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Sample records for source pollution study

  1. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  2. Study on the Influence of Building Materials on Indoor Pollutants and Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the achievements and problems of indoor air quality research at home and abroad. The pollutants and pollution sources in the room are analyzed systematically. The types of building materials and pollutants are also discussed. The physical and chemical properties and health effects of main pollutants were analyzed and studied. According to the principle of mass balance, the basic mathematical model of indoor air quality is established. Considering the release rate of pollutants and indoor ventilation, a mathematical model for predicting the concentration of indoor air pollutants is derived. The model can be used to analyze and describe the variation of pollutant concentration in indoor air, and to predict and calculate the concentration of pollutants in indoor air at a certain time. The results show that the mathematical model established in this study can be used to analyze and predict the variation law of pollutant concentration in indoor air. The evaluation model can be used to evaluate the impact of indoor air quality and evaluation of current situation. Especially in the process of building and interior decoration, through pre-evaluation, it can provide reliable design parameters for selecting building materials and determining ventilation volume.

  3. Study on road surface source pollution controlled by permeable pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-06-01

    The increase of impermeable pavement in urban construction not only increases the runoff of the pavement, but also produces a large number of Non-Point Source Pollution. In the process of controlling road surface runoff by permeable pavement, a large number of particulate matter will be withheld when rainwater is being infiltrated, so as to control the source pollution at the source. In this experiment, we determined the effect of permeable road surface to remove heavy pollutants in the laboratory and discussed the related factors that affect the non-point pollution of permeable pavement, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of permeable pavement.

  4. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  5. Source-specific pollution exposure and associations with pulmonary response in the Atlanta Commuters Exposure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jenna R; Ladva, Chandresh N; Russell, Armistead G; Golan, Rachel; Peng, Xing; Shi, Guoliang; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U; Waller, Lance A; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2018-01-03

    Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters. We used constrained positive matrix factorization to estimate source-specific pollution factors and, subsequently, mixed effects models to estimate associations between source-specific pollution and pulmonary response. We identified four pollution factors that we named: crustal, primary tailpipe traffic, non-tailpipe traffic, and secondary. Among asthmatic subjects (N = 48), interquartile range increases in crustal and secondary pollution were associated with changes in lung function of -1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.45, -0.22) and -2.19% (95% CI: -3.46, -0.92) relative to baseline, respectively. Among non-asthmatic subjects (N = 51), non-tailpipe pollution was associated with pulmonary response only at 2.5 h post-commute. We found no significant associations between pulmonary response and primary tailpipe pollution. Health effects associated with traffic-related pollution may vary by source, and therefore some traffic pollution sources may require targeted interventions to protect health.

  6. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  7. Revealing transboundary and local air pollutant sources affecting Metro Manila through receptor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Santos, Flora L.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5) levels at the Metro Manila air sampling stations of the Philippine Nuclear Research Research Institute were found to be above the WHO guideline value of 10 μg m 3 indicating, in general, very poor air quality in the area. The elemental components of the fine particulate matter were obtained using the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Positive matrix factorization, a receptor modelling tool, was used to identify and apportion air pollution sources. Location of probable transboundary air pollutants were evaluated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) while location of probable local air pollutant sources were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF). Air pollutant sources can either be natural or anthropogenic. This study has shown natural air pollutant sources such as volcanic eruptions from Bulusan volcano in 2006 and from Anatahan volcano in 2005 to have impacted on the region. Fine soils was shown to have originated from China's Mu US Desert some time in 2004. Smoke in the fine fraction in 2006 show indications of coming from forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo. Fine particulate Pb in Valenzuela was shown to be coming from the surrounding area. Many more significant air pollution impacts can be evaluated with the identification of probable air pollutant sources with the use of elemental fingerprints and locating these sources with the use of HYSPLIT and CPF. (author)

  8. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  9. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  10. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  11. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modelling of pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroney, Robert N. [Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO (United States); Pavageau, Michel; Rafailidis, Stilianos; Schatzmann, Michael [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The University of Hamburg initiated a wind tunnel study of car exhaust dispersion from street canyons in an urban environment to investigate how pollution dispersion is affected by street geometry. Particular emphasis at the beginning of this work was put on the design of a line source to represent traffic exhaust. Pollution dispersion was studied in two dimensions (i.e., infinite-length streets were assumed). The case of an isolated street canyon in open country was examined first. The same street canyon geometry was subsequently studied in an urban environment, i.e., with additional canyons of similar geometry upstream and downstream of the test street. The dynamic and dispersion characteristics of the flow in the two cases were quite different. In the canyon amidst open country we observed better canyon ventilation than in the urban roughness case

  12. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  13. Impacts of urbanization on regional nonpoint source pollution: case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaosha; Chen, Lei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-04-01

    Due to limits on available data, the effects of urban sprawl on regional nonpoint source pollution (NPS) have not been investigated over long time periods. In this paper, the characteristics of urban sprawl from 1999 to 2014 in Beijing were explored by analyzing historical land-use data. The Event Mean Concentration data have been collected from all available references, which were used to estimate the variation in urban NPSs. Moreover, the impacts of variation in urban sprawl on regional NPSs were qualified. The results indicated that the urbanization process showed different influences on pollutants, while COD and TN were identified as key NPS pollutants. Residential areas contributed more NPS pollutants than did roads, which played a tremendous role in the control of urban NPS. The results also suggested in part that the impact of urban sprawl on the variation of COD decreased while TN increased in Beijing during the study period. These results would provide insight into the impacts of urban sprawl on NPS variation over a long period, as well as the reference for reasonable urban planning directives.

  14. The Water Quality Study and Sources of Pollution in Alur Ilmu, UKM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Afina Abd Mutalib; Othman Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    The Alur Ilmu UKM is a large storm water channel that serves to store water and flows into Langat River. The primary objective of this study are to identify the water quality and pollution levels, the sources of which may cause pollution and to measures the control pollution that occurs in the area. Water sampling was carried out in order to determine the quality of water. The sampling water was taken during no-rain and after rainfall. The area includes UKM Forest Reserve (Hutan Pendidikan Alam - HPA), Student Cafeteria (Teres Eko Niaga), Restaurant of Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi (FST), Student Centre (Pusanika), Fakulti Pendidikan Islam (FPI) and UKM Mosque. Eight water quality parameters for example consisting of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Temperature, Oil and Grease were measured. The results shows that the water quality are in a class III and IV according to Water quality Index (WQI) and the water meet the standard B that set out in the Regulations of the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Effluent). (author)

  15. Study of short time effect on health of a local air pollution source. Epidemiological approach; Etude des effets a court terme sur la sante d'une source locale de pollution atmospherique. Approche epidemiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzo, J.Ch. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, Reseau National de Sante Publique, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-07-01

    This document applies to health professionals who are facing with a problem of risks evaluation relative to a local source of air pollution and envisage to realize an epidemiological study. In this document, only the short term effects are considered and the situations of accidental pollution are not treated. Without being a methodological treatise it can be a tool to better understand the constraints and the limits of epidemiology to answer the difficult question of the impact evaluation on health of populations living near a local source of air pollution. (N.C.)

  16. Study of landscape patterns of variation and optimization based on non-point source pollution control in an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui; Wu, Haiyan

    2014-10-15

    Appropriate increases in the "sink" of a landscape can reduce the risk of non-point source pollution (NPSP) to the sea at relatively lower costs and at a higher efficiency. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image data taken between 2003 and 2008, we analyzed the "source" and "sink" landscape pattern variations of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in the Jiulongjiang estuary region. The contribution to the sea and distribution of each pollutant in the region was calculated using the LCI and mGLCI models. The results indicated that an increased amount of pollutants was contributed to the sea, and the "source" area of the nitrogen NPSP in the study area increased by 32.75 km(2). We also propose a landscape pattern optimization to reduce pollution in the Jiulongjiang estuary in 2008 through the conversion of cultivated land with slopes greater than 15° and paddy fields near rivers, and an increase in mangrove areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to Mobile Source Air Pollution in Early-life and Childhood Asthma Incidence: The Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Bates, Josephine T; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Hansen, Craig; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2018-01-01

    Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia. We estimated concentrations of mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5, µg/m), nitrogen oxides (NOX, ppb), and carbon monoxide (CO, ppm) at the maternal and child residence using a Research LINE source dispersion model for near-surface releases. Asthma was defined using diagnoses and medication dispensings from medical records. We used binomial generalized linear regression to model the impact of exposure continuously and by quintiles on asthma risk. Controlling for covariates and modeling log-transformed exposure, a 2.7-fold increase in first year of life PM2.5 was associated with an absolute 4.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%, 6.6%) increase in risk of asthma by age 5. Quintile analysis showed an increase in risk from the first to second quintile, but similar risk across quintiles 2-5. Risk differences increased with follow-up age. Results were similar for NOX and CO and for exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life owing to high correlation. Results provide limited evidence for an association of early-life mobile source air pollution with childhood asthma incidence with a steeper concentration-response relationship observed at lower levels of exposure.

  18. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  19. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  20. Preliminary study on air pollution source identification in Xinzhen, Beijing, using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caijin Xiao; Guiying Zhang; Donghui Huang; Bangfa Ni; Cunxiong Liu; Yali Qin; Hongchao Sun; Pingsheng Wang; Weizhi Tian

    2012-01-01

    A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth. (author)

  1. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  2. Receptor modeling studies for the characterization of PM10 pollution sources in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the major sources and potential source regions of PM10 over Belgrade, Serbia. The PM10 samples were collected from July 2003 to December 2006 in very urban area of Belgrade and concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The analysis of seasonal variations of PM10 mass and some element concentrations reported relatively higher concentrations in winter, what underlined the importance of local emission sources. The Unmix model was used for source apportionment purpose and the four main source profiles (fossil fuel combustion; traffic exhaust/regional transport from industrial centers; traffic related particles/site specific sources and mineral/crustal matter were identified. Among the resolved factors the fossil fuel combustion was the highest contributor (34% followed by traffic/regional industry (26%. Conditional probability function (CPF results identified possible directions of local sources. The potential source contribution function (PSCF and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT receptor models were used to identify spatial source distribution and contribution of regional-scale transported aerosols. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007 i br. III41011

  3. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  4. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  5. A hydrogeochemical study of rain water to characterize the source of atmospheric pollutants at Jodhpur - desert city of India (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.L.; Ojha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken has been conducted to determined the physical parameters and chemical species in the first precipitants of the season at desert city of Jodhpur to understand firstly, the degree of pollutants in the atmosphere and secondly to identity the minerals/pollutants of the atmosphere to characterize its possible source of origin. The precipitate samples for cations and other physical and chemical parameters by standard analytical methods. The results obtained on turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and the ratio of total dissolved solids and conductivity, show a moderate degree of pollutants at all the four sites, A, B, C and D but slightly higher at C and D sites. The concentration of various water-soluble chemical species present in the precipitates, specially a balance between acidic and basic constituents decides its pH value. Hydrogen ions are mainly responsible for acidification of rain waters and are derived chiefly from oxidation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ to from H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ respectively. Hence a correlation study carried out between H/sup */and SO/sub 4//sup --/, NO/sub 3/ and Cl. Result shows no strong correlation between H/sup +/ and Cl/up -/. A group of strongly corrected elements Cl, Na/sup +/,K/sup +/ and Mg/sup ++/ were observed representing a similar source of their origin. The atmospheric desert dust components chiefly consist of quartz, mica flakes, clays like illite, kaolinite etc., and especially clays, may neutralize the acidity of precipitates via H/sup +/ exchange. Some minerals like Halite, Gypsum, Dolomite, Calcite may get slightly dissolved in the rainwater to replace H/sup +/ ions and so, impart alkalinity. Thus, it is logical to believe that the cations may have been derived originally from some of the geological source. Some rations like Cl/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na are known to have been used in characterization of the source. As expected in the atmosphere of desert city, like Jodhpur, the solid

  6. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...

  7. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application

  8. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Gomti river (India) using multivariate statistical techniques--a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Malik, Amrita; Sinha, Sarita

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the data set on water quality of the Gomti river (India), generated during three years (1999-2001) monitoring at eight different sites for 34 parameters (9792 observations). This study presents usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and interpretation of large complex water quality data sets and apportionment of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Three significant groups, upper catchments (UC), middle catchments (MC) and lower catchments (LC) of sampling sites were obtained through CA on the basis of similarity between them. FA/PCA applied to the data sets pertaining to three catchments regions of the river resulted in seven, seven and six latent factors, respectively responsible for the data structure, explaining 74.3, 73.6 and 81.4% of the total variance of the respective data sets. These included the trace metals group (leaching from soil and industrial waste disposal sites), organic pollution group (municipal and industrial effluents), nutrients group (agricultural runoff), alkalinity, hardness, EC and solids (soil leaching and runoff process). DA showed the best results for data reduction and pattern recognition during both temporal and spatial analysis. It rendered five parameters (temperature, total alkalinity, Cl, Na and K) affording more than 94% right assignations in temporal analysis, while 10 parameters (river discharge, pH, BOD, Cl, F, PO 4 , NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, TKN and Zn) to afford 97% right assignations in spatial analysis of three different regions in the basin. Thus, DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set, delineating a few indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. Further

  9. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  10. Urban Sources of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions.......A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions....

  11. Air quality impacted by local pollution sources and beyond - Using a prominent petro-industrial complex as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Lin, Wen-Dian; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chiu, Ching-Jui; Chiang, Hung-Chi; Fan, Chen-Lun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S

    2018-05-01

    The present study combines high-resolution measurements at various distances from a world-class gigantic petrochemical complex with model simulations to test a method to assess industrial emissions and their effect on local air quality. Due to the complexity in wind conditions which were highly seasonal, the dominant wind flow patterns in the coastal region of interest were classified into three types, namely northeast monsoonal (NEM) flows, southwest monsoonal (SEM) flows and local circulation (LC) based on six years of monitoring data. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was chosen as an indicative pollutant for prominent industrial emissions. A high-density monitoring network of 12 air-quality stations distributed within a 20-km radius surrounding the petrochemical complex provided hourly measurements of SO 2 and wind parameters. The SO 2 emissions from major industrial sources registered by the monitoring network were then used to validate model simulations and to illustrate the transport of the SO 2 plumes under the three typical wind patterns. It was found that the coupling of observations and modeling was able to successfully explain the transport of the industrial plumes. Although the petrochemical complex was seemingly the only major source to affect local air quality, multiple prominent sources from afar also played a significant role in local air quality. As a result, we found that a more complete and balanced assessment of the local air quality can be achieved only after taking into account the wind characteristics and emission factors of a much larger spatial scale than the initial (20 km by 20 km) study domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting the sensitivity of magnetic response on different pollution sources--A case study from typical mining cities in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Dunsheng; Yu, Ye; Jia, Jia; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Rapid monitoring and discriminating different anthropogenic pollution is a key scientific issue. To detect the applicability and sensitivity of magnetic measurements for evaluating different industrial pollution in urban environment, characteristics of topsoil from three typical fast developing industrial cities (Jinchang, Baiyin and Jiayuguan in Gansu province, northwestern China) were studied by magnetic and geochemical analyses. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility was enhanced near industrial areas, and PSD-MD magnetite dominated the magnetic properties. Magnetic concentration parameters (χlf, SIRM, and χARM) showed different correlations with heavy metals and PLI in the three cities, indicating significantly different magnetic response to different pollution sources. Principal component analysis showed that ferrimagnetic minerals coexist with heavy metals of Fe, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Baiyin and Fe, V, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Cr in Jiayuguan. Fuzzy cluster analysis and regression analysis further indicated that the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to fuel dust is higher than that to mineral dust near non-ferrous metal smelters, and fossil fuel consumption is an important factor for increasing magnetite content. In all the three cities, the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to pollutants from steel plants is much higher than that from non-ferrous metal plants. Therefore, magnetic proxies provide a rapid means for detecting heavy metal contamination caused by multi-anthropogenic pollution sources in a large scale area, however, the sensitivity was controlled by pollution sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of instrumental nuclear activation methods in the study of particles from major air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Gladney, E.S.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear methods have been used effectively in the study of particles emitted by a coal-fired power plant and a municipal incinerator. In the coal-fired plant there is appreciable fractionation of only five of the observed elements. By contrast, particles from the incinerator are highly enriched in several trace elements

  14. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  15. Runoff characteristics and non-point source pollution analysis in the Taihu Lake Basin: a case study of the town of Xueyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q D; Sun, J H; Hua, G F; Wang, J H; Wang, H

    2015-10-01

    Non-point source pollution is a significant environmental issue in small watersheds in China. To study the effects of rainfall on pollutants transported by runoff, rainfall was monitored in Xueyan town in the Taihu Lake Basin (TLB) for over 12 consecutive months. The concentrations of different forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand, were monitored in runoff and river water across different land use types. The results indicated that pollutant loads were highly variable. Most N losses due to runoff were found around industrial areas (printing factories), while residential areas exhibited the lowest nitrogen losses through runoff. Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were the dominant forms of soluble N around printing factories and hotels, respectively. The levels of N in river water were stable prior to the generation of runoff from a rainfall event, after which they were positively correlated to rainfall intensity. In addition, three sites with different areas were selected for a case study to analyze trends in pollutant levels during two rainfall events, using the AnnAGNPS model. The modeled results generally agreed with the observed data, which suggests that AnnAGNPS can be used successfully for modeling runoff nutrient loading in this region. The conclusions of this study provide important information on controlling non-point source pollution in TLB.

  16. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  17. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  18. Source apportionment of toxic chemical pollutants at Trombay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial production and transportation, a wide range of chemical pollutants such as trace and toxic metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc. eventually find their way into various environmental compartments. One of the main issues of environmental pollution is the chemical composition of aerosols and their sources. In spite of all the efforts a considerable part of the atmospheric aerosol mass is still not accounted for. This report describes some of the activities of Environmental Assessment Division which are having direct relevance to the public health and regulatory bodies. Extensive studies were carried out in our laboratories for the Trombay site, over the years; on the organic as well as inorganic pollution in the environment to understand inter compartmental behaviour of these chemical pollutants. In this report an attempt has been made to collect different size fractionated ambient aerosols and to quantify the percentage contribution of each size fraction to the total aerosol mass. Subsequently, an effort has been made for chemical characterization (inorganic, organic and carbon content) of these particulate matter using different analytical techniques. The comprehensive data set on chemical characterization of particulate matter thus generated is being used with receptor modeling techniques to identify the possible sources contributing to the observed concentrations of the measured pollutants. The use of this comprehensive data set in receptor modeling has been helpful in distinguishing the source types in a better way. Receptor modeling techniques are powerful tools that can be used to locate sources of pollutants to the atmosphere. The major advantage of the receptor models is that actual ambient data are used to apportion source contributions, negating the need for dispersion calculations. Pollution sources affecting the sampling site were statistically identified using varimax rotated factor analysis of

  19. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  20. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. Second part: analysis of results and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. This second part presents the results of the studies. Based on a literature review (51 papers), this article presents an analysis of the contribution of self-reported health to epidemiological studies investigating local sources of environmental pollution. It discusses the associations between self-reported health and exposure variables, and other risk factors that can influence health reporting. Studies using self-reported health showed that local sources can be associated with a wide range of health outcomes, including an impact on mental health and well-being. The perception of pollution, especially sensory information such as odors, affects self-reported health. Attitudes referring to beliefs, worries and personal behaviors concerning the source of pollution have a striking influence on reported health. Attitudes can be used to estimate the reporting bias in a biomedical approach, and also constitute the main explanatory factors in biopsychosocial studies taking into account not only the biological, physical, and chemical factors but also the psychological and social factors at stake in a situation of environmental exposure. Studying self-reported health enables a multifactorial approach to health in a context of environmental exposure. This approach is most relevant when conducted within a multidisciplinary framework involving human and social sciences to better understand psychosocial factors. The relevance of this type of approach used as an epidemiological surveillance tool to monitor local situations should be assessed with regard to needs for public health management of these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavior of pollutants from the instantaneous sources in mine airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuel-Kassem, M. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1993-12-31

    The air quality management of roadway tunnels is an important task; that is the roadway tunnels either natural or mechanical ventilation is required to keep air quality within the acceptable levels for pollutants. The main objective of this paper is to study the behavior of pollutants from the blasting operation during tunneling as an instantaneous source in mines based on the diffusion modeling. Diffusion models are modified and applied to estimate the concentration of pollutants using a computer program. (Author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Nicholas, Tyler P; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Burke, Gregory L; Watson, Karol E; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D

    2018-03-06

    Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO 2 concentration was 5.1 ppb indoors and 32.3 ppb in-vehicle during drives. On average, indoor exposure contributed 69% and in-vehicle exposure contributed 24% of participants' ambient-source NO 2 exposure. For participants in the highest quartile of time in-vehicle (≥1.3 h/day), indoor and in-vehicle contributions were 60 and 31%, respectively. Incorporating infiltrated indoor and measured in-vehicle NO 2 produced exposure estimates 5.6 ppb lower, on average, than using only outdoor concentrations. The indoor microenvironment accounted for the largest proportion of ambient-source exposure in this older population, despite higher concentrations of NO 2 outdoors and in vehicles than indoors. In-vehicle exposure was more influential among participants who drove the most and for participants residing in areas with lower outdoor air pollution. Failure to characterize exposures in these microenvironments may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Characterization and indentification of air pollution sources in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Morco, Ryan P.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.

    2010-01-01

    Air particulates matter (PM 1 0 and PM 2 .5) is a mixture of different pollutant sources which can be of anthropogenic and/or natural origin. Identification and apportionment of pollutant sources is important to be able to have better understanding of prevailing conditions in the area and thus better air quality management can be applied. Results have shown that in all the sampling sites, a major fraction of pollutant sources come from vehicular or traffic-oriented sources, comprising more than 30% of PM 2 .5. Of particular great concern especially in the residents of the area are the high Pb levels in Valenzuela City. In 2005, the annual mean level of PM 1 0 Pb in Valenzuela was 0.267 μg/m 3 while the other PNRI sampling sites registered annual mean levels between 0033 to 0.085 μ/m 3 . The high Pb condition is reflected in the source apportionment studies with Pb sources showing up in both the coarse (PM 1 0-2.5) and the fine fractions (PM 2 .5). The CPF analysis plots of 2008 Pb levels in both the coarse and the fine fractions show patterns for probable sources in 2008. Further study of the location of battery recycling facilities and other possible sources of lead is needed to validate the results of the CPF determination. (author)

  4. Identifiability and Identification of Trace Continuous Pollutant Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental pollution events often threaten people’s health and lives, and a pollutant source is very necessary so that prompt remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, a trace continuous pollutant source identification method is developed to identify a sudden continuous emission pollutant source in an enclosed space. The location probability model is set up firstly, and then the identification method is realized by searching a global optimal objective value of the location probability. In order to discuss the identifiability performance of the presented method, a conception of a synergy degree of velocity fields is presented in order to quantitatively analyze the impact of velocity field on the identification performance. Based on this conception, some simulation cases were conducted. The application conditions of this method are obtained according to the simulation studies. In order to verify the presented method, we designed an experiment and identified an unknown source appearing in the experimental space. The result showed that the method can identify a sudden trace continuous source when the studied situation satisfies the application conditions.

  5. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  6. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  7. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, H.; Owen, B.; Raper, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km 2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  8. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations.

  9. [Empirical study on non-point sources pollution based on landscape pattern & ecological processes theory: a case of soil water loss on the Loess Plateau in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, An-ning; Wang, Tian-ming; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Ge, Jian-ping

    2006-12-01

    Non-point sources pollution is one of main pollution modes which pollutes the earth surface environment. Aimed at soil water loss (a typical non-point sources pollution problem) on the Losses Plateau in China, the paper applied a landscape patternevaluation method to twelve watersheds of Jinghe River Basin on the Loess Plateau by means of location-weighted landscape contrast index(LCI) and landscape slope index(LSI). The result showed that LSI of farm land, low density grass land, forest land and LCI responded significantly to soil erosion modulus and responded to depth of runoff, while the relationship between these landscape index and runoff variation index and erosion variation index were not statistically significant. This tell us LSI and LWLCI are good indicators of soil water loss and thus have big potential in non-point source pollution risk evaluation.

  10. Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek Sewage ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Also, significant pollution of the receiving Keiskamma River was indicated for ...

  11. Sources of fluoride pollution in Kasur district, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Haq, M.M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Serious bone problems were reported in certain localities in Pakistan due to contamination of drinking water by fluoride pollution. Against WHO recommended threshold limit of 0.7 mg/L, about 40 mg/L of fluoride is determined by ion chromatographic technique of HPLC. The compositions of pollutants were investigated in the present study by examination the chemical and mineralogical studies of water and soil samples. It is found that main problem in Manga Mandi area of District Kasur, was caused due to the decomposition of phosphorus containing minerals in soil under acidic conditions. The other sources of fluoride contamination in different areas of Pakistan is being investigated. (author)

  12. Contributions of mobile, stationary and biogenic sources to air pollution in the Amazon rainforest: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rafee, Sameh A.; Martins, Leila D.; Kawashima, Ana B.; Almeida, Daniela S.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Souza, Rita V. A.; Oliveira, Maria B. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Urbina, Viviana; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Martin, Scot T.; Martins, Jorge A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the contributions of the emissions from mobile, stationary and biogenic sources on air pollution in the Amazon rainforest by using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. The analyzed air pollutants were CO, NOx, SO2, O3, PM2. 5, PM10 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Five scenarios were defined in order to evaluate the emissions by biogenic, mobile and stationary sources, as well as a future scenario to assess the potential air quality impact of doubled anthropogenic emissions. The stationary sources explain the highest concentrations for all air pollutants evaluated, except for CO, for which the mobile sources are predominant. The anthropogenic sources considered resulted an increasing in the spatial peak-temporal average concentrations of pollutants in 3 to 2780 times in relation to those with only biogenic sources. The future scenario showed an increase in the range of 3 to 62 % in average concentrations and 45 to 109 % in peak concentrations depending on the pollutant. In addition, the spatial distributions of the scenarios has shown that the air pollution plume from the city of Manaus is predominantly transported west and southwest, and it can reach hundreds of kilometers in length.

  13. Contributions of mobile, stationary and biogenic sources to air pollution in the Amazon rainforest: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Abou Rafee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the contributions of the emissions from mobile, stationary and biogenic sources on air pollution in the Amazon rainforest by using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem model. The analyzed air pollutants were CO, NOx, SO2, O3, PM2. 5, PM10 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Five scenarios were defined in order to evaluate the emissions by biogenic, mobile and stationary sources, as well as a future scenario to assess the potential air quality impact of doubled anthropogenic emissions. The stationary sources explain the highest concentrations for all air pollutants evaluated, except for CO, for which the mobile sources are predominant. The anthropogenic sources considered resulted an increasing in the spatial peak-temporal average concentrations of pollutants in 3 to 2780 times in relation to those with only biogenic sources. The future scenario showed an increase in the range of 3 to 62 % in average concentrations and 45 to 109 % in peak concentrations depending on the pollutant. In addition, the spatial distributions of the scenarios has shown that the air pollution plume from the city of Manaus is predominantly transported west and southwest, and it can reach hundreds of kilometers in length.

  14. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3 (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pollutant Source Identification Project (MB-3) sought to provide a summary and analysis of pollutant loads to Mamala Bay from both point and nonpoint sources....

  15. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  16. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  17. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  18. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  19. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  20. Reduction Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, YiCheng; Zang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    NPS (Non-point source) pollution has become a key impact element to watershed environment at present. With the development of technology, application of models to control NPS pollution has become a very common practice for resource management and Pollutant reduction control in the watershed scale of China. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a semi-conceptual model, which was put forward to estimate pollutant production & the influences on water quantity-quality under different...

  1. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, H.W.; Vlaanderen, J.J.; Henderson, S.E.; Brauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa,

  2. Rainfall Deduction Method for Estimating Non-Point Source Pollution Load for Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ming; Li, Huai-en; KAWAKAMI, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    The water pollution can be divided into point source pollution (PSP) and non-point source pollution (NSP). Since the point source pollution has been controlled, the non-point source pollution is becoming the main pollution source. The prediction of NSP load is being increasingly important in water pollution controlling and planning in watershed. Considering the monitoring data shortage of NPS in China, a practical estimation method of non-point source pollution load --- rainfall deduction met...

  3. Field methods for determining point source pollution impacts in rivers: A case study of the Grindsted stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    2013-01-01

    Water Framework Directive requires member states to evaluate all types of contamination sources within a watershed in order to assess their direct impact on water quality. Understanding and accurately characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions (GSI) and groundwater discharge is thus becoming...... was carried out in 2012, to develop the theoretical basis for conducting risk assessments for contaminated sites impacting surface waters. Grindsted stream was chosen, as groundwater flow is known to comprise an important part of the total water supply to the stream. It is also a well-studied site, affected...... a 5 km stream stretch, which were not visible at the regional scale, using systematic temperature measurements. We then correlated the two highly contaminated contact zones, using piezometers placed where streambed temperature measurements were waters...

  4. Lead isotopes as an environmental indicator of pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, G.; Pacyna, J.; Stray, H.

    1997-02-01

    An interesting question when determining and quantifying pollution is the characterisation of the sources. Also, is the pollution locally derived or is it longtransported? Analyses of Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations on airfilter from Oslo, Norway, together with analyses of coal of different origin and wood, show that the decrease in total Pb in the first half of the 1990's is not due only to the reduction of leaded petrol but that there are other important sources for the pollution which have been cut down. The reduction in emissions from coal burning in Europe can be seen on airfilter from Oslo and also the following reduction in leaded petrol. An isotopic study of lead on airfilter from the countryside outside Oslo implies that the finer particles have been atmospherically long transported while the coarser particles are of a more local origin, e.g. from domestic burning of wood. The above results show that the use of a natural isotopic system like Pb is a powerful tool for e.g. the determination of pollution, routes of its transportation, for the monitoring of processes of the present, and for provenance determinations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Comprehensive urban air quality studies of Islamabad: elemental characterization of PM10 and PM2.5, source apportionment and transboundary pollutant migration (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Daud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long term urban air quality of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been investigated as a part of the joint UNDP/IAEA/RCA/RAS/7/015 project, entitled C haracterization and source identification of particulate air pollution in the Asian region (RCA) . Around 380 pairs of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) polycarbonate filters from the Nilore area were collected using GENT sampler. The average PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 masses at this site were found to be 15.02 and 37.01 g/m/sup 3/ respectively that are far below to the Pakistani limit for PM10 of 100 g/m/sup 3/. The average Black Carbon (BC) was found to be 2.58 and 1.22 g/m/sup 3/ corresponding to 20.7% and 4.54% of the fine and coarse mass respectively. The non destructive Ion Beam Analysis method, Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were employed to quantify more than 40 elements in both fine and coarse fractions. The acquired elemental data has been statistically treated and subjected to mass closure studies, principal component and factor analysis to calculate correlation matrices. The reconstructed mass (RCM) was calculated for both particle modes using soil, sulphate, smoke, sea salt and BC as pseudo sources. Data analysis performed using EPA-PMF3 shows that the fine and coarse data for the suburban site identifies 4 sources; biomass/ combustion, road dust, soil and automobile. Long range transport of pollutants was studied using HYSPLIT4 model. It was observed that high fine soil contributions in this area were mainly from dust storms arriving from west and North West of the country. (author)

  6. Nitrogen component in nonpoint source pollution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollutants entering a water body can be very destructive to the health of that system. Best Management Practices (BMPs) and/or conservation practices are used to reduce these pollutants, but understanding the most effective practices is very difficult. Watershed models are an effective tool to aid...

  7. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wei, Jiahua; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-07-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample. - Highlights: • Chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used as the first step in source tracking. • Similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of pollution. • The fingerprints strongly depend on the chromatographic conditions. • A more effective and robust method for identifying similarities is required

  9. The electric power stations viewed as a source of local and transfrontier pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiu, C.; Sandu, I.

    1994-01-01

    The pollutant emission of the thermal power stations may have an important contribution to the local pollution as well as to regional (transfrontier) and global pollution. Due to the impossibility at present of making continuous monitoring of the emission of pollutants it is necessary to use computational models for obtaining inventories of the pollutant sources and for studying their dispersion into atmosphere. The computational code used to simulate the pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere is a climatologic model giving the annual average concentration and the evaluation of the maximum SO 2 concentration. The paper presents the analyses for the case of 14 thermal power stations of Romania

  10. Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four European cities: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steerenberg, P.A.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Lovik, M.; Hetland, R.B.; Alberg, T.; Halatek, T.; Bloemen, H.J.T.; Rydzynski, K.; Swaen, G.; Schwarze, P.; Dybing, E.; Cassee, F.R. [National Institute of Public Health & Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Centre for Environmental Health Research

    2006-05-15

    Given that there are widely different prevalence rates of respiratory allergies and asthma between the countries of Europe and that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is substantial in urban environments throughout Europe, an EU project entitled 'Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles' (RAIAP) was set up. The project focused on the role of physical and chemical composition of PM on release of cytokines of cells in vitro, on respiratory inflammation in vivo, and on adjuvant potency in allergy animal models. Coarse (2.5 - 10 {mu}m) and fine (0.15 - 2.5 {mu}m) particles were collected during the spring, summer and winter in Rome ( I), Oslo (N), Lodz (PL), and Amsterdam (NL). Markers within the same model were often well correlated. Markers of inflammation in the in vitro and in vivo models also showed a high degree of correlation. In contrast, correlation between parameters in the different allergy models and between allergy and inflammation markers was generally poor. This suggests that various bioassays are needed to assess the potential hazard of PM. The present study also showed that by clustering chemical constituents of PM based on the overall response pattern in the bioassays, five distinct groups could be identified. The clusters of traffic, industrial combustion and/or incinerators, and combustion of black and brown coal/wood smoke were associated primarily with adjuvant activity for respiratory allergy, whereas clusters of crustal of material and sea spray are predominantly associated with measures for inflammation and acute toxicity. The present study has shown that biological effect of PM can be linked to one or more PM emission sources and that this linkage requires a wide range of bioassays.

  11. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  12. Retrospective and prospective analysis of water use and point source pollution from an economic perspective-a case study of Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Lei; Huang, Guohe

    2017-11-01

    Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, this study explored the dynamic trends of water use and point source pollution in Urumqi (2000-2014) from an economic perspective. Retrospective analysis results indicated that total GDP and GDP per capita increased around tenfold and a fivefold since 2000. Total, municipal and industrial water use had average annual growth rates of 3.96, 7.01, and 3.69%, respectively. However, agricultural water use, emissions of COD and NH 3 -N showed average annual decreases of 3.06, 12.40, and 4.74%. Regression models reveal that total water demand in Urumqi would keep monotonically increasing relationships with GDP and GDP per capita in the foreseeable years. However, the relations of specific water usage and economic growth showed diverse trends. In the future, the discharge of COD and NH 3 -N would further reduce with economic growth. It could be concluded that Urumqi has almost passed the stage where economic growth had caused serious environment deterioration, but the increasing water demand in Urumqi is still an urgent problem. The obtained results would be helpful for water resources management and pollution control in the future.

  13. Application of an integrated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/CALPUFF modeling tool for source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants for air quality management: A case study in the urban area of Benxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Qi; Ma, Weichun

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the authors endeavored to develop an effective framework for improving local urban air quality on meso-micro scales in cities in China that are experiencing rapid urbanization. Within this framework, the integrated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to simulate the concentration distributions of typical pollutants (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter air quality to different degrees. According to the type-based classification, which categorized the pollution sources as belonging to the Bengang Group, large point sources, small point sources, and area sources, the source apportionment showed that the Bengang Group, the large point sources, and the area sources had considerable impacts on urban air quality. Finally, combined with the industrial characteristics, detailed control measures were proposed with which local policy makers could improve the urban air quality in Benxi. In summary, the results of this study showed that this framework has credibility for effectively improving urban air quality, based on the source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants. The authors endeavored to build up an effective framework based on the integrated WRF/CALPUFF to improve the air quality in many cities on meso-micro scales in China. Via this framework, the integrated modeling tool is accurately used to study the characteristics of meteorological fields, concentration fields, and source apportionments of pollutants in target area. The impacts of classified sources on air quality together with the industrial characteristics can provide more effective control measures for improving air quality. Through the case study, the technical framework developed in this study, particularly the source apportionment, could provide important data and technical support for policy makers to assess air pollution on the scale of a city in China or even the world.

  14. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyavahare, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

  15. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  16. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. First part: health indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. A first step focused on describing the indicators. The literature on indicators of self-reported health was reviewed, leading to a discussion on data collection, selection of health effects, data processing, and construction of indicators. The literature review concerned 51 articles. The use of self-reported health indicators allowed the studies to take into account the health concerns and complaints of populations exposed to environmental pollution. Various indicators of self-reported health were used in the studies. They measured physical, psychological and general dimensions of health. Standardized questionnaires were used less often than ad hoc questionnaires (78% of studies) developed to fit the needs of a given study. Three standardized questionnaires were used more frequently: the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to measure general health perceptions, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90) to measure psychological distress. The choice of self-reported health indicators is a compromise between specificity of the studied health issues within a given environment and standardization of the questionnaires used to measure them. Such standardization is necessary to ensure the validity and the reliability of the information collected across time and situations. The psychometric properties of the measuring questionnaires are rarely estimated or verified when they are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the quantitative relationship between Agricultural water and fertilization process and non-point source pollution based on field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, K.; Wu, Z.; Guan, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the prominent of water environment problem and the relative increase of point source pollution governance, especially the agricultural non-point source pollution problem caused by the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides has become increasingly aroused people's concern and attention. In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between agriculture water and fertilizer and non-point source pollution, on the basis of elm field experiment and combined with agricultural drainage irrigation model, the agricultural irrigation water and the relationship between fertilizer and fertilization scheme and non-point source pollution were analyzed and calculated by field emission intensity index. The results show that the variation of displacement varies greatly under different irrigation conditions. When the irrigation water increased from 22cm to 42cm, the irrigation water increased by 20 cm while the field displacement increased by 11.92 cm, about 66.22% of the added value of irrigation water. Then the irrigation water increased from 42 to 68, irrigation water increased 26 cm, and the field displacement increased by 22.48 cm, accounting for 86.46% of irrigation water. So there is an "inflection point" between the irrigation water amount and field displacement amount. The load intensity increases with the increase of irrigation water and shows a significant power correlation. Under the different irrigation condition, the increase amplitude of load intensity with the increase of irrigation water is different. When the irrigation water is smaller, the load intensity increase relatively less, and when the irrigation water increased to about 42 cm, the load intensity will increase considerably. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the fertilization and load intensity. The load intensity had obvious difference in different fertilization modes even with same fertilization level, in which the fertilizer field unit load intensity

  18. Self-reported history of stroke and long-term living conditions near air pollution sources: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Farah, Rita; Hallit, Souheil; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan

    2018-02-20

    Stroke is a disease related to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked self-reported indoor and outdoor pollution to stroke and mini-stroke, while some others showed no association. Our objective was to assess this association in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern developing country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. In addition to self-reported items of pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of stroke and mini-stroke, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information, and biological measurements. Moreover, we assessed dose-effect relationship of pollution items in relation with stroke. Self-reported indoor pollution exposure was associated with stroke and mini-stroke, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease, but this effect did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics. No association was found for any outdoor pollution item. Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, sensitizing the population about the effect of pollution on chronic diseases, working on reducing pollution, and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the burden of the disease on the population and health system.

  19. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  20. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  1. Isotope ratios as pollutant source and behaviour indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant advances in isotope techniques for identifying origins and for studying the behaviour of trace contaminants and pollutants of the environment under actual existing environmental conditions. Improvements in the supply of stable isotopes and their labelled compounds, instrumental analysis and information on stable or radioactive isotopic ratios of existing environmental contaminants as a function of origin or behaviour have provided relatively new tools for the environmental scientist. While variations in natural or existing environmental stable and radioactive nuclides could be regarded as 'background noise' in conventional tracer experiments they promised unique information about sources and behaviour to those who listened carefully. (author)

  2. The ecological risk, source identification, and pollution assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei Aminiyan, Milad; Baalousha, Mohammed; Mousavi, Rouhollah; Mirzaei Aminiyan, Farzad; Hosseini, Hamideh; Heydariyan, Amin

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination in road dust is a potential environmental and human health threat. The sources, concentrations, spatial distribution, and ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in road dust in Rafsanjan City, Iran, were investigated. Pollution was assessed using the enrichment factor (EF). The potentially harmful effects of HMs were evaluated by calculating the potential ecological risk factor of individual metals (E r ) and of multiple metals (RI) using the Hakanson method. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to identify HM pollution sources. The concentrations of HMs in road dust were higher (ca. 5-10 folds) than their natural background values. The EF and E r increased according to the following order Cu > Pb > As > Zn > Cd > Cr > Ni and Cu > Cd > Pb > As > Ni > Zn > Cr, respectively. Thus, Cu is regarded as the pollutant of highest concern. Based on potential ecological risk index (RI) spatial distribution, all parts of Rafsanjan are characterized by significantly high potential ecological risk. HM concentration heat maps, PCA, and correlation analysis suggest that Cu, Pb, As, Cd, and Zn may have originated from the same source and follow the same spatial distribution pattern. These metals originated mainly from anthropogenic sources like copper mining and smelting plants, industrial and chemical activities, inordinate application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farmlands, and heavy traffic. Ni and Cr are likely to origniate from the industrial activities and traffic load in Rafsanjan City.

  3. Study of the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerefos, C.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, D.; Ganev, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at a detailed study and explanation of the pollution transport in the air basin over South-Western Bulgaria and Northern Greece and assessment of the air pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Greece. Some well known specific climatic air pollution effects were studied and explained. Calculations were made of the S0 2 pollution of the Balkan peninsula from both Greek and Bulgarian sources for 1995 and the country to country pollution budget diagrams were build. Days with extreme mean concentration for Bulgaria and Northern Greece were picked out and some further specification of the contribution of the different sources in both the countries to these cases of extreme pollution was made. Some preliminary studies of possible mesoscale effects on the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and northern Greece were carried out. A three-layer pollution transport model with more complex chemistry block was introduced and some preliminary simulations of Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds transport were performed. (author)

  4. Pollution Sources in the nile and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Bary, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decades , the natural quality of water sources has been altered by the impact of various human activities and water uses. In Egypt, the Nile River which is considered as the main water source is still a recipient of most of the wastewater discharged by industrial effluents and several agriculture drains contains mixed wastes (sewage and industrial). These wastes includes a variety of pollutants which have considerable potential effect on both water ecosystem and human health. Monitoring of these pollutant is the first step for the improvement and protection of the Nile River .The Nile Research Institute designed a monitoring program includes collection and analysis of samples from 35 stations along the Nile River from Aswan to the Mediterranean Sea and from all points sources of pollution discharge their wastes into the Nile. The most important pollutant in these wastes are heavy metals, organic matters, inorganic compounds and micro organism causing disease

  5. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  6. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  7. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  8. Pollutant Source Tracking (PST) Technical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    in the context of heavy metals (lead, copper), is considered to be a minor process contribution to the source fingerprint. 3.7 RAPID SCREENING...limits (summarized in Table 2) support the use of ICP-AES (ICP-OES) for heavy metal determination in soils , sediments, wastewater and other matrices...are included here. Isotopic ratios of stable isotopes of the metal of interest can be used for source identification and apportionment in complex

  9. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C.I.; Muntele, I.C.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Popa-Simil, Liviu; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P.M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  10. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  11. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  12. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  13. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  14. Variability of total exposure to PM2.5 related to indoor and outdoor pollution sources Krakow study in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Pac, Agnieszka; Jacek, Ryszard; Whyatt, Robin M; Spengler, John D; Dumyahn, Thomas S; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2006-07-31

    The study is a part of an ongoing prospective cohort study on the relationship between the exposure to environmental factors during pregnancy and birth outcomes and health of newborns. We have measured personal PM(2.5) level in the group of 407 non-smoking pregnant women during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. On average, the participants from the city center were exposed to higher exposure than those from the outer city area (GM=42.0 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 36.8-48.0 vs. 35.8 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 33.5-38.2 microg/m(3)). More than 20% of study subjects were affected by high level of PM(2.5) pollution (above 65 microg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations were higher during the heating season (GM=43.4 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 40.1-46.9 microg/m(3)) compared to non-heating season (GM=29.8 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 27.5-32.2 microg/m(3)). Out of all potential outdoor air pollution sources (high traffic density, bus depot, waste incinerator, industry etc.) considered in the bivariate analysis, only the proximity of industrial plant showed significant impact on the personal exposure (GM=54.3 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 39.4-74.8 microg/m(3)) compared with corresponding figure for those who did not declare living near the industrial premises (GM=36.2 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 34.1-38.4 microg/m(3)). The subjects declaring high exposure to ETS (>10 cigarettes daily) have shown very high level of personal exposure (GM=88.8 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 73.9-106.7 microg/m(3)) compared with lower ETS exposure (< or =10 cigarettes) (GM=46.3 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 40.0-53.5 microg/m(3)) and no-ETS exposure group (GM=33.9 microg/m(3), 95% CI: 31.8-36.1 microg/m(3)). The contribution of the background ambient PM(10) level was very strong determinant of the total personal exposure to PM(2.5) and it explained about 31% of variance between the subjects followed by environmental tobacco smoke (10%), home heating by coal/wood stoves (2%), other types of heating (2%) and the industrial plant localization in the proximity of

  15. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  16. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  17. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  18. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  20. Analysis of coupled model uncertainties in source-to-dose modeling of human exposures to ambient air pollution: A PM 2.5 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Frey, H. Christopher; Burke, Janet; Pinder, Robert W.

    Quantitative assessment of human exposures and health effects due to air pollution involve detailed characterization of impacts of air quality on exposure and dose. A key challenge is to integrate these three components on a consistent spatial and temporal basis taking into account linkages and feedbacks. The current state-of-practice for such assessments is to exercise emission, meteorology, air quality, exposure, and dose models separately, and to link them together by using the output of one model as input to the subsequent downstream model. Quantification of variability and uncertainty has been an important topic in the exposure assessment community for a number of years. Variability refers to differences in the value of a quantity (e.g., exposure) over time, space, or among individuals. Uncertainty refers to lack of knowledge regarding the true value of a quantity. An emerging challenge is how to quantify variability and uncertainty in integrated assessments over the source-to-dose continuum by considering contributions from individual as well as linked components. For a case study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in North Carolina during July 2002, we characterize variability and uncertainty associated with each of the individual concentration, exposure and dose models that are linked, and use a conceptual framework to quantify and evaluate the implications of coupled model uncertainties. We find that the resulting overall uncertainties due to combined effects of both variability and uncertainty are smaller (usually by a factor of 3-4) than the crudely multiplied model-specific overall uncertainty ratios. Future research will need to examine the impact of potential dependencies among the model components by conducting a truly coupled modeling analysis.

  1. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  2. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  3. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  4. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  5. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  6. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  7. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  8. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    and concrete block material, and structures and systems for soil stabilization including erosion checks, revetments , retaining structures, and...industrial storage areas, and coal/ slag piles. Rural NPS pollution includes runoff from Some of the above sources plus runoff from agriculture...water quality. The effectiveness of detention ponds is reduced, however, when maintenance is neglected. Common problems include blocked outlets

  9. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  10. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  11. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a methodology for source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Guido; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Shorshani, Masoud Fallah; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization and control of runoff pollution from nonpoint sources in urban areas are a major issue for the protection of aquatic environments. We propose a methodology to quantify the sources of pollutants in an urban catchment and to analyze the associated uncertainties. After describing the methodology, we illustrate it through an application to the sources of Cu, Pb, Zn, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a residential catchment (228 ha) in the Paris region. In this application, we suggest several procedures that can be applied for the analysis of other pollutants in different catchments, including an estimation of the total extent of roof accessories (gutters and downspouts, watertight joints and valleys) in a catchment. These accessories result as the major source of Pb and as an important source of Zn in the example catchment, while activity-related sources (traffic, heating) are dominant for Cu (brake pad wear) and PAH (tire wear, atmospheric deposition).

  12. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo

    2002-01-01

    Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and p...

  13. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Long; Wei Jiahua; Huang Yuefei; Wang Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. - Highlights: → An improved urban NPS model was developed. → It performs well in areas where storm events have great temporal variation. → Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined. - An improved urban NPS model was developed. Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined.

  14. Source apportionment of nitrogen and phosphorus from non-point source pollution in Nansi Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Lei; Cui, Bo-Hao; Zhang, Shu-Min; Wu, Quan-Yuan; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-03

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point source (NPS) pollution in Nansi Lake Basin greatly influenced the water quality of Nansi Lake, which is the determinant factor for the success of East Route of South-North Water Transfer Project in China. This research improved Johnes export coefficient model (ECM) by developing a method to determine the export coefficients of different land use types based on the hydrological and water quality data. Taking NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) as the study objects, this study estimated the contributions of different pollution sources and analyzed their spatial distributions based on the improved ECM. The results underlined that the method for obtaining output coefficients of land use types using hydrology and water quality data is feasible and accurate, and is suitable for the study of NPS pollution at large-scale basins. The average output structure of NPS TN from land use, rural breeding and rural life is 33.6, 25.9, and 40.5%, and the NPS TP is 31.6, 43.7, and 24.7%, respectively. Especially, dry land was the main land use source for both NPS TN and TP pollution, with the contributed proportions of 81.3 and 81.8% respectively. The counties of Zaozhuang, Tengzhou, Caoxian, Yuncheng, and Shanxian had higher contribution rates and the counties of Dingtao, Juancheng, and Caoxian had the higher load intensities for both NPS TN and TP pollution. The results of this study allowed for an improvement in the understanding of the pollution source contribution and enabled researchers and planners to focus on the most important sources and regions of NPS pollution.

  15. An Analysis of Air Pollution in Makkah - a View Point of Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makkah is one of the busiest cities in Saudi Arabia and remains busy all year around, especially during the season of Hajj and the month of Ramadan when millions of people visit this city. This emphasizes the importance of clean air and of understanding the sources of various air pollutants, which is vital for the management and advanced modeling of air pollution. This study intends to identify the major sources of air pollutants in Makkah, near the Holy Mosque (Al-Haram using a graphical approach. Air pollutants considered in this study are nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10. Polar plots, time variation plots and correlation analysis are used to analyse the data and identify the major sources of emissions. Most of the pollutants demonstrate high concentrations during the morning traffic peak hours, suggesting road traffic as the main source of emission. The main sources of pollutant emissions identified in Makkahwere road traffic, re-suspended and windblown dust and sand particles. Further investigation on detailedsource apportionment is required, which is part of the ongoing project.

  16. Variations of pollution sources of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay 1982-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Wang, Qi; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei

    2017-12-01

    Cu pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues in the whole world, and understanding the variations of the pollution sources is essential to environmental protection. This paper identified the sources of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay during 1982-1986, and revealed the variations of the sources. Results showed that there were five Cu sources during study years including marine current, stream flow, island top, overland runoff and marine traffic, respectively, whose source strengths were varying from 0.39-20.60 μg L-1, 0.37-10.57 μg L-1, 0.77-4.86 μg L-1, 2.28-3.56 μg L-1, 9.48 μg L-1, respectively. These findings were helpful information in decision-making of pollution control and environmental remediation practice.

  17. Numerical study on flow and pollutant dispersion inside street canyons

    OpenAIRE

    Yunkai, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the characteristics of flow pattern and vehicle-emitted pollutant dispersion in roughness surface layer. In an urban environment, wind flow and transported-pollutant source interfere strongly with buildings and other roughness elements on the surface ground, which results in complex characteristics of flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in 3D circumstances. The present study intends to simplify the research domain and investigate the fundamental modeling problems that e...

  18. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  19. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  20. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  1. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh; Roohollah Noori; Ronny Berndtsson; Jan Adamowski; Elaheh Sadatipour

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a ...

  2. Summary of pollutant emissions from individual sources in the Republic of Macedonia (air pollution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davkova, Katica; Simeva, Radmila

    1995-01-01

    The air pollution is one of the heaviest and one of the most actual problems in the industrial developed countries. The sudden development of the cities, industry and automobile traffic brings to the atmosphere natural composition disturbance, which means that the environment, material goods and the whole ecosystem are endangered. This paper presents the results from the measurements taken in the territory of the Macedonia, from 1989-1993. 95 measuring objects, more exactly 156 individual measuring pollutants emission sources are encompassed. The main air pollutants, as a result of the solid as well as liquid fuels combustion, are SO 2 , Co 2 , No x as well as ashes. The measuring results are given tabular. 3 tabs., 6 figs., 1 ill

  3. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  4. Sampling method of water sources at study site Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Penang for research on pollutant movement in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2005-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling being used to take the water samples from the study sites in Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Pulau Pinang. The sampling involve collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond, and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemical used. The main purpose of this sampling are to obtain the important water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), heavy metals, anions, cations, and environmental isotopes delta values (d) for 18O, Deuterium dan Tritium. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise results. With this, the data from the laboratory tests result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  5. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  6. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  7. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  8. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  9. Activity patterns of Californians: Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peggy L.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Mulberg, Elliot J.; Hui, Steve P.

    The California Air Resources Board funded a statewide survey of activity patterns of Californians over 11 years of age in order to improve the accuracy of exposure assessments for air pollutants. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1762 respondents over the four seasons from fall 1987 through summer 1988. In addition to completing a 24-h recall diary of activities and locations, participants also responded to questions about their use of and proximity to potential pollutant sources. Results are presented regarding time spent by Californians in different activities and locations relevant to pollutant exposure, and their frequency of use of or proximity to pollutant sources including cigarettes, consumer products such as paints and deodorizers, combustion appliances and motor vehicles. The results show that Californians spend, on average, 87% of their time indoors, 7% in enclosed transit and 6% outdoors. At least 62% of the population over 11 years of age and 46% of nonsmokers are near others' tobacco smoke at some time during the day. Potential exposure to different pollutant sources appears to vary among different gender and age groups. For example, women are more likely to use or be near personal care products and household cleaning agents, while men are more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, solvents and paints. Data from this study can be used to reduce significantly the uncertainty associated with risk assessments for many pollutants.

  10. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  11. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuentes-Leonarte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  12. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonarte, V.F.; Ballester, F.; Leonarte, V.F.; Ballester, F.; Tenias, J.M.; Tenias, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in Pub Med and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DY work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  13. Isotope ratios of lead as pollutant source indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.J.; Snyder, C.B.; Earal, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Each lead ore deposit has its characteristic isotope ratios which are fixed during mineral ore genesis, and this unique property can be used to indicate the source of lead pollutants in the environment. The wolld production of primary lead is tabulated, and the geochemical significances of lead isotope ratios are discussed. The manufacture of lead alkyl additives for gasoline, which is the major source of lead pollutants, utilizes about 10% of the world annual consumption of lead. The isotope ratios of lead in gasoline, aerosols, soils and plants are correlated. Lead additives in various brands of gasoline sold in one region do not have the same isotope ratios. Regional variations in isotope ratios of lead additives were observed. This reflects the fact that petroleum refineries obtained the additives from various lead alkyl manufacturers which utilized lead from different mining districts. A definite changing trend of isotope ratios of lead pollutants in the San Diego, California (USA), area was detected. The lead shows a gradual increase in its radiogenic components during the past decade. This trend can be explained by the change of lead sources used by the additive manufacturers: Lead isotope ratios of the mid-1960's gasoline additives in the United States of America reflected those of less radiogenic leads imported from Canada, Australia, Peru and Mexico. Since then, the U.S. lead production has doubled-mainly from the Missouri district of highly radiogenic lead. Meanwhile, there has been a decrease in total lead imports. These combined effects result in changes in isotope ratios, from the less to more radiogenic, of the pooled lead. (aothor)

  14. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  15. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  16. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  17. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie

    2012-01-01

    for this purpose. Methods Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe. Results The SCF is structured...... in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority...

  18. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  19. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1996-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  20. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  1. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  3. [Characteristics and loads of key sources of pollutions discharged into Beishi River, Changzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Ai-Mei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Fan, Xiu-Juan; Ye, Bin

    2010-11-01

    Choosing the Beishi river, Changzhou City as the study area, the sewage generation, pollutants characteristics and sewage discharge in catchment area of Beishi river were conducted, detailed investigated and monitored. After using pollution coefficients, the yearly loads of all sources of pollutions were calculated to determine the highest sewage. The results showed that: except pH, the high concentration of SS, COD, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP discharged from MSW collecting houses, MSW transfer stations, public toilets and dining in Changzhou city far exceeded the "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard" (GB 8978-1996) and "Effluent Discharged into the City Sewer Water Quality Standards" (CJ 3082-1999). Among which: the highest concentration of COD discharged from MSW transfer stations was up to 51 700 mg/L, while the ammonia nitrogen and TN were as high as 1 616 mg/L and 2 044 mg/L in the toilet wastewater. In addition to this, the ratio of wastewater discharged directly into the river through storm water pipe network was higher from MSW houses, MSW transfer stations, public toilets, dining and other waste in Changzhou city. The 125.2 t/a of COD and 40.53 t/a of BOD5 were the two highest concentrations of various sources of pollution. The highest annual polluting loads discharged into Beishi river is dining, followed by the sanitation facilities. Therefore, cutting pollution control of food and sanitation facilities along the river is particularly urgent.

  4. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  5. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m 3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m 3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  6. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  7. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  8. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  9. Effects of the spatial resolution of urban drainage data on nonpoint source pollution prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Chen, Lei; Hou, Xiaoshu; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-03-14

    Detailed urban drainage data are important for urban nonpoint source (NPS) pollution prediction. However, the difficulties in collecting complete pipeline data usually interfere with urban NPS pollution studies, especially in large-scale study areas. In this study, NPS pollution models were constructed for a typical urban catchment using the SWMM, based on five drainage datasets with different resolution levels. The influence of the data resolution on the simulation results was examined. The calibration and validation results of the higher-resolution (HR) model indicated a satisfactory model performance with relatively detailed drainage data. However, the performances of the parameter-regionalized lower-resolution (LR) models were still affected by the drainage data scale. This scale effect was due not only to the pipe routing process but also to changes in the effective impervious area, which could be limited by a scale threshold. The runoff flow and NPS pollution responded differently to changes in scale, primarily because of the difference between buildup and washoff and the more significant decrease in pollutant infiltration loss and the much greater increase of pollutant flooding loss while scaling up. Additionally, scale effects were also affected by the rainfall type. Sub-area routing between impervious and pervious areas could improve the LR model performances to an extent, and this approach is recommended to offset the influence of spatial resolution deterioration.

  10. On - road mobile source pollutant emissions : identifying hotspots and ranking roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A considerable amount of pollution to the air in the forms of hydrocarbons, carbon : monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and air toxics comes : from the on-road mobile sources. Estimation of the emissions of these pollutants...

  11. Impact of point source pollution on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.A.; Solehria, B.A.; Rai, N.I.

    2005-01-01

    The management of point source pollution (municipal and industrial waste water) is an important item on Brown Agenda confronting urban planners and policy makers. The industrial concerns and households produce enormous amount of waste water, which has to be disposed of through the municipal sewage system. Generally, municipal wastewater management is done on non-scientific lines, resulting in considerable social and economic loss and gradual degradation of the natural resources. The present study highlights that how the poor management practices, lack of infrastructure, and poor disposal system-comprising of mostly open, un-walled or partially lined drains, affect the groundwater quality and render it unfit for human consumption. Satiana Road sludge carrier at Faisalabad city, receiving effluents of about 67 textile units, 4 oil mills, 2 ice factories, 3 laundris and domestic waste water of Peoples Colony No.1, Maqbool Road and Ghulam Rasool Nagar was selected to derive quantitative and qualitative estimates of TDS, Na, Cl and heavy metals namely Fe, Cu and Pb of the waste water and their leaching around the sludge carrier. The measurement of leaching of TDS, Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -1/ per 1000 m basis in lined section was 818, 550 and 228 tons, respectively. Where as in the unlined section, annual increase of TDS, Na/sup /+, and Cl/sup -/ was 2404,1615 and 669 tons per 1000 m respectively. In case of leaching of metals through the sludge carrier, Cu was at the top with 8.4 tons per annum per 1000 m followed by Fe and Pb with 6.66 and 1.2 tons per annum per 1000 m respectively. The concentration of all the salts/metals studied were higher in groundwater near the sludge carrier which decreased with increase in distance. The groundwater contamination in unlined portions is greater than lined portions, which might be due to higher seepage losses in unlined portions of the sludge carrier (4.9 % per 1000 m) as compared to relatively low seepage losses in lined portion of

  12. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl{sup −} concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM{sub (ZS)} is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl{sup -} concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup -} concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM{sub (ZS)} based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl{sup −} concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup −} concentration.

  13. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl − concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM (ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl - concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl - concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM (ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl − concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl − concentration

  14. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  15. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Suksamran, C.; Sirinuntavid, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  16. Analytical developments in the measurements of boron, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate isotopes and case examples of discrimination of nitrogen and sulphur sources in pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.; Sheppard, D.S.; Robinson, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are documented for the analysis of B isotopes, O and N isotopes in nitrates. B isotopes can be measured by negative ion thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Nitrate is recovered from groundwaters by ion exchange and the resulting silver nitrate combusted for stable isotope gas analysis. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates can be determined by generating and analysing CO 2 gas from the combustion of silver phosphate produced from aqueous samples. Sulphate in ground and surface waters can be separated and concentrated by ion exchange and precipitated as barium sulphate. This is reacted with graphite to yield CO 2 and CO, the latter being spark discharged to CO 2 and the total CO 2 measured for oxygen isotope analysis. Barium sulphide from this reaction is converted to silver sulphide which is reacted with cuprous oxide to give SO 2 gas for sulphur isotope measurements. A case study of the semi-rural Manakau area in New Zealand was conducted to see if nitrate isotopes could be used to detect the source of nitrate contamination (groundwater nitrate - 3- N). Nitrogen isotope (+4 to +12 per mille) coupled with oxygen isotope measurements (+5 to +9 per mille) demonstrated that the nitrogen is not sources from fertilisers but from some combination of septic tank and animal waste. For the case study of sulphate isotope use, sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of sulphate in river and lake water from seven major catchments of New Zealand were determined. The isotope analyses have allowed the distinction between natural (geological, geothermal and volcanic) and anthropogenic (fertiliser) sulphur sources. (author)

  17. Simultaneous identification of unknown groundwater pollution sources and estimation of aquifer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Bithin; Chakrabarty, Dibakar; Dhar, Anirban

    2009-09-01

    Pollution source identification is a common problem encountered frequently. In absence of prior information about flow and transport parameters, the performance of source identification models depends on the accuracy in estimation of these parameters. A methodology is developed for simultaneous pollution source identification and parameter estimation in groundwater systems. The groundwater flow and transport simulator is linked to the nonlinear optimization model as an external module. The simulator defines the flow and transport processes, and serves as a binding equality constraint. The Jacobian matrix which determines the search direction in the nonlinear optimization model links the groundwater flow-transport simulator and the optimization method. Performance of the proposed methodology using spatiotemporal hydraulic head values and pollutant concentration measurements is evaluated by solving illustrative problems. Two different decision model formulations are developed. The computational efficiency of these models is compared using two nonlinear optimization algorithms. The proposed methodology addresses some of the computational limitations of using the embedded optimization technique which embeds the discretized flow and transport equations as equality constraints for optimization. Solution results obtained are also found to be better than those obtained using the embedded optimization technique. The performance evaluations reported here demonstrate the potential applicability of the developed methodology for a fairly large aquifer study area with multiple unknown pollution sources.

  18. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  19. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  20. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. - Highlights: • Ensemble models including stochastic gradient boosting and random forest are used. • The models were verified by cross-validation and SGB performed better than RF. • Heavy metal pollution sources on a local scale are identified and apportioned. • Models illustrate good suitability in assessing sources in local-scale agricultural soils. • Anthropogenic sources contributed most to soil Pb and Cd pollution in our case. - Multi-source and multi-phase pollution by heavy metals in agricultural soils on a local scale were identified and apportioned.

  1. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  2. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... that the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a drainage...

  3. Reducing mortality risk by targeting specific air pollution sources: Suva, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, A J; Cohen, D D; Mani, F S; Maata, M

    2018-01-15

    Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 : effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM 2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM 2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation. A review of recent literature has been carried out to delineate the mortality risk associated with these sources. Risk factors have then been applied for Suva, to calculate the possible mortality reduction that may be achieved through reduction in pollutant levels. Higher risk ratios for black carbon and sulphur resulted in mortality predictions for PM 2.5 from fossil fuel combustion, road vehicle emissions and waste burning that surpass predictions for these sources based on health risk of PM 2.5 mass alone. Predicted mortality for Suva from fossil fuel smoke exceeds the national toll from road accidents in Fiji. The greatest benefit for Suva, in terms of reduced mortality, is likely to be accomplished by reducing emissions from fossil fuel combustion (diesel), vehicles and waste burning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Assessment of metal pollution sources by SEM/EDS analysis of solid particles in snow: a case study of Žerjav, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Miloš; Gosar, Mateja

    2013-12-01

    Solid particles in snow deposits, sampled in mining and Pb-processing area of Žerjav, Slovenia, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Identified particles were classified as geogenic-anthropogenic, anthropogenic, and secondary weathering products. Geogenic-anthropogenic particles were represented by scarce Zn- and Pb-bearing ore minerals, originating from mine waste deposit. The most important anthropogenic metal-bearing particles in snow were Pb-, Sb- and Sn-bearing oxides and sulphides. The morphology of these particles showed that they formed at temperatures above their melting points. They were most abundant in snow sampled closest to the Pb-processing plant and least abundant in snow taken farthest from the plant, thus indicating that Pb processing was their predominant source between the last snowfall and the time of sampling. SEM/EDS analysis showed that Sb and Sn contents in these anthropogenic phases were higher and more variable than in natural Pb-bearing ore minerals. The most important secondary weathering products were Pb- and Zn-containing Fe-oxy-hydroxides whose elemental composition and morphology indicated that they mostly resulted from oxidation of metal-bearing sulphides emitted from the Pb-processing plant. This study demonstrated the importance of single particle analysis using SEM/EDS for differentiation between various sources of metals in the environment.

  5. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  6. The application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D., E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au; Stelcer, E.; Atanacio, A.; Crawford, J.

    2014-01-01

    IBA techniques have been used to measure elemental concentrations of more than 20 different elements found in fine particle (PM2.5) air pollution. These data together with their errors and minimum detectable limits were used in Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analyses to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions to the total measured fine mass. Wind speed and direction back trajectory data from the global HYSPLIT codes were then linked to these PMF fingerprints to quantitatively identify the location of the sources.

  7. PIXE studies of pollutants in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Hrynkiewicz, A.; Curzydlo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Both industrial and road traffic pollutions were studied by PIXE by means of determination of trace elements accumulated in different plant tissues from affected areas. The method was improved by the application of an intermediate atmosphere in the target chamber. The PIXE method was proved to be adequate and convenient for monitoring many of the pollutants. (author)

  8. Stochastic sensitivity analysis of nitrogen pollution to climate change in a river basin with complex pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Tan, Lit; He, Ruimin; Fu, Guangtao; Ye, Jinyin; Liu, Qun; Wang, Guoqing

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that climate change could impose both direct and indirect impacts on the quality of the water environment. Previous studies have mostly concentrated on evaluating the impacts of climate change on non-point source pollution in agricultural watersheds. Few studies have assessed the impacts of climate change on the water quality of river basins with complex point and non-point pollution sources. In view of the gap, this paper aims to establish a framework for stochastic assessment of the sensitivity of water quality to future climate change in a river basin with complex pollution sources. A sub-daily soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model was developed to simulate the discharge, transport, and transformation of nitrogen from multiple point and non-point pollution sources in the upper Huai River basin of China. A weather generator was used to produce 50 years of synthetic daily weather data series for all 25 combinations of precipitation (changes by - 10, 0, 10, 20, and 30%) and temperature change (increases by 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 °C) scenarios. The generated daily rainfall series was disaggregated into the hourly scale and then used to drive the sub-daily SWAT model to simulate the nitrogen cycle under different climate change scenarios. Our results in the study region have indicated that (1) both total nitrogen (TN) loads and concentrations are insensitive to temperature change; (2) TN loads are highly sensitive to precipitation change, while TN concentrations are moderately sensitive; (3) the impacts of climate change on TN concentrations are more spatiotemporally variable than its impacts on TN loads; and (4) wide distributions of TN loads and TN concentrations under individual climate change scenario illustrate the important role of climatic variability in affecting water quality conditions. In summary, the large variability in SWAT simulation results within and between each climate change scenario highlights the uncertainty of

  9. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  11. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  12. VESSEL-SOURCED POLLUTION: A SECURITY THREAT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and some other conventions make provisions concerning protection of ma- ... the pollution of the marine in Malaysia, it appears that pollution by vessels .... pollution from ships and maritime safety; providing effective legal, technical and scientific ..... of the offence after the service of the notice on the offending ship through.

  13. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  14. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  15. Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Sources, Pathways, and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy. PMID:23590191

  16. Sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper looked at the sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the study were sediment from four different sections of the long profile of the dam. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods and the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique was adopted in the analysis using Nigeria Research Reactor – 1 (NIRR – 1. The results of the analysis showed that 29 metal pollutants; Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Yb, U, Br, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Zn,Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, Sb and Th currently exist in Kubanni dam in various levels of concentrations. The results showed that most of the metal pollutants in the dam are routed to anthropogenic activities within the dam catchment area while few are routed to geologic formation. The results further revealed that metal pollutants that their sources are traceable to refuse dumps, farmlands, public drains and effluents showed higher levels of concentration in the dam than the ones that are gradually released from the soil regolith system.

  17. Estimation of pollutant source contribution to the Pampanga River Basin using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Solidad S.; Sta Maria, Efren J.; Ramirez, Jennyvi D.; Collado, Mario B.; Samar, Edna D.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and estimated the percentage contribution of potential pollution sources in Pampanga River Basin using carbon and nitrogen isotopes as environmental tracers. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined in particulate organic matter, surface sediment, and plant tissue samples from point and non-point sources from several land use areas, namely domestic, croplands, livestock, fishery and forestry. Investigations were conducted in the wet and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). Some N sources do not have unique δ 15 N and there is overlapping among different N- sources type. δ 13 C data from the N sources provided an additional dimension which distinguished animal manure, human waste (septic and sewage), leaf litter, and synthetic fertilizer. Characterization of the non-point N-sources based on the isotopic fingerprints obtained from the point sources revealed that domestic, cropland, livestock, and fishery, influenced the isotopic composition of the materials but domestic and cropland land use provided the most significant influence. Livestock also contributed to a lesser extent. Isotope mixing model revealed that cropland sources generally contributed the most to pollutant loading during the wet season, from 22% to 98%, while domestic waste contributed higher in the dry season, from 55% to 65%. (author)

  18. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  19. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  20. Source-Flux-Fate Modelling of Priority Pollutants in Stormwater Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca

    quality management. The thesis provides a framework for the trustworthy application of models to estimate PP fluxes from their sources, and through stormwater drainage systems, and to the sink. This fills a knowledge gap regarding stormwater PP and it supplies urban water managers with modelling tools......The increasing focus on management of stormwater Priority Pollutants (PP) enhances the role of mathematical models as support for the assessment of stormwater quality control strategies. This thesis investigates and presents modelling approaches that are suitable to simulate PP fluxes across...... stormwater systems, supporting the development of pollution control strategies. This is obtained by analyzing four study areas: (i) catchment characterization, (ii) pollutant release and transport models, (iii) stormwater treatment models, and (iv) combination of the above into an integrated model. Given...

  1. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  2. Applications of lead isotope rations for identification and apportionment on pollution sources in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Duoyong; Wei Yimin; Guo Boli; Wei Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals which can accumulate to an adverse effect level in human bodies through ingestion, inhalation or other pathways. Because of the persistent lead contamination in farmland environment, large risk exists in the primary stage of 'from farm to table' chain. Environmental media such as soils, atmospheric aerosols were the possible lead sources of agro-food. To pinpoint the pollution sources exactly, cut off the contamination pathways in time, and reduce the risk of hazard, pollution sources tracing was very important. Lead isotope ratio combined with certain models is an effective method to discriminate correctly pollution sources and calculate the individual source contributions. In this review, to provide theoretical and technical reference for controlling lead pollution in environment and food, lead pollution sources in food, tracing principle and methods of lead isotope ratios, and its applications on vegetable, tea, wine, cereal and other food products were concerned. (authors)

  3. Source apportionment of Pb pollution in saltmarsh sediments from southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Millward, Geoffrey; Taylor, Alex; Marshall, William; Rodríguez, Javier; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio; Blake, William H.

    2017-04-01

    The local availability of metal resources played a crucial role in Britain's development during the industrial revolution, but centuries of mining within Cornwall and Devon (UK) have left a legacy of contamination in river basin and estuary sediments. Improved knowledge of historical heavy metal sources, emissions and pathways will result in a better understanding of the contemporary pollution conditions and a better protection of the environment from legacy contaminants. Our study aims to trace historical sources of Pb pollution in the area of east Cornwall and west Devon, UK, using a multi proxy approach for contaminants stored in saltmarsh sediment columns from 3 systems characterized by different contamination patterns. Source apportionment investigations included the determination of Pb concentration and Pb isotopic composition (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) for selected down-core sediment samples, and for local ore and parent rock materials. General trends in pollutant loading (e.g. Pb) could be identified, with maximum inputs occurring in the middle of the 19th century and decreasing towards the present day, while an increase in the catchment disturbance was apparent for the last decades. The isotopic ratios of Pb further indicate that sediments with higher Pb content have a less radiogenic signature, these particular inputs being derived from Pb mining and smelting sources in the catchment area. Acknowledgements: Andra-Rada Iurian acknowledges the support of a Marie Curie Fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2014, Grant Agreement number: 658863) within the Horizon 2020.

  4. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J M

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  5. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA, were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015, characterize spatiotemporal variation in pollution and identify potential pollution sources. The 28 sampling stations were divided into two periods (wet season and dry season and two regions (low pollution and high pollution, respectively, using hierarchical CA method. Four parameters (temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N, and total nitrogen (TN were identified using DA to distinguish temporal groups with close to 97.86% correct assignations. Again using DA, five parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, TN, Fluoride (F, and Sulphide (S led to 93.75% correct assignations for distinguishing spatial groups. Five potential pollution sources including nutrients pollution, oxygen consuming organic pollution, fluorine chemical pollution, heavy metals pollution and natural pollution, were identified using PCA/FA techniques for both the low pollution region and the high pollution region. Heavy metals (Cuprum (Cu, chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn, fluoride and sulfide are of particular concern in the study region because of many open-pit copper mines such as Dexing Copper Mine. Results obtained from this study offer a reasonable classification scheme for low-cost monitoring networks. The results also inform understanding of spatio-temporal variation in water quality as these topics relate to water resources management.

  6. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the U.S. Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. Large-scale management models were formulated as dual linear programing problems to reduce numerical difficulties and computation time. Linear programing problems were solved using a numerically stable, available code. Optimal solutions to problems with successively longer management time horizons indicated that disposal schedules at some sites are relatively independent of the number of disposal periods. Optimal waste disposal schedules exhibited pulsing rather than constant disposal rates. Sensitivity analysis using parametric linear programing showed that a sharp reduction in total waste disposal potential occurs if disposal rates at any site are increased beyond their optimal values.

  7. Reducing nonpoint source pollution through collaboration: policies and programs across the U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Scott D; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than $204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act's Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion and inverse modelling for the reconstruction of accidental sources of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiarek, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled releases of pollutant in the atmosphere may be the consequence of various situations: accidents, for instance leaks or explosions in an industrial plant, or terrorist attacks such as biological bombs, especially in urban areas. In the event of such situations, authorities' objectives are various: predict the contaminated zones to apply first countermeasures such as evacuation of concerned population; determine the source location; assess the long-term polluted areas, for instance by deposition of persistent pollutants in the soil. To achieve these objectives, numerical models can be used to model the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. We will first present the different processes that govern the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere, then the different numerical models that are commonly used in this context. The choice between these models mainly depends of the scale and the details one seeks to take into account. We will then present several inverse modeling methods to estimate the emission as well as statistical methods to estimate prior errors, to which the inversion is very sensitive. Several case studies are presented, using synthetic data as well as real data such as the estimation of source terms from the Fukushima accident in March 2011. From our results, we estimate the Cesium-137 emission to be between 12 and 19 PBq with a standard deviation between 15 and 65% and the Iodine-131 emission to be between 190 and 380 PBq with a standard deviation between 5 and 10%. Concerning the localization of an unknown source of pollutant, two strategies can be considered. On one hand parametric methods use a limited number of parameters to characterize the source term to be reconstructed. To do so, strong assumptions are made on the nature of the source. The inverse problem is hence to estimate these parameters. On the other hand nonparametric methods attempt to reconstruct a full emission field. Several parametric and nonparametric methods are

  9. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m 2 , with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m 2 . The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm 2 month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  10. Spatial Regression and Prediction of Water Quality in a Watershed with Complex Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-08-16

    Fast economic development, burgeoning population growth, and rapid urbanization have led to complex pollution sources contributing to water quality deterioration simultaneously in many developing countries including China. This paper explored the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on ambient total nitrogen (TN) concentration in a heavily polluted watershed and make predictions across the region. Regression results have confirmed the substantial impact on TN concentration by a variety of point and non-point pollution sources. In addition, spatial regression has yielded better performance than ordinary regression in predicting TN concentrations. Due to its best performance in cross-validation, the river distance based spatial regression model was used to predict TN concentrations across the watershed. The prediction results have revealed a distinct pattern in the spatial distribution of TN concentrations and identified three critical sub-regions in priority for reducing TN loads. Our study results have indicated that spatial regression could potentially serve as an effective tool to facilitate water pollution control in watersheds under diverse physical and socio-economical conditions.

  11. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  12. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  13. SOPHIE, a European data base on indoor air pollution sources: Marketing and organisational matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Molina, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    As an outcome of a former project of the JOULE programme of the European Commission, the Database SOPHIE (Sources of Pollution for a Healthy and Comfortable Indoor Environment) represents an attempt to contribute to an objective, permanent and dynamic documentation of indoor air pollution sources.

  14. Land-based sources of pollution and environmental quality of Weija ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of land-based sources of pollution was undertaken in the catchment area of Weija Lake. Activities that may influence the quality of the environment, and the sources, amounts and effects of the pollution of the water body were assessed. Water and precipitation chemistry showed that Na:Ca (0.48) and Na:K (2.0) ...

  15. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  16. Event-based nonpoint source pollution prediction in a scarce data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying the rainfall-runoff-pollutant (R-R-P) process is key to regulating non-point source (NPS) pollution; however, the impacts of scarce measured data on R-R-P simulations have not yet been reported. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of scarce data that addressed both rainfall-runoff and runoff-pollutant processes, whereby the impacts of data scarcity on two commonly used methods, including Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Loads Estimator (LOADEST), were quantified. A case study was performed in a typical small catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. Based on our results, the classification of rainfall patterns should be carried out first when analyzing modeling results. Compared to data based on a missing rate and a missing location, key information generates more impacts on the simulated flow and NPS loads. When the scarcity rate exceeds a certain threshold (20% in this study), measured data scarcity level has clear impacts on the model's accuracy. As the model of total nitrogen (TN) always performs better under different data scarcity conditions, researchers are encouraged to pay more attention to continuous the monitoring of total phosphorus (TP) for better NPS-TP predictions. The results of this study serve as baseline information for hydrologic forecasting and for the further control of NPS pollutants.

  17. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  18. Potential sources of bias in the use of individual's recall of the frequency of exposure to air pollution for use in exposure assessment in epidemiological studies: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickerstaff Karen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study it has been shown that mean population perception of air pollution correlates well with physical measures of actual air pollution and could be used as a measure of exposure to air pollution, at least for those forms of pollution perceptible to humans. However, for such a measure to be valid researchers would need to be confident that it was not strongly biased by possible confounding variables. This study reports the association between perception of above average levels of air pollution compared with others in the neighbourhood and a number of factors that may influence reporting. Methods This was a postal cross-sectional study of 3402 households in England in a mixed rural and urban area adjacent to a large industrial complex. Respondents were asked about their social and demographic characteristics, the presence of respiratory symptoms and frequency of exposure to a range of pollution types. Results and discussion There were strong associations (p Conclusions We did not find any evidence of bias that would substantially invalidate mean population reporting of air pollution severity as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies, though care may be needed in interpreting results where those factors found to be significant in this study vary substantially between areas.

  19. Non-point Source Pollutants Loss of Planting Industry in the Yunnan Plateau Lake Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zu-jun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution of planting has become a major factor affecting the quality and safety of water environment in our country. In recent years, some studies show that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural chemical fertilizers has led to more serious non-point source pollution. By means of the loss coefficient method and spatial overlay analysis, the loss amount, loss of strength and its spatial distribution characteristics of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were analyzed in the Fuxian Lake, Xingyun Lake and Qilu Lake Basin in 2015. The results showed that:The loss of total nitrogen was the highest in the three basins, following by ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus, which the loss of intensity range were 2.73~22.07, 0.003~3.52, 0.01~2.25 kg·hm-2 and 0.05~1.36 kg·hm-2, respectively. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loss were mainly concentrated in the southwest of Qilu Lake, west and south of Xingyun Lake. Ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen loss mainly concentrated in the south of Qilu Lake, south and north of Xingyun Lake. The loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was mainly derived from cash crops and rice. Therefore, zoning, grading and phased prevention and control schemes were proposed, in order to provide scientific basis for controlling non-point source pollution in the study area.

  20. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  1. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  2. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures.

  3. Receptor model-based source apportionment of particulate pollution in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Kopakka, Ramani V; Dasari, Prasad; Gertler, Alan W

    2013-07-01

    Air quality in Hyderabad, India, often exceeds the national ambient air quality standards, especially for particulate matter (PM), which, in 2010, averaged 82.2 ± 24.6, 96.2 ± 12.1, and 64.3 ± 21.2 μg/m(3) of PM10, at commercial, industrial, and residential monitoring stations, respectively, exceeding the national ambient standard of 60 μg/m(3). In 2005, following an ordinance passed by the Supreme Court of India, a source apportionment study was conducted to quantify source contributions to PM pollution in Hyderabad, using the chemical mass balance (version 8.2) receptor model for 180 ambient samples collected at three stations for PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions for three seasons. The receptor modeling results indicated that the PM10 pollution is dominated by the direct vehicular exhaust and road dust (more than 60%). PM2.5 with higher propensity to enter the human respiratory tracks, has mixed sources of vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, garbage burning, and secondary PM. In order to improve the air quality in the city, these findings demonstrate the need to control emissions from all known sources and particularly focus on the low-hanging fruits like road dust and waste burning, while the technological and institutional advancements in the transport and industrial sectors are bound to enhance efficiencies. Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board utilized these results to prepare an air pollution control action plan for the city.

  4. Who bears the environmental burden in China? An analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunbo [School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    A remaining challenge for environmental inequality researchers is to translate the principles developed in the U.S. to China which is experiencing the staggering environmental impacts of its astounding economic growth and social changes. This study builds on U.S. contemporary environmental justice literature and examines the issue of environmental inequality in China through an analysis of the geographical distribution of industrial pollution sources in Henan province. This study attempts to answer two central questions: (1) whether environmental inequality exists in China and if it does, (2) what socioeconomic lenses can be used to identify environmental inequality. The study found that: (1) race and income - the two common lenses used in many U.S. studies play different roles in the Chinese context; (2) rural residents and especially rural migrants are disproportionately exposed to industrial pollution. (author)

  5. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Angela M; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    The commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. In addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. Emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which suggests that the commercial trade in amphibians may be a source of pathogen pollution. We screened tiger salamanders involved in the bait trade in the western United States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved geographically by commerce. In addition, we conducted 2 surveys of anglers to determine how often tiger salamanders are used as bait and how often they are released into fishing waters by anglers, and organized bait-shop surveys to determine whether tiger salamanders are released back into the wild after being housed in bait shops. Ranaviruses were detected in the tiger salamander bait trade in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, and Bd was detected in Arizona bait shops. Ranaviruses were spread geographically through the bait trade. All tiger salamanders in the bait trade were collected from the wild, and in general they moved east to west and north to south, bringing with them their multiple ranavirus strains. Finally, 26-73% of anglers used tiger salamanders as fishing bait, 26-67% of anglers released tiger salamanders bought as bait into fishing waters, and 4% of bait shops released tiger salamanders back into the wild after they were housed in shops with infected animals. The tiger salamander bait trade in the western United States is a useful model for understanding the consequences of the

  6. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from −0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ 114/110 Cd (the mean: −0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ 114/110 Cd 114/110 Cd > 0), and those δ 114/110 Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment. -- The information and application of Cd isotopic compositions will provide a new direction in tracing metal pollution in water environment

  8. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2002 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases.

  10. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  11. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2004-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  12. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2002-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases. Emission limits are included

  13. Investigation on supervising and monitoring of major radioactive pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yibing; Zhang Zongrang; Men Meng; Zhang Peng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In order to optimize the supervisory monitoring proposal of the major radioactive enterprises. Methods: The authors have worked out the public doses within the range of 0-1 km as well as 1-2 km through monitoring analysis of the radioactive pollutant enterprises on the samples of its surrounding air, water, soil and organism. Results: Generally the pollutant range of the enterprises runs from 0 to 1.5 km. Conclusion: Unnecessary working hours can be shortened as long as we keep the routine supervisory monitor of pollutant enterprises within the range of 2 km. (authors)

  14. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  15. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracking sensitive source areas of different weather pollution types using GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Xingqin; Zhai, Shixian; Hou, Qing; Sun, Zhaobin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the sustained pollution processes were selected during which daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 μg/m3 for three days continuously based on the hourly data of Beijing observation sites from July 2012 to December 2015. Using the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) MICAPS meteorological processing system, synoptic situation during PM2.5 pollution processes was classified into five weather types: low pressure and weak high pressure alternating control, weak high pressure, low pressure control, high rear, and uniform pressure field. Then, we chose the representative pollution cases corresponding to each type, adopted the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model tracking the sensitive source areas of the five types, and analyzed the critical discharge periods of Beijing and neighboring provinces as well as their contribution to the PM2.5 peak concentration in Beijing. The results showed that the local source plays the main theme in the 30 h before the objective time, and prior to 72 h before the objective time contribution of local sources for the five pollution types are 37.5%, 25.0%, 39.4%, 31.2%, and 42.4%, respectively; the Hebei source contributes constantly in the 57 h ahead of the objective time with the contribution proportion ranging from 37% to 64%; the contribution period and rate of Tianjin and Shanxi sources are shorter and smaller. Based on the adjoint sensitivity analysis, we further discussed the effect of emission reduction control measures in different types, finding that the effect of local source reduction in the first 20 h of the objective time is better, and if the local source is reduced 50% within 72 h before the objective time, the decline rates of PM2.5 in the five types are 11.6%, 9.4%, 13.8%, 9.9% and 15.2% respectively. And the reduction effect of the neighboring sources is better within the 3-57 h before the objective time.

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of nitrogen pollution in a typical headwater agricultural watershed in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel; Duan, Weili; Luo, Chuan; Zhao, Kaiyan; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model. The results exhibited distinctive spatio-seasonal variations with an overall seriousness rank for the three indicators: total nitrogen (TN) > nitrate/nitrite nitrogen (NO x - -N) > ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), according to the Chinese Surface Water Quality Standard. TN pollution was severe for the entire watershed, while NO x - -N pollution was significant for ponds and ditches far from the village, and the NH 3 -N concentrations were acceptable except for the ponds near the village in summer. Although food and cash crop production accounted for the largest source of N loads, we discovered that mini-point pollution sources, including animal feeding operations, rural residential sewage, and waste, together contributed as high as 47% of the TN and NH 3 -N loads in ponds and ditches. So, apart from eco-fertilizer programs and concentrated animal feeding operations, the importance of environmental awareness building for resource management is highlighted for small farmers in headwater agricultural watersheds. As a first attempt to incorporate multipond systems into the process-based modeling of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, this work can inform other hydro-environmental studies on scattered and small water bodies. The results are also useful to water quality improvement for entire river basins.

  18. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses...... the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide...

  19. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  20. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  1. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  2. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Seasonal and spatial variation of diffuse (non-point) source zinc pollution in a historically metal mined river catchment, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzard, E., E-mail: emgo@ceh.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Mayes, W.M., E-mail: W.Mayes@hull.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, H.A.B., E-mail: hugh.potter@environment-agency.gov.uk [Environment Agency England and Wales, c/o Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, A.P., E-mail: a.p.jarvis@ncl.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Quantifying diffuse sources of pollution is becoming increasingly important when characterising river catchments in entirety - a prerequisite for environmental management. This study examines both low and high flow events, as well as spatial variability, in order to assess point and diffuse components of zinc pollution within the River West Allen catchment, which lies within the northern England lead-zinc Orefield. Zinc levels in the river are elevated under all flow regimes, and are of environmental concern. Diffuse components are of little importance at low flow, with point source mine water discharges dominating instream zinc concentration and load. During higher river flows 90% of the instream zinc load is attributed to diffuse sources, where inputs from resuspension of metal-rich sediments, and groundwater influx are likely to be more dominant. Remediating point mine water discharges should significantly improve water quality at lower flows, but contribution from diffuse sources will continue to elevate zinc flux at higher flows. - Highlights: > Zinc concentrations breach EU quality thresholds under all river flow conditions. > Contributions from point sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in low flow. > Contributions from diffuse sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in high flow. > Important diffuse sources include river-bed sediment resuspension and groundwater influx. > Diffuse sources would still create significant instream pollution, even with point source treatment. - Diffuse zinc sources are an important source of instream contamination to mine-impacted rivers under varying flow conditions.

  5. Comparison between snowmelt-runoff and rainfall-runoff nonpoint source pollution in a typical urban catchment in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhi, Xiaosha; Shen, Zhenyao; Dai, Ying; Aini, Guzhanuer

    2018-01-01

    As a climate-driven event, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall- or snowmelt-runoff processes; however, few studies have compared the characteristics and mechanisms of these two kinds of NPS processes. In this study, three factors relating to urban NPS, including surface dust, snowmelt, and rainfall-runoff processes, were analyzed comprehensively by both field sampling and laboratory experiments. The seasonal variation and leaching characteristics of pollutants in surface dust were explored, and the runoff quality of snowmelt NPS and rainfall NPS were compared. The results indicated that dusts are the main sources of urban NPS and more pollutants are deposited in dust samples during winter and spring. However, pollutants in surface dust showed a low leaching ratio, which indicated most NPS pollutants would be carried as particulate forms. Compared to surface layer, underlying snow contained higher chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids (TSS), Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations, while the event mean concentration of most pollutants in snowmelt tended to be higher in roads. Moreover, the TSS and heavy metal content of snowmelt NPS was always higher than those of rainfall NPS, which indicated the importance of controlling snowmelt pollution for effective water quality management.

  6. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  7. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  8. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  9. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  10. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B.; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35–50% of THg concentration and 50–70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. - Highlights: • China's anthropogenic mercury emission was 643.1 t in 2007. • GEOS-Chem model well reproduces the background Hg concentrations. • Anthropogenic emissions contribute 35–50% of Hg concentrations in polluted regions. • The priorities for mercury control in polluted regions are identified. - Anthropogenic Hg emissions are updated and their impacts on atmospheric mercury concentrations and depositions are quantified for China

  11. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  12. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  13. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  14. The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam Source Impact And Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh Hoang; Nam Xuan Chu; Trung Van Tran

    2017-01-01

    Currently the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015 Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However the air pollution index Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore the...

  15. Estimation of light source colours for light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziou, D; Kerouh, F

    2018-05-01

    The concept of the smart city raised several technological and scientific issues including light pollution. There are various negative impacts of light pollution on economy, ecology, and heath. This paper deals with the census of the colour of light emitted by lamps used in a city environment. To this end, we derive a light bulb colour estimator based on Bayesian reasoning, directional data, and image formation model in which the usual concept of reflectance is not used. All choices we made are devoted to designing an algorithm which can be run almost in real-time. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air pollution in Australia: review of costs, sources and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dorothy L

    2005-12-01

    Estimated health costs and principal sources of air pollution are reviewed, together with estimated costs of reducing pollution from major sources in Australia. Emissions data from the Australian National Pollutant Inventory were compared with published estimates of pollution costs and converted to the cost per kilogram of emissions. Costs per kg of emissions (and, for the two main sources of pollution, diesel vehicles and wood heaters, costs per heater and per vehicle) are relatively easy to understand, making it easier to compare health costs with costs of pollution-control strategies. Estimated annual costs of morbidity/mortality exceed $1,100 per diesel vehicle and $2,000 per wood heater. Costs of avoiding emissions (about $2.1/kg PM2.5 for phasing out wood heaters and upwards of $70/kg for reducing diesel emissions) are considerably less than the estimated health costs ($166/kg) of those emissions. In other countries, smokeless zones (for domestic heating), heavy vehicle low-emission zones, and lower registration charges for low-emission vehicles reduce pollution and improve health. Similar 'polluter-pays' taxes in Australia to encourage retrofitting of existing diesels and incentives to choose new ones with lowest emissions would provide substantial benefits. Adopting Christchurch's policy of phasing out wood heaters and 'polluter-pays' levies to discourage their use would be extremely cost-effective.

  17. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  18. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.

  20. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  1. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  2. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    1996-01-01

    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system

  4. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  5. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  6. Pollution studies of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) with its great sensitivity for a large number of elements has been widely used for marine environmental studies Saronikos Gulf receives combined domestic and industrial effluents of the grater Athens area through the Athens sewage outfall (ASO) at Keratsini Bay, which also receives wastes from discrete industrial sources including a fertilizer plant. Such discharges usually contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which can be dangerous to marine ecosystems and humans. This paper is a review of research and monitoring studies of toxic and other trace elements in marine organisms, seawater, and sediments of Saronikos Gulf by NAA performed over the last 15 yr. The objectives of these studies were (a) to find the fates and pathways of toxic and other trace elements, (b) to estimate the extent of pollution, and (c) to pinpoint and distinguish pollution sources

  7. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    landing site in Uganda. N. Banadda. Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: banadda@agric.mak.ac.ug. Fax: +256-414-53.16.41. Accepted 5 January, 2011. The aim of this research is to characterize non point pollutants and their dispersion in ...

  8. Interpolating precipitation and its relation to runoff and non-point source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Lo, Shang-Lien; Yu, Shaw-L

    2005-01-01

    When rainfall spatially varies, complete rainfall data for each region with different rainfall characteristics are very important. Numerous interpolation methods have been developed for estimating unknown spatial characteristics. However, no interpolation method is suitable for all circumstances. In this study, several methods, including the arithmetic average method, the Thiessen Polygons method, the traditional inverse distance method, and the modified inverse distance method, were used to interpolate precipitation. The modified inverse distance method considers not only horizontal distances but also differences between the elevations of the region with no rainfall records and of its surrounding rainfall stations. The results show that when the spatial variation of rainfall is strong, choosing a suitable interpolation method is very important. If the rainfall is uniform, the precipitation estimated using any interpolation method would be quite close to the actual precipitation. When rainfall is heavy in locations with high elevation, the rainfall changes with the elevation. In this situation, the modified inverse distance method is much more effective than any other method discussed herein for estimating the rainfall input for WinVAST to estimate runoff and non-point source pollution (NPSP). When the spatial variation of rainfall is random, regardless of the interpolation method used to yield rainfall input, the estimation errors of runoff and NPSP are large. Moreover, the relationship between the relative error of the predicted runoff and predicted pollutant loading of SS is high. However, the pollutant concentration is affected by both runoff and pollutant export, so the relationship between the relative error of the predicted runoff and the predicted pollutant concentration of SS may be unstable.

  9. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  10. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  11. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  12. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  13. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-07-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), aerosol scattering coefficient ({sigma}{sub sp}), aerosol number concentration (NC{sub asl}), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on

  14. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), aerosol scattering coefficient (σ sp ), aerosol number concentration (NC asl ), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on atmospheric composition in the Arctic. We

  15. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3, (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on studies of water quality in the Ala Wai Canal in order to determine its role of point and non point source disharge into Mamala Bay. The...

  16. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural sources of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P

    1958-01-01

    Various gaseous pollutants including ozone, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrogen, formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, chlorine compounds and free radicals can be formed by natural processes such as ultraviolet photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere and microbiological processes. The modes of formation and destruction of these gases, especially of their concentrations in the atmosphere, and the various reactions in which these gases can participate with each other are discussed in detail. 114 references.

  18. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  19. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  20. Source and Assessment of Metal Pollution at Khetri Copper Mine Tailings and Neighboring Soils, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Anita; Siddaiah, N Siva; Singh, Saurabh K

    2017-11-01

    We present here the results of the study on metal pollution by identifying source, abundance and distribution in soil and tailings of Khetri copper complex (KCC) mines, Rajasthan India. The region is highly contaminated by copper (Cu) with higher values in the soil near overburden material (1224 mg/kg) and tailings (111 mg/kg). The average Cu (231 mg/kg) concentration of soil is ~9, 5 and 32 times higher than upper crust, world average shale (WAS) and local background soil (LS), respectively. However this reaches to ~82, 46 and 280 times higher in case of tailing when compared. The correlation and principal component analysis for soil reveals that the source of Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe is mining and Pb and Cd could be result of weathering of parent rocks and other anthropogenic activities. The source for Cr in soil is both mining activities and weathering of parent rocks. The values of index of geo-accumulation (I geo ) and pollution load index for soil using LS as background are higher compared to values calculated using WAS. The metal rich sulphide bearing overburden material as well as tailings present in the open environment at KCC mines region warrants a proper management to minimize their impact on the environment.

  1. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM 2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM 2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (r S >0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).

  2. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  3. VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF LIGHT POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY IN HONG KONG

    OpenAIRE

    B. Wu; H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    The effects of light pollution problems in metropolitan areas are investigated in this study. Areas of Hong Kong are used as the source of three typical study cases. One case represents the regional scale, a second represents the district scale, and a third represents the street scale. Two light pollution parameters, Night Sky Brightness (NSB) and Street Light Level (SLL), are the focus of the analyses. Light pollution visualization approaches in relation to the different scales incl...

  4. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J; Kindbom, K [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  5. Calculation and analysis of the non-point source pollution in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, L.

    2007-05-01

    Panjiakou Reservoir is an important drinking water resource in Haihe River Basin, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The upstream watershed area is about 35,000 square kilometers. Recently, the water pollution in the reservoir is becoming more serious owing to the non-point pollution as well as point source pollution on the upstream watershed. To effectively manage the reservoir and watershed and develop a plan to reduce pollutant loads, the loading of non-point and point pollution and their distribution on the upstream watershed must be understood fully. The SWAT model is used to simulate the production and transportation of the non-point source pollutants in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir. The loadings of non-point source pollutants are calculated for different hydrologic years and the spatial and temporal characteristics of non-point source pollution are studied. The stream network and topographic characteristics of the stream network and sub-basins are all derived from the DEM by ArcGIS software. The soil and land use data are reclassified and the soil physical properties database file is created for the model. The SWAT model was calibrated with observed data of several hydrologic monitoring stations in the study area. The results of the calibration show that the model performs fairly well. Then the calibrated model was used to calculate the loadings of non-point source pollutants for a wet year, a normal year and a dry year respectively. The time and space distribution of flow, sediment and non-point source pollution were analyzed depending on the simulated results. The comparison of different hydrologic years on calculation results is dramatic. The loading of non-point source pollution in the wet year is relatively larger but smaller in the dry year since the non-point source pollutants are mainly transported through the runoff. The pollution loading within a year is mainly produced in the flood season. Because SWAT is a

  6. Ground water pollution: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources, contaminant transport, and monitoring of pollutants in aquifers. Topics include pollution characterization from landfills and mine drainage, descriptions of study programs undertaken by specific states, and Superfund site studies of contaminated areas. The uses of mathematical models are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  8. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  9. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  10. Combining land use information and small stream sampling with PCR-based methods for better characterization of diffuse sources of human fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peed, Lindsay A; Nietch, Christopher T; Kelty, Catherine A; Meckes, Mark; Mooney, Thomas; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between human and other animal sources of fecal pollution making it difficult to identify diffuse pollution sources. Human-associated quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods in combination with low-order headwatershed sampling, precipitation information, and high-resolution geographic information system land use data can be useful for identifying diffuse source of human fecal pollution in receiving waters. To test this assertion, this study monitored nine headwatersheds over a two-year period potentially impacted by faulty septic systems and leaky sanitary sewer lines. Human fecal pollution was measured using three different human-associated qPCR methods and a positive significant correlation was seen between abundance of human-associated genetic markers and septic systems following wet weather events. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed with sanitary sewer line densities suggesting septic systems are the predominant diffuse source of human fecal pollution in the study area. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining water sampling, climate information, land-use computer-based modeling, and molecular biology disciplines to better characterize diffuse sources of human fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  11. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  12. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  13. An improved export coefficient model to estimate non-point source phosphorus pollution risks under complex precipitation and terrain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian; Chen, Liding; Sun, Ranhao; Jing, Yongcai

    2018-05-15

    To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports and identify sources of pollution. Precipitation and terrain have large impacts on the export and transport of NPS pollutants. We established an improved export coefficient model (IECM) to estimate the amount of agricultural and rural NPS total phosphorus (TP) exported from the Luanhe River Basin (LRB) in northern China. The TP concentrations of rivers from 35 selected catchments in the LRB were used to test the model's explanation capacity and accuracy. The simulation results showed that, in 2013, the average TP export was 57.20 t at the catchment scale. The mean TP export intensity in the LRB was 289.40 kg/km 2 , which was much higher than those of other basins in China. In the LRB topographic regions, the TP export intensity was the highest in the south Yanshan Mountains and was followed by the plain area, the north Yanshan Mountains, and the Bashang Plateau. Among the three pollution categories, the contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, the rural population (59.44%), livestock husbandry (22.24%), and land-use types (18.32%). Among all ten pollution sources, the contribution ratios from the rural population (59.44%), pigs (14.40%), and arable land (10.52%) ranked as the top three sources. This study provides information that decision makers and planners can use to develop sustainable measures for the prevention and control of NPS pollution in semi-arid regions.

  14. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  15. Impact study of an accidental pollution and an agricultural pollution on the subsoil water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tabach, E.

    2005-07-01

    This work deals with the protection of groundwater resources against accidental and agricultural pollutions. It comprises three parts: part 1 is a bibliographic analysis of pollutants transfer mechanisms in the non-saturated zone. It presents the techniques of numerical resolution of the equations controlling these transfers (mechanistic approach). Approaches of data processing-type are also presented. The advantage of neural networks, more and more used in the environmental domain, is emphasized. The second part treats of the migration of non-miscible pollutants (of hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvent type) in the non-saturated zone from an accidental pollution source (a road accident). After a bibliographic analysis of the reference accident, of the most often road transported pollutants and of the available softwares, the area under study is presented with the tests performed at the laboratory for the determination of the permeability coefficient at saturation and the Van Genuchten parameters of the covering layer. The results of the parametric study are given for a reference example using the NAPL-Simulator code. This study allows to outline the main parameters which are used for the construction of a database for the calibration of the neural network-based model. This model is used in the case of the impact study of the road works between Avesnes-sur-Helpes and Maubeuge carried out on the captation fields of Bachant syncline. The third part treats of the migration of a diffuse pollution of agricultural origin (nitrates) in the non-saturated zone. The area under study is presented with the in-situ follow up results of surface fertilizer supplies and of nitrate profile measurements performed for some logging. The construction of the database is detailed. The input data retained are the surface nitrogen supplies, the thickness of the soil beneath the root zone, the water table depth and the time. Finally, the artificial neural networks model and its application to

  16. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metal pollutants in sediments of a rapid developing urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qu, Liyin; Wang, Ting; Luo, Lili; Chen, Han; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Mei, Kun; Huang, Hong

    2018-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environments in rapidly developing industrial regions is of considerable global concern due to its potential to cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study assessed heavy metal contamination of sediments in a highly industrialized urban watershed of eastern China containing several historically unregulated manufacturing enterprises. Total concentrations and solid-phase fractionation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were investigated for 39 river sediments using multivariate statistical analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods to quantitatively examine the relationship between land use and heavy metal pollution at the watershed scale. Results showed distinct spatial patterns of heavy metal contamination within the watershed, such as higher concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the southwest and higher Cu concentration in the east, indicating links to specific pollution sources within the watershed. Correlation and PCA analyses revealed that Zn, Pb and Cd were dominantly contributed by anthropogenic activities; Cu originated from both industrial and agricultural sources; and Cr has been altered by recent pollution control strategies. The GWR model indicated that several heavy metal fractions were strongly correlated with industrial land proportion and this correlation varied with the level of industrialization as demonstrated by variations in local GWR R 2 values. This study provides important information for assessing heavy metal contaminated areas, identifying heavy metal pollutant sources, and developing regional-scale remediation strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A method to analyze “source–sink” structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the “source–sink” theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of “source” of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km 2 in 2008, and the “sink” was 172.06 km 2 . The “source” of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the “sink” was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of “source” gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while “sink” gets stronger. -- Highlights: •We built an index to study the “source–sink” structure of NSP in a space scale. •The Index was applied in Jiulongjiang estuary and got a well result. •The study is beneficial to discern the high load area of non-point source pollution. -- “Source–Sink” Structure of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in Jiulongjiang estuary in China was worked out by the Grid Landscape Contrast Index

  18. Thermal neutron source study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The value of intense neutron beams for condensed matter research is discussed with emphasis on the complementary nature of steady state and pulsed neutron sources. A large body of information on neutron sources, both existing and planned, is then summarized under four major headings: fission reactors, electron accelerators with heavy metal targets, pulsed spallation sources and 'steady state' spallation sources. Although the cost of a spallation source is expected to exceed that of a fission reactor of the same flux by a factor of two, there are significant advantages for a spallation device such as the proposed Electronuclear Materials Test Facility (EMTF)

  19. Characterization of the atmospheric pollution level in Sfax (Tunisia): influence of sources and meteorological factors; Caracterisation du niveau de pollution atmospherique dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie): influence des sources et des facteurs meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch.; Maalej, A.; Medhioub, K. [Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs de Sfax, Unite de Recherche Etude et Gestion des Environnements Cotiers et Urbains (Tunisia); Tlili, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. de Geologie (Tunisia)

    2002-01-01

    This study held in Sfax City (Tunisia), showed that the atmospheric pollution level is strongly influenced by industrial sources, obstacles and meteorological factors. The factory of phosphate treatment 'SIAPE' displayed the main polluting source in the City. It is the principal issuing of SO{sub x} and toxic metals. The phosphogypsum deposit displayed an obstacle to the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. Their stagnation is accentuated under smoky conditions. Several episodes of SO{sub 2} and dust are attributed to the effect of marked thermal inversions and the sirocco wind. The limited influence of traffic was proved by the registration of NO{sub x}, which showed low concentrations. It is conditioned by the change of fashion life of people and their customs of work (Ramadan month, agricultural activities). As a result, the adequate treatment of atmospheric industrial emanations (notably those of SIAPE) and the evacuation of artificial obstacles have to be considered. (authors)

  20. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River (China) using neural-based modeling and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Zhi, Junjun; Lou, Liping; Huang, Fang; Chen, Xia; Wu, Jiaping

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal patterns and apportioning the pollution sources of water bodies are important for the management and protection of water resources. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of water quality and provide references for improving river pollution control practices. Comprehensive application of neural-based modeling and different multivariate methods was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites for the period of 2001-2004. A self-organizing map classified the 41 monitoring sites into three groups (Group A, B and C), representing different pollution characteristics. Four significant parameters (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total lead) were identified by discriminant analysis for distinguishing variations of different years, with about 80% correct assignment for temporal variation. Rotated principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Group A (domestic sewage and agricultural pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, mineral weathering, vehicle exhaust and sand mining), five for Group B (heavy metal pollution, agricultural runoff, vehicle exhaust and sand mining, mineral weathering, chemical plants discharge) and another five for Group C (vehicle exhaust and sand mining, chemical plants discharge, soil weathering, biochemical pollution, mineral weathering). The identified potential pollution sources explained 75.6% of the total variances for Group A, 75.0% for Group B and 80.0% for Group C, respectively. Receptor-based source apportionment was applied to further estimate source contributions for each pollution variable in the three groups, which facilitated and supported the PCA results. These results could assist managers to develop optimal strategies and determine priorities for river

  2. Sources and characteristics of lead pollution in the urban environment of Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.

    2007-01-01

    Guangzhou, the capital of the southeastern province of Guangdong, is one of the largest and most rapidly developing industrial cities in China. In recent years its rapid economic development has brought great prosperity to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, but has also given rise to a wide variety of environmental problems. The current level of lead (Pb) contamination (75-926 mg/kg) in the surface environment of Guangzhou remains a major concern, even though the use of leaded petrol in the city was banned in 1997. The Pb isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb min-max : 1.1612-1.1961 and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb min-max : 2.4495-2.4838) of the urban dusts from unconfined (road dusts and gully sediments) and relatively confined (vehicular tunnel) settings in Guangzhou remains in a relatively narrow range, comparable with those of the regional natural and anthropogenic sources. This study highlights the inherent shortcomings of the Pb isotope fingerprinting technique for provenancing Pb sources, as both the target media (urban dusts) and potential sources have similar and highly radiogenic Pb isotope values. This could not only lead to an overestimation of the effectiveness of phasing-out of leaded petrol, but also an underestimation of the ever-increasing relative contributions from other potential sources of pollution, including coal combustion, industrial emissions of local Pb-ores and non-additive Pb contents of crude oils. Re-suspended Pb-bearing particulates deposited from early vehicular exhaust emission of leaded petrol with distinctly low Pb isotope compositions are still an important source of Pb pollution in the region

  3. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  4. Interrogating pollution sources in a mangrove food web using multiple stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Iara da C; Arrivabene, Hiulana P; Craig, Carol-Ann; Midwood, Andrew J; Thornton, Barry; Matsumoto, Silvia T; Elliott, Michael; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2018-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities including metal contamination create well-known problems in coastal mangrove ecosystems but understanding and linking specific pollution sources to distinct trophic levels within these environments is challenging. This study evaluated anthropogenic impacts on two contrasting mangrove food webs, by using stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) measured in sediments, mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia schaueriana), plankton, shrimps (Macrobranchium sp.), crabs (Aratus sp.), oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and fish (Centropomus parallelus) from both areas. Strontium and Pb isotopes were also analysed in water and atmospheric particulate matter (PM). δ 15 N indicated that crab, shrimp and oyster are at intermediate levels within the local food web and fish, in this case C. parallelus, was confirmed at the highest trophic level. δ 15 N also indicates different anthropogenic pressures between both estuaries; Vitória Bay, close to intensive human activities, showed higher δ 15 N across the food web, apparently influenced by sewage. The ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr showed the primary influence of marine water throughout the entire food web. Pb isotope ratios suggest that PM is primarily influenced by metallurgical activities, with some secondary influence on mangrove plants and crabs sampled in the area adjacent to the smelting works. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effect of anthropogenic pollution (probable sewage pollution) on the isotopic fingerprint of estuarine-mangrove systems located close to a city compared to less impacted estuarine mangroves. The influence of industrial metallurgical activity detected using Pb isotopic analysis of PM and mangrove plants close to such an impacted area is also notable and illustrates the value of isotopic analysis in tracing the impact and species affected by atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  5. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  6. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  7. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  8. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  9. United States‐Mexican border watershed assessment: Modeling nonpoint source pollution in Ambos Nogales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological considerations need to be interwoven with economic policy and planning along the United States‐Mexican border. Non‐point source pollution can have significant implications for the availability of potable water and the continued health of borderland ecosystems in arid lands. However, environmental assessments in this region present a host of unique issues and problems. A common obstacle to the solution of these problems is the integration of data with different resolutions, naming conventions, and quality to create a consistent database across the binational study area. This report presents a simple modeling approach to predict nonpoint source pollution that can be used for border watersheds. The modeling approach links a hillslopescale erosion‐prediction model and a spatially derived sediment‐delivery model within a geographic information system to estimate erosion, sediment yield, and sediment deposition across the Ambos Nogales watershed in Sonora, Mexico, and Arizona. This paper discusses the procedures used for creating a watershed database to apply the models and presents an example of the modeling approach applied to a conservation‐planning problem.

  10. Current status of agricultural and rural non-point source Pollution assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongley, Edwin D.; Zhang Xiaolan; Yu Tao

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of non-point source (NPS) contribution to total water pollution in China range up to 81% for nitrogen and to 93% for phosphorus. We believe these values are too high, reflecting (a) misuse of estimation techniques that were developed in America under very different conditions and (b) lack of specificity on what is included as NPS. We compare primary methods used for NPS estimation in China with their use in America. Two observations are especially notable: empirical research is limited and does not provide an adequate basis for calibrating models nor for deriving export coefficients; the Chinese agricultural situation is so different than that of the United States that empirical data produced in America, as a basis for applying estimation techniques to rural NPS in China, often do not apply. We propose a set of national research and policy initiatives for future NPS research in China. - Estimation techniques used in China for non-point source pollution are evaluated as a basis for recommending future policies and research in NPS studies in China.

  11. Chemical and isotopic methods for characterization of pollutant sources in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The acid rain formation is related with industrial pollution. An isotopic and chemical study of the spatial and temporary distribution of the acidity in the rain gives information about the acidity source. The predominant species in the acid rain are nitrates and sulfates. For the rain monitoring is required the determination of the anion species such as HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , NO 3 and p H. So it was analyzed the cations Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ to determine the quality analysis. All of them species can be determined with enough accuracy, except HCO 3 by modern equipment such as, liquid chromatograph, atomic absorption, etc. The HCO 3 concentration is determined by traditional methods like acid-base titration. This work presents the fundamental concepts of the titration method for samples with low alkalinity (carbonic species), for rain water. There is presented a general overview over the isotopic methods for the characterization of the origin of pollutant sources in the rain. (Author)

  12. Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Shiau-Chian; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.

  13. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holnicki, P. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Systems Research Inst.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  14. Identification of Pollution Patterns and Sources in a Semi-Arid Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Markogianni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact and occurrence of human-induced pollution sources have been investigated in one of the few remaining urban streams located in Attica, Greece. Baseline information is provided on the presence and concentration of physicochemical parameters, nutrients, total coliforms, hydrocarbons and phenols in 12 key points along the Pikrodafni stream. The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of key water quality variables and their sources. Indicator substances (i.e. concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and total coliforms in certain stations indicating wastewater exposure; PAHs indicating petroleum sources successfully related the water quality variables to pollution sources. Furthermore, a pollution pressure map has been developed with the activities identified from in-situ visits and Google Earth surveys, while the statistical analysis (CA and PCA has contributed to the further exploration of the relative magnitude of pollution sources effects. Our results underline initially the importance of diffuse pollution management accompanied by the necessity for continuous environmental monitoring and the application of legal and environmental restoration actions if water quality is to be improved according to WFD 2000/60/EC.

  15. Pollution assessment and source apportionment of heavy metals in contaminated site soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in soil were analyzed with a typical contaminated site as the case area. The pollution degree of the element was evaluated by indexes of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with potential ecological risk index model. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was simultaneously carried out to identify the main sources of heavy metals in topsoils. The results indicated that: 1. Mean values of 11 kinds of metals in topsoils were greater than respective soil background values, following the order: Zn>Pb>V>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co>As>Sb>Cd>Hg. Heavy metals with a certain accumulation in the research area were significantly affected by external factors. 2. Igeo results showed that Cd and Zn reached strongly polluted degree, while Pb with moderately to strongly polluted, Sb and Hg with moderately polluted, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr with unpolluted to moderately polluted, V and As with un-polluted. 3. Potential ecological risk assessment showed the degree of ecological risk with Cd at very high risk, Hg at high risk, Pb at moderate risk and others at low risk. The comprehensive risk of all the metals was very high. 4. PCA got three main sources with contributions, including industrial activities (44.18%), traffic and burning dust (26.68%) and soil parent materials (12.20%).

  16. The phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokh, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Revich, B.A.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Chen Sen Pal.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers some peculiarities of the production of phosphorus fertilizers from the point of view of the pollution of the environment with rare-earth elements. The principal possibility is demonstrated of the determination of the influence of a given type of production on the environment by measuring the change in the rare-arth elements interrelationship in the show. The main source of industrial dust is identified. The distribution of pollutants in dependence on the size of aerosol particles is given. The data on the concentrations of the pollutants in agricultural plants, employees hair and hair of local residents are also reported. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Risk assessment and source analysis of soil heavy metal pollution from lower reaches of Yellow River irrigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyan; Qin, Chengzhe; Hong, Xin; Kang, Guohua; Qin, Mingzhou; Yang, Dan; Pang, Bo; Li, Yanyan; He, Jianjian; Dick, Richard P

    2018-08-15

    The level of concentration of heavy metal in soil is detrimental to soil quality. The Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation area in the lower-reach of Yellow River irrigation, as home to a large population and a major site to agricultural production, is vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. This study examined soil quality in Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation areas of Kaifeng, China. Pollution in soil and potential risks introduced by heavy metal accumulation were assessed using Nemerow, Geoaccumulation, and Hakanson's ecological risk indices. Statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to model and present the spatiotemporal changes of the pollution sources and factors affecting the levels of pollution. The heavy metals found in the sampled soil are Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg. Among them, Cd is more concentrated than the others. The southwestern region of the studied area confronts the most serious heavy metal pollution. There exist spatial disparities of low concentrations of different heavy metals in the study area. Hg and Cd are found to pose the highest potential ecological risks. However, their risk levels are not the same across the study area. Levels concentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg in soil are highly correlated. In combination, they post an additional threat to the ecological environment. Transportation, rural settlements, and water bodies are found to be the major sources of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg pollution in the soil; among the major sources, transportation is the most significant factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollution, ecological-health risks, and sources of heavy metals in soil of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Li, Leiming; Min, Xiuyun; Luo, Yongming

    2018-06-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially the northeastern region, is not a pure land any more due to recently increasing anthropogenic activities. This study collected soil samples from 70 sites of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to evaluate pollution, ecological-health risks, and possible pollution sources of heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil were relatively high. Values of geo-accumulation index exhibited that Hg pollution was the most serious meanwhile Hg possessed the strongest enrichment feature based on enrichment factor values. The modified degrees of contamination showed that about 54.3% and 17.1% of sampling sites were at moderate and high contamination degree while pollution load indexes illustrated that 72.9% and 27.1% of sampling sites possessed moderate and high contamination level, respectively. Ecological risk indexes of heavy metals in soil ranged from 234.6 to 3759.0, suggesting that most of sites were under considerable/very high risks. Cancer risks for adults and children were determined as high and high-very high levels while non-cancer risks for children were high although those for adults were low. Industrial source contributed to the main fraction of ecological and health risks. Summarily speaking, heavy metals in soil of the study area has caused significantly serious pollution and exerted high potential ecological and health risks, especially for children who are more susceptible to hurt from pollutants. Therefore, more efficient and strict pollution control and management in study area should be put out as soon as possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A review of vegetated buffers and a meta-analysis of their mitigation efficacy in reducing nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Zhang, Minghua; Dahlgren, Randy A; Eitzel, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are a well-studied and widely used agricultural management practice for reducing nonpoint-source pollution. A wealth of literature provides experimental data on their mitigation efficacy. This paper aggregated many of these results and performed a meta-analysis to quantify the relationships between pollutant removal efficacy and buffer width, buffer slope, soil type, and vegetation type. Theoretical models for removal efficacy (Y) vs. buffer width (w) were derived and tested against data from the surveyed literature using statistical analyses. A model of the form Y = K x (1-e(-bxw)), (0 pollutant removal, where K reflects the maximum removal efficacy of the buffer and b reflects its probability to remove any single particle of pollutant in a unit distance. Buffer width alone explains 37, 60, 44, and 35% of the total variance in removal efficacy for sediment, pesticides, N, and P, respectively. Buffer slope was linearly associated with sediment removal efficacy either positively (when slope 10%). Buffers composed of trees have higher N and P removal efficacy than buffers composed of grasses or mixtures of grasses and trees. Soil drainage type did not show a significant effect on pollutant removal efficacy. Based on our analysis, a 30-m buffer under favorable slope conditions (approximately 10%) removes more than 85% of all the studied pollutants. These models predicting optimal buffer width/slope can be instrumental in the design, implementation, and modeling of vegetated buffers for treating agricultural runoff.

  20. Biological and chemical diagnosis of damage to crops caused by air pollution and tracing the source of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Raay, A

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the biological and chemical diagnosis of damage of crops caused by air pollution. Field observations were made as well as trials in fumigation chambers. The field work showed a great deal of fluoride contamination near industrial plants. A network of monitoring points was set up around the fluoride-emitting sources. The HF pollution was determined by the limed paper method, the fluoride content of plants, leaf necrosis in some plants, and an impinger and tubes filled with coated silver pellets, directed by a weather-vane. These investigations were carried out in two areas of New Zealand as well as near Delfzijl in Groningen. Fluoride was emitted by factories producing aluminum, superphosphate or sodium triphosphate.

  1. Research on numerical method for multiple pollution source discharge and optimal reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingchang; Dai, Mingxin; Zhou, Bin; Zou, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the optimal method for reduction program is proposed by the nonlinear optimal algorithms named that genetic algorithm. The four main rivers in Jiangsu province, China are selected for reducing the environmental pollution in nearshore district. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is studied as the only pollutant. The environmental status and standard in the nearshore district is used to reduce the discharge of multiple river pollutant. The research results of reduction program are the basis of marine environmental management.

  2. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  3. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  5. A modified receptor model for source apportionment of heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Wu, Shaofu; Japenga, Jan; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2018-07-15

    Source apportionment is a crucial step toward reduction of heavy metal pollution in soil. Existing methods are generally based on receptor models. However, overestimation or underestimation occurs when they are applied to heavy metal source apportionment in soil. Therefore, a modified model (PCA-MLRD) was developed, which is based on principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression with distance (MLRD). This model was applied to a case study conducted in a peri-urban area in southeast China where soils were contaminated by arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). Compared with existing models, PCA-MLRD is able to identify specific sources and quantify the extent of influence for each emission. The zinc (Zn)-Pb mine was identified as the most important anthropogenic emission, which affected approximately half area for Pb and As accumulation, and approximately one third for Cd. Overall, the influence extent of the anthropogenic emissions decreased in the order of mine (3 km) > dyeing mill (2 km) ≈ industrial hub (2 km) > fluorescent factory (1.5 km) > road (0.5 km). Although algorithm still needs to improved, the PCA-MLRD model has the potential to become a useful tool for heavy metal source apportionment in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  7. Study on the Pollution-heaven Hypothesis Focusing on Pollution-Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lho, S.W. [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test pollution-heaven hypothesis on the Korean pollution-intensive industries, that is, textile and clothing, petrochemical and primary metal industry. The empirical study examines that foreign direct investment(FDI) of Korean pollution-intensive industries regresses on couple of exogenous variables and the environmental regulation on FDI. As the environmental regulation is not directly observed, it uses C0{sub 2} emissions as the pollutant. The results of the study show that the environmental regulation in a host country is an insignificant determinant of FDI for the Korean polluting industries. That is, they do not support Leonard (1988), Xing and Kolstad (2000) that the hypothesis is a significant for heavily polluting industries. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Laser Gas-Analyser for Monitoring a Source of Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of growing air pollution of the Earth is of relevance. Many countries have taken measures to protect the environment in order to limit the negative anthropogenic impacts.In such a situation an objective information on the actual content of pollutants in the atmosphere is of importance. For operational inspection of the pollutant concentrations and for monitoring pollution sources, it is necessary to create high-speed high-sensitivity gas analysers.Laser meters are the most effective to provide operational remote and local inspection of gas pollution of the Earth atmosphere.Laser meter for routine gas analysis should conduct operational analysis of the gas mixture (air. For this a development of appropriate information support is required.Such information support should include a database with absorption coefficients of pollutants (specific to potential sources of pollution at possible measuring wavelengths (holding data for a particular emitter of the laser meter and an efficient algorithms to search the measuring wavelengths and conduct a quantitative analysis of gas mixtures.Currently, the issues, important for practice and related to the development of information support for the laser gas analyzer to conduct important for practice routine measurements remain unclear.In this paper we develop an algorithm to provide an operational search of the measuring wavelengths of laser gas analyser and an algorithm to recover quantitively the gaseous component concentrations of controlled gas mixture from the laser multi-spectral measurements that take into account a priori information about the source-controlled gas pollution and do not require a large amount of computation. The method of mathematical simulation shows the effectiveness of the algorithms described both for seach of measuring wavelengths and for quantitative analysis of gas releases.

  9. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  10. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  11. Integrated assessment of air pollution by metals and source apportionment using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Júlia Carolina; Vancetta, Tafael; Alves, Darlan Daniel; Osório, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca; Bianchin, Liane; de Quevedo, Daniela Müller; Juchem, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest environmental problems existing today is air pollution, which is characterized by the presence of toxic gases and metal pollutants, the latter of which is generally associated with emissions of particulate matter (PM) from industries or automotive vehicles. Biomonitoring is a method that can be used to assess air pollution levels because it makes it possible to determine what effects these air pollutants cause in living organisms and their responses. The species Lolium multiflorum Lam., known as ryegrass, is considered a good bioindicator of metals, since it accumulates these substances during exposure. This study proposes to conduct an integrated assessment of air quality using two different monitoring methodologies: biomonitoring with L. multiflorum and active monitoring in areas with different levels of urbanization and industrialization. Concentrations found in ryegrass plants revealed high levels of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu, indicating that vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of pollution. Analysis of PM also revealed soot and biogenic particles, which can transport metals. Therefore, with the proposed method, the anthropogenic impact on air pollution in the investigated area could be clearly demonstrated.

  12. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  13. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  14. Study of the background of the neutrinoless double {beta} decay with the detector NEMO 2: contribution arising from the radon diffusion and internal pollution of the source {sup 214}Bi have been estimated; Etude du bruit de fond de la double-desintegration {beta} sans emission de neutrino dans le detecteur NEMO 2: contribution du radon ambiant et mesure de la pollution interne de la source en {sup 214}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, F.

    1995-02-01

    The NEMO experiment is designed to understand the nature of the neutrino by studying the double beta decay of Mo-100 which is related to the Majorana neutrino effective mass. In this kind of experiment a good understanding of the different sources of background is crucial as only few events are expected per year at the required level of sensitivity. In this thesis we present the main theoretical and experimental aspects of the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 with the prototype detector NEMO2. The goal of this study is to obtain a realistic interpretation of the few events detected at high energy in the two-electron channel as a background to neutrinoless double beta decay. In particular, the contribution arising from Bi-214 has been investigated. These events have been selected and analysed by means of the beta-alpha decays of Bi-214 into Pb-210. The events are characterized by a delayed track in the wire chamber and the corresponding signal is rather clean. The study has demonstrated the diffusion of Rn-222 into the detector and its contribution to Bi-214 pollution has been estimated. A measurement of the Bi-214 internal contamination of the source has been made as well as an estimation of the Bi-214 deposit due to Rn-222. As a result of this study it appears that, under the conditions of the NEMO2 experiment, the Bi and Rn contributions are of the same order of magnitude as the background induced at high energy by two-neutrino double beta decay. In conclusion, the backgrounds of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 are well understood in the NEMO2 experiment leading to an extrapolation for the NEMO3 experiment. (authors).

  15. Pollution sources and groundwater quality in the Coastal region of the Yugoslav part of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatina, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to access the vulnerability and risk of the aquifer system in the Yugoslav part of the Danube, as the primary source of drinking water for a numerically substantial community, industrial purposes and irrigation, as well as a high concentration of civil, industrial and agricultural activities (hence, a potential source of pollution of the groundwater resources through land occupation and use as well as the disposal of solid and liquid wastes), a great hydro-geophysical exploration was performed. Within the lower part of the plain, exploratory test of Salinac field, near Smederevo town, was particularly investigated. The reason why is because that part is also an area of the mouth of the Velika Morava into the Danube, where Derdap reservoir is located. Task of complex exploration was to delineate the aquifer, obtain appropriate parameters (groundwater level, groundwater chemistry, clay content, filtration characteristics and physical parameters of geological functions), as well as to map the aquifer vulnerability, in order to prevent and moderate a harmful influence of the performed reservoir on the environment (increased groundwater infiltration from the reservoir into surrounding rocks, permanent groundwater level raising, etc.). Based on the results, zoning of the study area according to the aquifer vulnerability has been done. Then, land-use planning and development of strategy for groundwater protection and management was possible. In the paper, not only sources of contamination, characteristics of pollutants and their influence on the groundwater quality was presented, but also content of organic matters, phosphates and nitrogen compounds, etc. Further, means of protection and management are discussed, as well as the appropriate legal regulations. (author)

  16. Controlled environment experiments in pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitzschel, B

    1978-12-01

    In the last decade society has become aware of the increasing negative effects of human waste products introduced to the oceans. There is proof evidence, at least for some areas of the world ocean, that the marine environment is seriously in danger. The scientific community is very concerned, arguing that there is an urgent need for basic research in this field because too little is known on the harzardous effects of man-made pollutants on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. There are two wanys to perform experiments under conrolled environment conditions: (1) in the laboratory; (2) in in-situ experiments with enclosures. Most laboratory experiments are designed to study the influence and the tolerance spectrum of specific pollutants, e.g. copper or DDT, on any specific organism, e.g. a mussel or a fish. In these experiments it is fairly difficult to simulate natural conditions. The concentrations of the pollutants are generally fairly high, often several orders of magnitude higher than in the ocean. It is questionable if the results from these experiments can be extrapolated to nature. In the second approach (enclosures of various sizes in-situ or in landbased facilities), fibre-glass containers and plastic bags have been used successfully in the last years, e.g. in the UK, USA, Canada, France, and W. Germany. The main goal of these experiments is to study the long-term effect of low-level perturbations on natural populations of the pelagic or benthic ecosystem. Examples of recent results are discussed in detail. 33 references.

  17. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  18. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-21

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  19. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  20. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  1. A Study on environmental pollution accounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Woo; Choi, Yong Jae [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the industrial classification of 1995 inter-industry relation table, pollutants discharging unit was prepared by industry or by economic activity. Then the method analyzing correlation between pollutant discharge and economic activities by inter-industry analysis mechanism was presented after estimating direct and indirect effects of generation of pollutants. Based on this analysis, the industry causing a large quantity of pollutant discharge was found out and correlation between pollutant discharge coefficient and production inducing effect was analyzed. 23 refs., 52 tabs.

  2. Cold source economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, Serge.

    1975-01-01

    This computer code is intended for the statement of the general economic balance resulting from using a given cold source. The balance includes the investments needed for constructing the various materials, and also production balances resulting from their utilization. The case of either using an open circuit condenser on sea or river, or using air cooling systems with closed circuits or as auxiliaries can be dealt with. The program can be used to optimize the characteristics of the various parts of the cold source. The performance of the various materials can be evaluated for a given situation from using very full, precise economic balances, these materials can also be classified according to their possible uses, the outer constraints being taken into account (limits for heat disposal into rivers or seas, water temperature, air temperature). Technical choices whose economic consequences are important have been such clarified [fr

  3. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Goncalves, L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  4. Advection-diffusion model for the simulation of air pollution distribution from a point source emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, S.; Awalludin, S. A.; Wahidin

    2018-01-01

    Advection-diffusion model is one of the mathematical models, which can be used to understand the distribution of air pollutant in the atmosphere. It uses the 2D advection-diffusion model with time-dependent to simulate air pollution distribution in order to find out whether the pollutants are more concentrated at ground level or near the source of emission under particular atmospheric conditions such as stable, unstable, and neutral conditions. Wind profile, eddy diffusivity, and temperature are considered in the model as parameters. The model is solved by using explicit finite difference method, which is then visualized by a computer program developed using Lazarus programming software. The results show that the atmospheric conditions alone influencing the level of concentration of pollutants is not conclusive as the parameters in the model have their own effect on each atmospheric condition.

  5. Sources of contamination and modelled pollutant trajectories in a Mediterranean harbour (Tarragona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, M; Sierra, J P; Mösso, C; Sánchez-Arcilla, A

    2010-06-01

    The proximity of commercial harbours to residential areas and the growing environmental awareness of society have led most port authorities to include environmental management within their administration plan. Regarding water quality, it is necessary to have the capacity and tools to deal with contamination episodes that may damage marine ecosystems and human health, but also affect the normal functioning of harbours. This paper presents a description of the main pollutant sources in Tarragona Harbour (Spain), and a numerical analysis of several pollution episodes based on the Port Authority's actual environmental concerns. The results show that pollution generated inside the harbour tends to remain confined within the port, whereas it is very likely that oil spills from a nearby monobuoy may affect the neighbouring beaches. The present combination of numerical models proves itself a useful tool to assess the environmental risk associated to harbour activities and potential pollution spills.

  6. Association of air pollution sources and aldehydes with biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary inflammation, and systemic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Robson, Mark G; Kipen, Howard M; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Gong, Jicheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements. The biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation, particularly EBC pH and eNO, were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The biomarkers for blood coagulation, particularly vWF and sCD62p, were most consistently associated with oil combustion. Systemic oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG) was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. The associations of the biomarkers were generally not significant or consistent with secondary formation of pollutants and with the aldehydes. The findings support policies to control anthropogenic pollution sources rather than natural soil or road dust from a cardio-respiratory health standpoint.

  7. Simulation of agricultural non-point source pollution in Xichuan by using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linan; Zuo, Jiane; Liu, Fenglin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Cao, Qiguang

    2018-02-01

    This paper evaluated the applicability of using SWAT to access agricultural non-point source pollution in Xichuan area. In order to build the model, DEM, soil sort and land use map, climate monitoring data were collected as basic database. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for the SWAT was carried out using streamflow, suspended solids, total phosphorus and total nitrogen records from 2009 to 2011. Errors, coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient were considered to evaluate the applicability. The coefficient of determination were 0.96, 0.66, 0.55 and 0.66 for streamflow, SS, TN, and TP, respectively. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient were 0.93, 0.5, 0.52 and 0.63, respectively. The results all meet the requirements. It suggested that the SWAT model can simulate the study area.

  8. Determination of sources and analysis of micro-pollutants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Pauzi Abdullah; Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to develop and validate selected analytical methods for the analysis of micro organics and metals in water; to identify, monitor and assess the levels of micro organics and metals in drinking water supplies; to evaluate the relevancy of the guidelines set in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality 2001; and to identify the sources of pollution and to carryout risk assessment of exposure to drinking water. The presentation discussed the progress of the work include determination of VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) in drinking water using SPME (Solid phase micro-extraction) extraction techniques, analysis of heavy metals in drinking water, determination of Cr(VI) with ICPES (Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry) and the presence of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs), which is heavily used by agricultural sector, in trace concentrations in waters

  9. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  10. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkloh, L.; Braun, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.) [de

  11. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  12. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  13. Duopigatron ion source studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, F.M.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1978-07-01

    Ion source performance characteristics consisting of total ion current, ion energy distribution, mass distribution, and ion current density distribution were measured for several models of a duopigatron. Variations on the duopigatron design involved plasma expansion cup material and dimensions, secondary cathode material, and interelectrode spacings. Of the designs tested, the one with a copper and molybdenum secondary cathode and a mild steel plasma expansion cup proved to give the best results. The ion current density distribution was peaked at the center of the plasma expansion cup and fell off to 80 percent of the peak value at the cup wall for a cup 15.2 mm deep. A total ion current of 180 mA consisting of 60 to 70 percent atomic ions was produced with an arc current of 20 A and source pressure of 9.3 Pa. More shallow cups produced a larger beam current and a more sharply peaked ion current density distribution. Typical ion energy distributions were bell-shaped curves with a peak 10 to 20 V below anode potential and with ion energies extending 30 to 40 V on either side of the peak

  14. Pollutants in drinking water: their sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2004-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemical and radionuclide etc. this is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication. Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  15. Application of genetic algorithm for the simultaneous identification of atmospheric pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantelli, A.; D'Orta, F.; Cattini, A.; Sebastianelli, F.; Cedola, L.

    2015-08-01

    A computational model is developed for retrieving the positions and the emission rates of unknown pollution sources, under steady state conditions, starting from the measurements of the concentration of the pollutants. The approach is based on the minimization of a fitness function employing a genetic algorithm paradigm. The model is tested considering both pollutant concentrations generated through a Gaussian model in 25 points in a 3-D test case domain (1000m × 1000m × 50 m) and experimental data such as the Prairie Grass field experiments data in which about 600 receptors were located along five concentric semicircle arcs and the Fusion Field Trials 2007. The results show that the computational model is capable to efficiently retrieve up to three different unknown sources.

  16. Air Pollution in Shanghai Studied by Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Tan, M.; Chen, J.; Jin, C.; Lin, J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper PIXE, μ-PIXE, XAFS, Moessbauer effect and radioisotope labelling method are briefly introduced. Those methods were used to study the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai. The speciation of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the PM10 and PM2.5 and different character of vehicle exhausted particles from other emission sources were studied. Source apportionment of the atmospheric lead was calculated with a combined method of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance, along with μ-PIXE analysis of single particles and pattern recognition of the spectra. The fabricated ultrafine particles to simulate aerosol particle was used to study the translocation from alveolus into circulation across the air blood barrier

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Marine Sediments of East Coast of Tamil Nadu Affected by Different Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, N; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Suresh Gandhi, M; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of Periyakalapet to Parangipettai coast, east coast of Tamil Nadu, by using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The average heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found in the order Al>Fe>Ca>Ti>K>Mg>Mn>Ba>V>Cr>Zn>La>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Cu. The average heavy metal concentrations were below the world crustal average. The degree of contamination by heavy metals was evaluated using pollution indices. The results of pollution indices revealed that titanium (Ti) and cadmium (Cd) were significantly enriched in sediments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed among heavy metal concentrations to know the existing relationship between them. Multivariate statistical technique was employed to identify the heavy metal pollution sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  19. Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Buriganga River in the capital city Dhaka, Bangladesh, were studied to understand the level of heavy metals and their source apportionment. The results showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals both in water and sediment samples were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the permissible limits recommended by the Bangladesh government and other international organizations. Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd were found in sediment samples. However, average concentrations of metals both in water and sediment samples were above the effect range median. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) yielded different results in water samples despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) showed strong correlations with HPI and Cd and provided better assessment of pollution levels. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed the elevated value of Cr, Pb, and Cd in access of background values. The measured elements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) and examining correlations in order to explain the content, behavior, and source apportionment of metals. PMF resulted in a successful partitioning of variances into sources related to background geochemistry and contaminant influences. However, the PMF approach successfully demarcated the major sources of metals from tannery, paint, municipal sewage, textiles, and agricultural activities.

  20. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  1. Detection and monitoring of pollutant sources with Lidar/Dial techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P; Gelfusa, M; Malizia, A; Parracino, S; Richetta, M; De Leo, L; Perrimezzi, C; Bellecci, C

    2015-01-01

    It's well known that air pollution due to anthropogenic sources can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last years, surveying large regions of the atmosphere in an automatic way has become a strategic objective of various public health organizations for early detection of pollutant sources in urban and industrial areas.The Lidar and Dial techniques have become well established laser based methods for the remote sensing of the atmosphere. They are often implemented to probe almost any level of the atmosphere and to acquire information to validate theoretical models about different topics of atmospheric physics. They can also be used for environment surveying by monitoring particles, aerosols and molecules.The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the potential of these methods to detect pollutants emitted from local sources (such as particulate and/or chemical compounds) and to evaluate their concentration. This is exemplified with the help of experimental data acquired in an industrial area in the south of Italy by mean of experimental campaign by use of pollutants simulated source. For this purpose, two mobile systems Lidar and Dial have been developed by the authors. In this paper there will be presented the operating principles of the system and the results of the experimental campaign. (paper)

  2. BOOK REVIEW OF "ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A PRACTICAL APPROACH"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is geared to environmental specialists and planners, heavy on the technical side. It goes beyond tranditional nonpoint source (NPS) approaches which typically only look at stormwater as athe sole NPS pollution driver. There is some overreaching material beyond the conte...

  3. Epidemiology, public health, and health surveillance around point sources of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In industrial society a large number of point sources of pollution exist, such as chemical plants, smelters, and nuclear power plants. Public concern has forced the practising epidemiologist to undertake health surveillance of the usually small populations living around point sources. Although not justifiable as research, such epidemiologic surveillance activities are becoming a routine part of public health practice, and this trend will continue. This introduction reviews concepts of epidemiologic surveillance, and institutional problems relating to the quality of such applied research

  4. A systematic assessment of watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution during rainfall-runoff events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Wei, Guoyuan; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Lv, Guanping

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of peak flow rate, total runoff volume, and pollutant loads during rainfall process are very important for the watershed management and the ecological restoration of aquatic environment. Real-time measurements of rainfall-runoff and pollutant loads are always the most reliable approach but are difficult to carry out at all desired location in the watersheds considering the large consumption of material and financial resources. An integrated environmental modeling approach for the estimation of flash streamflow that combines the various hydrological and quality processes during rainstorms within the agricultural watersheds is essential to develop targeted management strategies for the endangered drinking water. This study applied the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the spatial and temporal variation in hydrological processes and pollutant transport processes during rainstorm events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, a drinking water resource area in Beijing. The model performance indicators ensured the acceptable applicability of the HSPF model to simulate flow and pollutant loads in the studied watershed and to establish a relationship between land use and the parameter values. The proportion of soil and land use was then identified as the influencing factors of the pollution intensities. The results indicated that the flush concentrations were much higher than those observed during normal flow periods and considerably exceeded the limits of Class III Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) for the secondary protection zones of the drinking water resource in China. Agricultural land and leached cinnamon soils were identified as the key sources of sediment, nutrients, and fecal coliforms. Precipitation volume was identified as a driving factor that determined the amount of runoff and pollutant loads during rainfall processes. These results are useful to improve the streamflow predictions, provide

  5. Air pollution biomonitoring in Argentina, application of neutron activation analysis to the study of biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, M.L.; Pla, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of baseline levels of atmospheric pollutants and the identification of polluted areas is a complex problem, as pollutant contents at a certain geographical location is usually a combination of contributions from various diverse sources, including long-range transport. Elemental chemical characterization of atmospheric pollutants is thus of great importance and Neutron Activation Analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for multielemental determination of trace elements in biomonitors and aerosols. The general objective of this project is to study the use of biomonitors, specially lichens, for evaluating pollutant levels over a wide geographic area of Argentina and for establishing baseline values and assessing time trends. Two lichen species (Usnea sp. and Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot) have been identified as suitable monitors of air pollution, with potential regional application at the central area of the country (province of Cordoba) and pilot studies have been initiated to test the practicability of sampling and sample collection. An area of approximately 40,000 km 2 will be covered by a sampling network, using in situ growing lichens. The distribution maps for the two selected species are already drawn and sampling of local soils will also be conducted. Current efforts at the Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory are put on assessing, for the selected lichen species, the influence of sample preparation methods on trace element concentrations. The use of other analytical techniques will allow the evaluation of the bioindicator chemical response and its relationship to different atmospheric quality levels. Source identification and apportionment will be done by statistical fingerprinting of the elemental concentrations, as sources of pollution are characterized by being composed of different mixtures of elements in different proportions. In this way and as a long-term objective, regional maps will be drawn showing the

  6. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  7. Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  8. Fraxinus pollen as a source of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Southern Europe there are but a few studies focused on the allergenic impact of ash (Fraxinus pollen as a result of its scarce distribution. In the city of Ourense this type of pollen represents 2% of the total atmospheric pollen recorded. The goal of this study is to determine the atmospheric concentrations of Fraxinus pollen and its allergen in Ourense’s atmosphere in 2015, and to assess their relationship with the main meteorological variables. The aim is to assess whether the pollen counts match the actual exposure conditions for allergen-sensitive patients. A Lanzoni VPPS-2000 volumetric sampler was used for pollen sampling, whereas a Burkard Cyclone sampler was used for allergen detection.The flowering period of Fraxinus was long, having a duration of 76 days between the third week of January and the rst week of April as consequence of the asynchronous flowering of the different species growing in the study area. The presence of the ash allergen in the atmosphere can be detected using the main olive tree allergen, Ole e 1. Our study indicates that the combination of pollen counts and allergen quanti cation should be contemplated to estimate the real exposure of sensitive people. In the case of Fraxinus pollen, there may be allergy risk periods before and after the occurrence of the highest pollen concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of special rain and humidity conditions during its flowering period.

  9. Cancer Risk from Common Sources of Indoor Pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holcátová, I.; Slámová, A.; Valenta, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 221-228 ISSN 1420-326X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : cancer of lung * kidney * oesophagus * multinational study * risk factors * indoor risk factors Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2005

  10. [Urban non-point source pollution control by runoff retention and filtration pilot system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Zuo, Jian-E; Gan, Li-Li; Low, Thong Soon; Miao, Heng-Feng; Ruan, Wen-Quan; Huang, Xia

    2011-09-01

    A runoff retention and filtration pilot system was designed and the long-term purification effect of the runoff was monitored. Runoff pollution characters in 2 typical events and treatment effect of the pilot system were analyzed. The results showed that the runoff was severely polluted. Event mean concentrations (EMCs) of SS, COD, TN and TP in the runoff were 361, 135, 7.88 and 0.62 mg/L respectively. The runoff formed by long rain presented an obvious first flush effect. The first 25% flow contributed more than 50% of the total pollutants loading of SS, TP, DTP and PO4(3-). The pilot system could reduce 100% of the non-point source pollution if the volume of the runoff was less than the retention tank. Otherwise the overflow will be purification by the filtration pilot system and the removal rates of SS, COD, TN, TP, DTP and PO4(3-) reached 97.4% , 61.8%, 22.6%, 85.1%, 72.1%, and 85.2% respectively. The system was stable and the removal rate of SS, COD, TN, and TP were 98.6%, 65.4%, 55.1% and 92.6%. The whole system could effectively remove the non-point source pollution caused by runoff.

  11. [Characterization and source apportionment of pollutants in urban roadway runoff in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Hao, Li-Ling; Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2012-01-01

    By investigating surface runoff from urban roadway in Chongqing, we assessed the characteristics of surface runoff pollution and the effect of rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period on water quality. Using multivariate statistical analysis of data of runoff quality, potential pollutants discharged from urban roadway runoff were identified. The results show that the roadway runoff has high levels of COD, TP and TN, the EMC were 60.83-208.03 mg x L(-1), 0.47-1.01 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-5.00 mg x L(-1) respectively, being the main pollutants; The peaks of pollutant concentration are ahead of or synchronous with the peak of runoff volume; the peaks of pollutant concentrations are mostly occurred within 10 minutes of rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations fluctuate dentately during runoff proceeding. Two potential pollution sources to urban roadway runoff apportioned by using principal component analysis are: vehicle's traffic loss and atmospheric dry and wet deposition, and municipal wastes.

  12. Risk Assessment of Pollution Emergencies in Water Source Areas of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luyao; Feng, Minquan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] This study quantitatively evaluated risk probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents under the influence of risk sources, thus providing an important guarantee for risk source identification during water diversion from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River. [Methods] The research used Bayesian networks to represent the correlation between accidental risk sources. It also adopted the sequential Monte Carlo algorithm to combine water quality simulation with state simulation of risk sources, thereby determining standard-exceeding probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents. [Results] When the upstream inflow was 138.15 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0416 and 0.0056 separately. When the upstream inflow was 55.29 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0225 and 0.0028 separately. [Conclusions] The research conducted a risk assessment on sudden water pollution accidents, thereby providing an important guarantee for the smooth implementation, operation, and water quality of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project.

  13. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-05-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant ( p changes on NPS pollution. The findings of this study may be useful to water resource planners in controlling water pollution

  14. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  15. A Study on management plan of pollutants in agricultural region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jee Yong; Shin, Eun Sung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The water environment in fishing and agricultural region in Korea is getting poor. For improving the quality of water, it is essential to manage pollutants by agricultural activities. For an efficient water quality control, a reasonable examination of the amount of agricultural pollutant load, and the development of efficient technology and policy for reducing the amount of pollution load are required. The management of pollutants considering agricultural characteristics was derived in this study and the amount of discharged pollutants by land usage in agricultural region was researched. 43 refs., 17 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    K 0 -Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  18. Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals in street dust of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Manli; Gui, Herong; Wang, Yao; Peng, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941.3, 410.3, 45.2, 75.6, and 225.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded their background values in local natural soils by 1.3-3.6-fold, whereas Fe, Mn, and V were all within their background values. However, enrichment factor analysis revealed that Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn, especially Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, were enriched in Suzhou street dust. The HMs showed no significant seasonal changes overall, but spatial distribution analysis implied that the high values of Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were mainly distributed in areas with frequent human activities. Results of multivariate techniques (e.g., Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster, and principal components analyses) suggested that Pb and Zn had complicated sources; Cu and V mainly originated from traffic sources; Fe and Mn mainly came from natural sources; and Cr was dominantly related to industrial district. Health risk assessment revealed that a single heavy metal might not cause both non-cancer and carcinogenic risks to local residents. Nevertheless, the sum of the hazard index of all selected HMs for children slightly exceeded the safety value, thereby implying that the HMs from Suzhou street dust can possibly produce significant risk to children. Cr was the priority pollutant in the study area because of its high concentration, high enrichment, and high contribution to non-cancer risk values.

  19. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  20. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MOSSES FOR AIR POLLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... research works by Kovacs et al. and Rovinsky et al., (1993) have shown that mosses have proved to be better bio-indicators of pollution because they are more sensitive to atmospheric pollution. The usefulness of mosses in determining heavy metal concentrations in different geographical areas has been ...

  2. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  3. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1991 and ending 31 March 1992. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, United States legislation, the Haven incident, and the status of the fund. Twenty-three oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofa, Khan M.G.; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. -- Review of sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of key pollutants (contaminants, toxins, ship breaking, overfishing) in marine ecosystems

  5. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Dionisio, Kathie L; Verissimo, Thiago G; Kerr, Americo S; Coull, Brent; Arku, Raphael E; Koutrakis, Petros; Spengler, John D; Vallarino, Jose; Hughes, Allison F; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m −3 (37%) of fine particle (PM 2.5 ) mass and 128 μg m −3 (42%) of PM 10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m −3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda. (letter)

  6. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  7. VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF LIGHT POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light pollution problems in metropolitan areas are investigated in this study. Areas of Hong Kong are used as the source of three typical study cases. One case represents the regional scale, a second represents the district scale, and a third represents the street scale. Two light pollution parameters, Night Sky Brightness (NSB and Street Light Level (SLL, are the focus of the analyses. Light pollution visualization approaches in relation to the different scales include various light pollution maps. They provide straightforward presentations of the light pollution situations in the study areas. The relationship between light pollution and several social-economic factors such as land use, household income, and types of outdoor lighting in the scale areas given, are examined. Results show that: (1 Land use may be one factor affecting light pollution in the regional scale; (2 A relatively strong correlation exists between light pollution and household income in the district scale; (3 The heaviest light pollution in the street scale is created by spotlights and also the different types of lighting from shops. The impact of the latter is in relation to the shop profile and size.

  8. Summary of Adsorption/Desorption Experiments for the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Tirkkonen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings.......Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings....

  9. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  10. Penguin colonies as secondary sources of contamination with persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosens, L.; Brink, van den N.W.; Riddle, M.; Blust, R.; Neels, H.; Covaci, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although long-range atmospheric transport has been described as the predominant mechanism for exposing polar regions to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recent studies have suggested that bird activity can also contribute substantially to contaminant levels in some environments. However,

  11. POLLUTION SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY STATE OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to evaluate water quality of the Supraśl river and identify its main pollution sources. On the river and its tributaries, 8 control points were selected, located near Krynica, Gródek, Nowosiółki, Zasady (mouth of the tributary Sokołda, Supraśl, Nowodworce, Dobrzyniewo (mouth of the tributary Biała and Dzikie. The control points were selected in such a way as to take into account the impact of major point sources of analyzed components located along the river and its main tributaries on water quality in the main stream catchment. Water samples were collected once a month during the period from May to November in 2014. In water samples the concentration of dissolved oxygen, Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+, P-PO43- and the values of pH, BOD5 and electrolytic conductivity were indicated. Based on the obtained results, loads of the individual components in river waters were calculated as a product of concentration and Supraśl waters flow rate in a particular month. Supraśl waters, due to values of most analyzed parameters, should be classified as first quality class. The source of Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+ in Supraśl waters were treated wastewater and other anthropogenic sources associated with the basin development. Reduced Supraśl water quality is caused by the inflow of organic substances expressed by BZT5 from natural and anthropogenic origin and concentration of PO43-, which were mainly delivered with treated wastewater.

  12. Characterisation and quantification of the sources of PM10 during air pollution episodes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, David; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Tubb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Data for concentrations of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants from sites in the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network have been examined during periods of elevated concentrations of PM 10 . The ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to those of the other pollutants were used to determine the most probable source of the additional particles. The hypothesis is that because the concentrations of PM 10 were divided by those of the other pollutants, the ratio should decrease when PM 10 and the other pollutants have a common source. Conversely, the ratio should increase when the sources are different. During episodes where road traffic was the most probable source of the additional particles, the ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen did decrease, but the comparable ratios for sulphur dioxide and ozone increased. In contrast, during episodes known to have been caused by construction activity, all these ratios increased. This is taken to show that the basic hypothesis is valid. For prolonged episodes, it was possible to use data averaged over the total duration of the episode for the purposes of source identification. For sporadic construction, or other short-duration episodes, it was necessary to use time series data. The data have also been used to calculate the differences between hourly average concentrations of pollutants measured during episodes and long-term hourly average concentrations. These have been used to model the additional PM 10 during air pollution episodes associated with construction activities and road traffic emissions. This confirms the lack of relationship between PM 10 and other pollutants during construction works. During episodes arising from road traffic emissions, there was good agreement between measured and modelled additional concentrations of PM 10 when an appropriate factor, F, related to the contribution of road traffic emissions to PM 10 at different site types was applied. The values used were 0.2 (Suburban

  13. Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changbo; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming; Zhang Haibo; Christie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of four components related to pollutant sources on the total variation in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, Fe and Mn in surface soil samples from a valley in east China with numerous copper and zinc smelters. Results indicate that when carrying out source identification of inorganic pollutants their tendency to migrate in soils may result in differences between the pollutant composition of the source and the receptor soil, potentially leading to errors in the characterization of pollutants using multivariate statistics. The stability and potential migration or movement of pollutants in soils must therefore be taken into account. Soil physicochemical properties may offer additional useful information. Two different mechanisms have been hypothesized for correlations between soil heavy metal concentrations and soil organic matter content and these may be helpful in interpreting the statistical analysis. - Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation can help identify sources of soil inorganic pollutants but pollutant migration and soil properties can exert important effects

  14. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emad, A.A.; El Shazly, S.M.; Kassem, Kh.O.

    2010-01-01

    A line source model, developed in laboratory of environmental physics, faculty of science at Qena, Egypt is proposed to describe the downwind dispersion of pollutants near roadways, at different cities in Egypt. The model is based on the Gaussian plume methodology and is used to predict air pollutants' concentrations near roadways. In this direction, simple software has been presented in this paper, developed by authors, adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique for operating in various windows-based microcomputers. The software interface and code have been designed by Microsoft Visual basic 6.0 based on the Gaussian diffusion equation. This software is developed to predict concentrations of gaseous pollutants (eg. CO, SO 2 , NO 2 and particulates) at a user specified receptor grid

  16. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  17. Source apportionment analysis of air pollutants using CMAQ/BFM for national air quality management policy over Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, N.; Kim, S.; Seo, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the Korean government is focusing on solving air pollution problem such as fine particulate matter and ozone. Korea has high population density and concentrated industrial complex in its limited land space. For better air quality management, it is important to understand source and contribution relation to target pollutant. The air quality analysis representing the mutual contribution among the local regions enables to understand the substantive state of the air quality of a region in association with neighboring regions. Under this background, the source apportionment of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2 using WRF and CMAQ/BFM was analyzed over Korea and BFM was applied to mobile, area and point sources in each local government. The contribution rate from neighboring region showed different pattern for each pollutant. In case of primary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, local source contribution is dominant, on the other hand secondary pollutants case especially O3, contribution from neighboring region is higher than that from source region itself. Local source contribution to PM10 showed 20-25% and the contribution rate to O3 has big difference with different meteorological condition year after year. From this study, we tried to estimate the conversion rate between source (NOx, VOC, SO2, NH3, PMC, PM2.5, CO) and concentration (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2,) by regional group over Korea. The result can contribute to the decision-making process of important national planning related to large-scale industrial developments and energy supply policies (eg., operations of coal-fired power plants and diesel cars) and emission control plan, where many controversies and concerns are currently concentrated among local governments in Korea. With this kind of approach, various environmental and social problems related to air quality can also be identified early so that a sustainable and environmentally sound plan can be established by providing data infrastructures to be utilized

  18. Long-term effects of total and source-specific particulate air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva M; Molnár, Peter; Gidhagen, Lars; Segersson, David; Rosengren, Annika; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd

    2017-10-01

    Long-term exposure to air pollution increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but it is not clear which components of air pollution are the most harmful, nor which time window of exposure is most relevant. Further studies at low exposure levels have also been called for. We analyzed two Swedish cohorts to investigate the effects of total and source-specific particulate matter (PM) on incident cardiovascular disease for different time windows of exposure. Two cohorts initially recruited to study predictors of cardiovascular disease (the PPS cohort and the GOT-MONICA cohort) were followed from 1990 to 2011. We collected data on residential addresses and assigned each individual yearly total and source-specific PM and Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) exposures based on dispersion models. Using multivariable Cox regression models with time-dependent exposure, we studied the association between three different time windows (lag 0, lag 1-5, and exposure at study start) of residential PM and NO x exposure, and incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. During the study period, there were 2266 new-onset cases of ischemic heart disease, 1391 of stroke, 925 of heart failure and 1712 of atrial fibrillation. The majority of cases were in the PPS cohort, where participants were older. Exposure levels during the study period were moderate (median: 13µg/m 3 for PM 10 and 9µg/m 3 for PM 2.5 ), and similar in both cohorts. Road traffic and residential heating were the largest local sources of PM air pollution, and long distance transportation the largest PM source in total. In the PPS cohort, there were positive associations between PM in the last five years and both ischemic heart disease (HR: 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59] per 10µg/m 3 of PM 10 , and HR: 1.38 [95% CI: 1.08-1.77] per 5µg/m 3 of PM 2.5 ) and heart failure. In the GOT-MONICA cohort, there were positive but generally non-significant associations between PM and stroke (HR: 1

  19. Marine environment pollution: The contribution of mass spectrometry to the study of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Di Carro, Marina

    2016-09-09

    The study of marine pollution has been traditionally addressed to persistent chemicals, generally known as priority pollutants; a current trend in environmental analysis is a shift toward "emerging pollutants," defined as newly identified or previously unrecognized contaminants. The present review is focused on the peculiar contribution of mass spectrometry (MS) to the study of pollutants in the seawater compartment. The work is organized in five paragraphs where the most relevant groups of pollutants, both "classical" and "emerging," are presented and discussed, highlighting the relative data obtained by the means of different MS techniques. The hyphenation of MS and separative techniques, together with the development of different ion sources, makes MS and tandem MS the analytical tool of choice for the determination of trace organic contaminants in seawater. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  1. Variability of Surface pollutants and aerosol concentration over Abu Dhabi, UAE - sources, transport and current levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    In the view of recent economic, industrial, and rapid development, Abu Dhabi (24.4oN; 54.4oE; 27m msl) has become one of the most populated regions in the world despite of extreme heat, frequent dust storms, and with distinctive topography. The major sources of air pollution are from the dust and sand storms, greenhouse gas emissions, and to some extent from industrial pollution. In order to realize the accurate and comprehensive understanding of air quality and plausible sources over this region, we have made a detailed analysis of three years simultaneous measurements during 2011-13 of pollutants such as O3, SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 concentrations. Diurnal variation of meteorological parameters such as temperature and wind speed/relative humidity clearly shows daytime maximum/minimum in summer followed by pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. The prevailing winds over this region are mostly from northwesterly direction (Shamal wind). Diurnal wind pattern showed a clear contrast with the majority of the wind pattern during nighttime and early morning is from the westerly/northwesterly and daytime is from southwesterly/southeasterly directions. The diurnal pattern of O3 shows minimum during 08 LT and increases thereafter reaching maximum at 17 LT and decreases during nighttime. However, the diurnal pattern of SO2 and NO2 show a peak at ~ 08 LT and dip at ~ 14 LT during all the seasons with some variability in each season. On the other hand, the diurnal pattern of CO shows a peculiar picture of elevated levels during daytime peaking at ~ 10 LT (prominent in summer and post-monsoon) followed by a sharp decrease and minimum is ~14 LT. PM10 concentration has an early morning peak at ~ 02 LT and then decreases to a minimum value at ~11 LT and again increases in the afternoon hours (maximum at ~17 LT) depicting a forenoon-afternoon asymmetry. Monthly variation of PM10 shows maximum in pre-monsoon season and minimum in winter. Our observations show the diurnal pattern of

  2. Cosmetic Functional Ingredients from Botanical Sources for Anti-Pollution Skincare Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Juliano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid particles of variable size and composition, able to absorb and delivery a large number of pollutants. The exposure to these air pollutants is associated to detrimental effects on human skin, such as premature aging, pigment spot formation, skin rashes and eczema, and can worsen some skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. A cosmetic approach to this problem involves the topical application of skincare products containing functional ingredients able to counteract pollution-induced skin damage. Considering that the demand for natural actives is growing in all segments of global cosmetic market, the aim of this review is to describe some commercial cosmetic ingredients obtained from botanical sources able to reduce the impact of air pollutants on human skin with different mechanisms, providing a scientific rationale for their use.

  3. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  4. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  5. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. The demand for environmental quality in driving transitions to low-polluting energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the long run demand for energy-related environmental quality, its influence on legislation and on transitions to low polluting energy sources. It presents a series of episodes in British history where a demand for improvements in energy-related environmental quality existed. These episodes helped to identify a few cases where markets partially drove transitions to low polluting energy sources, in specific economic conditions. More generally, they showed that, when pushed, governments will introduce environmental legislation, although it tends to be weak and poorly enforced. In the case of air pollution, strong and binding legislation occurred roughly one hundred years later than was socially optimal. Based on this evidence, for a transition to a low carbon economy, governments will probably need to introduce focussed and binding legislation, and this cannot be expected without strong and sustained demand for climate stability. This demand will need to be spearheaded by pressure groups to introduce legislation, to enforce it and to avoid it being over-turned by future governments. - Highlights: ► Reviews demand for improvements in environmental quality in British history. ► In special cases, demand may drive transitions through markets. ► Demand will probably have to drive transitions to low polluting energy through legislation. ► Need for strong and sustained demand spearheaded through pressure groups.

  7. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  8. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population

  9. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyong, Chen; Ning, Li; Lang, Shen; Yuanyuan, Li

    2003-08-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population.

  10. Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Ahmad, Fayaz-Bakhsh; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-09-01

    Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders.

  11. Detection of aerosol pollution sources during sandstorms in Northwestern China using remote sensed and model simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonchyk, Mikalai; Yan, Haowen; Yang, Shuwen; Lu, Xiaomin

    2018-02-01

    The present paper has used a comprehensive approach to study atmosphere pollution sources including the study of vertical distribution characteristics, the epicenters of occurrence and transport of atmospheric aerosol in North-West China under intensive dust storm registered in all cities of the region in April 2014. To achieve this goal, the remote sensing data using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite (MODIS) as well as model-simulated data, were used, which facilitate tracking the sources, routes, and spatial extent of dust storms. The results of the study have shown strong territory pollution with aerosol during sandstorm. According to ground-based air quality monitoring stations data, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 exceeded 400 μg/m3 and 150 μg/m3, respectively, the ratio PM2.5/PM10 being within the range of 0.123-0.661. According to MODIS/Terra Collection 6 Level-2 aerosol products data and the Deep Blue algorithm data, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm in the pollution epicenter was within 0.75-1. The vertical distribution of aerosols indicates that the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) 532 nm total attenuates backscatter coefficient ranges from 0.01 to 0.0001 km-1 × sr-1 with the distribution of the main types of aerosols in the troposphere of the region within 0-12.5 km, where the most severe aerosol contamination is observed in the lower troposphere (at 3-6 km). According to satellite sounding and model-simulated data, the sources of pollution are the deserted regions of Northern and Northwestern China.

  12. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: Levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, M; Wyart, G; Le Ponner, E; Ramalho, O; Ribéron, J; Mandin, C

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), radon, temperature, and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during 1 week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household, and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, that is, alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration, and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Method for Identifying Pollution Sources of Heavy Metals and PAH for a Risk-Based Management of a Mediterranean Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Paladino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA, and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy. 235 sediment samples were collected in 81 sampling points during four monitoring campaigns and 28 chemicals were searched for within the collected samples. PCA of total samples allowed the assessment of 8 main possible point sources, while the refining ratio-matching identified 1 sampling point as a possible PAH source, 2 sampling points as Cd point sources, and 3 sampling points as C > 12 point sources. By a map analysis it was possible to assess two internal sources of pollution directly related to terminals activity. The study is the prosecution of a previous work aimed at assessing Savona-Vado Harbour pollution levels and suggested strategies to regulate the harbour activities.

  14. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  15. The use of Pb isotopes to differentiate between contemporary and ancient sources of pollution in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, G.; Charalampides, G.; Fosse, G.; Hjelmseth, H.

    Stable lead isotopes are used to illustrate the relation source-receptor and to differentiate between sources of pollution in Greece. Air filters collected in the Kozani-Ptolemais lignite mining area, West Macedonia, point to an impact from gasoline lead as well as lead from the combustion of lignite. This is supported by lead isotope data of wheat grown on reclaimed land. Lead isotope analyses of contemporary teeth from the Lavrio sulphide mining area, southeast of Greece, show the imprint of previous mining activities as well as traffic emissions. Moreover, the Lavrio teeth can be distinguished from one tooth from Athens; the Athens tooth show a stronger impact of gasoline lead. Lead data also imply that the Greek top soil is contaminated by air pollution from earlier sulphide mining and smelting since Hellenic and Roman times.

  16. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; hide

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Chemical Components, Variation, and Source Identification of PM1 during the Heavy Air Pollution Episodes in Beijing in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangmei; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junying; Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Zhouxiang; Che, Haochi

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution is a current global concern. The heavy air pollution episodes (HPEs) in Beijing in December 2016 severely influenced visibility and public health. This study aims to survey the chemical compositions, sources, and formation processes of the HPEs. An aerodyne quadruple aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was utilized to measure the non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) mass concentration and size distributions of the main chemical components including organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride in situ during 15-23 December 2016. The NR-PM1 mass concentration was found to increase from 6 to 188 μg m-3 within 5 days. During the most serious polluted episode, the PM1 mass concentration was about 2.6 times that during the first pollution stage and even 40 times that of the clean days. The formation rates of PM2.5 in the five pollution stages were 26, 22, 22, 32, and 67 μg m-3 h-1, respectively. Organics and nitrate occupied the largest proportion in the polluted episodes, whereas organics and sulfate dominated the submicron aerosol during the clean days. The size distribution of organics is always broader than those of other species, especially in the clean episodes. The peak sizes of the interested species grew gradually during different HPEs. Aqueous reaction might be important in forming sulfate and chloride, and nitrate was formed via oxidization and condensation processes. PMF (positive matrix factorization) analysis on AMS mass spectra was employed to separate the organics into different subtypes. Two types of secondary organic aerosol with different degrees of oxidation consisted of 43% of total organics. By contrast, primary organics from cooking, coal combustion, and traffic emissions comprised 57% of the organic aerosols during the HPEs.

  20. Modeling Multi-Event Non-Point Source Pollution in a Data-Scarce Catchment Using ANN and Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-based runoff–pollutant relationships have been the key for water quality management, but the scarcity of measured data results in poor model performance, especially for multiple rainfall events. In this study, a new framework was proposed for event-based non-point source (NPS prediction and evaluation. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to extend the runoff–pollutant relationship from complete data events to other data-scarce events. The interpolation method was then used to solve the problem of tail deviation in the simulated pollutographs. In addition, the entropy method was utilized to train the ANN for comprehensive evaluations. A case study was performed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Results showed that the ANN performed well in the NPS simulation, especially for light rainfall events, and the phosphorus predictions were always more accurate than the nitrogen predictions under scarce data conditions. In addition, peak pollutant data scarcity had a significant impact on the model performance. Furthermore, these traditional indicators would lead to certain information loss during the model evaluation, but the entropy weighting method could provide a more accurate model evaluation. These results would be valuable for monitoring schemes and the quantitation of event-based NPS pollution, especially in data-poor catchments.

  1. Source-receptor metrology and modeling of trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddeville, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with acid pollution and with its long distance transport using the metrology of trace amounts of pollutants in rural environment and the identification of the emission sources at the origin of acid atmospheric fallouts. Several French and foreign precipitation collectors have been evaluated and tested on the field. The measurement efficiency and limitations of four sampling systems for gas and particulate sulfur, ammonia and nitrous compounds have been evaluated. The limits of methods and the measurement uncertainties have been determined and calculated. A second aspect concerns the development of oriented receptor-type statistical models with the aim of improving the research of emission sources in smaller size areas defined by the cells of a geographical mesh. The construction of these models combines the pollution data of the sites with the informations about the trajectories of air masses. Results are given as probability or concentration fields revealing the areas potentially at the origin of pollutant emissions. Areas with strong pollutant emissions have been detected at the Polish, Czech and German borders and have been identified as responsible of pollution events encountered in Morvan region. Quantitative source-receptor relations have been also established. The different atmospheric transport profiles, their related frequency and concentration have been also evaluated using a dynamical clouds classification of air mass retro-trajectories. Finally, the first medium-term exploitation results (14 years) of precipitation data from measurement stations allow to perfectly identify the different meteorological regimes of the French territory by establishing a relation with the chemical composition of rainfalls. A west-east oriented increase of rainfall acidity is observed over the French territory. The pluviometry of the north-east area being among the highest of France, it generates more important deposits of acidifying compounds. The analysis

  2. Detection limits of pollutants in water for PGNAA using Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    A basic PGNAA facility with an Am-Be neutron source is described to analyze the pollutants in water. The properties of neutron flux were determined by MCNP calculations. In order to determine the efficiency curve of a HPGe detector, the prompt-gamma rays from chlorine were used and an exponential curve was fitted. The detection limits for typical water sample are also estimated using the statistical fluctuations of the background level in the areas of recorded the prompt-gamma spectrum

  3. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutions in UK and Suggestions to China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Ren, Tianzhi; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanquiao; Bellarby, Jessica; Smith, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environmental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prev...

  4. Prostate cancer and industrial pollution Risk around putative focus in a multi-source scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Rebeca; Diggle, Peter; Cambra, Koldo; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2011-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men but its aetiology is still largely unknown. Different studies have proposed several risk factors such as ethnic origin, age, genetic factors, hormonal factors, diet and insulin-like growth factor, but the spatial distribution of the disease suggests that other environmental factors are involved. This paper studies the spatial distribution of prostate cancer mortality in an industrialized area using distances from each of a number of industrial facilities as indirect measures of exposure to industrial pollution. We studied the Gran Bilbao area (Spain) with a population of 791,519 inhabitants distributed in 657 census tracts. There were 20 industrial facilities within the area, 8 of them in the central axis of the region. We analysed prostate cancer mortality during the period 1996-2003. There were 883 deaths giving a crude rate of 14 per 100,000 inhabitants. We extended the standard Poisson regression model by the inclusion of a multiplicative non-linear function to model the effect of distance from an industrial facility. The function's shape combined an elevated risk close to the source with a neutral effect at large distance. We also included socio-demographic covariates in the model to control potential confounding. We aggregated the industrial facilities by sector: metal, mineral, chemical and other activities. Results relating to metal industries showed a significantly elevated risk by a factor of approximately 1.4 in the immediate vicinity, decaying with distance to a value of 1.08 at 12km. The remaining sectors did not show a statistically significant excess of risk at the source. Notwithstanding the limitations of this kind of study, we found evidence of association between the spatial distribution of prostate cancer mortality aggregated by census tracts and proximity to metal industrial facilities located within the area, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics at municipality

  5. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  6. Marine pollution studies in Pakistan by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Javed, T.; Tasneem, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive study on pollution aspects of Manora Channel-Karachi Coast, Pakistan. In addition to use of conventional non-nuclear pollution monitoring tools (Coliform population, electrical conductivity, turbidity etc.), we evaluate the role of environmental stable carbon isotope technique (delta /sup 13/C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon-TDIC) to establish marine pollution transport scenario for Manora Channel. Data shows that tidal fluctuations play a key role in distribution of contamination inventories in Manora Channel. (author)

  7. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  8. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  9. Evaluation of antibiotic resistance analysis and ribotyping for identification of faecal pollution sources in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D F; Harwood, V J; Ferguson, D M; Lukasik, J; Hannah, P; Getrich, M; Brownell, M

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of ribotyping and antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) for prediction of sources of faecal bacterial pollution in an urban southern California watershed was determined using blinded proficiency samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns and HindIII ribotypes of Escherichia coli (n = 997), and antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. (n = 3657) were used to construct libraries from sewage samples and from faeces of seagulls, dogs, cats, horses and humans within the watershed. The three libraries were analysed to determine the accuracy of host source prediction. The internal accuracy of the libraries (average rate of correct classification, ARCC) with six source categories was 44% for E. coli ARA, 69% for E. coli ribotyping and 48% for Enterococcus ARA. Each library's predictive ability towards isolates that were not part of the library was determined using a blinded proficiency panel of 97 E. coli and 99 Enterococcus isolates. Twenty-eight per cent (by ARA) and 27% (by ribotyping) of the E. coli proficiency isolates were assigned to the correct source category. Sixteen per cent were assigned to the same source category by both methods, and 6% were assigned to the correct category. Addition of 2480 E. coli isolates to the ARA library did not improve the ARCC or proficiency accuracy. In contrast, 45% of Enterococcus proficiency isolates were correctly identified by ARA. None of the methods performed well enough on the proficiency panel to be judged ready for application to environmental samples. Most microbial source tracking (MST) studies published have demonstrated library accuracy solely by the internal ARCC measurement. Low rates of correct classification for E. coli proficiency isolates compared with the ARCCs of the libraries indicate that testing of bacteria from samples that are not represented in the library, such as blinded proficiency samples, is necessary to accurately measure predictive ability. The library-based MST methods used in

  10. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  11. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs

  12. DETECTION OF THE NITRATE POLLUTION SOURCES IN SHALLOW AQUIFER, USING INTEGRATION OF RS&GIS WITH STABLE ISOTOPES TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. I. Shakak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information system (GIS and remote sensing technique is a tool which is used for acquiring data from space, storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data, also can use for investigating source of environmental pollution which is affect health. Sudan landsat mosaic image which acquired in 2013 was used in this study to develop land use and land cover maps for tow selected study area, Khartoum urban area, and Bara locality in North kordofan state western Sudan. The main objective to assess the source of Nitrate pollution in shallow aquifer. ERDAS software was used to create land cover-land use maps for the study areas. For Khartoum town we used land sat mosaic image which acquire in 2013, and used supervised classification which more closely controlled than unsupervised. In this process, we select pixel that represent patterns you recognized or can identify with help from knowledge of the data, the classes desired, and the algorithm to be used is required. In this paper we integrated the (GIS&RS, and stable isotopes methods for fingerprinting Nitrate sources in shallow boreholes. The global positioning system (GPS, used in the field to identify the shallow boreholes location in a three dimensional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude, Water samples were collected from 19 shallow boreholes in the study areas according to the standard sampling method send to laboratory to measure stable nitrogen (δ15Nnitrate, and Nitrate-oxygen (δ18Onitrate isotopes. Analysis were conducted by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. We can conclude that, special distribution and integration of GIs & RS help to identify the source of nitrate pollution.

  13. Detection of the Nitrate Pollution Sources in Shallow Aquifer, Using Integration of RS&GIS with Stable Isotopes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N. B. I.

    2018-04-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique is a tool which is used for acquiring data from space, storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data, also can use for investigating source of environmental pollution which is affect health. Sudan landsat mosaic image which acquired in 2013 was used in this study to develop land use and land cover maps for tow selected study area, Khartoum urban area, and Bara locality in North kordofan state western Sudan. The main objective to assess the source of Nitrate pollution in shallow aquifer. ERDAS software was used to create land cover-land use maps for the study areas. For Khartoum town we used land sat mosaic image which acquire in 2013, and used supervised classification which more closely controlled than unsupervised. In this process, we select pixel that represent patterns you recognized or can identify with help from knowledge of the data, the classes desired, and the algorithm to be used is required. In this paper we integrated the (GIS&RS), and stable isotopes methods for fingerprinting Nitrate sources in shallow boreholes. The global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the shallow boreholes location in a three dimensional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), Water samples were collected from 19 shallow boreholes in the study areas according to the standard sampling method send to laboratory to measure stable nitrogen (δ15Nnitrate), and Nitrate-oxygen (δ18Onitrate) isotopes. Analysis were conducted by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We can conclude that, special distribution and integration of GIs & RS help to identify the source of nitrate pollution.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dreassi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.

  15. Studies concerning season variations of the faecaligenic pollution in the Crisul Alb River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The water tests were made in every season at the Crisul Alb River during 3 years of study. The tests were analyzed in the lab in order to determine 3 faecal gene pollution indicators: total coliform bacteria, faecal coliforms and faecal enterococcus. The tests were made in 10 drawing points, located upstream and downstream in the following cities: Brad, Gurahont, Buteni, Ineu, Chisineu Cris.Based on the recorded values, the hygienic and sanitary quality estate of the water has been possible. The main faecal gene pollution sources were found and identified. The nature of this faecal gene pollution was also found and identified based on a report between the faecal coliforms and the faecal enterococcus. The study made on the Crisul Alb River assured during those 3 years a monitoring of the sanitary quality from the water and the establishment of eventual pollution sources. I hope that the obtained data will catch the attention of the local authorities, economic agents and citizens on the aspects related to the water pollution from the Crisul Alb River. I also hope that this will help them to take measures in order to limit the pollution sources and to use the water with more efficiency.

  16. Novel human-associated Lachnospiraceae genetic markers improve detection of fecal pollution sources in urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuchen; Bootsma, Melinda; McLellan, Sandra L

    2018-05-04

    The human microbiome contains many organisms that could potentially be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. Here we report the development of two novel human-associated genetic marker assays that target organisms within the family Lachnospiraceae Next-generation sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from sewage and animal stool samples identified 40 human-associated marker candidates with a robust signal in sewage and low or no occurrence in nonhuman hosts. Two were chosen for quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay development using longer sequences (V2 to V9 regions) generated from clone libraries. Validation of these assays, designated Lachno3 and Lachno12, was performed using fecal samples (n=55) from cat, dog, pig, cow, deer, and gull sources, and compared with established host-associated assays (Lachno2, and two Human Bacteroides assays; HB and HF183/BacR287). Each of the established assays cross-reacted with at least one other animal, including animals common in urban areas. Lachno3 and Lachno12 were primarily human-associated; however, Lachno12 demonstrated low levels of cross-reactivity with select cows, and non-specific amplification in pigs. This limitation may not be problematic when testing urban waters. These novel markers resolved ambiguous results from previous investigations in stormwater-impacted waters, demonstrating their utility. The complexity of the microbiome in humans and animals suggests no single organism is strictly specific to humans, and multiple complementary markers used in combination will provide the highest resolution and specificity for assessing fecal pollution sources. IMPORTANCE Traditional fecal indicator bacteria do not distinguish animal from human fecal pollution, which is necessary to evaluate health risks and mitigate pollution sources. Assessing urban areas is challenging since water can be impacted by sewage, which has a high likelihood of carrying human pathogens, as well as pet waste and urban wildlife. We

  17. Evolution of air pollution source contributions over one decade, derived by PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment in two metropolitan urban areas in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E.; Manousakas, M.; Vratolis, S.; Vasilatou, V.; Maggos, Th; Saraga, D.; Grigoratos, Th; Argyropoulos, G.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2017-09-01

    Metropolitan Urban areas in Greece have been known to suffer from poor air quality, due to variety of emission sources, topography and climatic conditions favouring the accumulation of pollution. While a number of control measures have been implemented since the 1990s, resulting in reductions of atmospheric pollution and changes in emission source contributions, the financial crisis which started in 2009 has significantly altered this picture. The present study is the first effort to assess the contribution of emission sources to PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels and their long-term variability (over 5-10 years), in the two largest metropolitan urban areas in Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). Intensive measurement campaigns were conducted during 2011-2012 at suburban, urban background and urban traffic sites in these two cities. In addition, available datasets from previous measurements in Athens and Thessaloniki were used in order to assess the long-term variability of concentrations and sources. Chemical composition analysis of the 2011-2012 samples showed that carbonaceous matter was the most abundant component for both PM size fractions. Significant increase of carbonaceous particle concentrations and of OC/EC ratio during the cold period, especially in the residential urban background sites, pointed towards domestic heating and more particularly wood (biomass) burning as a significant source. PMF analysis further supported this finding. Biomass burning was the largest contributing source at the two urban background sites (with mean contributions for the two size fractions in the range of 24-46%). Secondary aerosol formation (sulphate, nitrate & organics) was also a major contributing source for both size fractions at the suburban and urban background sites. At the urban traffic site, vehicular traffic (exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) was the source with the highest contributions, accounting for 44% of PM10 and 37% of PM2.5, respectively. The long

  18. NCCOS National Status and Trends Special Study: Assessing Land Based Sources of Pollution in Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, from 2013-08-27 to 2013-08-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This tabular dataset is the result of field sampling of coral tissues (Pocillopora damicornis) and subsequent laboratory chemical analysis for pollutant levels. The...

  19. Constraining recent lead pollution sources in the North Pacific using ice core stable lead isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, B. H.; Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; McConnell, J. R.; Handley, M.; Wake, C. P.; Yalcin, K.

    2012-08-01

    Trends and sources of lead (Pb) aerosol pollution in the North Pacific rim of North America from 1850 to 2001 are investigated using a high-resolution (subannual to annual) ice core record recovered from Eclipse Icefield (3017 masl; St. Elias Mountains, Canada). Beginning in the early 1940s, increasing Pb concentration at Eclipse Icefield occurs coevally with anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Greenland, suggesting that North American Pb pollution may have been in part or wholly responsible in both regions. Isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb) from 1970 to 2001 confirm that a portion of the Pb deposited at Eclipse Icefield is anthropogenic, and that it represents a variable mixture of East Asian (Chinese and Japanese) emissions transported eastward across the Pacific Ocean and a North American component resulting from transient meridional atmospheric flow. Based on comparison with source material Pb isotope ratios, Chinese and North American coal combustion have likely been the primary sources of Eclipse Icefield Pb over the 1970-2001 time period. The Eclipse Icefield Pb isotope composition also implies that the North Pacific mid-troposphere is not directly impacted by transpolar atmospheric flow from Europe. Annually averaged Pb concentrations in the Eclipse Icefield ice core record show no long-term trend during 1970-2001; however, increasing208Pb/207Pb and decreasing 206Pb/207Pb ratios reflect the progressive East Asian industrialization and increase in Asian pollutant outflow. The post-1970 decrease in North American Pb emissions is likely necessary to explain the Eclipse Icefield Pb concentration time series. When compared with low (lichen) and high (Mt. Logan ice core) elevation Pb data, the Eclipse ice core record suggests a gradual increase in pollutant deposition and stronger trans-Pacific Asian contribution with rising elevation in the mountains of the North Pacific rim.

  20. Investigation of the sources and evolution processes of severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing; Li, Jie; Yang, Ting; Yin, Yan

    2014-04-01

    China experienced severe haze pollution in January 2013. Here we have a detailed characterization of the sources and evolution mechanisms of this haze pollution with a focus on four haze episodes that occurred during 10-14 January in Beijing. The main source of data analyzed is from submicron aerosol measurements by an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. The average PM1 mass concentration during the four haze episodes ranged from 144 to 300 µg m-3, which was more than 10 times higher than that observed during clean periods. All submicron aerosol species showed substantial increases during haze episodes with sulfate being the largest. Secondary inorganic species played enhanced roles in the haze formation as suggested by their elevated contributions during haze episodes. Positive matrix factorization analysis resolved six organic aerosol (OA) factors including three primary OA (POA) factors from traffic, cooking, and coal combustion emissions, respectively, and three secondary OA (SOA) factors. Overall, SOA contributed 41-59% of OA with the rest being POA. Coal combustion OA (CCOA) was the largest primary source, on average accounting for 20-32% of OA, and showed the most significant enhancement during haze episodes. A regional SOA (RSOA) was resolved for the first time which showed a pronounced peak only during the record-breaking haze episode (Ep3) on 12-13 January. The regional contributions estimated based on the steep evolution of air pollutants were found to play dominant roles for the formation of Ep3, on average accounting for 66% of PM1 during the peak of Ep3 with sulfate, CCOA, and RSOA being the largest fractions (> ~ 75%). Our results suggest that stagnant meteorological conditions, coal combustion, secondary production, and regional transport are four main factors driving the formation and evolution of haze pollution in Beijing during wintertime.

  1. Stream nitrogen sources apportionment and pollution control scheme development in an agricultural watershed in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Huang, Hong; Liu, Mei; Gong, Dongqin; Chen, Jiabo

    2013-08-01

    A modeling system that couples a land-usebased export coefficient model, a stream nutrient transport equation, and Bayesian statistics was developed for stream nitrogen source apportionment. It divides a watershed into several sub-catchments, and then considers the major landuse categories as stream nitrogen sources in each subcatchment. The runoff depth and stream water depth are considered as the major factors influencing delivery of nitrogen from land to downstream stream node within each sub-catchment. The nitrogen sources and delivery processes are lumped into several constant parameters that were calibrated using Bayesian statistics from commonly available stream monitoring and land-use datasets. This modeling system was successfully applied to total nitrogen (TN) pollution control scheme development for the ChangLe River watershed containing six sub-catchments and four land-use categories. The temporal (across months and years) and spatial (across sub-catchments and land-use categories) variability of nonpoint source (NPS) TN export to stream channels and delivery to the watershed outlet were assessed. After adjustment for in-stream TNretention, the time periods and watershed areas with disproportionately high-TN contributions to the stream were identified. Aimed at a target stream TN level of 2 mg L-1, a quantitative TN pollution control scheme was further developed to determine which sub-catchments, which land-use categories in a sub-catchment, which time periods, and how large of NPS TN export reduction were required. This modeling system provides a powerful tool for stream nitrogen source apportionment and pollution control scheme development at the watershed scale and has only limited data requirements.

  2. Multivariate analysis for source identification of pollution in sediment of Linggi River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Ibrahim, Shariff; Samuding, Kamarudin; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Wo, Yii Mei; Daung, Jeremy Andy Dominic

    2018-03-29

    Rapid socioeconomic development in the Linggi River Basin has contributed to the significant increase of pollution discharge into the Linggi River and its adjacent coastal areas. The toxic element contents and distributions in the sediment samples collected along the Linggi River were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The measured mean concentration of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, U, Th and Zn is relatively higher compared to the continental crust value of the respective element. Most of the elements (As, Cr, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn) exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-threshold effect concentration (FSQG-TEC) value. Downstream stations of the Linggi River showed that As concentrations in sediment exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-probable effect concentration (FSQG-PEC) value. This indicates that the concentration of As will give an adverse effect to the growth of sediment-dwelling organisms. Generally, the Linggi River sediment can be categorised as unpolluted to strongly polluted and unpolluted to strongly to extremely polluted. The correlation matrix of metal-metal relationship, principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) indicates that the pollution sources of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb in sediments of the Linggi River originated from the industry of electronics and electroplating. Elements of As, Cr, Sb and Fe mainly originated from motor-vehicle workshops and metal work, whilst U and Th originated from natural processes such as terrestrial runoff and land erosion.

  3. Practical Application of Aptamer-Based Biosensors in Detection of Low Molecular Weight Pollutants in Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution has become one of the leading causes of human health problems. Low molecular weight pollutants, even at trace concentrations in water sources, have aroused global attention due to their toxicity after long-time exposure. There is an increased demand for appropriate methods to detect these pollutants in aquatic systems. Aptamers, single-stranded DNA or RNA, have high affinity and specificity to each of their target molecule, similar to antigen-antibody interaction. Aptamers can be selected using a method called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX. Recent years we have witnessed great progress in developing aptamer selection and aptamer-based sensors for low molecular weight pollutants in water sources, such as tap water, seawater, lake water, river water, as well as wastewater and its effluents. This review provides an overview of aptamer-based methods as a novel approach for detecting low molecular weight pollutants in water sources.

  4. Bacterial community composition and structure in an Urban River impacted by different pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Murinda, Shelton E

    2016-10-01

    Microbial communities in terrestrial fresh water are diverse and dynamic in composition due to different environmental factors. The goal of this study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of bacterial composition along different rivers and creeks and correlate these to land-use practices and pollutant sources. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to determine the total bacterial community composition, and bacterial communities that are potentially of fecal origin, and of relevance to water quality assessment. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, and community composition. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to correlate bacterial composition in streams and creeks to different environmental parameters impacting bacterial communities in the sediment and surface water within the watershed. Bacteria were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, with Bacteroidetes significantly (PPCoA and DCA showed that bacterial composition in sediment and surface water was significantly different (Pmicrobial community compositions were influenced by several environmental factors, and pH, NO2, and NH4 were the major environmental factors driving FIB in surface water based on CCA analysis, while NO3 was the only factor in sediment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  6. Multi-source water pollution in a highly anthropized wetland system associated with the estuary of Huelva (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba-Brioso, C.; Fernandez-Caliani, J.C.; Miras, A.; Cornejo, J.; Galan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Major ions, nutrients, trace elements and pesticides distribution were studied in a coastal wetland heavily impacted by human development in Spain. Past land use has altered the local hydrodynamics leading to the partitioning of the ecosystem into a tideland subject to marine influence, and an artificial freshwater reservoir created by stream impoundment. The tideland stretch is flooded twice a day with a heavy metal plume that emerges from the mine-polluted estuary of Huelva and propagates landward depicting the same dispersal trend of major seawater ions. Additionally, the tidal channel receives acid discharges from industrial point sources that contribute to metal enhancement. The impounded area and stream tributaries are affected by agrochemicals runoff (nitrate, phosphate, pendimethalin, simazine, diuron and therbuthylazine) from surrounding agricultural lands. The tidal regime plays a crucial role in the transport and dispersion of pollutants, except in the artificial reservoir where freshwater exhibits a seasonal mineralization pattern.

  7. Ship-source oil pollution fund : annual report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Ship-source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPF) receives reports of oil pollution caused by ships in Canadian waters. The reports come from a variety of sources, including individuals who wish to be advised whether they are entitled for consideration under the Canada Shipping Act as potential claimants as a result of oil pollution damage and expenses they have suffered. The SOPF fully investigates all such reports and inquiries. A summary of each investigation that fall within the SOPF purview is provided in this report. This recitation includes a number of references to incidents dating as far back as the 1970s, providing for each incident the name of the ship, a summary of the incident, the damage caused, and the claims received and paid out by the fund. The balance of the SOPF on March 31, 1998 was just over $268 million. As of April 1, 1998 the maximum liability of the SOPF is about $128 million for all claims in respect of any one oil spill. The amount of liability is indexed annually to the consumer price index. 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing

    2003-02-01

    Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic kitchens, where 2- and 3-ring PAHs were predominant, especially naphthalene. The BaP levels in domestic kitchens were 0.0061-0.024 microg/m3 and 0.15- 0.44 microg/m3 in commercial kitchens. Conventional Chinese cooking methods were responsible for such heavy PAHs pollution. The comparative study for PAH levels in air during three different cooking practices: boiling, broiling and frying were conducted. It was found that boiling produced the least levels of PAHs. For fish, a low-fat food, frying it produced a larger amount of PAHs compared to broiling practice, except pyrene and anthracene. In commercial kitchens, PAHs came from two sources, cooking practice and oil-fumes, however the cooking practice had a more predominant contribution to PAHs in commercial kitchen air. In domestic kitchens, except for cooking practice and oil-fumes, there were other PAHs sources, such as smoking and other human activities in the domestic houses, where 3-4 ring PAHs mainly came from cooking practice. Naphthalene (NA, 2-ring PAHs) was the most predominant kind, mostly resulting from the evaporation of mothball containing a large quantity of NA, used to prevent clothes against moth. A fingerprint of oil-fumes was the abundance of 3-ring PAHs. Heating at the same temperature, the PAHs concentrations in different oil-fumes were lard > soybean oil > rape-seed oil. An increase in cooking temperature increased the levels of PAHs, especially acenaphthene.

  10. Mobile assessment of on-road air pollution and its sources along the East-West Highway in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; Knibbs, Luke D.; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposures in transportation microenvironments are poorly represented by ambient stationary monitoring. A number of on-road studies using vehicle-based mobile monitoring have been conducted to address this. Most previous studies were conducted on urban roads in developed countries where the primary emission source was vehicles. Few studies have examined on-road pollution in developing countries in urban settings. Currently, no study has been conducted for roadways in rural environments where a substantial proportion of the population live. This study aimed to characterize on-road air quality on the East-West Highway (EWH) in Bhutan and identify its principal sources. We conducted six mobile measurements of PM10, particle number (PN) count and CO along the entire 570 km length of the EWH. We divided the EWH into five segments, R1-R5, taking the road length between two district towns as a single road segment. The pollutant concentrations varied widely along the different road segments, with the highest concentrations for R5 compared with other road segments (PM10 = 149 μg/m3, PN = 5.74 × 104 particles/cm-3, CO = 0.19 ppm), which is the final segment of the road to the capital. Apart from vehicle emissions, the dominant sources were road works, unpaved roads and roadside combustion activities. Overall, the highest contributions above the background levels were made by unpaved roads for PM10 (6 times background), and vehicle emissions for PN and CO (5 and 15 times background, respectively). Notwithstanding the differences in instrumentation used and particle size range measured, the current study showed lower PN concentrations compared with similar on-road studies. However, concentrations were still high enough that commuters, road maintenance workers and residents living along the EWH, were potentially exposed to elevated pollutant concentrations from combustion and non-combustion sources. Future studies should focus on assessing the dispersion patterns of

  11. Radiotracer technique to study pollutant behavior in the vadose zone for groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sinha, U.K.; Navada, S.V.; Datta, P.S.; Sud, Y.K.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Aggrawal, P.; )

    2004-01-01

    Pollutants are generated either by industrial or agricultural activity. Pollutants produced due to industrial activities fall into point source category and those generated from agricultural are grouped into extended source category. Under an International Atomic Energy Agency/Coordinated Research Program study, emphasis has been given on transport of pollutants, generated from agricultural activities, in particular, due to the application of fertilizer inputs to a variety of crops. Pollutants take entry through the vadose zone and ultimately join the saturated zone. Once groundwater is polluted it is rather difficult or impossible to take remedial measures for groundwater protection. Groundwater being an important natural resource, it is important to protect it from getting polluted. It is hence essential to have a clear understanding of the complex processes (physical, biological and chemical etc.) undergoing in the unsaturated zone. Radiotracers give good insight about the pollutant behavior in the vadose zone. Tritiated water and 60 Co (a gamma emitting tracer in the cyanide complex form) were used as tracers and were injected at 60 cm depth in the vadose zone of IARI farm for pollutant transport study. Tritium and 60 Co tracer displacements were measured by liquid scintillation and sodium iodide scintillation method respectively. It was found that the tritium tracer moved up to 2.4 meters in six months and part of the tritium tracer was exchanged with immobile water in the soil, as three distinct peaks were observed in tritium profile. 60 Co and tritium tracers were found to move with the same velocity in the vadose zone. These tracer studies indicate that the pollutants may reach the groundwater in about three years. (author)

  12. IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

  13. Source apportionment of fine particles and its chemical components over the Yangtze River Delta, China during a heavy haze pollution episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; An, J. Y.; Zhou, M.; Yan, R. S.; Huang, C.; Lu, Q.; Lin, L.; Wang, Y. J.; Tao, S. K.; Qiao, L. P.; Zhu, S. H.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    An extremely high PM2.5 pollution episode occurred over the eastern China in January 2013. In this paper, the particulate matter source apportionment technology (PSAT) method coupled within the Comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx) is applied to study the source contributions to PM2.5 and its major components at six receptors (Urban Shanghai, Chongming, Dianshan Lake, Urban Suzhou, Hangzhou and Zhoushan) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Contributions from 4 source areas (including Shanghai, South Jiangsu, North Zhejiang and Super-region) and 9 emission sectors (including power plants, industrial boilers and kilns, industrial processing, mobile source, residential, volatile emissions, dust, agriculture and biogenic emissions) to PM2.5 and its major components (sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon and elemental carbon) at the six receptors in the YRD region are quantified. Results show that accumulation of local pollution was the largest contributor during this air pollution episode in urban Shanghai (55%) and Suzhou (46%), followed by long-range transport (37% contribution to Shanghai and 44% to Suzhou). Super-regional emissions play an important role in PM2.5 formation at Hangzhou (48%) and Zhoushan site (68%). Among the emission sectors contributing to the high pollution episode, the major source categories include industrial processing (with contributions ranging between 12.7 and 38.7% at different receptors), combustion source (21.7-37.3%), mobile source (7.5-17.7%) and fugitive dust (8.4-27.3%). Agricultural contribution is also very significant at Zhoushan site (24.5%). In terms of the PM2.5 major components, it is found that industrial boilers and kilns are the major source contributor to sulfate and nitrate. Volatile emission source and agriculture are the major contributors to ammonia; transport is the largest contributor to elemental carbon. Industrial processing, volatile emissions and mobile source are the most significant

  14. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, distribution and source apportionment in the sediment from Feni River estuary, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Hossain, M Belal; Matin, Abdul; Islam Sarker, Md Shafiqul

    2018-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution in sediment resources may pose serious threat to ecosystem and human health through food web. In this study, surface sediment samples of 10 stations along the Feni River estuary were analyzed to profile the accumulation, sources and pollution levels of heavy metals. The results revealed that the average contents (μg g -1 ) of eight selected heavy metals followed the order of Mn (37.85) > Cr (35.28) > Ni (33.27) > Co (31.02) > Pb (6.47) > Ag (1.09) > As (0.85) > Hg (0.71), and the concentrations varied spatially and seasonally with relatively higher levels at upward stations and during the rainy season. According to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the sediment samples were heavily contaminated with Ag and Hg, and moderately with Co. Threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC) values indicated that the concentration of only Ni and Cr were likely to occasionally exhibit adverse effects on the ecosystem. Enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) analyses revealed that Ag, Co and Hg were at moderate to high pollution levels and the rests (As, Cr, Ni, Pb and Mn) were at no to low pollution levels. Potential ecological risk index (PERI) also showed that Ag, Co and Hg were the most potential ecological risk factor being determined in this studied area. Correlation matrix combined with multivariate principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggest that Ag, Co, Ni and Hg originated from anthropogenic sources (agrochemicals, silver nanoparticles anti-microbial agent, silver plating), whereas As, Cr, Pb and Mn primarily originated from natural geological background. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant (p < 0.05) pollutant loads were obtained from 2013 LULC conditions, while statistically least significant (p < 0.05) pollutant

  16. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  17. Considering a point-source in a regional air pollution model; Prise en compte d`une source ponctuelle dans un modele regional de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipphardt, M.

    1997-06-19

    This thesis deals with the development and validation of a point-source plume model, with the aim to refine the representation of intensive point-source emissions in regional-scale air quality models. The plume is modelled at four levels of increasing complexity, from a modified Gaussian plume model to the Freiberg and Lusis ring model. Plume elevation is determined by Netterville`s plume rise model, using turbulence and atmospheric stability parameters. A model for the effect of a fine-scale turbulence on the mean concentrations in the plume is developed and integrated in the ring model. A comparison between results with and without considering micro-mixing shows the importance of this effect in a chemically reactive plume. The plume model is integrated into the Eulerian transport/chemistry model AIRQUAL, using an interface between Airqual and the sub-model, and interactions between the two scales are described. A simulation of an air pollution episode over Paris is carried out, showing that the utilization of such a sub-scale model improves the accuracy of the air quality model

  18. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1992 and ending 31 March 1993. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, major international incidents, the International Conference on the Revision of the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention, the 1993 Oil Spill Conference, and the status of the fund. Twenty-nine oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 3 figs

  19. Model elucidating the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution over Northeast mega-city cluster in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gbaguidi, Alex; Yan, Pingzhong; Zhang, Wending; Zhu, Lili; Yao, Xuefeng; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies on regional haze pollution over China come up in general with strong variability of main causes of heavy polluted episodes, in linkage with local specificities, sources and pollution characteristics. This paper therefore aims at elucidating the main specific sources and formation mechanisms of observed strong haze pollution episodes over 1-15 November 2015 in Northeast region considered as one of biggest megacity clusters in China. The Northeast China mega-city cluster, including Heilong Jiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, is adjacent to Russia in the north, Mongolian at the west, North Korea at east, and representing key geographical location in the regional and transnational air pollution issues in China due to the presence of heavy industries and intense economic activities. The present study, based on air quality monitoring, remote sensing satellite data and sensitivity experiments carried on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), quantitatively assesses the impact of meteorological conditions and potential contributions from regional chemical transport, intensive energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning emissions to PM 2.5 concentration variation. The results indicate strong inversion occurrence at lower atmosphere with weak near-surface wind speed and high relative humidity, leading to PM 2.5 concentration increase of about 30-50%. Intensive energy combustion (plausibly for heating activities) and illegal emission also significantly enhance the overall PM 2.5 accumulation by 100-200 μg m -3 (60-70% increase), against 75-100 μg m -3 from the biomass burning under the northeast-southwest transport pathway, corresponding to a contribution of 10-20% to PM 2.5 concentration increase. Obviously, stagnant meteorological conditions, energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning are main drivers of strong haze formation and spatial distribution over Northeast China megacity cluster. In clear, much

  20. Variability of intra-urban exposure to particulate matter and CO from Asian-type community pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hsiao, Pao-Kuei; Wen, Tzu-Yao; Liu, Chun-Hu; Fu, Chi Betsy; Cheng, Yu-Ting

    2014-02-01

    Asian residential communities are usually dotted with various spot pollution sources (SPS), such as restaurants, temples, and home factories, with traffic arteries passing through, resulting in higher intra-urban pollution variability compared with their western counterparts. Thus, it is important to characterize spatial variability of pollutant levels in order to assess accurately residents' exposures in their communities. The objectives of this study are to assess the actual pollutant levels and variability within an Asian urban area and to evaluate the influence of vehicle emission and various SPS on the exposure levels within communities. Real-time monitoring was conducted for a total of 123 locations for particulate matter (PM) and CO in Taipei metropolitan, Taiwan. The mean concentrations for PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and CO are 29.8 ± 22.7, 36.0 ± 25.5, 61.9 ± 35.0 μg m-3 and 4.0 ± 2.5 ppm, respectively. The mean values of PM1/PM2.5 and PM2.5/PM10 are 0.80 ± 0.10 and 0.57 ± 0.15, respectively. PM and CO levels at locations near SPS could be increased by 3.5-4.9 times compared with those at background locations. Regression results show that restaurants contribute significantly 6.18, 6.33, 7.27 μg m-3, and 1.64 ppm to community PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and CO levels, respectively; while the contribution from temples are 13.2, 15.1, and 17.2 μg m-3 for PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Additionally, construction sites elevate nearby PM10 levels by 14.2 μg m-3. At bus stops and intersections, vehicle emissions increased PM1 and PM2.5 levels by 5 μg m-3. These results demonstrate significant contribution of community sources to air pollution, and thus the importance of assessing intra-community variability in Asian cities for air pollution and health studies. The methodology used is applicable to other Asian countries with similar features.

  1. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  2. An Analysis of Ship-Source Marine Pollution in Nigeria Seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Onwuegbuchunam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies indicate that marine pollution control in the ports of developing economies is marred by a lack of administrative control and inadequate provision of waste reception facilities. In Nigeria ports, ship generated waste control services and provision of waste reception facilities are outsourced to private companies with no requirement for an activity audit. Apart from the port authority, other government agencies are also involved in pollution monitoring and control. Hence, functions are duplicated and effective regulation is arguably weakened by conflicts of interest. A scientific based integrated model is therefore proposed to address the managerial problem posed in the control of marine pollution in Nigerian ports. In this paper, we conduct a physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of samples of ships’ wastewater to determine the status of marine pollution in the port environment. The samples were collected from randomly selected ships at berths in seaport locations. The outputs from the analysis are then integrated as inputs into an administrative framework model. The integrated model developed is proposed as an alternative administrative tool for monitoring and controlling pollution in seaports. The policy implications of the developed model are discussed.

  3. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources using APCS-MLR and PMF receptor modeling techniques in three major rivers of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Gholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and the absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) receptor modeling technique were used to assess the water quality and identify and quantify the potential pollution sources affecting the water quality of three major rivers of South Florida. For this purpose, 15years (2000-2014) dataset of 12 water quality variables covering 16 monitoring stations, and approximately 35,000 observations was used. The PCA/FA method identified five and four potential pollution sources in wet and dry seasons, respectively, and the effective mechanisms, rules and causes were explained. The APCS-MLR apportioned their contributions to each water quality variable. Results showed that the point source pollution discharges from anthropogenic factors due to the discharge of agriculture waste and domestic and industrial wastewater were the major sources of river water contamination. Also, the studied variables were categorized into three groups of nutrients (total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, total phosphate, and ammonia-N), water murkiness conducive parameters (total suspended solids, turbidity, and chlorophyll-a), and salt ions (magnesium, chloride, and sodium), and average contributions of different potential pollution sources to these categories were considered separately. The data matrix was also subjected to PMF receptor model using the EPA PMF-5.0 program and the two-way model described was performed for the PMF analyses. Comparison of the obtained results of PMF and APCS-MLR models showed that there were some significant differences in estimated contribution for each potential pollution source, especially in the wet season. Eventually, it was concluded that the APCS-MLR receptor modeling approach appears to be more physically plausible for the current study. It is believed that the results of apportionment could be very useful to the local authorities for the control and

  4. STUDY NOISE POLLUTION TYUMEN USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dobryakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most harmful factors of environment of the city is the noise, and its weight among the factors adversely affecting the life and health of the population has been increasing steadily [Sheina and etc., 2007; Polovinkina and etc., 2012]. Today, most major cities of the Russian Federation (70% have a high noise pollution problem. The system of support for the monitoring and control of acoustic situation in the city can be considered noise pollution electronic cards made using geographic information systems (GIS. There are two fundamentally different approaches to the selection of software for creation of noise maps. According to the first of them, use universal multifunctional complexes GIS (ArcGIS, MapInfo. According to the distribution of data points on the noise characteristics is created TIN model. A second approach to create noise maps using highly specialized software (MapNoise, SoundPLAN, Mitha, Cadna, ExNOISE et al.. To calculate noise propagation area is divided on the grid with a certain step, the most relevant mapping purposes. Calculation of noise levels is carried out in a grid cell by measurements based on diffraction and reflection of sound barriers and absorbing underlying surface. Noise pollution is also displayed using contour lines.

  5. Obtaining isochrones from pollution signals in a fluvial sediment record: A case study in a uranium-polluted floodplain of the Ploučnice River, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matys Grygar, T.; Elznicová, J.; Bábek, O.; Hošek, M.; Engel, Z.; Kiss, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated approach to assess pollutant distribution in floodplain. • Natural background concentration is a function and not a value. • Concept of local enrichment factors based on local background functions. • Secondary pollution from transient fluvial deposits. - Abstract: Uranium mining and processing in the watershed of the Ploučnice River in the Czech Republic during a well-defined time interval (1969–1989) allowed for a study of pollutant fates in sediments of a meandering river that is otherwise in a nearly natural state. A considerable part of the primary pollution is present in hotspots in the floodplain 10–15 km downstream from the mining district. One of the hotspots was characterised using geoinformatic, geophysical and geochemical means. The floodplain geomorphology and architecture and river channel dynamics were studied to develop an understanding of the formation of the hotspot and evaluate further movement of pollutants in the river system. Local background functions (with Rb or Ti as a predictor) and local enrichment factors (LEFs) were obtained for Ba, Ni, Pb, U and Zn concentrations in unpolluted sediments from the deeper strata of the active floodplain, an abandoned floodplain and an ancient terrace. The most recent (2013) overbank fines in the study area are still considerably enriched in Ni, U and Zn (LEF 3, 6 and 8, respectively), and thus pollution by heavy metals several km downstream of the hotspots continuously increases even though the primary source of pollution was terminated more than 20 years ago. The onset of the primary pollution (the base of the polluted strata) is hence clearly identified in the distal floodplain sediments as persistent and a potentially isochronous pollution signal in the fluvial record, whereas a secondary pollution signal overwrites the expected “primary pollution climax” and “pollution improvement” signals. That inertia of the fluvial system can also be expected in other

  6. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  7. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  8. Source and LINAC3 studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Ion Injector Upgrade pro-gramme (LIU), several activities have been carried out in2016 to improve the ion source and Linac3 performance,with the goal to increase the beam current routinely deliv-ered to LEIR. The extraction region of the GTS-LHC ionsource was upgraded with enlarged vacuum chamber aper-tures and the addition of an einzel lens, yielding highertransmission through the rest of the machine. Also, a seriesof experiments have been performed to study the effects ofdouble frequency mixing on the afterglow performance ofthe source after installation of a Travelling Wave Tube Am-plifier (TWTA) as secondary microwave source at variablefrequency. Measurements have been carried out at a dedi-cated oven test stand for better understanding of the ionsource performance. Finally, several MD sessions werededicated to the study and characterization of the strippingfoils, after evidence of degradation in time was discoveredin the 2015 run.

  9. Noise pollution and annoyance: An urban soundscapes study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mary de Paiva Vianna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005. 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001. 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001. There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001. In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health.

  10. Noise pollution and annoyance: an urban soundscapes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health.

  11. First studies of lead pollution in Guanabara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Branquinho, C.L. da.

    1973-01-01

    The main sources of direct lead intake are studied, and metal concentrations in several medium are examined. Lead was extracted by dithizone in C Cl 4 , being determined by optical spectrophotometry. 2 1 2 Pb was used as a radioactive tracer in low concentration measurements of the metal, and analysis of its 239 KeV peak was done by a Ge-Li detector. In blood samples, the metal was complexed and extracted with APDC in MIBK, being measured by flame less atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Air samples were also collected for periods of 24 hours and 90 minutes. Representative street dust samples were examined, showing a strict correlation with lead in air. It was also estimated the amount of lead in some human blood samples. (author)

  12. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.C.; Selte, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM 1 0), while the associations with SO 2 and NO 2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  13. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  14. Organic matter compounds as source indicators and tracers for marine pollution in a western Mediterranean coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorri, Jalila; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Aïssa, Patricia; Ksibi, Mohamed; Amblès, André

    2011-11-01

    Complex organic compounds found in oil and sediments linked with a particular source (such as algae, bacteria or vascular plants) are defined as biomarkers and are useful dating indicators in organic geochemistry. This paper presents the composition of the organic matter (OM) on marine surface sediments from a degraded Tunisian coast analysed by pyrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High total OM contents (0.3-4.2%) were detected with high levels of saturated linear hydrocarbons. The aliphatic lipids had contributed with up to 11.7% of the total OM, and their distribution had consisted of resolved compounds (n-alkanes and fatty acid (FAs)) and an unresolved complex mixture. Hydrocarbons, primarily n-alkanes, were ranged from 368 to 3,886 μg g(-1). The FAs (674-2,568 μg g(-1)) were dominated by derived primary production, and the short chain FAs (C16 and C18) were the most abundant throughout. The ubiquitous presence of petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration, discharge of pollutants from rivers, shipping activities and atmospheric deposition was found in all samples. The Gabès littoral seems to be quite to very polluted near the industrial zone of Ghannouch. The C/H ratio (generally around 5.9), the thermal analysis and GC-MS of n-alkanes and FAs showed that the OM in the studied area was composed of anthropogenic/petrogenic, marine and continental sources. Our study represents an innovative approach to assessing environmental pollution. The evaluation of organic matter by examination of sterols, alkanes and fatty acids allows the identification of source, both anthropogenic and natural.

  15. An investigation of mercury sources in the Puyango-Tumbes River: Using stable Hg isotopes to characterize transboundary Hg pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudel, Gary; Miserendino, Rebecca Adler; Veiga, Marcello M; Velasquez-López, P Colon; Lees, Peter S J; Winland-Gaetz, Sean; Davée Guimarães, Jean Remy; Bergquist, Bridget A

    2018-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes along with other trace metals were examined in environmental samples from Ecuador and Peru's shared Puyango-Tumbes River in order to determine the extent to which artisanal- and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador contributes to Hg pollution in the downstream aquatic ecosystem. Prior studies investigated the relationship between ASGM activities and downstream Hg pollution relying primarily on Hg concentration data. In this study, Hg isotopes revealed an isotopically heavy Hg signature with negligible mass independent fractionation (MIF) in downstream sediments, which was consistent with the signature observed in the ASGM source endmember. This signature was traced as far as ∼120 km downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma, demonstrating that Hg stable isotopes can be used as a tool to fingerprint and trace sources of Hg over vast distances in freshwater environments. The success of Hg isotopes as a source tracer in fresh waters is largely due to the particle-reactive nature of Hg. Furthermore, the magnitude and extent of downstream Hg, lead, copper and zinc contamination coupled with the Hg isotopes suggest that it is unlikely that the smaller artisanal-scale activities, which do not use cyanidation, are responsible for the pollution. More likely it is the scale of ores processed and the cyanide leaching, which can release other metals and enhance Hg transport, used during small-scale gold mining that is responsible. Thus, although artisanal- and small-scale gold mining occur in tandem in Portovelo-Zaruma, a distinction should be made between these two activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  18. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil.

  19. A second life for old data: Global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V., E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Zvereva, Elena L. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. - Research synthesis demonstrated that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms.

  20. A second life for old data: Global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. - Research synthesis demonstrated that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms.

  1. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bian, Jianmin; Zhao, Yongsheng; Tang, Jie; Jia, Zhuo

    2018-02-05

    The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. This issue has been investigated by coupling semi distributed hydrological model (SWAT), statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and global circulation model (GCMs). The results show that annual average temperature would rise by 2.1 °C (1.3 °C) in the 2080 s under scenario RCP8.5 (RCP4.5), and annual precipitation would increase by 67 mm (33 mm). The change in winter temperature and precipitation is most significant with an increase by 0.23 °C/10a (0.17 °C/10a) and 1.94 mm/10a (2.78 mm/10a). The future streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease by 19.05% (10.59%), 12.27% (8.81%) and 10.63% (6.11%), respectively. Monthly average streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease from March to November, and increase from December to February. This is because the increased precipitation and temperature in winter, which made the spring snowpack melting earlier. These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary.

  2. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, I.; Alegria, E.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases re shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data os the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given. (Author)

  3. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, I; Alegria, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Div. de Seguridade Nuclear y Radioproteccion

    1983-11-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases are shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data of the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given.