwater, the pathways through which they move in aquatic environments, factors that affect their concentration and structure along the many transport flow paths, and the relative risks that these contaminants pose to human and environmental health. In assessing the relative risk of toxic contaminants in drinking water to humans, we have organized our discussion to follow the classical risk assessment paradigm, with emphasis placed on risk characterization. In doing so, we have focused predominantly on toxic contaminants that have had a demonstrated or potential effect on human health via exposure through drinking water. In the risk assessment process, understanding the sources and pathways for contaminants in the environment is a crucial step in addressing (and reducing) uncertainty associated with estimating the likelihood of exposure to contaminants in drinking water. More importantly, understanding the sources and pathways of contaminants strengthens our ability to quantify effects through accurate measurement and testing, or to predict the likelihood of effects based on empirical models. Understanding the sources, fate, and concentrations of chemicals in water, in conjunction with assessment of effects, not only forms the basis of risk characterization, but also provides critical information required to render decisions regarding regulatory

  15. Estimation of contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on an enhanced water quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bibo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yue; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    Because water quality monitoring sections or sites could reflect the water quality status of rivers, surface water quality management based on water quality monitoring sections or sites would be effective. For the purpose of improving water quality of rivers, quantifying the contribution ratios of pollutant resources to a specific section is necessary. Because physical and chemical processes of nutrient pollutants are complex in water bodies, it is difficult to quantitatively compute the contribution ratios. However, water quality models have proved to be effective tools to estimate surface water quality. In this project, an enhanced QUAL2Kw model with an added module was applied to the Xin'anjiang Watershed, to obtain water quality information along the river and to assess the contribution ratios of each pollutant source to a certain section (the Jiekou state-controlled section). Model validation indicated that the results were reliable. Then, contribution ratios were analyzed through the added module. Results show that among the pollutant sources, the Lianjiang tributary contributes the largest part of total nitrogen (50.43%), total phosphorus (45.60%), ammonia nitrogen (32.90%), nitrate (nitrite + nitrate) nitrogen (47.73%), and organic nitrogen (37.87%). Furthermore, contribution ratios in different reaches varied along the river. Compared with pollutant loads ratios of different sources in the watershed, an analysis of contribution ratios of pollutant sources for each specific section, which takes the localized chemical and physical processes into consideration, was more suitable for local-regional water quality management. In summary, this method of analyzing the contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on the QUAL2Kw model was found to support the improvement of the local environment.

  16. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na

    2018-02-01

    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  17. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters.

  18. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  19. High pressure membrane foulants of seawater, brackish water and river water: Origin assessed by sugar and bacteriohopanepolyol signatures

    KAUST Repository

    Mondamert, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the origin of foulant material recovered on membranes used in water treatment. Firstly, sugar signatures were assessed from the monosaccharide composition. As results were not conclusive, a statistical approach using discriminant analysis was applied to the sugar data set in order to predict the origin of the foulant material. Three groups of various origins (algal, microbial, continental dissolved organic matter) were used as sugar references for the prediction. The results of the computation showed that the origin of reverse osmosis (RO) seawater foulant material is influenced by both the location of the water sources and the season. RO brackish water and nanofiltration river water foulant materials had a terrestrial origin. Secondly, bacteriohopanepolyol signatures indicated that RO seawater foulant material had a marine signature, RO brackish water foulant material had both a marine and a terrestrial origin and the nanofiltration river water foulant material contained only a terrestrial signature. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  20. Comparison of the landslide susceptibility models in Taipei Water Source Domain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, C. Y.; Yeh, Y. C.; Chou, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Taipei Water Source Domain, locating at the southeast of Taipei Metropolis, is the main source of water resource in this region. Recently, the downstream turbidity often soared significantly during the typhoon period because of the upstream landslides. The landslide susceptibilities should be analysed to assess the influence zones caused by different rainfall events, and to ensure the abilities of this domain to serve enough and quality water resource. Generally, the landslide susceptibility models can be established based on either a long-term landslide inventory or a specified landslide event. Sometimes, there is no long-term landslide inventory in some areas. Thus, the event-based landslide susceptibility models are established widely. However, the inventory-based and event-based landslide susceptibility models may result in dissimilar susceptibility maps in the same area. So the purposes of this study were to compare the landslide susceptibility maps derived from the inventory-based and event-based models, and to interpret how to select a representative event to be included in the susceptibility model. The landslide inventory from Typhoon Tim in July, 1994 and Typhoon Soudelor in August, 2015 was collected, and used to establish the inventory-based landslide susceptibility model. The landslides caused by Typhoon Nari and rainfall data were used to establish the event-based model. The results indicated the high susceptibility slope-units were located at middle upstream Nan-Shih Stream basin.

  1. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  3. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  4. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  5. [Water sources of Nitraria sibirica and response to precipitation in two desert habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wen Zhi; He, Zhi Bin

    2017-07-18

    Nitraria sibirica usually exists in a form of nebkhas, and has strong ecological adaptability. The plant species has distinctive function for wind prevention and sand fixation, and resistance drought and salt. However, the water condition is still a limiting factor for the plant survival and development. In order to understand the water use strategy of the plant in different desert habitats, we selected the N. sibirica growing in sandy desert habitat and gravel desert habitat to study the seaso-nal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation at the edge of the oasis of Linze in the Hexi Corridor. We measured the oxygen stable isotope of the plant stem water and the different potential water sources (precipitation, soil water and ground water), and used the IsoSource model to calculate the proportion of water sources from the potential water. The results showed that there were significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ 18 O value and water source of stem water for the plant in the two habitats. In the sandy habitat, the plant used more ground water in the less precipitation seasons including spring and fall, and more than 50% of the water sources absorbed from ground water. However, under the condition of gravel habitat, the plant could not achieve the ground water level depth of 11.5 m, and its water source was controlled by precipitation, which had large seasonal variability. The water sources of N. sibirica had significant responses to the change of precipitation in the two desert habitats. Following the rapid decrease of soil water content after the precipitation events, the plant in the sandy habitat turned to use the abundant ground water as the main sources of water, while the plant in the gravel habitat only used the less water from precipita-tion infiltration to the deep soil. Therefore, different water use strategies of the plant in the two habitats were the main reason for the difference in growth characteristics, and it had a

  6. Evaluation of Nonpoint-Source Contamination, Wisconsin: Selected Topics for Water Year 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D.W.; Corsi, Steven R.; Rappold, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP's) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in eight rural and four urban watersheds. This report, the fourth in an annual series of reports, presents a summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S. Geological Survey and the results of several detailed analyses of the data. To complement assessments of water quality, a land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track nonpoint sources of contamination in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that were designed to cause changes in the water quality of streams. Each year, updated information is gathered, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of land-use, BMP implementation, and water-quality data collected during water years 1989-95 are presented. Storm loads, snowmelt-period loads, and annual loads of suspended sediment and total phosphorus are summarized for eight rural sites. Storm-load data for suspended solids, total phosphorus, total recoverable lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium are summarized for four urban sites. Quality-assurance and quality-control (QA/QC) samples were collected at the eight rural sites to evaluate inorganic sample contamination and at one urban site to evaluate sample-collection and filtration techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAR's). Some suspended solids and fecal coliform contamination was detected at the rural sites. Corrective actions will be taken to address this contamination. Evaluation of PAR sample-collection techniques did not uncover any deficiencies, but the small amount of data collected was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusions. Evaluation of PAR filtration techniques indicate that water-sample filtration with O.7-um glass-fiber filters in an aluminum filter unit does not result in significant loss

  7. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  8. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1).

  9. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  10. World water resources and water use: Modern assessment and outlook for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiklomanov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the world water resources, water use, and water availability has been made during 1991-1996. The assessment has been made in retrospective for the period 1921-1985, for 1995, and for the future (2000, 2010 and 2025)

  11. Quantification of micropollutants in some water sources in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    their waste assimilative capacity is a threat to both ecology of the ecosystems and health of the ... pesticide residues in river water and sediments from northern Tanzania. .... Pangani River Basin Water Board (PBWB). ..... release of Ni in the environment are forest fires and .... Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences.

  12. Investigation of Different Water Sources as a Possible Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio cholerae, 01 serogroup, Ogawa serotype and EI-Tor biotype was isolated from 20.8% of the water samples tested. These isolates showed multiple resistance to antibiotics particularly tetracycline but were susceptible to the cephalosporins. Eleven other water samples (45.8%) showed growth of Enterococcus faecalis ...

  13. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority.

  14. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  15. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jekel, Martin; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Meinel, Felix; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Pflugmacher Lima, Stephan; Baur, Nina; Wenzel, Melanie; Gnierß, Regina; Sperlich, Alexander; Dünnbier, Uwe; Böckelmann, Uta; Hummelt, Daniel; van Baar, Patricia; Wode, Florian; Petersohn, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    First published by Springer: Jekel, Martin et al.: Anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants and pathogens in the urban water cycle: assessment, barriers and risk communication (ASKURIS). - In: Environmental Sciences Europe. - ISSN 2190-4715 (online). - 25 (2013), art. 20. - doi:10.1186/2190-4715-25-20. In urban areas, water often flows along a partially closed water cycle in which treated municipal wastewater is discharged into surface waters which are one source of raw waters used for dr...

  17. Seasonal Variation in Drinking and Domestic Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Duret, Michel; de Waal, Dominick; Khush, Ranjiv

    2017-01-01

    We compared dry and rainy season water sources and their quality in the urban region of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Representative sampling indicated that municipal water supplies represent < 1% of the water sources. Residents rely on privately constructed and maintained boreholes that are supplemented by commercially packaged bottled and sachet drinking water. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms increased from 21% of drinking water sources in the dry season to 42% of drinking water sources in the rainy season (N = 356 and N = 397). The most significant increase was in sachet water, which showed the lowest frequencies of contamination in the dry season compared with other sources (15%, N = 186) but the highest frequencies during the rainy season (59%, N = 76). Only half as many respondents reported drinking sachet water in the rainy season as in the dry season. Respondents primarily used flush or pour-flush toilets connected to septic tanks (85%, N = 399). The remainder relied on pit latrines and hanging (pier) latrines that drained into surface waters. We found significant associations between fecal contamination in boreholes and the nearby presence of hanging latrines. Sanitary surveys of boreholes showed that more than half were well-constructed, and we did not identify associations between structural or site deficiencies and microbial water quality. The deterioration of drinking water quality during the rainy season is a serious public health risk for both untreated groundwater and commercially packaged water, highlighting a need to address gaps in monitoring and quality control. PMID:27821689

  18. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  19. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  20. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  1. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approves the use of E. coli as a fecal indicator for source water monitoring under this paragraph (a). If the repeat sample collected from the ground water source is E.coli positive, the system must comply... listed in the in paragraph (c)(2) of this section for the presence of E. coli, enterococci, or coliphage...

  2. Resources and needs: assessment of the world water situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The global water situation is assessed. Movement and distribution of water in the hydrologic cycle is described. Methods of appraising surface water, precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater, and water quality are reviewed. The reliability of such appraisals depends greatly on the adequacy of national water observation networks. Global water supplies and quality of lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater are estimated. The effects of runoff, climate, and human activities on supplies are briefly discussed. The use and demand of water for domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydroelectric, transportation, and recreational needs are assessed. Methods of projecting water demand and quality are reviewed. Demand and supply relationships for various regions of the world are presented. Socioeconomic, financial, technical, administrative, legal, and environmental considerations of these relationships are examined. By using available technology and institutional devices, the world water situation can be improved. (1 diagram, 3 graphs, 8 tables)

  3. Using Dual Isotopes and a Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model to Evaluate Nitrate Sources of Surface Water in a Drinking Water Source Watershed, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A high concentration of nitrate (NO3− in surface water threatens aquatic systems and human health. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental to making effective water management strategies. However, nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mix land use watersheds remain unclear. In this study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years’ monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, China. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (ranging from 0.02 to 8.57 mg/L were spatially heterogeneous that were influenced by hydrogeological and land use conditions. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage, M & S; soil nitrogen, NS; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall were estimated by using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. The results showed that nitrate sources contributions varied significantly among different rainfall conditions and land use types. As for the whole watershed, M & S (manure and sewage and NS (soil nitrogen were major nitrate sources in both wet and dry seasons (from 28% to 36% for manure and sewage and from 24% to 27% for soil nitrogen, respectively. Overall, combining a dual isotopes method with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offered a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as quantitatively estimate the contributions of potential nitrate sources in drinking water source watersheds, Jianghuai hilly region, eastern China.

  4. Influence of iodine chemistry on source term assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz Puebla, L. E.; Lopez Diez, I.; Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Martinez Lopez-Alcorocho, A.

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of a phenomenology analysis of containment during a severe accident situation can be spitted into the following ones: to know the containment response to the different loads and to predict accurately the fission product and aerosol behavior. In this report, the main results coming from the study of a hypothetical accident scenario, based on LA-4 experiment of LACE project, are presented. In order to do it, several codes have been coupled: CONTEMPT4/MOD5 (thermohydraulics), NAUA/MOD5 (aerosol physics) and IODE (iodine chemistry). It has been demonstrated the impossibility of assessing with confidence the Source Term if the chemical conduct of some radionuclides is not taken into account. In particular, the influence on the iodine retention efficiency of the sump of variables such as pH has been proven. (Author)12 refs

  5. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  6. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  7. Water diffusion to assess meat microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Luca; Venturi, Luca; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Petracci, Massimiliano

    2017-12-01

    In the quest for setting up rapid methods to evaluate water retention ability of meat microstructures, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has gained a prominent role, due to the possibility to observe water located outside the myofibrils, easily lost upon storage or cooking. Diffusion weighted signals could be used to monitor the shape and dimension of the pores in which water is confined, thus boosting the information offered by TD-NMR. The work outlines a parsimonious model to describe relative abundance and diffusion coefficient of intra and extra myofibrillar water populations, exchange rate between them, diameter of the myofibrillar cells. To test our model, we registered diffusion and T 2 weighted NMR signals at 20MHz on fresh meat from pectoralis major muscle of 100days old female turkey. We then purposely altered water distribution and myofibrils shape by means of freezing. The model predicted nicely the consequences of the imposed modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Rethinking historical and cultural source of spontaneous mental models of water cycle: in the perspective of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong

    2012-06-01

    This review explores Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's paper titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how the authors use the concept of spontaneous mental models to explain cultural knowledge source of Bedouin children's mental model of water compared to Jewish children's mental model of water in nature. My response to Ben-Zvi Assaraf et al.'s work expands upon their explanations of the Bedouin children's cultural knowledge source. Bedouin children's mental model is based on their culture, religion, place of living and everyday life practices related to water. I suggest a different knowledge source for spontaneous mental model of water in nature based on unique history and traditions of South Korea where people think of water in nature in different ways. This forum also addresses how western science dominates South Korean science curriculum and ways of assessing students' conceptual understanding of scientific concepts. Additionally I argue that western science curriculum models could diminish Korean students' understanding of natural world which are based on Korean cultural ways of thinking about the natural world. Finally, I also suggest two different ways of considering this unique knowledge source for a more culturally relevant teaching Earth system education.

  9. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  10. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  11. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  12. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  13. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  14. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ``Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination``, IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ``Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means``, IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs.

  15. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ''Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination'', IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ''Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means'', IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs

  16. Web based system for renewable energy sources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrakov, Stanko; Ivanov, Lachezar South

    2011-01-01

    The RES A ssess software is developed to assist in the preliminary assessment of potential renewable energy projects. The first release includes water pumping solar systems, passive solar systems, wind, and geothermal energy and biomass. The program guides the users in the design of their systems, by providing initial estimates. By changing the system’s parameters, users are able to quickly screen an effective technology and system size depending on load, climatic conditions, and season of use. This paper describes scope of models (radiation, wind, geothermal, heat transfer) used to predict energy production from energy resource systems, climatic variables and system parameters and software technology for realising the project. Keywords: Energy projects, Renewable energy, Web system

  17. Root distribution of Nitraria sibirica with seasonally varying water sources in a desert habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zheng, Xinjun; Li, Shoujuan

    2015-07-01

    In water-limited environments, the water sources used by desert shrubs are critical to understanding hydrological processes. Here we studied the oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ (18)O) of stem water of Nitraria sibirica as well as those of precipitation, groundwater and soil water from different layers to identify the possible water sources for the shrub. The results showed that the shrub used a mixture of soil water, recent precipitation and groundwater, with shallow lateral roots and deeply penetrating tap (sinker) roots, in different seasons. During the wet period (in spring), a large proportion of stem water in N. sibirica was from snow melt and recent precipitation, but use of these sources declined sharply with the decreasing summer rain at the site. At the height of summer, N. sibirica mainly utilized deep soil water from its tap roots, not only supporting the growth of shoots but also keeping the shallow lateral roots well-hydrated. This flexibility allowed the plants to maintain normal metabolic processes during prolonged periods when little precipitation occurs and upper soil layers become extremely dry. With the increase in precipitation that occurs as winter approaches, the percentage of water in the stem base of a plant derived from the tap roots (deep soil water or ground water) decreased again. These results suggested that the shrub's root distribution and morphology were the most important determinants of its ability to utilize different water sources, and that its adjustment to water availability was significant for acclimation to the desert habitat.

  18. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  19. Microbial safety assessment of recreation water at Lake Nabugabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Lake Nabugabo, microbial safety assessment, recreation water, water quality. ... the environment is favourable for growth (Jaiani et al., ... Swimming and bathing in inland waters are recognized .... in India. This can be attributed to variation in number of recreational users and the frequency of use of the various.

  20. Grounding Water: Building Conceptual Understanding through Multimodal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kerry L.; Thomas-Hilburn, Holly; Haverland, Arin

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is growing by about 80 million people a year, implying an estimated increased freshwater demand of about 64 billion cubic meters annually (World Water Assessment Programme, 2009, Water in a Changing World: United Nations World Water Development Report 3, Chap. 1, p. 3-21). Groundwater depletion, which reduces the amount of…

  1. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  2. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  3. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... quality of drinking water at the point of delivery to the consumer is crucial in safeguarding consumer's health. The current study was undertaken to assess the changes in residual chlorine content with distance in water distribution system in Gwalior city of Madhya Pradesh and assess its relation with the occurrence of total ...

  4. Response of balanites aegyptiaca (l.) del. var. aegyptiaca seedlings from three different sources to water and salinity stressess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfeel, A.A.; Abohassan, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Water and salinity are main co-occurring stresses affecting plant growth and development in arid lands. In this study interactive effects of water and salinity stresses on Balanites aegyptiaca seedlings from three different sources (SD5.1, SD6.2 and KSA) were assessed in potted experiment under greenhouse conditions. The effect was measured on stomatal conductance (Gs), specific leaf area (SLA), seedling quality (Shoot to Root ratio (S/R), Dickson Quality Index (DQI) and Sturdiness Quotient (SQ)), Nutrient uptake (N content, K/Na and Ca/Na ratios) and growth. The seedlings were either watered twice a week (well watered) or every two weeks (water stressed), in addition to four salt concentrations (fresh water as control, 5 dS m-1, 7 dS m-1 and 9 dS m-1 EC). Water and salinity stresses resulted in reduced Gs, SLA, DQ, SQ and S/R, associated with lower height and root collar diameter. However, irrespective of salt concentration, water stressed seedlings displayed substantial reduction in Gs, indicating that Gs is among the most important water conservation strategy for this species. S/R also, remarkably decreased in water stressed seedlings, but, within watering treatment it was increased with increasing salt concentration. SLA and DQI were more affected by salinity stress, due to the increased leaf weight with increasing salinity. N content was more sensitive to water stress than salinity. Both Ca/Na and K/Na ratios were decreased with increasing salt concentration. The three sources exhibited significant variation in their response to water and salinity stresses. SD5.1 displayed higher values in most of studied traits. Gs and S/R may be considered as fitness responses of this species to water stress, while DQI, SLA and K/Na can serve as good indicators to measure response to salt stress. (author)

  5. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  6. Water. Sleeping Energy source; Wasser. Energiequelle im Dornroeschenschlaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-12-11

    The intelligent utilization of water power is so old as human civilization. An intelligent further development of advanced technologies is still sleeping. Suitable kinds of utilization and advanced technology attempts are presented in this contribution. Some are more likely exotic, but the water giants of Assuan and the three-canyons project in China present themselves more and more as a ticking environmental bomb. (orig./GL)

  7. Use assessment of electronic power sources for SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the efficacy of the use of modern technologies for power supplies in Shielded Metal Are Welding (SMAW. Coupon tests were welded by using a series of five different classes of commercial electrodes, covering their current ranges. Both a conventional electromagnetic and an electronic (inverter power sources were employed. Fusion rate, deposition efficiency, bead finish and weld geometry were measured at each experiment. Current and voltage signals were acquired at a high rate to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the power sources. The static performances of both power sources were also determined. The results showed that despite the remarkable differences between the power supplies, based on static and dynamic characterizations, no significant difference was noticed in the operational behavior of the electrodes, in the given conditions, apart from a better anti-stick performance obtained with the electronic power source.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del uso de tecnologías modernas para fuentes de energía en soldaduras con electrodo revestido (Shielded Metal Are Welding -SMAW-. Los materiales de ensayo se soldaron usando una serie de cinco clases diferentes de electrodos comerciales, cubriendo sus rangos de corriente. Para esto se utilizó una fuente de energía electromagnética convencional y una fuente de energía electrónica (inversora. La tasa de fusión, eficiencia de deposición, terminación del cordón así como el diseño de la soldadura se midieron en cada experimento. Las señales de corriente y voltaje se obtuvieron a una proporción alta para evaluar el comportamiento dinámico de las fuentes de energía. También se determinó la actuación estática de ambas fuentes. Los resultados mostraron que a pesar de las diferencias notables entre los suministros de energía, no se nota diferencia alguna significante en la conducta de trabajo de los electrodos, en

  8. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F

    2012-10-15

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  10. Input for seismic hazard assessment using Vrancea seismic source region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Iren-Adelina; Enescu, B.D.; Pantea, A.

    1998-01-01

    We use an extended and combined data base including historical and modern, qualitative and quantitative data, i.e., more than 25 events during the period 1790 - 1990 with epicentral/maximum intensities ranging from X to V degree (MSK scale), the variation interval of isoseismal curves ranging from IX th to III rd degree. The data set was analysed using both the sum phasor techniques of Ridelek and Sacks (1984) for different magnitudes and depth intervals and the Stepp's method. For the assessment of seismic hazard we need a pattern of seismic source regions including an estimation for the maximum expected magnitude and the return period for the studied regions. Another necessary step in seismic hazard assessment is to develop attenuation relationships specific to a seismogenic zone, particularly to sub-crustal earthquakes of Vrancea region. The conceptual frame involves the use of appropriate decay models and consideration of the randomness in the attenuation, taking into account the azimuthal variation of the isoseist shapes. (authors)

  11. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and chloride were obtained by titration method while the nitrate concentration levels were determined by spectrophotometer. Tap water was found to be of high quality than other sources in ...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  14. Risk assessment of radon in drinking water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Risk Assessment of Exposure to Radon in Drinking Water, National Research Council

    .... This book presents a valuable synthesis of information about the total inhalation and ingestion risks posed by radon in public drinking water, including comprehensive reviews of data on the transfer...

  15. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken use of wildlife water guzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.

    2014-01-01

    Man-made water sources have been used as a management tool for wildlife, especially in arid regions, but the value of these water sources for wildlife populations is not well understood. In particular, the value of water as a conservation tool for Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is unknown. However, this is a relevant issue due to a heightened conservation concern for the species and its occupancy of an arid landscape anticipated to experience warmer, drier springs and winters. We assessed if Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use commercially available wildlife water guzzlers and if there was any apparent selection between two design types. We confirmed that Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use bird friendly designed wildlife water guzzlers. Use was primarily during the lekking-nesting period (March–May) and the brood rearing period (June–July) and primarily by males. Although both designs were used, we found significantly greater use of a design that had a wider water trough and ramp built into the tank cover compared to a design that had a longer, narrower trough extending from the tank.Although we were unable to assess the physiological need of surface water by Lesser Prairie-Chickens, we were able to verify that they will use wildlife water guzzlers to access surface water. If it is found surface water is beneficial for Lesser Prairie-Chickens, game bird friendly designed guzzlers may be a useful conservation tool for the species.

  16. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  17. Assessment of water quality of a river-dominated estuary with hydrochemical parameters: A statistical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padma, P.; Sheela, V.S.; Suryakumari, S.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.; Kumar, N.C.

    stream_size 64084 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt stream_source_info Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Water Qual Expo Health DOI 10.1007/s12403-014-0115-9 ORIGINAL PAPER Assessment of Water Quality of a River-Dominated Estuary with Hydrochemical Parameters: A Statistical Approach P. Padma · V. S. Sheela · S. Suryakumari · K. V. Jayalakshmy · S. M. Nair...

  18. {sup 103}Pd strings: Monte Carlo assessment of a new approach to brachytherapy source design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Reed, Joshua L.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A new type of{sup 103}Pd source (CivaString and CivaThin by CivaTech Oncology, Inc.) is examined. The source contains {sup 103}Pd and Au radio-opaque marker(s), all contained within low-Z{sub eff} organic polymers that permit source flexibility. The CivaString source is available in lengths L of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm, and referred to in the current study as CS10–CS60, respectively. A thinner design, CivaThin, has sources designated as CT10–CT60, respectively. The CivaString and CivaThin sources are 0.85 and 0.60 mm in diameter, respectively. The source design is novel and offers an opportunity to examine its interesting dosimetric properties in comparison to conventional {sup 103}Pd seeds. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used to estimate air-kerma rate and dose rate distributions with polar and cylindrical coordinate systems. Doses in water and prostate tissue phantoms were compared to determine differences between the TG-43 formalism and realistic clinical circumstances. The influence of Ti encapsulation and 2.7 keV photons was examined. The accuracy of superposition of dose distributions from shorter sources to create longer source dose distributions was also assessed. Results: The normalized air-kerma rate was not highly dependent onL or the polar angle θ, with results being nearly identical between the CivaString and CivaThin sources for common L. The air-kerma strength was also weakly dependent on L. The uncertainty analysis established a standard uncertainty of 1.3% for the dose-rate constant Λ, where the largest contributors were μ{sub en}/ρ and μ/ρ. The Λ values decreased with increasing L, which was largely explained by differences in solid angle. The radial dose function did not substantially vary among the CivaString and CivaThin sources for r ≥ 1 cm. However, behavior for r < 1 cm indicated that the Au marker(s) shielded radiation for the sources having L = 10, 30, and 50 mm. The 2D anisotropy function

  19. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  20. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  1. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...... system, which includes a desiccant wheel and a dew point cooler. The system is simulated during the summer period in the Mediterranean climate of Rome and it results completely independent of external water sources. The seasonal thermal COP drops 8% in comparison to the open regeneration circuit solution...

  2. Microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: evidence from western Kenya and southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Caitlin A; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C; Nguyen, Kien; Blatchley, E R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources thanks to extensive effort from governments, and public and private sector entities. Despite this progress, many water sector development interventions do not provide access to safe water or fail to be sustained for long-term use. The authors examined drinking water quality of previously implemented water improvement projects in three communities in western Kenya and three communities in southern Vietnam. The cross-sectional study of 219 households included measurements of viable Escherichia coli. High rates of E. coli prevalence in these improved water sources were found in many of the samples. These findings suggest that measures above and beyond the traditional 'improved source' definition may be necessary to ensure truly safe water throughout these regions.

  3. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  4. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  5. Implementing Pollution Source Control—Learning from the Innovation Process in English and Welsh Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the stimulation and management of innovation by water utilities is a key mechanism through which the challenges of securing sustainable water and wastewater services will be achieved. This paper describes the process of adopting source control interventions (SCIs) by water and sewerage

  6. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  7. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.

    2004-01-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  8. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P

    2004-02-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria bel