Sample records for sour orange seedlings

  1. Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp. (United States)

    Graham, J. H.; Drouillard, D. L.; Hodge, N. C.


    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (M) fungal colonization, growth, and nonstructural carbohydrate status of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were compared at low- and high-phosphorus (P) supply following inoculation with four Glomus isolates: G. intraradices (Gi, FL208), G. etunicatum (Ge, UT316), G. claroideum (Gc, SC186), and Glomus sp. (G329, FL906). Nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings served as controls. At low-P supply, increases in incidence of M colonization, vesicles and accumulation of fungal fatty acid 16:1omega(5)C in roots were most rapid for G329-inoculated seedlings, followed closely by Gi- and Gc-inoculated seedlings. Glomus etunicatum was a less aggressive colonizer and produced lower rates of fungal fatty acid accumulation in seedling roots than the other Glomus species. Nonmycorrhizal and Ge-inoculated seedlings had lower P status and growth rates than seedlings inoculated with Gi or G329. Glomus claroideum increased seedling P status, but growth rate was lower than for seedlings colonized by Gi or G329, suggesting higher belowground costs for Gc colonization. In P-sufficient roots colonized by Gi, Gc, or G329, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower than in P-deficient NM and Ge-inoculated plants. Under conditions of high-P supply where mycorrhizae provided no P benefit to the seedlings, colonization by Gc, Gi, and G329 was delayed and reduced compared to that at low-P supply; however, the relative colonization rates among Glomus spp. were similar. Colonization by Ge was not detected in roots until 64 days after inoculation. Compared to NM seedlings, growth rates of mycorrhizal seedlings were reduced by the three aggressive fungi but not by the less aggressive Ge. After 64 days, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower in fibrous roots colonized by Gc, Gi, and G329 than in NM roots, indicating greater utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates in roots colonized by the aggressive fungi. After 49 days, colonization by the

  2. Reação da laranjeira azêda à tristeza Reaction of the sour orange plant to tristeza

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    A. S. Costa


    plantas sadias se desenvolvem mais ou menos satisfatòriamente quando sôbre-enxertadas em galhos de laranjeira doce sobre laranjeira azêda, já em avançado estado de declínio. Uma copa mista de laranjeiras azêda e doce sôbre cavalo de azêda pode causar alguns benefícios à planta afetada pela tristeza sob determinadas condições, mas êsse benefício não é duradouro e o método não oferece possibilidades práticas. A laranjeira azêda em viveiro tem sido utilizada com vantagem na determinação da presença do vírus da tristeza em borbulhas de vários tipos de Citrus, pela observação do crescimento feito a partir dessas borbulhas em comparação com aquêle de borbulhas da mesma variedade garantidamente sadias. Para a determinação da presença de estirpes fracas do vírus o método é mais demorado. Interenxertos de laranjeira azêda entre copas e raízes de laranjeira doce são suficientes para que haja manifestação de sintomas da moléstia. Há aparentemente alguma translocação através do interenxêrto, pois o desenvolvimento do cavalo abaixo e acima dele é aproximadamente igual.Young sour orange seedlings are more easily infected with the tristeza virus by approach-grafts than by means of the aphid vector. Under natural conditions adult plants in the field are highly resistant to infection by the aphid vector. Recovery of the tristeza virus from infected sour orange plants is also more easily accomplished by tissue union than by means of the aphid vector. Sour orange seedlings show yellowing of young leaves followed by stunting and shedding of leaves when infected with the ordinary strain of the tristeza virus in Brazil. These symptoms do not differ from those described for seedling yellows. The symptoms of leaf yellowing are less evident in plants infected with mild strains of the tristeza virus and there is subsequent recovery. New flushes of young leaves may show occasional vein dashes. Sour orange tissues below the bud union of the sweet

  3. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Hussain, A.; Ali, J.


    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  4. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems. (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S


    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  5. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties. (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid


    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategic conservation of orchard germplasm based on indigenous knowledge and genetic diversity: a case study of sour orange populations in China. (United States)

    Ming, Feng; Liu, Qi-Kun; Shi, Jin-Lei; Wang, Wei; Lu, Bao-Rong


    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two islands at the estuary of the Yangtze River in China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprints of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity in the parental populations (H(e)=0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (H(e)=0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a significant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers' knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.

  7. Potencial de obtenção de novos porta-enxertos em cruzamentos envolvendo limoeiro 'Cravo', laranjeira 'Azeda', tangerineira 'Sunki' e híbridos de Poncirus Trifoliata Potential of obtaining new rootstocks in crosses among 'Rangpur' lime, 'Sour' orange, 'Sunki' mandarin and Poncirus Trifoliata

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    Walter dos Santos Soares Filho


    Full Text Available O limoeiro 'Cravo' e a laranjeira 'Azeda' são importantes porta-enxertos de citros. Com o objetivo de explorar seu potencial genético, distintas seleções de limoeiro 'Cravo', empregadas como parentais femininos, foram cruzadas com seleções de laranjeira 'Azeda', tangerineira 'Sunki Maravilha' e híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata. Semelhantemente, seleções de 'Azeda' foram hibridadas com seleções de 'Cravo' e híbridos de P. trifoliata. Avaliaram-se a taxa de vingamento de frutos, a porcentagem de híbridos no conjunto total de indivíduos obtidos (zigóticos e nucelares, a altura e o diâmetro do caule destes, em torno dos 12 meses de idade. O cruzamento entre limoeiro 'Cravo', seleções comum e 'Santa Cruz', com tangerineira 'Sunki 'Maravilha' resultou nas maiores taxas de vingamento de frutos (média de 87,5% e maior percentual de híbridos (média de 64,0%, sendo estes relativamente vigorosos, segundo comparações com seedlings nucelares desse limoeiro. Quanto às hibridações envolvendo a laranjeira 'Azeda', mostraram-se promissoras 'Azeda Jacarandá' x (tangerineira 'Cleópatra' x P. trifoliata seleção 'Swingle 245', pela relativamente elevada taxa de vingamento de frutos (50%, boa porcentagem de híbridos (32,3% e possibilidade de obtenção de híbridos vigorosos, e laranjeira 'Azeda' comum x limoeiro 'Cravo' seleções comum e 'Santa Cruz', pela possibilidade de obtenção de híbridos vigorosos e em quantidades relativamente altas, em torno de 40% de plantas híbridas.'Rangpur' lime and 'Sour' orange are important citrus rootstocks. Aiming to explore their genetic potential, several 'Rangpur' lime selections, as female parents, were crossed with 'Sour' orange selections, 'Sunki Maravilha' mandarin and Poncirus trifoliata hybrids. In the same way, 'Sour' orange selections were crossed with 'Rangpur' lime selections and P. trifoliata hybrids. Parameters evaluated were: fruit set, percentage of hybrids out of the total number

  8. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.


    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  9. Indução e cultivo in vitro de gemas adventícias em segmentos de epicótilo de laranja-azeda In vitro induction and culture of adventitious buds in epicotyl segments of sour orange

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    Rosely Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a indução e a formação de gemas adventícias em explantes de laranja-azeda, pelo uso de fitorreguladores. Em experimentos de organogênese in vitro foram avaliados 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ e cinetina (CIN, em diferentes concentrações e sob duas condições de luminosidade; BAP e CIN combinados ou não com ácido naftalenoacético (ANA; e BAP e CIN isoladamente ou combinados entre si. Segmentos de epicótilo de 1 cm de comprimento, provenientes de plântulas de laranja-azeda germinadas in vitro, foram utilizados como explantes. Para induzir a formação de gemas, os segmentos foram cultivados em meio MT com ou sem adição de fitorreguladores. O material foi cultivado a 27ºC em ausência de luz por 30 dias, seguidos de fotoperíodo de 16 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro ou cinco repetições, a depender do experimento e, cada repetição foi constituída de placa de Petri com 20 explantes. Após 60 ou 70 dias de cultivo foram avaliados o percentual de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas por explante. A adição de BAP ao meio de cultura, combinada ou não com ANA, e em combinações com CIN promovem melhor resposta organogênica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the induction and formation of adventitious buds in sour orange explants through the use of plant regulators. In vitro organogenesis experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of BAP, TDZ, and KIN in different concentrations and under two light conditions; BAP and KIN, combined or not with NAA; BAP and KIN, separately or in combined concentrations. Sour orange epicotyl segments (1 cm length, from in vitro germinated plants, were used as explants. In order to induce bud formation, the explants were cultured in MT medium with or without the addition of plant regulators. The material was cultivated at 27ºC in the absence of light for 30 days, followed of culture

  10. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

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    Piotr Baryła


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  11. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

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    Grażyna Jaworska


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  12. Inheritance of resistance to orange rust in sugarcane (United States)

    Orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is an economically important disease in the Florida sugarcane industry. In this study, orange rust reactions of seedlings in progenies originating from 12 crosses between female and male parents with differing resistance to orange rust (three of each categor...

  13. Sour pressure swing adsorption process (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis


    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  14. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer. (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang


    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agent Orange (United States)

    ... DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Access and Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient Safety ... Orange was a tactical herbicide used by the U.S. military from 1962 to 1975, named for the orange band around the storage barrel. The military sprayed millions ...

  16. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.


    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail


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    E.F. Lukushkina


    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  18. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

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    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  19. Orange Book (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...


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    T. E. Borovik


    Full Text Available Products of sour milk are widely used in nutrition of infants. They are an important source of digestible proteins, vitamins and potassium. Regular intake of sour milk foodstuff has favorable influence on intestinal microbiocenosis, functioning of the immune system, improves secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetites and increases bioavailability of micronutrients. Modern line in functional diet is enrichment of sour milk foodstuff with probiotics. Strains of microorganisms used in manufacture of products with probiotic action are proven to be safe and effective in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Modern data which confirm prophylactic and medicinal properties of probiotic-containing foodstuff, especially bioyoghurts for children, are shown in this article.

  1. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.


    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  2. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a... of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  3. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

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    Stanisław Wociór


    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  4. Primary souring: A novel bacteria-free method for sour beer production. (United States)

    Osburn, Kara; Amaral, Justin; Metcalf, Sara R; Nickens, David M; Rogers, Cody M; Sausen, Christopher; Caputo, Robert; Miller, Justin; Li, Hongde; Tennessen, Jason M; Bochman, Matthew L


    In the beverage fermentation industry, especially at the craft or micro level, there is a movement to incorporate as many local ingredients as possible to both capture terroir and stimulate local economies. In the case of craft beer, this has traditionally only encompassed locally sourced barley, hops, and other agricultural adjuncts. The identification and use of novel yeasts in brewing lags behind. We sought to bridge this gap by bio-prospecting for wild yeasts, with a focus on the American Midwest. We isolated 284 different strains from 54 species of yeast and have begun to determine their fermentation characteristics. During this work, we found several isolates of five species that produce lactic acid and ethanol during wort fermentation: Hanseniaspora vineae, Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Tested representatives of these species yielded excellent attenuation, lactic acid production, and sensory characteristics, positioning them as viable alternatives to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the production of sour beers. Indeed, we suggest a new LAB-free paradigm for sour beer production that we term "primary souring" because the lactic acid production and resultant pH decrease occurs during primary fermentation, as opposed to kettle souring or souring via mixed culture fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical simulation of a sour gas flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)


    Due to the limited amount of information in the literature on sour gas flares and the cost of conducting wind tunnel and field experiments on sour flares, this presentation presented a modelling project that predicted the effect of operating conditions on flare performance and emissions. The objectives of the project were to adapt an existing numerical model suitable for flare simulation, incorporate sulfur chemistry, and run simulations for a range of conditions typical of sour flares in Alberta. The study involved the use of modelling expertise at the University of Utah, and employed large eddy simulation (LES) methods to model open flames. The existing model included the prediction of turbulent flow field; hydrocarbon reaction chemistry; soot formation; and radiation heat transfer. The presentation addressed the unique features of the model and discussed whether LES could predict the flow field. Other topics that were presented included the results from a University of Utah comparison; challenges of the LES model; an example of a run time issue; predicting the impact of operating conditions; and the results of simulations. Last, several next steps were identified and preliminary results were provided. Future work will focus on reducing computation time and increasing information reporting. figs.

  6. [Orange Platform]. (United States)

    Toba, Kenji


    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  7. Reservoir souring: it is all about risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijvenhoven, Cor [Shell (Canada)


    The presence of H2S in produced fluid can be due to various sources, among which are heat/rock interaction and leaks from other reservoirs. This paper discusses the reasons, risk assessment and tools for mitigating reservoir souring. Uncontrolled microorganism activity can cause a sweet reservoir (without H2S) to become sour (production of H2S). The development of bacteria is one of the main causes of reservoir souring in unconventional gas fields. It is difficult to predict souring in seawater due to produced water re-injection (PWRI). Risk assessment and modeling techniques for reservoir souring are discussed. Some of the factors controlling H2S production include injection location, presence of scavenging minerals and biogenic souring. Mitigation methods such as biocide treatment of injection water, sulphate removal from seawater, microbial monitoring techniques such as the molecular microbiology method (MMM), and enumeration by serial dilution are explained. In summary, it can be concluded that reservoir souring is a long-term problem and should be assessed at the beginning of operations.



    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev


    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  9. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  10. Uniformity of plants regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts. (United States)

    Kobayashi, S


    Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.

  11. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle' Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado


    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em estufa telada na FCAV/Unesp Câmpus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle', cultivado em substrato, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída de uma muda de laranjeira por sacolas de 5 dm-3, contendo 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela aplicação das seguintes doses de nutrientes em mg por dm³ de substrato: N1/2:459, N1:918 e N2:1836; P1/2:92, P1:184 e P2: 368; K1/2:438, K1:876 e K2:1752. Aos 424 dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram divididas em raízes e parte aérea para a determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. As adubações com N, P e K proporcionaram maior crescimento e maior acúmulo de N, P e K na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira, em substrato de casca de Pinus e vermiculita, em relação à testemunha. A dose de 459 mg dm-3 de N e as doses de P e K 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente, proporcionaram melhor crescimento da parte aérea das mudas; porém, na dose recomendada de N de 918 mg dm-3, ocorreu maior crescimento do sistema radicular.The experiment was led in a protected greenhouse in the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal Campus -SP, during the period of November of 2005 to January of 2007. The study objective was to evaluate the development of components and the nutritional state of seedlings of 'Valencia' orange grafted on lemon tree citrumelo 'Swingle' rootstock, in function of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo


    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  13. Field performance of "marsh seedless" grapefruit on trifoliate orange inoculated with viroids in Brazil Desempenho do pomeleiro "marsh seedles" enxertado em trifoliata inoculado com viróides no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi


    Full Text Available Some viroids reduce citrus tree growth and may be used for tree size control aiming the establishment of orchards with close tree spacing that may provide higher productivity than conventional ones. To study the effects of citrus viroids inoculation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. grafted on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], an experiment was set up in January 1991, in Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments with two plants per plot: viroid isolates Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd + Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and controls: two healthy buds (control, and no grafting (absolute control. Inoculation was done in the field, six months after planting by bud grafting. Both isolates reduced tree growth (trunk diameter, plant height, canopy diameter and volume. Trees not inoculated yielded better (average of eleven harvests than inoculated ones but the productivity was the same after 150 months. Fruit quality was affected by viroids inoculation but not in a restrictive way. The use of such severe dwarfing isolates for high density plantings of grapefruit on trifoliate orange rootstock is not recommended.Alguns viróides reduzem o crescimento dos citros e podem ser usados para o controle do tamanho das plantas objetivando a instalação de pomares adensados que podem ter maior produtividade que os pomares com espaçamentos convencionais. Para estudar o efeito da inoculação de viróides no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos de pomeleiro 'Marsh Seedless' (Citrus paradisi Macf. enxertado em trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], foi instalado um experimento em Janeiro de 1991, em Bebedouro, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento

  14. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide on sour orange tree specific gravity and anatomy (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; David Kretschmann; Alan Rudie; Bruce A. Kimball; Sherwood B. Idso


    Exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 for a period of 17 years resulted in small but statistically significant decreases in wood basic specific gravity and number of rays per millimeter. Other anatomical characteristics (percentages of tissues, number of vessels per square millimeter, vessel diameters, and fiber wall thickness) were...

  15. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim


    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  16. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e no crescimento de mudas de laranjeiravalência, enxertadas sobre limoeiro cravo Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted on 'cravo' lemon rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado


    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação telada na FCAV/Unesp campus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis Osbeck, enxertadas sobre limoeiro Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - NPK, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi representada por uma muda de laranjeira por sacola com 5 dm³ com 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus spp. e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela metade, uma vez e duas vezes a dose padrão recomendada, de 4.590; 920 e 4.380 mg sacola-1, de N, P e K, respectivamente. As adubações com N e K foram realizadas via fertirrigações três vezes por semana e o P foi adicionado ao substrato antes do replantio das mudas. Aos 424 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram subdivididas em raízes e parte aérea para determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. A adubação com N, P e K proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e maior acúmulo desses macronutrientes na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira Valência, sobre limoeiro Cravo. Houve adequado desenvolvimento das plantas com a metade da dose recomendada de N, P e K pela literatura, aproximadamente de 918, 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP during the period of November 2005 to January 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate development components and nutritional status of seedlings of 'Valencia' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck sweet orange grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock

  17. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  18. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.


    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  19. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.


    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  20. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted


    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell ...

  1. Reação de variedades e clones de laranjas a Xylella fastidiosa Reaction of oranges varieties and clones to Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio de Souza


    . The experimental layout was a complete randomized block design, with 4 replicates and 62 treatments, with 'Pêra' variety as control. Each treatment had two plants, one inoculated and the other without inoculation. For the pathogen inoculation was used the grafting approach with infected seedlings. For the disease incidence measurement was used qualitative data, positive or negative, while for the severity it, was used a note scale based on CVC symptoms confirmed through the PCR tests. The sour oranges varieties Beja and Sr. Pinto and the sweet oranges Navelina ISA 315, Navelina SRA 332 e Newhall Navel SRA 343, have not presented leaves symptoms until 27 months after inoculation.

  2. Seedling root targets (United States)

    Diane L. Haase


    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  3. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior


    Full Text Available The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata, which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthora, and the Swingle citrumelo showed to be incompatible with the Pêra sweet orange. In search of new rootstock varieties, this study aimed at assessing the fruit precocity and yield, susceptibility to tristeza and blight and occurrence of incompatibility of Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on 12 trifoliate hybrids, on Rangpur lime EEL and Goutou sour orange, without irrigation. Tristeza and blight are endemic in the experimental area. The Sunki x English (1628 and Changsha x English Small (1710 citrandarins and two other selections of Cleopatra x Rubidoux provided the highest cumulative yields, in the first three crops and in the total of six crops evaluated. The Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1660 and Sunki x Benecke (1697 citrandarins induced early yield, while the Cravo x Swingle citromonia and C-13 citrange induced later yield. None of the rootstock varieties caused alternate bearing. Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on Swingle citrumelo, Cleopatra x Swingle (1654 citrandarin and on two selections of Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange showed bud-union-ring symptoms of incompatibility. None of the plants presented symptoms of tristeza or blight.



    Farid Faruq; Saiful Anam


    This study aimed to obtain a description of personality (nature) can affect the behavior of corruption in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. This research is a descriptive qualitative study using a novel approach to analyze the psychology of corruption. The data in this study are words, phrases, and sentences contained in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. The main data sources are novel by Ahmad Tohari. Data collection method used in this research is to read the text repeatedly novel Orang-Orang Proye...

  5. Reservoir Souring - Latest developments for application and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Richard J; Folwell, Benjamin D; Wirekoh, Alexander


    Sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) have been identified in oil field fluids since the 1920s. SRP reduce sulphate to sulphide, a toxic and corrosive species that impacts on operational safety, metallurgy and both capital and operational cost. Differences in water cut, temperature, pressure...... and fluid chemistry can impact on the observed H2S concentration, meaning that an increase in H2S concentration does not always correlate with activity of SRP. However it wasn't until the 1990s that SRP activity was accepted as the leading cause of reservoir souring (i.e. an increase in H2S concentrations...... to reservoir souring. This has led to some recent advances in microbial control and detection, however, despite this, many of the methods used routinely for microbial control and detection are over a century old. We therefore look towards emerging and novel mitigation technologies that may be used...

  6. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  7. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqul Huque


    Full Text Available The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli.Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells.These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts" suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  8. Operation Orange Street Resurfacing 2016 (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — Track Operation Orange Cone projects for 2016. “Operation Orange Cone” is an initiative launched in 2015 as part of the Yarber Administration’s push to address the...

  9. The Orange Feeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Kiib, Birgitte Marling; Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun


    on the specific atmosphere and on how the designs support this. It concludes that the culture of laughter is the atmospheric glue that keeps Roskilde Festival together, and it is the performative and relational designs together with the culture of laughter that create the basis for ‘The Orange Feeling’....

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  11. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian


    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.; Johnson, J.R.; Karvan, Oguz


    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Sour gas map of Alberta and British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Geographic locations of sour gas wells in Alberta and British Columbia are shown (by geographic coordinates) on a large-size fold-out map issued as a supplement to the July issue of Oilweek Magazine. Pools are color coded based on hydrogen sulphide content. Five classes are recognized, i. e.: hydrogen sulphide content less than one percent; between one and 4.9 per cent; between five and 9.9 per cent; between ten and 29.9 per cent ; and hydrogen sulphide content exceeding 30 per cent. The locations of gas processing plants with sulphur recovery are also identified

  15. Heptyl vicianoside and methyl caramboside from sour star fruit. (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Jia, Xuchao; Xie, Haihui


    Two new alkyl glycosides, heptyl vicianoside (1) and methyl 2-O-β-d-fucopyranosyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (methyl caramboside, 4), were isolated from the sour fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), along with octyl vicianoside (2), cis-3-hexenyl rutinoside (3), and methyl α-d-fructofuranoside (5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were obtained from the genus Averrhoa for the first time. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, but none of them were potent.

  16. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer. (United States)


    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour or...

  17. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  18. Effect of adding sour yoghurt and dough as bacterial inoculant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of whole-crop corn with sourdough and sour yoghurt significantly decreased pH, ash content and ammonia nitrogen, while dry matter determined using toloen distillation (DMT), Flieg point, crude protein (CP), and total nitrogen increased (P<0.05). Key words: Silage, sour yoghurt, sourdough, corn forage.

  19. Evaluation and improvement of sour property packages in UniSim design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, E.; Wang, L.; Saha, S. [Honeywell, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described specialty fluid packages for modeling oil and gas process systems involving sour gases in contact with aqueous phase. UniSim Design is a popular process simulation tool in the oil and gas industry. The sour Peng-Robinson (PR) and sour Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) models are commonly used for handling sour system where hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are in contact with an aqueous phase. These sour options combine the PR/SRK equation of state and Wilson's API-sour model where the equation of state is used to determine the fugacities of the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases, plus the enthalpy for all 3 phases. The Wilson's API-sour method is used for the aqueous phase calculations, which accounts for the ionization of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the aqueous phase. The efficiency of these 2 thermodynamic property packages were evaluated in this study by comparing industrial and experimental data and the results from other similar models. The purpose of this study was to improve these property packages for more accurate and reliable modeling of sour systems. tabs., figs.

  20. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.


    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  2. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco


    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  3. A review of the implications of sour gas setbacks on the ability to develop property : public safety and sour gas recommendation 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    All sour gas facilities in Alberta have a required setback, which is the minimum distance that must be maintained between the energy facility and a dwelling, rural housing development, urban centre or public facility. The size of the setback depends on the classification levels of the sour gas facilities. This paper reviewed the economic implications of sour gas setback restrictions for landowners with reference to Recommendation 53. The methodology of the study included a telephone and electronic mail survey to prequalify municipalities, cities and towns located in the sour gas producing regions of Alberta and the selection of 11 cases for further detailed analysis. The findings of the survey and case studies were then used to examine whether landowners were treated fairly in cases where a setback impact occurred. The frequency of setback incidents was described as common by 13 jurisdictions, occasional by 33 jurisdictions and as emerging by 30 jurisdictions. Results indicated that impacts on property development due to sour gas setbacks were widespread across the province. Observed mitigation measures included the modification of development plans by landowners to avoid setback restrictions; encouraging land development proposals away from areas known to have sour gas activity; and the oil and gas industry working with landowners to locate proposed facilities in order to minimize setback restrictions. Results of the survey suggested that ineffective communication was the predominant factor leading to conflicts, particularly when parties were not familiar with setback requirements or the implications for property development. It was suggested that policy makers should aim to reduce the number of conflicts between sour gas setbacks and property development. Recommendations to improve communication included closing gaps in regulations, processes and practices; and reducing surface and subsurface interface conflicts. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition. (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva


    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  5. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.


    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  6. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

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    Radičević Sanja


    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  7. Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Omura, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Minato, Izuru; Yamamoto, Akio [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, (Japan)


    A new kind of high strength pipeline has been manufactured for sour service in offshore pipelines. This paper first presents a review of developments in manufacturing technology to improve sour resistance. This was particularly the case with Grade UOE line pipe. The improvement was achieved by optimizing the continuous casting process, monitoring the shape of inclusions (such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3) and decreasing coarse precipitates (Nb(C,N), TiN). The study then used the HIC evaluation method to determine hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of the material and HAZ test for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance. The evaluation of the NACE TM0284 solution A showed that these pipelines are able to resist severe sour conditions because of good HIC and SSC resistance. Optimizing others components like alloying elements and the ACC process would improve sour resistance in future applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Faruq


    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain a description of personality (nature can affect the behavior of corruption in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. This research is a descriptive qualitative study using a novel approach to analyze the psychology of corruption. The data in this study are words, phrases, and sentences contained in the novel Orang-Orang Proyek. The main data sources are novel by Ahmad Tohari. Data collection method used in this research is to read the text repeatedly novel Orang-Orang Proyek, collect any data relating to the focus of the study, after carrying out the classification. Data analysis technique is done by data identification, data reduction, data display, data interpretation, describe the results of the analysis, and draw conclusions. While the results of this study are as followsdescription of personalitycovetousness/greed and consumptive lifestyles nature conducted by figures such novel Dalkijo and their families can lead to corruption. This means that there is influence, greed / avarice as well as the nature of the consumer lifestyle on corruption.

  9. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  11. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

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    Rita Bordignon


    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  12. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.


    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  13. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.


    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  14. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons. (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko


    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Public safety and sour gas quarterly progress report October - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, V.; Lillo, H.; Craig, M.; Neilson, G.


    This third quarterly progress report for the business year 2002-2003 on the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Public Safety and Sour Gas initiative covers projects based on the 87 recommendations made by the Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas (Advisory Committee) in December 2000. As of December 2002, work has been completed on 16 recommendations and is proceeding on 50 recommendations. This report includes several tables indicating the status of recommendations as either complete or ongoing. The recommendation categories include: (1) sour gas development, planning and approval, (2) sour gas operations, (3) emergency preparedness, and (4) information, communication and consultation. The report also summarizes the health effects and sour gas research. Recommendations completed as of December 2002 include: plant proliferation; pre-license review of critical well license applications; license application training/certification information requirement; increase sour gas inspections; increase inspections of new and noncompliant operators; implement 100 per cent inspection rate for critical wells near people; response to sour gas complaints; enhance EUB capability to monitor for complaint response/compliance; complaint/incident response program for Aboriginal communities; interim policy on ERP review and reduced EPZs; infrastructure and resources for Aboriginal community ERP; field staff in industry-landowner discussions; EUB involvement in mediation of application issues; and, timely and meaningful public consultation for First Nations and Metis. Alberta Health and Wellness is currently evaluating the health effects of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} and the work is near completion. Other ongoing work includes the development of a draft protocol to address the involvement of regional health authorities (RHAs), the early involvement of RHAs and other local government bodies, and a process for communication between the EUB field staff and

  16. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F


    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  17. Corrosion behaviour of steels and CRA in sour gas environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, M. Alvarez de; Lancha, A.M.; Hernandez, F.; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coca, P. [ELCOGAS, S.A., C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera de Calzada de Calatrava a Puertollano, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)


    The ELCOGAS power plant in Puertollano (Spain), with 335 MWe (ISO conditions), is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant built to demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility of this alternative for clean generation of electricity from coal. IGCC technology is based on a coal gasification process, namely the conversion of coal into combustible gas, which is then subjected to an exhaustive cleaning process. The result is a synthetic gas, virtually free of pollutants that can be burned with a high efficiency in a combined cycle electricity-generating unit. Basically, the ELCOGAS plant consists of three islands jointly designed and integrated into the process: gasification island, air separation island and combined cycle island. In the gasification island, the gas from the gasifier is cleaned (de-dusted and washed) and desulfurized before being sent to the combined cycle island. The washing system consists of a Venturi scrubber with a separator where halogens and alkalis (NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF) are removed from the previously de-dusted gas by means of the wash water. The halogens and alkalis removed are then stripped from the wash water as stripped gas, which is a sour gas. The coal-gas coming from the separator proceeds to sulphur removal in a MDEA system and then, the clean gas (mainly CO, H{sub 2}) is sent to the combined cycle plant. As COS is a significant part of the sulphur containing gases in the coal gas, hydrolysis of the COS to H{sub 2}S takes place before the desulfurization stage, since MDEA is a selective amine for H{sub 2}S. There are many important areas related to materials corrosion within the gas cleaning system. In the ELCOGAS plant carbon steels, austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys, such as AISI 316Ti, AISI 904L and Hastelloy C276, are used in the Venturi, the water separator and the strippers. AISI 316Ti is used for the gas piping from the separator to the COS hydrolysis system. Laboratory tests to evaluate

  18. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

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    Branka Levaj


    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  19. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.


    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Iserliyska


    Full Text Available Penalty analysis is a graphical technique to reveal the possible penalty paid by the product in terms of reduced overall liking by not being Just About Right (JAR on a characteristic. Thus consumer affective tests were conducted to investigate the use of penalty analysis to model consumer acceptance of six well-known brands of orange juice using the proposed method to infer the drivers of liking from JAR data. Just-about-right (JAR and hedonic ratings were used to measure each attribute evaluated. Consumers (n=81 were asked to rate the overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. Just About Right (JAR scales were used to evaluate the rest of the attributes as followed: color, sweet taste, sour taste, bitter taste and amount of pulp. Means and frequencies of each sensory attribute were obtained. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients gave the relationship between the sensory attributes and the overall liking.

  1. Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions. (United States)

    Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef


    The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound.

  2. Using Thermodynamics to Predict the Outcomes of Nitrate-Based Oil Reservoir Souring Control Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dolfing


    Full Text Available Souring is the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Souring is a common problem during secondary oil recovery via water flooding, especially when seawater with its high sulfate concentration is introduced. Nitrate injection into these oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring by stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB. Two conceptually different mechanisms for NRB-facilitated souring control have been proposed: nitrate-sulfate competition for electron donors (oil-derived organics or H2 and nitrate driven sulfide oxidation. Thermodynamics can facilitate predictions about which nitrate-driven mechanism is most likely to occur in different scenarios. From a thermodynamic perspective the question “Which reaction yields more energy, nitrate driven oxidation of sulfide or nitrate driven oxidation of organic compounds?” can be rephrased as: “Is acetate driven sulfate reduction to sulfide exergonic or endergonic?” Our analysis indicates that under conditions encountered in oil fields, sulfate driven oxidation of acetate (or other SRB organic electron donors is always more favorable than sulfide oxidation to sulfate. That predicts that organotrophic NRB that oxidize acetate would outcompete lithotrophic NRB that oxidize sulfide. However, sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is different. At low acetate HS− oxidation is more favorable than acetate oxidation. Incomplete oxidation of sulfide to S0 is likely to occur when nitrate levels are low, and is favored by low temperatures; conditions that can be encountered at oil field above-ground facilities where intermediate sulfur compounds like S0 may cause corrosion. These findings have implications for reservoir management strategies and for assessing the success and progress of nitrate-based souring control strategies and the attendant risks of corrosion associated with souring and nitrate injection.

  3. Efficacy of gaseous ozone to counteract postharvest table grape sour rot. (United States)

    Pinto, L; Caputo, L; Quintieri, L; de Candia, S; Baruzzi, F


    This work aims at studying the efficacy of low doses of gaseous ozone in postharvest control of the table grape sour rot, a disease generally attributed to a consortium of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSY) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). Sour rot incidence of wounded berries, inoculated with 8 NSYstrains, or 7 AAB, or 56 yeast-bacterium associations, was monitored at 25 °C up to six days. Sour rot incidence in wounded berries inoculated with yeast-bacterium associations resulted higher than in berries inoculated with one single NSY or AAB strain. Among all NSY-AAB associations, the yeast-bacterium association composed of Candida zemplinina CBS 9494 (Cz) and Acetobacter syzygii LMG 21419 (As) showed the highest prevalence of sour rot; thus, after preliminary in vitro assays, this simplified As-Cz microbial consortium was inoculated in wounded berries that were stored at 4 °C for ten days under ozone (2.14 mg m -3 ) or in air. At the end of cold storage, no berries showed sour-rot symptoms although ozonation mainly affected As viable cell count. After additional 12 days at 25 °C, the sour rot index of inoculated As-Cz berries previously cold-stored under ozone or in air accounted for 22.6 ± 3.7% and 66.7 ± 4.5%, respectively. Molecular analyses of dominant AAB and NSY populations of both sound and rotten berries during post-refrigeration period revealed the appearance of new strains mainly belonging to Gluconobacter albidus and Hanseniaspora uvarum species, respectively. Cold ozonation resulted an effective approach to extend the shelf-life of table grapes also after cold storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.


    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  5. Mulher, cura e pajelança em Soure (Ilha do Marajó-PA).


    Mayra Cristina Silva Faro; UEPA


    Neste trabalho pretendo apresentar alguns resultados de uma pesquisa que vem sendo realizada desde 2009 sobre a pajelança cabocla e as mulheres pajés na cidade de Soure, Ilha do Marajó/PA. Este estudo tem como objetivos analisar práticas e saberes de cura em Soure, e observar o papel da mulher no contexto religioso e simbólico da pajelança. Compreende-se pajelança cabocla como um conjunto de crenças e práticas de cura bastante difundida na Amazônia, em que encontram-se mesclados em graus vari...

  6. 5-HT3A -driven green fluorescent protein delineates gustatory fibers innervating sour-responsive taste cells: A labeled line for sour taste? (United States)

    Stratford, J M; Larson, E D; Yang, R; Salcedo, E; Finger, T E


    Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT 3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT 3A GFP mice, that 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid). This acid stimulation also evokes c-Fos in the laterally adjacent mediodorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus (DMSp5), but this trigeminal activation is not associated with the presence of 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers as it is in the nTS. Rather, the neuronal activation in the trigeminal complex likely is attributable to direct depolarization of acid-sensitive trigeminal nerve fibers, for example, polymodal nociceptors, rather than through taste buds. Taken together, these findings suggest that transmission of sour taste information involves communication between Type III taste cells and 5-HT 3 -expressing afferent nerve fibers that project to a restricted portion of the nTS consistent with a crude mapping of taste quality information in the primary gustatory nucleus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  8. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.


    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  9. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation (United States)

    Wang, Qian J.; Knoeferle, Klemens; Spence, Charles


    People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account), or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation. PMID:28491044

  10. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.


    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  11. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian J. Wang


    Full Text Available People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account, or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation.

  12. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.


    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents

  13. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y


    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  14. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.


    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid

  15. In vitro germination and acclimatization of cambui tree type seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Lédo


    Full Text Available There are few reports in literature on the in vitro behavior of cambui tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg and acclimatization conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture media on in vitro germination and the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of two Myrciaria tenella types. The study was carried out at the Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Aracaju, SE. Seeds were extracted from fruits of two Myrciaria tenella types: Orange and Purple Types. The seeds were inoculated in the following culture media: T1 - MS medium + 30g L -1 sucrose, T2 - 1/2 MS medium + 15g L -1 sucrose and T3 - control without MS salts. To study the effect of substrates on acclimatization, seedlings were transferred to plastic containers with capacity of 300cm 3 containing the following sterilized substrates: S1 - soil and powdered coconut husk - SPC (1:1 by volume; S2 - soil, washed sand and powdered coconut husk - SAPC (1:1:1 by volume and S3 - Biomix (r commercial substrate - SC. The medium without MS salts promoted 100% in vitro germination and 1/2 MS medium greater development of seedlings. All substrates studied are suitable for acclimatization of seedlings germinated in vitro. Myrciaria tenella of yellow type showed greater vigor during acclimatization.

  16. Orange fiber laser for ophthalmology (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Kojima, K.; Hayashi, K.


    For the light source of photocoagulators for ophthalmology, orange laser is more suitable than green laser because of low scattering loss by the crystalline lens, and low absorption by xanthophylls in the retina. We developed two orange fiber lasers (580 nm and 590 nm) to investigate the effect depending on the difference in the range of orange. The 580nm laser is composed of a 1160 nm fiber laser and a Periodically Polled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal for second harmonic generation. The 1160 nm fiber laser beam is focused into the MgO-doped PPLN crystal whose length is 30 mm with 3-pass configuration. Continuous-wave 1.3 W output power of 580 nm was obtained with 5.8 W input power of 1160nm for the first time. The conversion efficiency was 22%. The band width of the second harmonic was 0.006 nm (FWHM). The 590 nm laser is almost the same as 580 nm laser source. In this case we used a Raman shift fiber to generate 1180 nm, and the output power of 590 nm was 1.4 W. We developed an evaluation model of photocoagulator system using these two laser sources. A 700 mW coagulation output power was obtained with this orange fiber laser photocoagulator system. This is enough power for the eye surgery. We have the prospect of the maintenance-free, long-life system that is completely air-cooled. We are planning to evaluate this photocoagulator system in order to investigate the difference between the two wavelengths at the field test.

  17. Sustainable alternative for the food industry: converting whey and orange juice into a micro-filtered beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Enhancing industrial sustainability by converting whey into alternative high value-added products is a scientific trend in food science and technology. However, without other ingredients, rennet, or sour, whey has an unappetizing flavor. This sensory challenge can be overcome by blending it with citrus flavor from orange juice. This study assessed a micro-filtered beverage from whey and orange juice without enzymatic treatment. Four formulations (27:10, 8.6:10, 2.4:10 and 1:10 v/v whey:juice ratio were processed through a 1.4 μm microfiltration system with four different transmembrane pressures (1, 2, 3, and 4.15 bar and then stored at 5 °C for 28 days. The micro-filtered beverage was analyzed for physicochemical, sensorial and microbial changes. It was possible overcome the technological challenges of orange juice microfiltration without enzymatic treatment with high transmembrane pressures. The whey:orange juice ratio was also decisive for permeation. A clear beverage with lower viscosity, turbidity, and protein levels was obtained, without altering mineral concentrations thus showing that the product has good capacity for hydration. The beverage presented good microbiological quality and remained stable for 28 days at 5 °C. Sensory evaluation data indicate that the beverage can be directed to young people and women, regardless of their physical activity. The combination of whey and orange juice can be explored industrially as a micro-filtered beverage, with satisfactory results of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory acceptance.

  18. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  19. The dependence of orange-red IRSL decay curves of potassium feldspars on sample temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattahi, Morteza


    This paper presents the effects of stimulation temperature on the infrared stimulated orange-red (600-650 nm) luminescence emission (orange-red infrared simulated luminescence (IRSL)) in potassium feldspar. Investigations explore the relationship between initial (0-2 s), integral (0-100 s), net initial (0-2 s less background over 2 s), net integral (0-100 s less background over 100 s) and last 2 s of the orange-red IRSL signals obtained for 100 s versus stimulation temperature (20-460 degree sign C) on both unpreheated and preheated samples. In the potassium feldspar sample examined, competition effects, including thermal enhancement, depletion and possibly quenching affect the orange-red IRSL signals measured. Observed effects (e.g., thermal enhancement, thermal activation energy and the decay rate) over the temperature range 20-120 degree sign C may be explained by tunnelling luminescence processes, IR transitions to the conduction band following excitations from ground state of electron trap by acquiring thermal energy from the lattice and or the random-walk band-tail model. Preheating prior to orange-red IRSL and Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements provides evidence that there are both shallow and deep traps responsible for low- and high-temperature orange-red IRSL and TL peaks. The effects of both preheating and IR bleaching on the orange-red thermally stimulated luminescence (red emission during thermoluminescence, RTL) provide evidence that bleached RTL traps have no significant contribution in the production of orange-red IRSL signals

  20. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  1. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar


    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  2. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.


    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  3. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)


    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  4. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica


    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  5. Supply, storage and handling of elemental sulfur derived from sour gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Dowling, N.I.; Calgary Univ., AB


    This presentation reviews the supply picture for solid elemental sulfur. It also assesses methods for its storage as well as the disposal of the precursor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by acid gas injection. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The preferred option is to store solid elemental sulfur underground, particularly if it is to remain in storage for a prolonged period. Future changes in supply of sulfur will likely be controlled by incremental production of sour gas and utilization of oil sands bitumen. It is expected that future sulfur production from conventional crude oil will remain static or will slowly decrease. The degree to which acid gas injection is applied to large sour gas developments in the Middle East and the Caspian regions will have a significant impact on world sulfur supply. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Effects of a sour bolus on the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles in the submental region. (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M; McCulloch, Timothy M; Jaffe, Debra; Neel, Amy T


    A sour bolus has been used as a modality in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia based on the hypothesis that this stimulus provides an effective preswallow sensory input that lowers the threshold required to trigger a pharyngeal swallow. The result is a more immediate swallow onset time. Additionally, the sour bolus may invigorate the oral muscles resulting in stronger contractions during the swallow. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the intramuscular electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and anterior belly of the digastric muscles during sour and water boluses with regard to duration, strength, and timing of muscle activation. Muscle duration, swallow onset time, and pattern of muscle activation did not differ for the two bolus types. Muscle activation time was more tightly approximated across the onsets of the three muscles when a sour bolus was used. A sour bolus also resulted in a stronger muscle contraction as evidenced by greater electromyographic activity. These data support the use of a sour bolus as part of a treatment paradigm.

  7. Study on tissue culture for Gelidium seedling (United States)

    Pei, Lu-Qing; Luo, Qi-Jun; Fei, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Bin


    As seedling culture is a crucial factor for successful cultivation of Gelidium, the authors researched tissue culture technology for producing seedlings. The morphogeny and experimental ecology were observed and studied fully in 2 5 mm isolated tissue fragments. Regeneration, appearance of branching creepers and attaching structure and new erect seedlings production and development were studied. Fragments were sown on bamboo slice and vinylon rope. The seedlings were cultured 20 30 days indoor, then cultured in the sea, where the density of erect seedlings was 3 19 seedlings/cm2, growth rate was 3.84% day. The frond arising from seedlings directly was up to 10 cm per year. The ecological conditions for regenerated seedlings are similar to the natural ones. The regenerated seedlings are suitable for raft culture in various sea areas.

  8. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh


    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  9. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Photostability of Natural Orange-Red and Yellow Fungal Pigments in Liquid Food Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf


    The variation in the photostability among the currently authorized natural pigments limits their application span to a certain type of food system, and more robust alternatives are being sought after to overcome this problem. In the present study, the photostability of an orange-red and a yellow...... an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange...

  11. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.; Abascal, R.


    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well

  12. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  14. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief (United States)

    Buck, Stuart


    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  15. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R


    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  16. Potential production of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon seedlings viarescue seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ferreira e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Translocation of rare populations is regarded as the last resort for the conservation of species whose habitat destruction is imminent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two height classes and three leaf reduction intensities on growth and increases in height, stem diameter, survival, and new leaf production in seedlings of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (peroba obtained via rescue seedlings in a remnant of tropical semi deciduous forest. We recovered 240 individuals that were divided into two height classes (Class I-5 to 15cm and Class II-20 to 35cm and subjected to three leaf reduction intensities (0%, 50%, and 100%, which were then transported to a shade house with 50% light reduction. Measurements of height, stem diameter, and new leaf production were collected 8 times at 0, 15, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 days, and survival rate was measured at day 135. The average survival rate was 82.9%; 77.5% for one Class I (5-15cm and 88.3% for Class II (20-35cm. Higher seedling growth was observed for the 0% leaf reduction treatment in both height classes. The leaves insertion were greater in the 100% cuts, with a decrease observed over time. It is advisable to restore A. cylindrocarpon seedlings in two height classes owing to the high survival rate, leaf appearance, and growth reported in the present study. The no-leaf reduction treatment (0% is the most viable alternative for the production of A. cylindrocarpon seedlings, via rescue seedlings.

  17. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange. (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng


    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H 2 O 2 , superoxide radical (O 2 ·- ), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H 2 O 2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- , and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H 2 O 2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H 2 O 2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H 2 O 2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant.

  18. Foliar absorption and translocation of Zn-65 in balady orange plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.


    Greenhouse experiment was designed using Zn So 4 as a single element or in a mixture of 'Zn SO 4 + Fe SO 4 ' at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% of these compounds. Different solutions were adjusted at PH 6.0 and Tween-20 at 0.5% (V/V) was added. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. In a complete randomized design with three replicates orange seedlings two-year old were arranged. Labelled solution, in small droplets, were added onto upper surface of certain leaves (middle leaves) of seedling. Retained Zn-65 in the treated leaves with Zn SO 4 alone was significantly higher than in leaves sprayed with a mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe sulphates. Upward and downward translocation of Zn-65 was highly related to its absorption through treated leaves and the translocation rate of upward direction was more pronounced than downward. Total absorption of Zn-65 was higher with Zn SO 4 than with the mixture. Utilization percent of foliar application of Zn was significantly decreased as the rate of Zn SO 4 increased from 0.5 to 1.0% either alone or in combination with Fe and Mn sulphates. Moreover, it was also reduced due to the presence of and Mn with Zn the spray solution with Zn SO 4 . In particular, 0.5% in soy solution realized the highest utilization and was efficient for supplying for orange plants with Zn. 3 tabs

  19. Case studies of the application of enhanced steel alloys for bottom hole assembly components for sour service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Alvaro [Nov Grant Prideco, Navasota (United States); Moura, Carlos [ASPEN Assesoria Tecnica e Comercial, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Johnson, Charles; Landriault, Alain [Weatherford Canda Partnership, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The new more modern drilling programs require the drill string to travel across sour formations in order to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Traditional materials have been employed in the manufacture of HWDP components along with basic heat treatment processes. Standard HWDP tools have started to show their operational as well as environmental limitations when subjected to sour service applications. The advanced, more complex drilling programs require for the HWDP tools to be put in service under different configurations. Either at the bottom of the drill string near the drill bit for vertical well configurations or on top of the drill string for weight application on horizontal or extended reach applications. An operator in northwestern Canada has replaced standard HWDP with enhanced sour service HWDP in order to complete the programmed wells. These enhanced tools offer higher tensile and torque capabilities and improved toughness than standard HWDP tools and in addition, provide protection against sour service conditions. The use of second-generation double shoulder connections (2nd-Gen. DSC) has also provided added torque and tensile capacities to these versatile HWDP tools. For over a year more than a dozen wells have been drilled employing these enhanced BHA tools and have helped the operator reach its targets through sour service formations and produce wells in a safe and cost effective manner. (author)

  20. Female guppies use orange as choice cue: a manipulative test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female guppies from a feral South African population respond sexually to more orange males in correlative trials. We impaired the female's ability to use orange elements of male colour patterns by conducting choice trials under orange light. Under orange light, there was no relationship between male colour pattern and ...

  1. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  2. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  3. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  5. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  6. The influence of sour taste and cold temperature in pharyngeal transit duration in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cola


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The effect of sour taste and food temperature variations in dysphagic patients has not been entirely clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sour and cold food in the pharyngeal transit times of patients with stroke. METHODS: Patients participating in this study were 30 right-handed adults, 16 of which were male and 14 were female, aged 41 to 88 (average age 62.3 years with ictus varying from 1 to 30 days (median of 6 days. To analyze the pharyngeal transit time a videofluoroscopy swallow test was performed. Each patient was observed during swallow of a 5 mL paste bolus given by spoon, totaling four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour and cold sour, one at a time, room temperature (22ºC and cold (8ºC were used. Later, the tests were analyzed using specific software to measure bolus transit time during the pharyngeal phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the pharyngeal transit time was significantly shorter during swallow of cold sour bolus when compared with other stimuli. Conclusion - Sour taste stimuli associated to cold temperature cause significant change in swallowing patterns, by shortening the pharyngeal transit time, which may lead to positive effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.CONTEXTO: O efeito do sabor azedo e as variações da temperatura dos alimentos em indivíduos disfágicos, ainda não foi totalmente esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do sabor azedo e da temperatura fria no tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição em indivíduos após acidente vascular encefálico hemisférico isquêmico. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 indivíduos adultos, sendo 16 do gênero masculino e 14 do feminino, destros, com faixa etária variando de 41 a 88 anos (média de 62,3 anos e ictus que variou de 1 a 30 dias (mediana de 6 dias. Para analisar o tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição foi realizado o exame de videofluoroscopia da deglutição. Cada indivíduo foi observado durante a

  7. Seedling vigor and genetic variability for rice seed, seedling emergence and seedling traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.; Jafri, S.J.H.; Jamil, M.; Ijaz, M.


    Eleven local rice cultivars including Basmati 370 were evaluated for seedling vigor. Three groups of traits were evaluated viz; seed traits (Seed density, seed volume see weight, paddy length and grain length), seed emergence traits (emergence %, emergence index and emergence rate index), and seedling traits (fresh root length, dry root weight, emergence percentage, root length, dry root weight, seed weight and relative root weight were observed significant, respectively. Seed density, relative root weight, emergence rate index and root to shoot ratio were relatively more amenable to improvement. Relative expected genetic advance was the function of heritability and coefficient of phenotypic variability, latter being more important. (author)

  8. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  9. Development of a novel processing system for efficient sour water stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Abolghasem; Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Arjomand; Beheshti, Masoud


    Application of vapor recompression systems can result in enhanced energy efficiency and reduced energy requirements of distillation systems. In vapor recompression systems, temperature and dew point temperature of the top product of the column are increased through compression. By transferring heat from top to bottoms product, required boil up and reflux streams for the column are provided. In this paper, a new system is proposed for efficient stripping of sour water based on vapor recompression. Ammonia and H 2 S are the contaminants of sour water. Initially, based on a certain specifications of products, a sour water stripping system is implemented. A novel processing system is then developed and simulated to reduce utility requirements. The two processing systems are economically evaluated by Aspen Economic Evaluation software. There are 89.0% and 83.7% reduction of hot and cold utility requirements for the proposed system in comparison to the base processing system. However, the new processing system requires new equipment such as compressor and corresponding mechanical work that increases its capital and operating costs in comparison to the base case. However, the results indicate that the proposed system results in reduction of 11.4% of total annual costs and 14.9% of operating costs. - Highlights: • A novel system was developed for enhancement of performance of a distillation system based on vapor recompression. • In this system, utility streams are used for providing thermal energy. • A parametric study is carried out on the proposed processing system. • Applying the proposed system resulted in reduction of energy and utility requirements and costs of the separation process. • Environmental performance of the model was investigated.

  10. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó


    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  11. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica


    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  12. The effect of produced water reinjection on reservoir souring in the Statfjord field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernestad, Eva Oe.; Sunde, Egil; Dinning, Anthony J.


    A produced water reinjection (PWRI) pilot test was performed in one well in the Statfjord field in the period 2000-2001. In order to establish the souring parameters and influence of PWRI in the near well area, the well was back flowed prior to PWRI, and at the end of the PWRI test period. Tracer was used for mass balance evaluations. After the PWRI pilot test was finished, the PWRI plant was upgraded at the Statfjord C platform and since 2003; two wells have been re injecting produced water. Nitrate has substituted biocides for corrosion control in the water injection system at the Statfjord B and Statfjord C platforms. Based on experience from other Statoil operated fields, nitrate will improve the corrosion control and in addition reduce the reservoir souring and hence the H2S production. In 2004, three wells were backflowed; a PWRI- injector, a seawater injector and a sea water injector with addition of nitrate. Results from the PWRI pilot test, showed that the sulphide production increased 17 times after PWRI in comparison with seawater injection. In the backflowing studies in 2004, water from the PWRI injector showed considerable higher H2S content (approximately 300 mg/l) than the well injecting only seawater (approximately 3-4 mg/l). The well injecting nitrate showed the lowest sulphide concentration in the backflowed fluids in comparison with the other wells (below 1 mg/l). This illustrates a significant increase in microbiological activity within the near injection area as a result of increased nutrient availability due to PWRI. The impact of PWRI in the lifetime of the Statfjord field has been evaluated and the PWRI strategy may be altered due to increases in souring. (Author)

  13. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis


    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  14. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  15. Veterans and agent orange: update 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Third Biennial Update), Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention


    Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 examines the state of the scientific evidence regarding associations between diseases and exposure to dioxin and other chemical compounds in herbicides used in Vietnam...

  16. Metro orange line BRT project evaluation. (United States)


    In partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) conducted an evaluation of the Metro Orange Line BRT service, whic...

  17. Redox chemistry of orange I and orange II: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, K.K.; Rao, B.S.M.; O'Neill, P.; Oakes, J.; Batchelor, S.N.


    The relative reactivities of different tautomeric forms of model azo dyes (Orange I and Orange II) with oxidising and reducing radicals are investigated using pulse radiolysis technique. The rate of the reaction of N 3 with Orange I is diffusion controlled and the order of the reactivity among the tautomers is common ion > hydrazone > azo, whereas a reverse trend was seen in the reaction of e aq . The reducing alcohol radicals react with Orange II with k values in the range (1-3) x 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The relevant reaction mechanism is discussed. (author)

  18. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA-Unidad Altamira-Tamaulipas, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Industrial, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Meneses, C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M., E-mail: earce@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available Changes in the quality indicators of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» characterized by high probiotic and immunomodulatory properties and low allergic effect that were made according to the improved technology and stored in sealed-off containers at temperature (4±2 ºС during 28 days have been studied: organoleptic properties of taste and odour, consistency and appearance; physical and chemical properties – titrated acidity, ºТ; active acidity, pH units; moisture retention property, %; microbiological properties – number of living cells of mixed cultures B. bifidum 1 + B. longum Я3 + B. infantis 512, CFU/cm3; the most probable number of living cells of monocultures L. acidophilus La-5, CFU/cm3; presence of coli form bacteria in 0.3 cm3; presence of  Salmonella in 50 cm3; biochemical properties – antioxidant activity, activity units; and maximum possible content of malondialdehyde at complete oxidation of the product ingredients, mg/100 g. It is proved that under indicated conditions in the course of 24 days the studied samples of target products possess high organoleptic and standardized for sour-milk infant drinks physical, chemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators and are, also, characterized by high content of probiotics: (0.43…8.60∙109 and (0.25…1.10∙109 CFU/cm3 of living cells of bifidus bacteria and lactobacilli, accordingly.It has been established that the limit storage period of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» produced according to the improved technology and stored at temperature (4±2 ºС should not exceed 12 days with due account of the safety margin for sour-milk infant drinks (provided they are kept in sealed-off containers.It has been proved that the target product formulas should include lactulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 FT EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark, vitamin complex FT 041081EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark and/or complex of mineral substances FT 042836EU of

  20. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Cabrera-Sierra, R.; Rodriguez-Meneses, C.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.


    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.



    Desi Sulistyo Wardani


    Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak pend...

  2. Genetically engineered orange petunias on the market


    Bashandy, Hany; Teeri, Teemu Heikki


    Main conclusion Unauthorized genetically engineered orange petunias were found on the market. Genetic engineering of petunia was shown to lead to novel flower color some 20?years ago. Here we show that petunia lines with orange flowers, generated for scientific purposes, apparently found their way to petunia breeding programmes, intentionally or unintentionally. Today they are widely available, but have not been registered for commerce. Electronic supplementary material The online version of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM


    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  4. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to which...

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  6. Uptake pathways of fluorescent indicators by pea seed and seedlings and their potential as anti-counterfeiting labeling for plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.; Guan, Y. J.; Fu, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, Y. X.


    The present study investigates the effects of seed soaking in varying concentration of rhodamine B (RB) or safranine T (ST) solutions on germination and seedling growth of pea seeds. The fluorescence in pea seedling at different developmental stages was observed. The results indicate that there were no adverse effects of seed soaking in RB (0.1mg/ml) and ST (0.5, 0.3, 0.1mg/ml) solutions on germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll contents. The seeds treated with RB showed bright red and orange fluorescence under green (546 nm) and blue (495 nm) light excitation, respectively while no red or orange color was observed in the control seeds. In addition, the vascular bundles of stem, seedling roots and aerial parts of seedlings treated with RB all emitted brilliant fluorescence for a longer time as compared with that treated with ST. It can be concluded that pea seed labeled with RB by seed soaking at appropriate concentration could be used as a potential anti-counterfeiting technique in pea seeds. (author)

  7. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady


    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Numerical Study of the Sour Gas Reforming in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Shahsavari


    Full Text Available In this paper, using a one-dimensional simulation model, the reforming process of sour gas, i.e. CH4, CO2, and H2S, to the various charged particles and syngas in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor is studied. An electric field is applied across the reactor radius, and thus a non-thermal plasma discharge is formed within the reactor. Based on the space-time coupled finite element method, the governing equations are solved, and the temporal and spatial profiles of different formed charged species from sour gas inside the plasma reactor are verified. It is observed that the electric field increases radially towards the cathode electrode. Moreover, the electron density growth rate at the radial positions closer to the cathode surface is smaller than the one in the anode electrode region. Furthermore, as time progresses, the positive ions density near the anode electrode is higher. In addition, the produced syngas density is mainly concentrated in the proximity of anode dielectric electrode.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz


    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian


    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir. (United States)

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu


    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different levels of sugar on qualitative characteristics of lassi prepared from sour dahi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shah Moazzem


    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to develop lassi from sour dahi using different levels of sugar (10, 15, 20 and 25% and 15% water. Lassi quality was assayed through the study of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results revealed that significant difference existed in overall physical score of lassi samples and the highest score was found in 15% sugar lassi whereas, the lowest score was found in 25% sugar lassi. Total solids, carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents differed significantly among various levels of sugar added lassi. From chemical test, it appears that, 15% sugar added lassi possess the highest fat and protein values whereas, the highest total solids and carbohydrate values posses in 25% sugar added lassi. No significant difference (p>0.05 revealed in terms of pH value and acidity percentage among lassi types. Lassi made from 10% sugar was most inferior than other levels of sugar added lassi in respect of microbiological quality- total viable count (×104 cfu/mL content was 95.67±2.08 and coliform (×10 cfu/mL content was 1.00±0.00. Considering above mentioned quality aspects, it might be resolved that lassi could be prepared successfully from sour dahi with 15% sugar keeping water level constant at 15%. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 434-439

  13. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.


    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L


    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring. (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier


    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  16. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste. (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D


    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  17. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.


    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, 1H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  18. Single cell protein from mandarin orange peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishio, M.; Magai, J.


    As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40 degrees C, 24 h) produced 0.59 g g-1 reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120 degrees C with 0.8 N H2S04), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (g g-1) were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30 degrees C using 100g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts. (Refs. 12).

  19. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating

  20. A Multistage Fluidized Bed for the Deep Removal of Sour Gases : Proof of Concept and Tray Efficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rick T.; Bos, Martin J.; Brilman, Derk W. F.


    Currently there are significant amounts of natural gas that cannot be produced and treated to meet pipeline specifications, because that would not be economically viable. This work investigates a bench scale multistage fluidized bed (MSFB) with shallow beds for sour gas removal from natural gas

  1. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  2. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims). (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E


    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac


    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  4. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta


    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  5. Quality of gamma irradiated California Valencia oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, N.Y.; Moy, J.H.


    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.30-1.0 kGy (30-100 krad) on sensory qualities, certain biochemical components, and short-term storage life of Valencia oranges were examined. Irradiation at 0.75 kGy maintained food quality during 7°C storage for 7 weeks, while 0.50 kGy irradiation retained food quality at 21 °C. Irradiation at 0.26-0.30 kGy accomplished fruit fly disinfection while preserving market qualities of the oranges

  6. Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hajifaraji


    Full Text Available Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks. Results: Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased  by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations. Conclusion: sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.

  7. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers. (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy


    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'.

  8. Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld of Zimbabwe: research note. ... Open areas with bare ground or sparse grass cover were favourable sites for seedling recruitment. Seedlings ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna


    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  10. Effect of Fermentation and Cooking on Soluble and Bound Phenolic Profiles of Finger Millet Sour Porridge. (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and bound phenolic content of finger millet and the impact of process induced changes on phenolic profiles of their sour porridge. Finger millet porridge and intermediate products were collected from four groups of households in the Hwedza communal area, Zimbabwe, after which soluble and bound phenolic compounds (PC) including condensed tannins (CT) were quantified. Bound PC and CT contributed 95% of the total PC and CT. The CT were only detected in the red varieties. Major individual PC identified were catechin occurring in the soluble fraction only, while ferulic, sinapic, and salicylic acid were mainly present in the bound fraction. Fermentation and cooking caused a more than 2-fold increase in soluble PC, CT, and individual PC. Improved traditional processing techniques optimized for improved bioavailability and health benefits of phenolics are highly relevant for the low income populations.

  11. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya


    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  13. Study on fracture and stress corrosion cracking behavior of casing sour service materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequera, C.; Gordon, H.


    Present work describes sulphide stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness tests performed to high strength sour service materials of T-95, C-100 and C-110 oil well tubular grades. P-110 was considered as a reference case, since it is one of the high strength materials included in specification 5CT of American Petroleum Institute, API. Sulphide stress corrosion cracking, impact and fracture toughness values obtained in the tests show that there is a correspondence among them. A decreasing classification order was established, namely C-100, T-95, C-110 and P-110. Special grades steels studied demonstrated a better behavior in the evaluated properties than the reference case material grade: P-110. Results obtained indicate that a higher sulphide stress corrosion cracking resistance is related to a higher toughness. The fracture toughness results evidence the hydrogen influence on reducing the toughness values. (author)

  14. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel in simulated sour environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Tsuge, H.; Moroishi, T.


    This paper reports the effect of nickel and nitrogen contents on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 22%Cr - 3%Mo-base duplex stainless steel investigated in simulated sour environments with respect to both the base metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welding. The threshold stress and the critical chloride concentration for SCC were evaluated as a function of the ferrite content (α-content) in the alloy. The threshold stress is highest at the α-content of 40 to 45%, and is lowered with decreasing and increasing the α-content from its value. The alloy whose α-content exceeds 80% at the HAZ has also high susceptibilities to pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion (ICG). The critical chloride concentration for cracking increases with the decrease in the α-content. Moreover, the contents of chromium, nickel and molybdenum in the α-phase are considered to be an important factor for determining the critical chloride concentration

  15. [Health effects of sour cherries with unique polyphenolic composition in their fruits]. (United States)

    Hegedűs, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Stefanovitsné Bányai, Éva


    Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content. Two outstanding sour cherry cultivars ('Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal') were identified to accumulate elevated levels of polyphenolic compounds in their fruits. Sour cherries with different polyphenolic compositions were tested against alimentary induced hyperlipidemia using male Wistar rat model. Consumption of cherry fruit had different consequences for different cultivars: consumption of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits resulted in 30% lower total cholesterol levels in the sera of hyperlipidemic animals after only 10 days of treatment. However, the consumption of 'Újfehértói fürtös' fruit has not induced significant alterations in the same parameter. Other lipid parameters also reflected the short-term beneficial effects of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits. We suggest that not only some tropical and berry fruits might be considered as super fruits but certain genotypes of stone fruits as well. These have indeed marked physiological effects. Since 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' are rich sources of colourless polyphenolics (e.g., phenolic acids and isoflavonoids) and anthocyanins, respectively, the protective effects associated with their consumption can be attributed to different polyphenolic compounds. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 720-725.

  16. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  17. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain


    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto


    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  18. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We received no comments on the... Regulations for Marine Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section...

  19. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is... River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119). We received no comments on the proposed rule...

  20. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local... Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat race and associated testing will occur...

  1. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and associated...

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  3. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  4. farmers' perceptions of orange-fleshed sweetpotato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okello, Julius (CIP)

    generated using multi-stage sampling technique and involving 732 ..... and male respondents across the two intervention categories perceive ... that children do not mind the orange color of the OFSP as compared to the non- .... or as women's crop, use sweetpotato to bridge the hunger gap, and view its leaves as a.

  5. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.


    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  6. Diversity of seedling responses to drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Poorter, L.


    Drought is an important seedling mortality agent in dry and moist tropical forests, and more severe and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. The effect of drought on leaf gas exchange and seedling survival was tested in a dry-down experiment with four tree species from dry and moist

  7. Foliar absorption and translocation of Zn-65 in balady orange plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, F A; Sharaf, A N.M. [Agric. Dept. for Soil and Water, NRC, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)


    Greenhouse experiment was designed using Zn So{sub 4} as a single element or in a mixture of `Zn SO{sub 4} + Fe SO{sub 4}` at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% of these compounds. Different solutions were adjusted at PH 6.0 and Tween-20 at 0.5% (V/V) was added. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. In a complete randomized design with three replicates orange seedlings two-year old were arranged. Labelled solution, in small droplets, were added onto upper surface of certain leaves (middle leaves) of seedling. Retained Zn-65 in the treated leaves with Zn SO{sub 4} alone was significantly higher than in leaves sprayed with a mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe sulphates. Upward and downward translocation of Zn-65 was highly related to its absorption through treated leaves and the translocation rate of upward direction was more pronounced than downward. Total absorption of Zn-65 was higher with Zn SO{sub 4} than with the mixture. Utilization percent of foliar application of Zn was significantly decreased as the rate of Zn SO{sub 4} increased from 0.5 to 1.0% either alone or in combination with Fe and Mn sulphates. Moreover, it was also reduced due to the presence of and Mn with Zn the spray solution with Zn SO{sub 4}. In particular, 0.5% in soy solution realized the highest utilization and was efficient for supplying for orange plants with Zn. 3 tabs.

  8. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Government, FL (United States)


    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. & ; . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  9. Analysis of the structural steels corrosion resistance in sour water from petroleum refineries; Analise da resistencia a corrosao de acos estruturais em aguas acidas de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Marcos B.; Freire, Celia M. de A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Margatita B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada


    The presence of H{sub 2} S in refineries FCC sour water provokes the formation of a passive Fe S scale. The cyanides present on sour water remove this scale, raising the corrosion rate in pipping and vessels. In this work it was measured the corrosion rate of structural steels in this water by electrochemical methods. Anodic polarization curves were plotted and the corrosion rates of the steels were determined. (author)

  10. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui


    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  11. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A


    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  12. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds. (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente


    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  13. Design of small diameter HT/HP sour service reeled rigid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel; Gouveia, Joao; Tardelli, Luciano [Tecnitas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Parrilha, Rafael [Bureau Veritas Group, London (United Kingdom); Oazen, Eduardo; Cardoso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The paper presents an overview of the challenges overcome in the engineering design of two 219 mm diameter, 6 km length oil production pipelines, to be installed by reeling at Espirito Santo Basin, offshore Brazilian coast in 1500 m water depth. The high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) operating conditions and sour content associated with the small diameter required to single well oil production would usually lead to flexible flow line solution in Brazilian fields. The decision of employing small diameter thick-walled rigid C-Mn steel pipelines with thick thermal insulation made necessary extensive engineering work to achieve a safe and robust thermal expansion control arrangement, including the design of walking mitigation and buckle initiation apparatus; a feasible weld acceptance criterion covering both high cycle fatigue due to pipe lay and vortex induced vibration (VIV) at free spans, and high strain low cycle fatigue and fracture growth induced by reeling installation and in-service lateral buckling. Several studies were performed using highly non-linear three-dimensional finite element models considering: pipe-soil interaction with full 3D seabed bathymetry; load history maintained from pipe lay to operational cycles, including temperature transient effects; high plastic strains (including steel properties de-rating due to high temperature) and section ovalization; mechanical contact between pipe and appurtenances during both installation and operational phases. Pipe-soil interaction comprised embedment considering dynamic effects of pipe lay and full non-linear lateral and axial response curves including break-out and residual resistance. Strain concentration factors due to field joints were evaluated using detailed solid models considering non-linear response of both steel and insulation materials. Susceptibility to VIV at free spans was assessed considering post loaded deformed span natural frequencies, including multi-span interaction effects and

  14. Air emissions from sour-gas processing plants and dairy-cattle reproduction in Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    Scott, H M; Soskolne, C L; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Lissemore, K D; Coppock, R W; Guidotti, T L


    The dispersion of air pollutants from all 231 licensed sour-gas processing plants in Alberta, Canada, was modeled on a monthly basis over a 10-year period (1985-1994). Exposure estimates for sulfur dioxide (SO(2)-used as a surrogate for exposure to combusted emissions) then were assigned to 1382 provincial dairy farms using a geographical-information system. Individual average and peak exposure for periods prior to each of 15 months of age and conception (four exposure-averaging periods for each of two dispersion models) were estimated for 163,988 primiparous female dairy-cattle between 1986 and 1994. Monthly or annual average farm-site exposure estimates likewise were assigned to associated herd-level data sets for the biologically relevant period of interest for each of three additional reproductive outcomes: monthly herd-average calving interval, stillbirth risk, and twinning risk. In one of the main-effects models, the maximum (i.e., peak) monthly sour-gas exposure experienced by individual-animals from birth to conception was associated with an increased time to first-calving in the very-highest exposure category (hazard ratio=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.92). This equates to a decreased hazard (lambda) of calving (in each month subsequent to 22 months of age) for the highest-exposure animals (lambda=0.170) versus the zero-exposure animals (lambda=0.198) in a model with referent values for agro-ecological region and season of birth. The dose-response was not consistent across the full range of exposure categories. There was significant (P=0.003) interaction of emissions with agro-ecological region. After accounting for the interaction, a more-consistent dose-response was evident for some (but not all) agro-ecological regions. This suggests that any effect of emissions on dairy-heifer reproduction is subject to modification by features of soil type, vegetative cover, and/or climate. The increase in monthly herd-average calving interval on farms exposed to the very

  15. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)


    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  16. Practices and prospect of petroleum engineering technologies in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu


    Full Text Available Located in the Sichuan Basin, the Yuanba Gasfield is the deepest marine sour gas field among those developed in China so far. Its biohermal gas reservoir of the Upper Permian Changxing Fm is characterized by ultra depth, high content of hydrogen sulfide, medium–low porosity and permeability, and small reservoir thickness. Economic evaluation on it shows that horizontal well drilling is the only way to develop this gas reservoir efficiently and to reduce the total development investment. At present, the petroleum engineering technology for this type of ultra-deep sour gas reservoir is less applied in the world, so an ultra-deep horizontal well is subject to a series of petroleum engineering technology difficulties, such as safe and fast well drilling and completion, mud logging, well logging, downhole operation, safety and environmental protection. Based on the successful development experience of the Puguang Gasfield, therefore, Sinopec Southwest Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd. took the advantage of integrated engineering geology method to carry out specific technical research and perform practice diligently for 7 years. As a result, 18 key items of technologies for ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs were developed, including horizontal-well drilling speed increasing technology, horizontal-well mud logging and well logging technology, downhole operation technology, and safety and environmental protection technology. These technologies were applied in 40 wells during the first and second phases of productivity construction of the Yuanba Gasfield. All the 40 wells have been built into commercial gas wells, and the productivity construction goal of 3.4 billion m3 purified gas has also been achieved. These petroleum engineering technologies for ultra-deep sour gas fields play a reference role in exploring and developing similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  17. High-efficiency low LCOE combined cycles for sour gas oxy-combustion with CO[subscript 2] capture


    Chakroun, Nadim Walid; Ghoniem, Ahmed F


    The growing concerns over global warming and carbon dioxide emissions have driven extensive research into novel ways of capturing carbon dioxide in power generation plants. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion has been considered as a promising technology. One unconventional fuel that is considered is sour gas, which is a mixture of methane, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. In this paper, carbon dioxide is used as the dilution medium in the combustor and different combined cycle configurat...

  18. Synthesis of Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizae on Pecan Seedlings in Fumigated Soil (United States)

    Donald H. Marx


    Curtis variety of pecan (Carya illinoensis) seedlings were grown for 8 months in fumigated soil infested at sowing with mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius. Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae were formed on all inoculated seedlings and significantly improved their growth over control seedlings. Inoculated and control seedlings also formed ectomycorrhizae with naturally...

  19. Orange roughy: their age unlocked by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, G.; Ritz, D.


    A radiometric method was developed and applied to try and solve the question of age for orange roughy, currently the primary target species in the south east trawl fishery. The method involved measuring the natural levels of the radioactive elements radium-226 and lead-210 present in the otolith of the fish. Radium-226 is chemically similar to calcium and, as such, is taken up by fish and laid-down in their otoliths as the fish grows. It was found that orange roughy is a very slow growing and long-lived species with fish 38-40 cm SL ranging between 77 and 149 years old. The results also indicated that maturity is around 32 years which occurs at about 32 cm SL. 4 refs., 1 tab., ills


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa


    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  1. Effect of ultrasound on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology. (United States)

    Türken, Tuğba; Erge, Hande S


    In this study, it is aimed to determine effect of ultrasonication on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology, since ultrasound is known as an alternative method for thermal food processing. Sour cherry juice was sonicated at varying amplitude levels (50, 75, 100%); moderate temperatures (20, 30, 40 ℃); and treatment times of 2, 6, 10 min at a constant frequency of 20 kHz. Different ultrasonication amplitudes, temperatures, and times had no significant effect on pH,°Bx, and titratable acidity. A significant increase in total monomeric anthocyanins was observed as the amplitude level and temperature increased (p < 0.01). An increase in the total phenolics was also obtained as the temperature increased (p < 0.05). The effect of amplitude level on antioxidant capacity of sour cherry juice was also found significant (p < 0.05). Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, h) generally increased by increasing temperature, amplitude level, and treatment time. It was determined that Escherichia coli O157:H7 significantly affected by temperature and treatment time (p < 0.05).

  2. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil. (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A


    Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers.

  3. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  4. Community inflamed: Passionate opposition mounted to sour-gas drilling plan upwind of Canada's energy capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.


    Residents of Bearspaw and Glendale, two small communities near Calgary are up in arms in opposition to the plans of Canadian 88 Energy Company to drill a 'level four' sour gas well in the area. The target gas contains 33.9 per cent hydrogen sulfide, a substance rated as lethal in much lower doses. Since the well is slated to be drilled on high ground upwind of Calgary, an accident causing a leak could expose community residents and thousands of Calgarians within half hour distance from the well to hydrogen sulfide concentrations several times higher than the Alberta Energy Board considers safe. Seepage into the water system poses yet another danger. For reasons that are not too well understood the Alberta Energy Board relaxed the size of the area for which the company must provide an emergency response plan from a radius of 18 km to a radius of 4 km, considered by experts to be totally unacceptable in a populated area. The Board granted the relaxation of the area covered by the emergency response plan on the assurances of the Company that it would substantially increase the criteria needed to make the plan manageable. However, the community is not convinced that the emergency response plan comes near to addressing the problem, and is prepared to oppose drilling of the well by all available means

  5. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods


    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  6. A numerical study of under-deposit pitting corrosion in sour petroleum pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Sand, K.W.; Teevens, P.J. [Broadsword Corrosion Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Insufficient fluid velocity in petroleum pipelines can lead to the deposit of sand, corrosion products, and non-corrosion products on the pipe's metal surface, which in turn can lead to pitting corrosion. There is currently no reliable means of detecting and preventing the pitting process. This paper presented a computerized simulation tool that used the finite element method to model mass transfer-governed internal pitting corrosion under solids deposition in sour petroleum pipelines. The computational domain consisted of a hemispherical pit and a thin stagnant solution film under a surface deposit. The moving mesh method was used to track pitting growth. A Poisson equation was used to determine aqueous path migration of ions. Pitting corrosion rates were estimated using the Nernst-Planck equation. The model was used to predict the effects of different operating parameters on pitting corrosion rates. The model can be used to develop pigging and in-line-inspection (ILI) procedures. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Options for cleaning up subsurface contamination at Alberta sour gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardisty, P.; Dabrowski, T.L.


    At the conclusion of two major phases of a study on subsurface treatment technologies for Alberta sour gas plants, a candidate site was selected for a remediation technologies demonstration project. The plant has an extensive groundwater monitoring network in place, monitoring records for a period exceeding 10 years, ten recovery wells with aquifer test data and four reinjection wells. Hydrogeological exploration determined the presence and delineated a plume of free phase natural gas condensate. Aquifer remediation efforts at the site began in 1990 with the installation of recovery wells. Recovered groundwater was treated using a pilot scale air stripping system with pretreatment for iron, manganese and hardness. Dual pump system, water depression and free product skimmers were installed in the wells and tested. The nature and extent of contamination, study methodology, technology-dependent criteria, assessment of technology, and conceptual design are discussed for the three demonstration projects selected, which are enhanced soil vapour extraction with off-gas treatment, pump-and-treat with soil vapour extraction, biological treatment and air sparging, and treatment of dissolved process chemicals by advanced oxidation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Families near proposed sour gas wells wary company can protect them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Public objections to the Compton Petroleum Corporation's intentions to add six new sour gas wells to an existing well it now operates near a residential area in the Calgary area, are discussed. Fifty-five families live within 15 km of the proposed wellsite; they are concerned about the safety of the plan, claiming that the company has not done enough to inform them about the potential hazards. Company officials assured residents that those living within the emergency zone (i.e. within four km of the wells) will be evacuated from the area before a blowout occurs. As far as residents outside the emergency zone are concerned, independent risk analysis experts testified that the risk to those residents is negligible. The company claims that Alberta law compels them to maximize the recovery of petroleum resources and by not drilling the proposed wells the company leaves itself open to charges for leaving some reserves in the ground. The Company also claims that by drilling the additional wells, it would be in a position to deplete the gas reserves faster, shut down the existing wells and return the land to the city much sooner than otherwise would be possible. Lawyers for the Coalition of Concerned Communities are challenging the Company's claim that the wells must be drilled so industry can make way for city expansion. 1 fig

  9. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization (United States)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.


    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  10. Using random event simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of indoor sheltering during a sour gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.


    In the event of sour gas releases to the atmosphere, there is a strong bias toward evacuation rather than sheltering-in-place. This paper described the critical factors in decision-making for shelter-in-place versus evacuation. These include: delay time expected before release begins; size of potential release, explosion or fire; expected duration; direction to safety for evacuation; the air tightness of the building; and, the number of people in the emergency response zone. A shelter-in-place decision chart developed by the Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs was presented. It shows the usual bias toward evacuation as the default position. It also shows the greatest drawbacks of sheltering-in-place. The main factor in maintaining the effectiveness of the building shelter is the rate of air infiltration into the building. Other issues to consider include: reactive versus passive chemicals in the release; light versus heavy gas releases; building type (houses, high-rise apartments, office buildings, or warehouses); tightness of building construction; whether to turn the house heating and air conditioning on or off during shelter; daytime versus nighttime conditions; and, cost factors. Equations for calculating indoor and outdoor toxic exposure to decide on shelter versus evacuation were also presented. It was concluded that the absence of peak concentrations dramatically reduce the risk of fatality to people sheltering indoors. Keeping people indoors is the best way to assure their safety for the first hour following a toxic release. 8 refs., 6 figs

  11. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja


    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  12. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei


    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  13. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth between storage ... for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, ...

  14. Line-scan inspection of conifer seedlings (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.


    Almost two billion conifer seedlings are produced in the U.S. each year to support reforestation efforts. Seedlings are graded manually to improve viability after transplanting. Manual grading is labor-intensive and subject to human variability. Our previous research demonstrated the feasibility of automated tree seedling inspection with machine vision. Here we describe a system based on line-scan imaging, providing a three-fold increase in resolution and inspection rate. A key aspect of the system is automatic recognition of the seedling root collar. Root collar diameter, shoot height, and projected shoot and root areas are measured. Sturdiness ratio and shoot/root ratio are computed. Grade is determined by comparing measured features with pre-defined set points. Seedlings are automatically sorted. The precision of machine vision and manual measurements was determined in tests at a commercial forest nursery. Manual measurements of stem diameter, shoot height, and sturdiness ratio had standard deviations three times those of machine vision measurements. Projected shoot area was highly correlated (r2 equals 0.90) with shoot volume. Projected root area had good correlation (r2 equals 0.80) with root volume. Seedlings were inspected at rates as high as ten per second.

  15. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 

  16. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.


    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  17. Ukraine's Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven


    In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine's new President, after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime's electoral fraud, in what has been dubbed the "Orange Revolution...

  18. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  19. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies (United States)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  20. The effects of the lodgepole sour gas well blowout on coniferous tree growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.A.


    A dendrochronological study was used to evaluate growth impacts on White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) resulting from the 1982 Lodgepole sour gas well blowout. Stem analysis was evaluated from four ecologically similar monitoring sites located on a 10 kilometre downwind gradient and compared to a control site. Incremental volume was calculated, standardized using running mean filters and analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pre and post-blowout growth trends were analyzed between sites and were also evaluated over a height profile in order to assess growth impact variability within individual trees. Growth reductions at the two sites closest the wellhead were statistically significant for five post-blowout years. Growth at these condensate impacted sites was reduced to 9.8% and 38.1% in 1983. Differences in growth reductions reflect a gradient of effects and a dose-response relationship. Recovery of surviving trees has been rapid but is leveling off at approximately 80% of pre-blowout growth. growth reductions were greater and recovery rates slower than those previously predicted by other authors. Statistically significant differences in height profile growth responses were limited to the upper portions of the trees. Growth rates over a tree height profile ranged from 10% less to 50% more than growth rates observed at a 1.3 metres. Analytical methodologies detected and described growth differences over a height profile but a larger sample size was desirable. As is always the case in catastrophic events, obtaining pre-event baseline data is often difficult. Dendrochronological methods described in this paper offer techniques for determining pre-blowout growth and monitoring impacts and recovery in forested areas

  1. High hydrostatic pressure inactivation of total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage. (United States)

    Li, Lin; Feng, Lun; Yi, Junjie; Hua, Cheng; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengfu; Hu, Xiaosong


    This study investigated the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage (SCC) treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The pressure level ranged from 200 to 600 MPa and the treatment time were 10-30 min. All samples were stored at 4, 27 and 37 degrees C for 90 days. The pressure level of 200 MPa had no significant impact on these microorganisms. The counts of TAB were significantly reduced by 2.7-4.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa and 4.2-4.5 log(10)CFU/g at 600 MPa from 6.2 log(10)CFU/g; the counts of LAB were also reduced by 2.4-4.3 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa from 7.0 log(10)CFU/g and LAB was completely inactivated at 600 MPa; the counts of yeasts were reduced by 1.5-2.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 and 600 MPa from 4.2 log(10)CFU/g. Storage temperatures significantly influenced the microbial proliferation in HHP-treated SCC depending on the pressure levels. The surviving TAB and LAB at 400 MPa equaled initial counts after 15-day storage at 27 and 37 degrees C, whereas they were inhibited at 4 degrees C up to 60 days. The surviving TAB at 600 MPa did not grow. Yeasts at 400 and 600 MPa decreased below detectable level after 2 days at all the three storage temperatures. From the microbial safety point of view, the result indicated that HHP at 600 MPa could be used as an alternative preservation method for SCC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New progress in wastewater treatment technology for standard-reaching discharge in sour gas fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang


    Full Text Available Gas field water is generally characterized by complex contaminant components and high salinity. Its proper treatment has always been the great concern in the field of environmental protection of oil & gas fields. In this paper, the wastewater from a gas field in the Sichuan Basin with high salinity and more contaminants (e.g. sulfides was treated as a case study for the standard-reaching discharge. Lab experiments were carried out to analyze the adaptability and effectiveness of coagulation–desulfurization composite treatment technology, chemical oxidation based ammonia nitrogen removal technology and cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation technology in the treatment of wastewater in this field. The results show that the removal rate of sulfides and oils is over 90% if polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS is taken as the coagulant combined with TS-1 desulfurization agent. Besides, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen is over 96% if CA-1 is taken as the oxidant. Finally, after the gas field water is treated by means of cryogenic three-efficacy distillation technology, chloride concentration of distilled water is below 150 mg/L and CODcr concentration is less than 60 mg/L. It is concluded that after the whole process treatment, the main contaminant indicators of wastewater in this case study can satisfy the grade one standard specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978–1996 and the chloride concentration can meet the requirement of the Standards for Irrigation Water Quality (GB 5084–2005. To sum up, the above mentioned composite technologies are efficient to the wastewater treatment in sour gas fields. Keywords: Sulfide-bearing gas field water, Coagulation, Desulfurization, Chemical oxidation, Standard discharge, Ammonia nitrogen, Chloride, Cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation, Sichuan Basin

  3. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.


    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak


    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  5. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  6. Shell Canada Limited application for increased throughput sour gas plant - Caroline Field : decision 97-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to amend its existing Caroline Gas plant approval. Shell desires to add additional cooling equipment to enhance gas processing during the warmer months. Interveners raised several concerns, including the impact of the existing operation on the environment, and the health and safety of the community. Shell stated that the proposed increased throughput of sour gas would result in a 21 per cent increase in sulphur inlet, but that the emissions of SO 2 would still remain below the currently-approved daily maximum level of 45 t/d. Shell also stated that the proposed project would have no impact on flaring duration or frequency. The Board reviewed the evidence filed, and considered the comments of the participants made at a pre-hearing on June 11, 1996. The Board's assessment was that a public hearing was necessary to address Shell's application. The Board also expressed the belief that the scope of the public hearing should be limited to the possible impacts that may occur from the processing of incremental raw inlet gas and sulphur. A hearing date of July 22, 1996 was set. Having regard to the evidence which the Board received and considered, the Board declared itself satisfied that the technical changes to the plant were satisfactory and that the applied-for plant modifications would meet regulatory standards. The Board also believed that the approval of the application to increase throughput at the plant would be in the public interest. Accordingly, the Board declared its readiness to approve the application provided that Shell agreed to meet certain specified conditions. tab., 1 fig

  7. Studi Kasus Ketidakpatuhan Orang Kontak Serumah terhadap Anjuran Pemeriksaan Tuberkulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovina Ruslam


    Full Text Available Ketidakpatuhan orang kontak serumah terhadap anjuran pemeriksaan Tuberkulosis (TB merupakan fenomena kompleks, dinamis dari faktor yang berkaitan dengan perilaku. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali perilaku ketidakpatuhan orang kontak serumah terhadap anjuran pemeriksaan TB dengan menggunakan Health Belief Model (HBM. Penelitian ini adalah studi kasus yang dilakukan di Kelurahan Pajajaran Kota Bandung. Subjek penelitian adalah sembilan orang kontak serumah dan enam orang perawat Puskesmas Pasirkaliki. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan studi dokumentasi, observasi pasif tidak berstruktur, wawancara mendalam, dan diskusi kelompok terarah. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan model Miles dan Huberman, yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian meliputi persepsi kerentanan, persepsi keseriusan, persepsi manfaat pemeriksaan orang kontak serumah, dan isyarat untuk melakukan tindakan berdasarkan HBM. Persepsi orang kontak serumah tentang kerentanan TB meliputi adanya perasaan takut tertular, melakukan pemisahan, dan menerima takdir. Persepsi orang kontak serumah mengenai keseriusan penyakit TB yaitu kematian, perasaan malu atau minder. Persepsi orang kontak serumah tentang manfaat skrining yaitu akan diketahui apakah orang kontak serumah terkena TB atau tidak. Isyarat untuk melakukan tindakan pemeriksaan TB menurut orang kontak serumah yaitu apabila mereka sudah sakit atau muncul gejala-gejala TB. Hasil penelitian dari perawat menunjukkan bahwa perawat mengetahui bahwa salah satu standar program penanggulangan TB (P2TB adalah pemeriksaan TB pada orang kontak serumah penderita TB paru terutama yang basil tahan asam (BTA positif dan anak dengan TB. Pemeriksaan TB tersebut dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan dahak sewaktu-pagi-sewaktu (SPS. Persepsi perawat mengenai hambatan dalam menjalankan peran dan fungsinya yaitu adanya keterbatasan jumlah tenaga di puskesmas, pendidikan perawat masih rendah, dan perawat mendapat tugas


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudianto Lande


    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  9. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes. (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan


    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  10. In Vivo Fast Induction of Homogeneous Autopolyploids via Callus in Sour Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi


    Full Text Available Polyploidization has been demonstrated as a very effective approach in fruit tree improvement. Sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu is a promising diploid wild, traditional fruit species (2n = 2x = 24 that is rich in vitamin C, which is the main rootstock of Chinese jujube (Z. jujuba Mill.. The novel method we developed for rapid in vivo induction of homogeneous autopolyploids (IVIHA via callus in Chinese jujube was first applied and further optimized in sour jujube. Under optimized conditions, an average of one pure autotetraploid shoot could be regenerated from one treated branch, thereby indicating a relatively high efficiency rate. A total of 9 pure autotetraploid genotypes were created, and one of these was released as a new cultivar named ‘Zhuguang’ in 2015. Moreover, unexpected octoploids and hexaploids were also simultaneously created and detected. The leaves of tetraploids were thicker, broader, and darker in color than those of the original diploids, whereas the leaf sizes of octoploids were much smaller compared to that of diploids. However, stoma size increased with the occurrence of ploidy, mainly from diploid to octoploid. The well grown ploidies of jujube included diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Anatomical observation indicated that adventitious buds/shoots emerged from the callus that formed on the cut, which was then followed by the development of connective vascular tissues between the adventitious bud and the stock plant tissue. This study demonstrates the universality of the IVIHA method that was initially developed in Chinese jujube, as well as provides a foundation for high-efficiency pure polyploid induction in sour jujube.

  11. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating value and highly corrosive combustion products. A potential alternative is to use the gas directly in a gas turbine process employing oxy-fuel combustion, which could eliminate the need for gas cleanup while also enabling the application of carbon capture and sequestration, possibly combined with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, the exact influence of an oxy-fuel environment on the combustion products of sour gas has not been quantified yet. In this work, we used a reactor network model for the combustor and the gas turbine together with our recently assembled and validated detailed chemical reaction mechanism for sour gas combustion to investigate the influence of some basic design parameters on the combustion products of natural gas and sour gas in CO2 or H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion as well as in conventional air combustion. Our calculations show that oxy-fuel combustion produces up to 2 orders of magnitude less of the highly corrosive product sulfur trioxide (SO3) than air combustion, which clearly demonstrates its potential in handling sulfur containing fuels. Unlike in air combustion, in oxy-fuel combustion, SO3 is mainly formed in the flame zone of the combustor and is then consumed as the combustion products are cooled in the dilution zone of the combustor and the turbine. In oxy-fuel combustion, H2O dilution leads to a higher combustion efficiency than CO2 dilution. However, if the process is to be combined with EOR, CO2 dilution makes it easier to comply with the very low levels of oxygen (O2) required in the EOR stream. Our calculations also show that it might even be beneficial to operate slightly fuel-rich because this simultaneously decreases the O2 and SO3 concentration further. The flame zone

  12. Biodegradation of orange G by a novel isolated bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At these optimum levels of parameters, bacterial decolorization of orange G by 94.48% was obtained under static conditions. Biodegradation and decolorization of azo dye, orange G, was confirmed using UV-VIS spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ...

  13. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange seed oil was extracted using the steam distillation method. The fungi isolated from the leather samples were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans and Alternaria sp. However, the fungal species vary from person to person. The orange seed ...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  15. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.


    Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in steel with xylenol orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, A.; Javed, N.; Khan, M.S.


    Spectrophotometric determination of Aluminium in steel based on colour reaction between Aluminium and xylenol orange has been carried out. Red coloured complex formed in weak acidic solution is measured for its absorbance at 550 nm. The various optimum experimental conditions for Aluminium xylenol orange (Al-Xo) complex have been studied. (author)

  17. Advancing the Orang Asli through Malaysia's Clusters of Excellence Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asri Mohd Noor


    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia has introduced various programmes to improve the quality of life of the Orang Asli (aboriginal people. The Ministry of Education, for example, is committed in providing education for all including the children of Orang Asli. However, whilst the number of Orang Asli children enrolled in primary and secondary schools has increased significantly over the last decade, the dropout rate among them is still high. This has been attributed to factors such as culture, school location, poverty, pedagogy and many more. The discussion in this article is drawn upon findings from fieldwork study at an Orang Asli village in Johor, Malaysia. This article discusses efforts in raising educational attainment of the Orang Asli through the implementation of the Clusters of Excellence Policy. In so doing it highlights the achievement of the policy and issues surrounding its implementation at the site.

  18. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2012 Digital Orthophotos - Orange County (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital orthoimagery covering Orange County, FL. This orthoimagery was collected under contract to the Orange County Property Appraiser...



    Florina Uleanu


    This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1), M2 (V2), M3 (V3) and jiffy- pots (V4). The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1) to 17.4 cm (V4), whereas the root length varied...

  2. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki


    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  3. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Brezinsky


    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  4. Strukturalisme Genetik Lucien Goldmann dalam Novel Orang-Orang Proyek Karya Ahmad Tohari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nurhasanah


    Full Text Available Article clarified structure, global view of social class, and social structure function as the background of Orang-orang Proyek, a novel by Ahmad Tohari. Research applied analytic and dialectic descriptive method. Analysis was done by applying Genetic Structuralism theory by Lucien Goldmann to see the meaning of the novel by relating the structure of the novel with the human facts (social structure as a background of the novel. The research results indicate that the novel structure described some oppositions, those are cultural, natural, social, and human oppositions; the novel’s structure expresses a global views, those are ideal-humanist and social-religious; when the novel was written, there were some corruption cases in the social structure in Indonesia that was adopted in the novel. Therefore, there seems a correlation between the novel structure and the social structure. 

  5. Effectiveness of managed populations of wild and honey bees as supplemental pollinators of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) under different climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo


    Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ was rec......Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer...

  6. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton


    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  7. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  8. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  9. Cotyledon persistence and seedling growth in fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photosynthetic activity of exposed cotyledons of Telfairia occidentalis during seed germination and the growth of seedlings with removed or attached cotyledons were investigated. The experiment investigated how early cotyledon removal affects seedling growth. Seedlings from seeds germinated in light and those ...

  10. Tree seedling response to LED spectra: Implications for forest restoration (United States)

    Antonio Montagnoli; R. Kasten Dumroese; Mattia Terzaghi; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Nicoletta Fulgaro; Gabriella Stefania Scippa; Donato Chiatante


    We found that different spectra, provided by light-emitting diodes or a fluorescent lamp, caused different photomorphological responses depending on tree seedling type (coniferous or broad-leaved), species, seedling development stage, and seedling fraction (shoot or root). For two conifers (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) soon after germination (≤40 days), more...

  11. Building on the Orange river project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, J.


    The life of the World Commission on Dams (WCD) is due to end in mid-2000. In order to achieve its objective of making recommendations on the environmental, social, economic and institutional questions on dams, it will conduct up to ten case studies where the dams and river basins have been selected according to their age, function, regional representation and the lessons to be learned. The Orange River project in South Africa is being used as a pilot study for the other case studies and the reactions to the study are discussed. The case studies will focus on planning, implementation and operation of the dams with respect to their river basins. Six questions are listed and these will need to be answered to form a basis for a structured approach. To date, stakeholder meetings and fieldwork have highlighted four common generic difficulties and these are listed. A form for completion by interested parties was included with the article. (UK)

  12. The Orang Suku Laut of Riau, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua

    and resources that have resulted in great demand on sea and land spaces. In this momentum of change, several aspects of rural culture including indigenous populations, like the Orang Suku Laut (people of the sea) of Riau have been deemed by the state architects of development programmes to hinder progress......Land reform has been an indisputable part of Indonesian revolution. The consequent execution of development programmes for nation-building have provoked intense hostility over territorial rights. Global market forces in Indonesia have seen increasing flows of transnational investments, technology...... the social assimilation of indigenous peoples as citizens, religious conversion and cultural identity. Cynthia Chou discusses how Indonesian nation-building development programmes have generated intense struggles over issues pertaining to territorial rights, social assimilation of indigenous peoples...

  13. Antifungal modes of action of Saccharomyces and other biocontrol yeasts against fungi isolated from sour and grey rots. (United States)

    Nally, M C; Pesce, V M; Maturano, Y P; Rodriguez Assaf, L A; Toro, M E; Castellanos de Figueroa, L I; Vazquez, F


    The aim of this study was to determine the putative modes of action of 59 viticultural yeasts (31 Saccharomyces and 28 non-Saccharomyces) that inhibited fungi isolated from sour and grey rot in grapes. Inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, enzyme activities (laminarinases, chitinases), antifungal volatiles, competition for nutrients (siderophores, Niche Overlap Index (NOI)), inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length and induction of resistance were assayed. Biofungicide yeasts were classified into "antifungal patterns", according to their mechanisms of action. Thirty isolates presented at least two of the mechanisms assayed. We propose that inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, laminarinases, competition for nutrients, inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length, and antifungal volatiles by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces viticultural yeasts is used as putative biocontrol mechanisms against phytopathogenic fungi. Twenty-four different antifungal patterns were identified. Siderophore production (N)and a combination of siderophore production and NOI>0.92 (M)were the most frequent antifungal patterns observed in the biofungicide yeasts assayed. Elucidation of these mechanisms could be useful for optimization of an inoculum formulation, resulting in a more consistent control of grey and sour rot with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces biocontrol yeasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Sugar and Polyphenolic Diversity in Floral Nectar of Different 'Oblačinska' Sour Cherry Clones. (United States)

    Guffa, Basem; Nedić, Nebojša M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Tosti, Tomislav B; Gašić, Uroš M; Natić, Maja M; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M


    'Oblačinska' sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which 'quality' affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 'Oblačinska' sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Fourteen sugars and six sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Eleven polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Fruit Set of Several Sour Cherry Cultivars in Latvia Influenced by Weather Conditions Before and During Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmane Daina


    Full Text Available Fruit set is a crucial stage in the process of yield formation, which is influenced by environmental factors, growing technologies and peculiarities of genotype. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pollen (viability and germination capacity and the effect of weather before and during flowering on fruit set in sour cherry cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’, ‘Zentenes’, ‘Bulatnikovskaya’, and ‘Orlica’. The research was carried out in Institute of Horticulture (Latvia University of Agriculture in 2009-2016. Good pollen viability and germination was found for cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’ and ‘Bulatnikovskaya’. Negative effects of increasing air temperature (in the range of 7.7 to 17.5 °C and relative humidity (in the range of 51.4 to 88.5% was observed for all cultivars during flowering. The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, wind and the amount of days with precipitation differed depending on sour cherry cultivar.

  16. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM) (United States)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  17. Identification of sulfur volatiles in canned orange juices lacking orange flavor. (United States)

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Smoot, John M; Rouseff, Russell


    The purpose of this study was to understand why some canned orange juices are not perceived as orange juice. Sensory flavor profile data indicated that the primary odor (orthonasal) attributes were tropical fruit/grapefruit, cooked/caramel, musty, and medicine. By comparison fresh-squeezed juice lacked these odor attributes. GC-O analysis found 43 odor-active components in canned juices. Eight of these aroma volatiles were sulfur based. Four of the 12 most intense aroma peaks were sulfur compounds that included methanethiol, 1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and dimethyl trisulfide. The other most intense odorants included 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene (myrcene), octanal, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (homofuraneol), (E)-non-2-enal, (E,E)-deca-2,4-dienal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), and alpha-sinensal. Odorants probably responsible for the undesirable sensory attributes included grapefruit (1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol), cooked [2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), and 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional)], musty [7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene and (E)-non-2-enal], and medicine (2-methoxyphenol). The canned juices also lacked several aldehydes and esters normally found in fresh orange juice.

  18. 7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles. (United States)


    ..., tangerine, satsuma, tangor, citron, sweet orange, sour orange, mandarin, tangelo, ethrog, kumquat, limequat, calamondin, trifoliate orange, and wampi. (b) Grass, plant, and tree clippings. (c) Any other product...

  19. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos


    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  20. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  1. Direct-seedling pines in the south (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  2. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison


    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  3. Detection of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine in the Irradiated Orange and Spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mohammad Khorshed.


    A study was carried out to detect the chemical change that might occur in irradiated orange and spice. Oxidative DNA damage can induce the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) and thus the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine was investigated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the irradiated orange and spice which was compared with the unirradiated samples. By the difference in the oxidized guanine level that produce 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine in the irradiated and unirradiated samples, it can be clearly understood that detection of irradiated orange and spice is possible using monoclonal antibody for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine in the ELAISA assay.(author)

  4. Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, K. A. M.


    The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

  5. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.


    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  6. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  7. The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is an un- usual fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    inferred mainly from biological studies, but genetic studies have also found .... Chile. Fig. 2: Catch history of orange roughy around the world. The catches shown ..... roughy is the lack of validation past the first four years ...... English abstract).

  8. The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is a long- lived, slow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    input to an error model that simulated the error process and produced probability density functions of absolute biomass ... Key words: acoustics, deep-water fisheries, orange roughy, survey. * National ...... shallow-towed transducer. In all, it ...

  9. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and variety, suggesting that the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties responded similarly to nutrient ... fleshed ones, can help alleviate vitamin A deficiency .... LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8 .... Information System, Working Paper #2.

  10. Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  11. Studi Komunikasi Antarpribadi Anak Dengan Orang Tua Tiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaterine Setiawan


    Full Text Available This study discusses the communication between the child and the stepparent and use the theory that consists of communication theory, communication function, the purpose of communication, interpersonal communication, effective interpersonal communication, interpersonal communication role and function of interpersonal communication. This study used a qualitative method with descriptive qualitative approach. The data used in this study consisted of primary data and secondary data. The primary data of the interviews with sources consisting of four children and one stepparent. While the secondary data obtained from other sources such as books and online data searches. The technique of collecting data using interviews, observation, literature review and data searches online. From this research it is known that children who learn about and understand the prospective stepparent before she married biological parents do relatively better than those who do not recognize his step prospective parents before marriage. It is also known that the interpersonal communication of children with stepparents dependent based on the character of the child and the stepparent respectively. Penelitian ini membahas tentang komunikasi antara anak dengan orang tua tiri dan menggunakan teori yang terdiri dari teori komunikasi, fungsi komunikasi, tujuan komunikasi, komunikasi antarpribadi, komunikasi antarpribadi yang efektif, peranan komunikasi antarpribadi dan fungsi komunikasi antarpribadi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer berupa hasil wawancara dengan narasumber yang terdiri dari empat orang anak dan satu orang tua tiri. Sedangkan data sekunder berupa data yang diperoleh dari buku dan sumber lain seperti penelusuran data online. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan wawancara, observasi, kajian pustaka dan penelusuran

  12. Gaya Kepemimpinan Orang Buddha Maitreya dalam Bisnis Keluarga


    Josowanto, Selvie


    -Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gaya kepemimpinan yang digunakan oleh orang Buddha Maitreya dalam bisnis keluarganya hingga dapat sukses dalam era bisnis, karena mayoritas orang Buddha Maitreya sukses dalam berbisnis. Jenis penelitian ini kualitatif, dengan menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data yaitu wawancara dan observasi pada pemimpin dari USAha berskala menengah dan berskala besar yang merupakan bisnis keluarga, dengan latar belakang agama Buddha Maitreya. Untuk menguji validitas...

  13. DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange on three rootstocks


    Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Azevedo,João Carlos


    Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) applies nutrient ratios instead of the isolated concentration values of each nutrient in interpretation of tissue analysis. The objectives of this research were to establish adequate DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange irrigated commercial groves budded on three rootstocks and correlate indexes of nutrition balance with yield. Experiments were conducted in São Paulo State, Brazil. Rootstocks Rangpur lime, Caipira sweet orange, and Ponci...

  14. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi


    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  15. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

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    Jaime Saucedo Luna


    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  16. Production and Marketing of Orange in Two Villages in Muheza District, Tanzania


    MHANDO, David Gongwe; IKENO, Jun


    This study examines the current situation and challenges in orange production and marketing in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania. Tanga Region is a major orange production area in Tanzania, and it is estimated that more than 80% of all oranges in Tanga Region are produced in Muheza District. Utilizing field data collected in Mkuzi and Mindu villages in Muheza District, this paper explores the current situation of orange production and marketing. Orange production makes a substantial con...


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    Ni Wayan Ana Pradnya Dewi


    Full Text Available Berwisata saat ini sudah menjadi gaya hidup bagi masyarakat, tak terkecuali orang Bali. Beberapa tahun terakhir tercatat banyak orang Bali yang berlibur, bahkan hingga ke luar negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil demografis orang Bali dan negara yang dikunjungi, faktor pendorong dan penarik, menganalisis tingkat motivasi dan perbedaan motivasi orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering berwisata ke luar negeri. Teori Motivasi dan Teori Hirarki Kebutuhan Maslow digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode wawancara dan kuesioner dengan teknik Quota Sampling. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan analisis statistik Diskriminan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi orang Bali sangat beragam, responden dapat memiliki motivasi lebih dari satu. Faktor pendorong yang paling dominan adalah educational opportunity disamping motif lain seperti relaxation dan play, sedangkan faktor penarik yang dominan adalah cultural factors, diikuti oleh natural environment dan recreation and attraction services. Ditemukan pula adanya perbedaan motivasi di antara orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering melakukan perjalanan wisata ke luar negeri.

  18. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

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    B Hosseinzadeh Samani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  19. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries. (United States)

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota


    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1 (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne


    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  1. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

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    Jiaxiang Xia


    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.


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    Florina Uleanu


    Full Text Available This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1, M2 (V2, M3 (V3 and jiffy- pots (V4. The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1 to 17.4 cm (V4, whereas the root length varied from 5.4 (V1 to 12.6 cm (V4. The number of leaves ranged from 7 (V2 to 12 (V4. The total volume was lowest for V2 (1.5 cm3 and highest for V4 (2.5 cm3, but the root volume was lowest for V2 (0.5 cm3 and highest for V1 (1 cm3. V2 also resulted in the smallest total seedling mass (1.6 g aerial part mass (1.1 g and root mass (0.5 g. Excepting the root volume V4 had the greatest values for the studied indicators.

  3. [Effect of ectomycorrhizae on the growth of Picea koraiensis seedlings]. (United States)

    Song, Rui-Qing; Wu, Ke


    Basidioscarps of Agaricales in different Picea koraiensis forest plantations were collected during August-October, 2000. 36 isolaters of species of Agaricales were obtained by isolating and culturing to the basidioscarps. Through indoor inoculation test on seedlings of Picea koraiensis, 6 ectomycorrhizae fungi cultures were obtained from 36 isolaters. The inoculation results show that the period for ectomycorrhizae inoculation to 1-year seedlings of Picea koraiensis should be about 30 days after seedlings emerging, the suitable temperature for ectomycorrhizae forming is about 20 degrees C. 6 ectomycorrhizae strains all have growth-promoting effect to the seedlings of Picea koraiensis. The contents of chlorophyll a of the seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus, 031 and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The contents of chlorophyll b in the seedlings inoculated strains 009, 004, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The weights of seedlings which inoculated strains 009, 025, 031, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly different to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 19.23% and 23.08% more than control; The heights of the seedlings inoculated 6 strains all have significant difference to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 17.83% and 16.37% more than control. The results of outdoor inoculation show that the seedlings inoculated Agaricus silvaticus grow best on height, 9.25% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the seedlings inoculated strain L15 grow best on collar diameter, 9.92% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the lateral root numbers of seedlings inoculated strain 009 is largest, 51.91% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the main roots of seedlings inoculated strain 009 are longest, 3.36% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the

  4. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7 (United States)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  5. Effect of ethephon on hardening of Pachystroma longifolium seedlings

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    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski


    Full Text Available Immediately after planting, tree seedlings face adverse environmental and biotic stresses that must be overcome to ensure survival and to yield a desirable growth. Hardening practices in the nursery may help improve seedling stress resistance through reduction of aboveground plant tissues and increased root volume and biomass. We conducted an assay to quantify changes in the morphogenesis following application of ethephon on seedlings of Pachystroma longifolium (Ness I. M. Johnst.during hardening. The results showed no effect of the ethephon treatments on the number of leaves but a reduction of up to 50% in seedling height increment, and an increase in stem diameter increment of up to 44% with the 600 mg L-1 ethephon treatment, which consequently altered seedling Dickson Quality Index. Our results indicate that ethephon may help to promote desired morphological changes that occur during seedling hardening in nurseries.


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    Sri Utami


    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  7. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings


    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de


    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  8. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese


    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  9. Demand relationships in orange exports to Russia: a differential demand system approach focusing on Egypt

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    Assem Abu Hatab


    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have witnessed closer diplomatic relations between Egypt and Russia, which have led to significant growth in the countries’ bilateral agricultural trade. As a world-leading producer and exporter of oranges, these developments represent an opportunity for Egypt to promote its orange exports to Russia. Another emerging opportunity for Egypt to increase its share in the Russian market for imported oranges has been provided by import embargos imposed by Russia in recent years on agricultural and food commodities from several countries, creating a supply gap of around 25 % in the Russian orange market. To assess the competitiveness of Egyptian oranges and explore the potential export opportunities presented by the Russian market, this paper uses a Rotterdam import allocation model to analyse demand relationships among major orange suppliers to Russia during the period 1996–2014. The results show that in comparison with other orange suppliers, Egypt enjoys a strong comparative advantage in the export of oranges to Russia. The econometric results suggest that both Morocco and Egypt would benefit the most if Russia were to allocate a larger budget to the import of oranges. The expenditure elasticity estimates indicate that an increase in Russia’s demand for imported oranges would lead to increases in the quantity of Egypt’s orange exports, as well as in its share of the Russian orange market. Furthermore, cross-price elasticity estimates reveal that Egyptian oranges are substitutes for Turkish and South African oranges, implying that Russia has a tendency to switch to these two suppliers when Egyptian oranges become relatively expensive. In light of these results, the adoption of strategies to produce oranges sustainably and cost-effectively, upgrade the orange value chain, acquire processing technologies and enhance the technical and organisational capacity of farmers and exporters could be useful means for promoting

  10. Colorful and transparent poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films filled with layered zinc hydroxide salts, intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes (methyl orange and orange II)

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    Neves da Silva, Marlon Luiz; Marangoni, Rafael; Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Schreiner, Wido Herwig; Wypych, Fernando


    Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide salts were successfully intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes. ► The anionic dye was co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. ► The orange materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol). ► Transparent, homogeneous, colorful PVA films were obtained by wet casting. ► Some composites stored at lower humidity exhibited improved mechanical properties. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide salts (zinc LHS) were intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and orange II (OII), and co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. After characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Colorful transparent films were obtained by wet casting, revealing good dispersion of the material into the polymer. In the case of zinc LHS/OII, PVA was intercalated between the zinc LHS layers. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the PVA composite films revealed that the layered colorful materials were able to increase the mechanical properties of the PVA films only when the films were stored under lower relative humidity. As expected, films with higher water content displayed reduced tensile strength and modulus because of the plasticizing effect of water. As for the films stored at 43% relative humidity, more pronounced improvement of modulus was observed for 1 and 4% zinc LHS/OII, and enhanced tensile strength was achieved for 0.5 and 1% zinc LHS/OII. This effect can be attributed to better dispersion of the layered filler and its better adhesion to the PVA matrix.

  11. Characterization of orange oil microcapsules for application in textiles (United States)

    Rossi, W.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.; Gisbert-Payá, J.; Wilson, K.; Roldo, L.


    The use of orange oil presents as an ecological alternative to chemicals, attracting the attention of the scientific community to the development of eco-friendly antimicrobials. The microencapsulation technology has been used for the application of orange oil to textiles, being an economically viable, fast and efficient method by combining core and shell materials, desirable perceptual and functional characteristics, responsible for properties related to the nature of the product and provides that the wall materials release the functional substances in a controlled manner, in addition to effectively protecting and isolating the core material from the external environment to prevent its volatilization and deterioration, increasing the stability of the oil, such as non-toxicity. Thus, to better exploit the properties of the orange essential oil applied to textile products this study presents a characterization of microcapsules of Melamine formaldehyde obtained by the interfacial polymerization method with variations of proportions of orange oil (volatile) with fixed oil Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCT) (non-volatile) to assist in the stability of the orange essential oil. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used as visualizing tool to characterize microparticles and surface morphology and thermal characteristics of microcapsules were premeditated by mean Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  12. Bioactive compounds from orange epicarp to enrich fish burgers. (United States)

    Spinelli, Sara; Lecce, Lucia; Likyova, Desislava; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia


    The orange industry produces considerable amounts of by-products, traditionally used for animal feed or fuel production. Most of these by-products could be used as functional ingredients. To assess the potential food application of orange epicarp, different percentages of micro-encapsulated orange extract were added to fresh fish burgers. Then, an in vitro digestion was also carried out, before and after micro-encapsulation, to measure the bio-accessibility of the active compounds. A significant increase of bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds has been observed in the orange epicarp extract after micro-encapsulation by spray-drying. From the sensory point of view, the fish sample enriched with 50 g kg -1 micro-encapsulated extract was the most comparable to the control burger, even if it showed a higher phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid bio-accessibility. Orange epicarp may be used as a food additive to enhance the health content of food products. The micro-encapsulation is a valid technique to protect the bioactive compounds and increase their bio-accessibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Single cell protein production from mandarin orange peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, N.; Nagai, S.


    As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40/sup 0/C,24 h)produced 0.59 g g/sup -1/ reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120/sup 0/C with 0.8 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (gg/sup -1/)were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30/sup 0/C using 100 g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts.

  14. Sharing Experience dan Resiliensi: Studi atas Facebook Group Orang Tua Anak Cerebral Palsy

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    Safrina Rofasita


    [Orang tua yang mendapati anaknya terfonis sebagai anak Cerebral Palsy mengalami kedukaan mendalam yang mengakibatkan ketidakpercayaan diri, dan putus asa. Hal itu diakibatkan ketahanan terhadap stres (resiliensi rendah, oleh karena itu orang tua mengikuti sharing experiences penyandang Cerebral Palsy melalui Facebook Group orang tua anak Cerebral Palsy. Penelitian ini bertujuan menjawab pertanyaan adakah pengaruh sharing experiences penyandang Cerebral Palsy terhadap resiliensi orang tua anak Cerebral Palsy yang terhimpun dalam Facebook Group Orang Tua Anak Cerebral Palsy. Penelitian menggunakan methode kombinasi antara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Penelitian menemukan bahwa Facebook Group berpengaruh pada peningkatan resiliensi orang tua anak cerebal palcy karena mereka mendapatkan pengetahuan dan informasi tambahan dari forum itu.

  15. Stability of unpasteurized and refrigerated orange juice

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    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza


    Full Text Available The stability of orange juice obtained from a small extractor and stored in a polyethylene bottle was assessed under isothermal and non-isothermal storage conditions at 4, 8 and 12ºC for 72 hours. pH, titratable acidity and Brix did not alter significantly during the 72 hours storage. Microbiological analysis showed high initial count for moulds and yeasts that increased in the juice stored for 72h under the non-isothermal conditions with temperature abuse (12��C/4h. Date of the sensory evaluation showed a small reduction in product acceptance in this condition. The juice, in the recommended validity period (48h, presented losses of less than 20% of the initial ascorbic acid content regardless of the treatment. However, after this time, the degradation became accentuated reaching, at 72h storage, retentions of 72 to 85%.Desenvolvimento microbiano, ação enzimática e reações químicas influenciam a qualidade de suco de laranja natural não-pasteurizado, podendo comprometer características sensoriais e provocar perdas nutricionais. A estabilidade do suco, obtido em extrator de pequeno porte e acondicionado em embalagem de polietileno, foi avaliada em condições isotérmicas e não-isotérmicas de armazenamento em temperaturas entre 4 e 12ºC por 72h. Valores de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do armazenamento em todas as condições. Resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram alta contagem inicial de bolores e leveduras, que aumentaram no suco armazenado por 72h na condição não isotérmica onde houve abuso de temperatura (12ºC por 4h. Os testes sensoriais mostraram uma pequena redução na aceitação do produto nessa mesma condição. Constatou-se que o suco, no período preconizado como prazo de validade (48h, apresentou perdas inferiores a 20% do teor inicial de ácido ascórbico, independentemente do tratamento. A partir deste momento, a degradação se


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    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  17. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts (United States)

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce


    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  18. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs


    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  19. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges. (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang


    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  20. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings. (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Semangat Islam Dalam Kebudayaan Orang Bugis-Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hamid


    Full Text Available Pembahasan masalah semangat dan etos sosial tidak terlepas dari jangkauan sistem budaya masyarakat. Sistem budaya adalah abstrak, tak dapat dilihat dan diraba, ia identik pada komunitas, berada di kepala dan sukma tiap orang dalam komunitas tersebut, terdiri atas konsep-konsep, gagasan ide-ide dan kepercayaan yang diterima setiap orang dari hasil perkembangan kebudayaannya. Sadar atau tidak sadar, manusia terpengaruh dan menerima berbagai warisan, ajaran, kepercayaan dan ideologi tertentu dan hasil kerja komunitasnya melalui internalisasi sejak ia lahir dari dalam rumah tangga serta pengeruh dari lingkungan hidupnya tempat manusia tersebut bertumbuh. Kalau tradisi budaya masyarakat telah diserapi oleh setiap orang, maka perilakunya hampir menjadi otomatis, tanpa disadari perilakunya itu sudah diterima secara sosial.

  2. Oranges and Sunshine: The Story of a Traumatic Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Herrero


    Full Text Available This paper will rely on some well-known theories on trauma, memory and ethics to study how Jim Loach’s debut film Oranges and Sunshine (2010 testifies to the traumatic deportation of up to 150,000 British children to distant parts of the Empire, mainly Australia, until 1970. Oranges and Sunshine was based on Margaret Humphreys’ moving memoir, originally entitled Empty Cradles (1994 but later re-titled Oranges and Sunshine after Loach’s film. What these two texts basically claim is the need to recover historic memory through heart-breaking acts of remembrance, which can alone denounce the atrocities that were concomitant with the colonial enterprise and pave the way for disclosing and working through individual and collective traumas.

  3. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D


    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  4. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.


    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  5. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo


    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. ORANGE: a Monte Carlo dose engine for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, W van der; Hogenbirk, A; Marck, S C van der


    This study presents data for the verification of ORANGE, a fast MCNP-based dose engine for radiotherapy treatment planning. In order to verify the new algorithm, it has been benchmarked against DOSXYZ and against measurements. For the benchmarking, first calculations have been done using the ICCR-XIII benchmark. Next, calculations have been done with DOSXYZ and ORANGE in five different phantoms (one homogeneous, two with bone equivalent inserts and two with lung equivalent inserts). The calculations have been done with two mono-energetic photon beams (2 MeV and 6 MeV) and two mono-energetic electron beams (10 MeV and 20 MeV). Comparison of the calculated data (from DOSXYZ and ORANGE) against measurements was possible for a realistic 10 MV photon beam and a realistic 15 MeV electron beam in a homogeneous phantom only. For the comparison of the calculated dose distributions and dose distributions against measurements, the concept of the confidence limit (CL) has been used. This concept reduces the difference between two data sets to a single number, which gives the deviation for 90% of the dose distributions. Using this concept, it was found that ORANGE was always within the statistical bandwidth with DOSXYZ and the measurements. The ICCR-XIII benchmark showed that ORANGE is seven times faster than DOSXYZ, a result comparable with other accelerated Monte Carlo dose systems when no variance reduction is used. As shown for XVMC, using variance reduction techniques has the potential for further acceleration. Using modern computer hardware, this brings the total calculation time for a dose distribution with 1.5% (statistical) accuracy within the clinical range (less then 10 min). This means that ORANGE can be a candidate for a dose engine in radiotherapy treatment planning

  7. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)


    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  8. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing. (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger


    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  9. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within two weeks of culture, spherules emerged out due to cracking of the seed coat. The spherules developed into protocorms with a leaf primordium at apical portion after 3 to 4 weeks and gradually produced complete seedlings. Strong and stout root system was induced in in vitro seedlings on transferring in half strength ...

  10. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  11. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  12. Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on Plant Species Recovery in Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania. ... There were high significant correlations of 0.85 and 0.87 between seedling recruitment and mortality in both sites, indicating that other factors, probably aridity, rather than prevailing site conditions ...

  13. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  14. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  15. Seedling characters at different temperatures in pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of six temperatures ranging from 20 to 45°C on the germination and seedling length of six grain pearl millet genotypes (KS, AM, HG, EC, ZZ and D) was determined. There was significant variation in germination and seedling length across temperatures and among genotypes. As a result, significant temperature ...

  16. The growth of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) seedlings under varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought and soil fertility are the major factors that influence seedling survival and growth in arid areas, thus it is of paramount importance to establish optimum water requirements for ... Two weeks old seedlings in polythene bag (2kg) containing the standard potting mixture as growing media were used for the experiments.

  17. Seedling growth of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seedling growth performance of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of different railway tracks viz. Karachi Cantt. Station, Malir Halt, Malir 15, Landhi Junction and University Campus (control) was studied under in pots under natural field conditions. The results showed that the root, shoot and seedling size, number ...

  18. Response of fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the impact of drought and heavy metal in fenugreek was critically monitored. Fenugreek seedlings were exposed to 1- bar polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (osmotic stress) and 10 ppm solution of HgCl2 (heavy metal). Within 3 days of seedling growth, mercury exposure induced relatively high ...

  19. Reservoir souring: Problems, uncertainties and modelling. Part I: Problems and uncertainty involved in prediction. Part II: Preliminary investigations of a computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, J.E.; Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.


    The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reservoir souring: Problems, uncertainties and modelling. Part I: Problems and uncertainty involved in prediction. Part II: Preliminary investigations of a computational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, J.E. [Rogalandsforskning, Stavanger (Norway); Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.


    The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 11068-014--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental... has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's and Friant...

  2. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju LUO


    Full Text Available Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96–21 with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted lognormal distribution. Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  3. Responses of endogenous proline in rice seedlings under chromium exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Yu


    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were performed to exam the dynamic change of endogenous proline in rice seedlings exposed to potassium chromate chromium (VI or chromium nitrate chromium (III. Although accumulation of both chromium species in rice seedlings was obvious, more chromium was detected in plant tissues of rice seedlings exposed to chromium (III than those in chromium (VI, majority being in roots rather than shoots. Results also showed that the accumulation capacity of chromium by rice seedlings was positively correlated to chromium concentrations supplied in both chromium variants and the accumulation curve depicted an exponential trend in both chromium treatments over the entire period of exposure. Proline assays showed that both chromium variants induced the change of endogenous proline in shoots and roots of rice seedlings. Chromium (VI of 12.8 mg/L increased proline content significantly (p

  4. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)


    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  5. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  6. t-Butyl group-substituted triphenylamine-containing orange-red fluorescent emitters for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Chi Sik [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)


    Efficient orange-red fluorescent compounds, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-adamantyl-6-(4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl) -N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene)vinyl-4H-pyran (DCATP) and 2,6-bis[4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene] vinyl-4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyran (BDCTP) containing the tert-butylated triphenylamine in donor moieties, were synthesized and characterized. In these red emitters, bulky groups, such as t-butyl group and adamantane were introduced to increase the steric hindrance between the red emitters. In particular, an efficient orange-red device containing the emitter DCATP as a dopant showed a luminous and power efficiency of 6.87 cd/A and 2.70 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} with the CIE coordinates of (0.48, 0.50) at 7.0 V. In addition, an efficient red organic light-emitting diode using BDCTP as a dopant exhibited a luminous and power efficiency of 2.30 cd/A and 1.31 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and CIE coordinates of (0.61, 0.39). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two orange-red emitters with t-butylated triphenylamine derivatives were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in electron D-A and electron D-A-D type in the terminal groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron D-A-D type material shows improved color chromaticity.

  7. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)


    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  8. Morphometry, floral resources and efficiency of natural and artificial pollination in fruit quality in cultivars of sour passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Alves Lage


    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to provide information on the biology and floral resources, stigmatic receptivity and viability of pollen grains during rainy season and dry season, and to evaluate the efficiency of natural and artificial pollination on quality of fruits of eight passion fruit cultivars sourced in Tangará da Serra - MT. Five commercial cultivars and three populations of the genetic improvement program of the sour passion fruit from the Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso were evaluated. The climatic conditions of the rainy season favored the greater development of the floral pieces. The sugar concentration in the nectar presented higher averages in the rainy season, in all cultivars, except for FB 200. The climatic conditions of the dry season favored the replacement of the nectar volume. All cultivars evaluated presented pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity higher than 79% and 90%, respectively. The characteristics of fruit mass and percentage of pulp were better in artificial pollination, and the fruits obtained from natural and artificial pollination in all cultivars evaluated presented physical and chemical characteristics that are within the quality standards desired in the commercialization.

  9. Developing remediation criteria on the basis of health and ecological risks at a former sour gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Clyde, G. A.; Chollak, D. F.


    A human health and ecological risk assessment was completed for the Okotoks sour gas processing gas plant, based on the existing environmental sampling and toxicity testing that has been collected at the site since 1987. For the human health risk assessment, two potential scenarios were considered, including industrial use and parkland use. The ecological risk assessment involved synthesis of existing sampling and toxicity testing results as well as the assessment of potential risk to ecological receptors such as the meadow vole, red-tailed hawk and cattle. The assessment included chemical screening, receptor and exposure pathway selection, toxicity assessment of chemicals of concern, estimation of exposures, risk characterization and generation of soil and groundwater remediation criteria. Results of the assessments to date indicate that limited subsurface remediation is required for the protection of human health under industrial/parkland use. In contrast, ecological considerations will require remediation or reclamation of surface soil and the imposition of certain risk management controls, such as e. g. encumbrances on land title. 2 figs

  10. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted


    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  11. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings (United States)

    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg


    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  12. Literacy and Development for the Orang Asli in Malaysia: What Matters? (United States)

    Renganathan, Sumathi


    This article explores the literacy practices of the indigenous Semai Orang Asli community in Malaysia. Literacy for the Orang Asli often centres on formal education and schooling and is hardly explored from a social and cultural perspective. In fact, researchers have paid barely any attention to Orang Asli oral and literate traditions nor their…

  13. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools (United States)

    Renganathan, Sumathi


    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  15. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange... (United States)


    ... Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waterfront facility handling and storing Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The... LHG marine traffic in the associated waterway. INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an...

  16. 76 FR 30754 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties... (United States)


    ... Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Riverside and Orange Counties, California. DATES: The comment period for the State Route 91 Corridor... in Riverside and Orange Counties. The State Route 91 Corridor Improvement Project proposes to widen...

  17. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of...\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012...

  18. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  19. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  20. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...

  1. Bio-Diesel Production from Oil of Orange ( Citrus Sinensis ) Peels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, in Nigeria orange peels are considered as a waste, this study is intended to convert the waste into wealth by establishing the production of biodiesel with oil obtained from orange peels; using transeterification process. Oil from sun-dried/ ground orange peels were extractedusing n-hexane. Transesterification ...

  2. Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special nutrition need by people have shifted their focus to the adoption of Orange Flesh Sweet Potato for cumption due to its high content of Vitamin A. Sweetpotato which is one of the most important but underutilized food crops in the world have now attracted concerted efforts globally to in the past decade to feed the ...

  3. Health benefits of orange juice and citrus flavonoids (United States)

    The main flavonoids found in orange juice are hesperidin and naringenin, which can affect several metabolic routes that improve blood serum antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory performance, while decreasing insulin resistance protecting against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, or...

  4. Interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Adriano, D.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Doswell, A.C.; Yehling, D.M.


    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238 Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238 Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238 Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238 Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238 Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition

  5. Ecological research in conserved areas in the Orange Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need for the protection and scientific management of representative samples of each ecological area of the Orange Free State. Considerable progress has been made with the establishment of a large number of nature reserves by various authorities. Various ecological investigations have been undertaken in ...

  6. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil (United States)


    ... Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089...

  7. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  8. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans. (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F


    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  9. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis). (United States)

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas


    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  10. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.


    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  11. California mild CTV strains that break resistance in Trifoliate Orange (United States)

    This is the final report of a project to characterize California isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that replicate in Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and assembly of full-length sequences of mild California CTV i...

  12. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  13. A review of orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... catch rate until a survey series has been established. Keywords: age determination, aggregations, assessment, biology, diet, distribution, fisheries, genetics, habitat, Hoplostethus atlanticus, lipids, Namibia, orange roughy, reproduction, review, stock structure, surveys. African Journal of Marine Science 2001, 23: 181–203 ...

  14. Insecticidal efficacy of Lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortality effects of lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil and Platostoma sp. leaves extracts on adult Anopheles mosquitoes were compared in the laboratory at room temperature of 30± 2oC. Thirty adult Anopheles mosquitoes of age 2-4 days were exposed to the four formulations at concentrations ranging from ...

  15. Life cycle assessment of orange peel waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negro, Viviana; Ruggeri, Bernardo; Fino, Debora


    on-land digestate use. Orange peel waste use for animal feeding, while appearing interesting from an environmental perspective (for example to reduce meal imports), presents practical challenges as far as the nutritional aspects and costs are concerned, and these eventually hinder its market...

  16. Phospholipids of marine origin: the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ


    Full Text Available Fillets of deep-skinned orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) were found to contain 5.46% total lipids consisting of as much as 93% non-digestible wax esters. The fillets therefore act as a mild laxative, which probably contributes...

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange ( Citrus sinensis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of ...

  18. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yu; Cheng Wei; Wang Shaohua; Xiong Guangquan; Liao Li; Chen Xueling; Fan Gang; Pan Siyi


    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunki’ mandarins, ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange, and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo. The variables evaluated were vigor, yield, and yield efficiency of the trees as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, complemented by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The smallest tree canopy for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange plants was induced by the ‘Rangpur’ lime rootstock. The trees had the same cumulative yield performance over six seasons for all rootstocks. The best yield efficiency for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange trees was provided by ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange rootstock. With regard to fruit quality, no differences were observed among the rootstocks and the ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange fruits met the standards required by the fresh fruit market and the fruit processing industry.

  20. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans. (United States)

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation. Forty (40) male volunteers were allocated to five different groups for the inhalation of sweet orange essential oil (test aroma: 2.5, 5, or 10 drops), tea tree essential oil (control aroma: 2.5 drops), or water (nonaromatic control: 2.5 drops). Immediately after inhalation, each volunteer was submitted to a model of anxiety, the video-monitored version of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Psychologic parameters (state-anxiety, subjective tension, tranquilization, and sedation) and physiologic parameters (heart rate and gastrocnemius electromyogram) were evaluated before the inhalation period and before, during, and after the SCWT. Unlike the control groups, the individuals exposed to the test aroma (2.5 and 10 drops) presented a lack of significant alterations (p>0.05) in state-anxiety, subjective tension and tranquillity levels throughout the anxiogenic situation, revealing an anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essential oil. Physiologic alterations along the test were not prevented in any treatment group, as has previously been observed for diazepam. Although more studies are needed to find out the clinical relevance of aromatherapy for anxiety disorders, the present results indicate an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange aroma, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists.

  1. Photo-catalytic Removal of Methyl Orange Dye by Polyaniline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photo-catalytic Removal of Methyl Orange Dye by Polyaniline Modified ZnO using Visible Radiation. ... The as-synthesized nano-ZnO, PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV–visible spectroscopy studies showed that the absorption peak ...

  2. Optimization of extraction of microcrystalline cellulose from orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the optimum processing conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder from orange peel waste (OPW) by use of response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the optimum process conditions for producing MCC ...

  3. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice


    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ( 60 Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  4. Agroindustrial composts to reduce the use of peat and fungicides in the cultivation of muskmelon seedlings. (United States)

    Morales, Ana Belen; Ros, Margarita; Ayuso, Luis Miguel; Bustamante, Maria de Los Angeles; Moral, Raul; Pascual, Jose Antonio


    Environmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have increased. Therefore, there is an international effort to evaluate alternative organic substrates for the partial substitution of peat. The aim of this work was to use different composts (C1-C10) obtained from the fruit and vegetable processing industry (pepper, carrot, broccoli, orange, artichoke residues, sewage sludge (citric and pepper) and vineyard pruning wastes) to produce added-value composts as growing media with suppressive effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) in muskmelon. Composts showed values of water-soluble carbon fractions and dehydrogenase activity that allowed them to be considered mature and stabilized. All compost treatments produced significantly (F = 7.382; P values. Treatments T-C5, T-C7 and T-C8 showed percentages of disease incidence that were significantly (F = 16.052; P values below 50%. Composts produced are suitable components of mixed compost-peat growing media, providing a 50% substitution of peat. Furthermore, some of these composts also showed an added value as a suppressive organic medium against Fusarium wilt in muskmelon seedling, a fact probably related to high pH and pepper wastes and high content of pruning waste as initial raw materials. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice. (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A


    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck). (United States)

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A


    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  7. Production of desert rose seedlings in different potting media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo


    Full Text Available Over the past decade the desert rose received fame in the flower market due to its striking and sculptural forms; however, the commercial production of these species is quite recent and little is known about its crop management, including substrates recommendation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different substrates on desert rose seed germination and production of its seedlings. Experiment I: freshly harvested seeds of desert rose were sown in different substrates e.g. sand, coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark, sand + coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark + sand and coconut fiber + semicomposted pine bark. These substrates were evaluated to study the emergence percentage of seeds, initial growth of seedlings and seedling emergence speed index (ESI. Experiment II: desert rose from the experiment I were transferred to plastic pots filled with the same substrates as in experiment I. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC of the substrates were noted every 30 days while the growth parameters of seedlings were recorded after 240 days. Results from experiment I showed higher germination rate and seedling growth in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Similarly, in experiment II, better quality seedlings were observed in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Thus, for desert rose seed germination and seedling growth, it is recommended to use substrates containing semi-composted pine bark.

  8. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  9. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav


    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  10. Germination and initial development of aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon


    Full Text Available Aroeira has great economic importance due to its wood useful, tannins extraction and use in the pharmacology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the germination aspects and initial seedlings development of aroeira, under gibberellins, substrata and shading effects, and for that two experiments were led out. In the first one, seeds were previously soaked for 24 hours in water and in 100 mg.L-1 gibberellin solution and were sowed directly in cells trays in the following substrata: land and sand (1:1 and 1:2 and Plantmax . In the second experiment, 15 cm length seedlings were transplanted to polyethylene sacks filled out land+sand+poultry manure (1:1:1 partly decomposed and they were maintained at greenhouse for 15 days. Soon after, seedlings were transferred for the following conditions: shading (50% and full sun and they were 50 mg.L-1 and 150 mg.L-1 gibberellins solutions pulverized, as control seedlings water pulverized. Aroeira seeds should not be previously water or gibberellins imbibed before being sowed. The best substrata for aroeira seeds germination was Plantmax without germinative treatments to reach higher than 80% of seedlings survival. The seedlings developed better at full sun light and the gibberellin. It was observed increment in height, diameter, foliar area and fresh and dry mass from aerial and root part when compared to shading situation. The gibberellins applications did not influence the aroeira seedlings initial growth characteristics.

  11. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions. (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi


    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  12. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander


    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL – mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  13. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)


    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  14. Decision 99-16: Canadian 88 Energy Corp. application to drill a level 4 critical sour gas well, Lochend Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Canadian 88 Energy Corp. applied, pursuant to section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, for a licence to drill a level 4 critical sour gas well to be located at Legal Subdivision 10 of Section 35, Township 26, Range 3, West of the fifth Meridian. The level 4 designation is used to determine the minimum separation distance between the well and land-use surface developments during the suspended or producing stage. This 10-35 well would require a minimum separation distance of 100 m from any individual dwelling development up to eight dwellings per quarter section, 500 m from an unrestricted county development, and 1500 m from an urban centre or public facility. The application and interventions were considered at a hearing in Calgary, Alberta commencing on 4 May 1998. The issues respecting the application were: the need for the well, the proposed well location, the potential hydrogen sulfide release rate, the drilling and completion considerations, the public safety risk assessment, emergency preparedness, the land use impacts, and public consultation. The Board believes that the public safety risks associated with the proposed well are representative of normal industrial risks accepted by society and that the well can be safely drilled. Also, the Board believes that these risks are similar to existing facilities and are acceptable if managed through strict adherence to the risk control measures required in the existing regulations. Given this, and having considered all the evidence, the Board is prepared to issue the well licence after Canadian 88 has undertaken, committed to, and submitted a number of requirements for review

  15. Decision 99-13: Crestar Energy Inc. applications to construct and operate sour gas batteries and pipelines, Vulcan Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On 1 December 1998, the applicant applied pursuant to Part 4 of the Pipeline Act and Section 7.001 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for approval to construct and operate a sour gas pipeline and various surface facilities to tie in three wells. These are located at Legal Subdivision 12 of Section 36, Township 16, Range 24, West of the fourth Meridian (12-36 facility), Lsd 10-35-16-24 WM4 (10-35 facility), and Lsd 7-26-16-24 WM4 (7-26 facility), to an existing pipeline and proposed surface facility at Lsd 16-16-16-24 WM4. The 10-35, 7-26 and 16-16 facilities would each have a separator, a flare knockout drum, and a flare stack. The 12-36 facility would have two separators, one for each of the two producing zones at the 12-36 facility, a flare knockout drum, and flare stack. A compressor would be installed at the 16-16 facility. All fluids would be measured and re-injected into the pipeline for removal at the 16-16 facility. All proposed flare stacks would consists of a continuously burning sweet gas pilot and would be used for emergencies, routine well servicing, and pigging operations only. The pipeline would be designated as a Level 1 facility, and would transport up to 18 moles of hydrogen sulfide per kilomole of natural gas. Although the Board approved Application No. 1037084 after carefully considering the evidence, subject to meeting all the regulatory requirements and conditions set out in Attachment 1, it rejected Application No. 1033453

  16. HPLC and MS/MS study of polar contaminants in a wetland adjoining a sour-gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.C.; Headley, J.V.; Peru, K.; Spiegel, K.; Gandrass, J.


    An analytical methodology was developed for target analyses and broad spectrum characterization of polar contaminants such as nitrogenous and organosulfur compounds in wetlands using the complementary techniques of HPLC with electrochemical (EC) detection and tandem MS with probe and electrospray ionization. Tandem MS was well suited for the identification and quantification of mixtures of polar compounds in water samples and soil extracts, while HPLC-EC provided sensitive detection of compounds transparent to MS detection and conventional methods. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated by studying the removal of polar contaminants from a wetland in western Canada affected by releases of hydrocarbon-rich condensate and free product from an adjoining sour-gas plant. The concern is that the mobile water-soluble polar contaminants may not be as efficiently attenuated by volatilization or adsorption processes as the more hydrophobic hydrocarbons and that some of the polar toxic compounds may break through to contaminate groundwater and surface waters. Samples of groundwater, surface water, and aqueous soil extracts were analyzed to quantify levels of polar contaminants in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons. The use of water extracts reduced the background interference from hydrocarbons and other non-polar compounds that were present in the soil samples. HPLC-EC was used to quantify the target compounds that included monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine and sulfolane-derived compounds while tandem MS was used to identify related compounds and degradation products. Influent concentrations were in the ppm range and discharge concentrations were in the ppb range

  17. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  18. Leaf cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals novel mechanisms for boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings. (United States)

    Wang, Liu-Qing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Xin-Xing; Ye, Xin; Chen, En-Jun; Chen, Li-Song


    Little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (Al)-toxicity. 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing different concentrations of B (2.5 or 20μM H3BO3) and Al (0 or 1.2mM AlCl3·6H2O). B alleviated Al-induced inhibition in plant growth accompanied by lower leaf Al. We used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 127 differentially expressed genes from leaves subjected to B and Al interactions. These genes were related to signal transduction, transport, cell wall modification, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and stress responses. The ameliorative mechanisms of B on Al-toxicity might be related to: (a) triggering multiple signal transduction pathways; (b) improving the expression levels of genes related to transport; (c) activating genes involved in energy production; and (d) increasing amino acid accumulation and protein degradation. Also, genes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, cell wall modification and stress responses might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. To conclude, our findings reveal some novel mechanisms on B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity at the transcriptional level in C. grandis leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomics and Transcriptomics analysis of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Microgravity (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On Earth plants are constantly exposed to a gravitational field of 1g. Gravity affects a plant in every step of its development. Germinating seedlings orient their...

  20. Seedlings and Saplings - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds318 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the total number and average number of saplings and seedlings of trees detected from 0.05-ha circular plot habitat samples taken in 2005 at sample...

  1. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  2. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival. (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith


    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  3. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  4. The effect of osmopriming on germination, seedling growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2011 ... affecting the oxidative metabolism such as increasing superoxide dismutase ... the adverse effect of salinity by improving germination and seedling growth .... osmoregulation by the accumulation of proline. A positive effect of ...

  5. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 26, 2011 ... Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. ... Key words: Cold stratification, salt stress, seedling emergence, ... methods used to cope with salinity, seed pre-sowing.

  6. Strong microsite control of seedling recruitment in tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Lang, Simone I


    The inclusion of environmental variation in studies of recruitment is a prerequisite for realistic predictions of the responses of vegetation to a changing environment. We investigated how seedling recruitment is affected by seed availability and microsite quality along a steep environmental......, the experimental seed addition showed that the microsite environment was even more important. For all species, seedling emergence peaked at the productive end of the gradient, irrespective of the adult niches realized. Disturbance promoted recruitment at all positions along the environmental gradient, not just...... at high productivity. Early seedling emergence constituted the main temporal bottleneck in recruitment for all species. Surprisingly, winter mortality was highest at what appeared to be the most benign end of the gradient. The results highlight that seedling recruitment patterns are largely determined...

  7. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 17, 2011 ... A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes .... mean seed mass (without seed coat) per species was used for W1 ...... Of light and length: regulation of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis.

  8. ARC EMCS Experiments (Seedling Growth-2) Experiment Status (United States)

    Heathcote, David; Steele, Marianne


    Presentation of the status of the ARC ISS (International Space Station) Experiment, Seedling Growth-2 to the Payload Operations Investigator Working Group meeting at MSFC, Huntsville AL. The experiment employs the European Modular Cultivation System (ECMS).

  9. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  10. Beta-spectrometer with magnetic filter of mini orange type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozhankin, V.M.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Sereeter, Z.; Fominykh, V.I.; Malikov, Sh.R.; Yuldashev, M.B.


    At the ISOL facility YASNAPP-2 a β-spectrometer with a magnetic filter of the miniorange type is constructed to measure γ-ray internal conversion coefficients. The magnetic filter of the mini orange type is an assemblage of permanent magnets creating a toroidal magnetic field perpendicular to the electron trajectories from the source to the Si(Li) detector. The chosen profile of the permanent magnets allowed electron registration in the defined energy energy interval with some transmission increase. There are two sets of permanent magnets of the different thickness. Varying the type and number of permanent magnets one can set the detected electron energy intervals in a 50-2500 keV range. The efficiency of the spectrometer was investigated for different assemblages of the mini orange magnet. The facility can be used for the e-γ coincidence investigation. (A.A.D.)

  11. Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningchuan; Guo Xueyi; Liang Sha


    An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g -1 , which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

  12. The Doppler paradigm and the APEX-EPOS-ORANGE quandary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.


    The experimental detection of the sharp lines of the (e + e - ) Puzzle is viewed as a struggle against Doppler broadening. Gedanken experiments which are realistic in zeroth order of detail are analyzed to show that the ORANGE and EPOS/I geometries select narrower slices of a Doppler broadened line than spherically inclusive (APEX and EPOS/II -like) apparati. Roughly speaking, the latter require event-by-event Doppler reconstruction simply to regain an even footing with the former. This suggests that APEX' or EPOS/II's coincident pair distributions must be statistically superior to those of EPOS/I or ORANGE in order to support a comparable inference about sharp structure. Under such circumstances, independent alternative data is invaluable. Therefore, a corroboration of Sakai's 330.1 keV ( + or e - bombardments of U and Th targets could prove crucial

  13. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data. (United States)

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P


    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Improved photocatalytic degradation of Orange G using hybrid nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledwaba, Mpho; Masilela, Nkosiphile; Nyokong, Tebello; Antunes, Edith, E-mail: [Rhodes University, Department of Chemistry (South Africa)


    Functionalised electrospun polyamide-6 (PA-6) nanofibres incorporating gadolinium oxide nanoparticles conjugated to zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnTCPPc) as the sensitizer were prepared for the photocatalytic degradation of Orange G. Fibres incorporating the phthalocyanine alone or a mixture of the nanoparticles and phthalocyanine were also generated. The singlet oxygen-generating ability of the sensitizer was shown to be maintained within the fibre mat, with the singlet oxygen quantum yields increasing upon incorporation of the magnetic nanoparticles. Consequently, the rate of the photodegradation of Orange G was observed to increase with an increase in singlet oxygen quantum yield. A reduction in the half-lives for the functionalised nanofibres was recorded in the presence of the magnetic nanoparticles, indicating an improvement in the efficiency of the degradation process.

  15. Inhibiting effect of ponderosa pine seed trees on seedling growth (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    Ponderosa pine seed trees, numbering 4, 8, and 12 per acre, were left standing for 9 years after harvest cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif. Seedling heights were measured at ages 5, 9, and 14, and for all ages were poorest if within 20 feet of a seed tree. Seedlings 20 feet or less from a seed tree at the ages given lost the equivalent in years of...

  16. Translocation of 14-C in ponderosa pine seedlings (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer


    The movement of 14-C from the old needles to the roots, and later to the new needles, was measured in 2-year-old ponderosa pine seedlings. The seedlings were in one of three growth stages at the time of the feeding of 14-CO-2: 9 days before spring bud break with no root activity; 7 days before spring bud break with high root activity; and 7 days after spring bud break...

  17. Morphological and biological features of seedlings of some Trifolium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Kalinkina


    Full Text Available The author conducted morphological and biological characteristics of seedlings of six species belonging to three sections: Lupinaster(T. lupinasterL, T. pacificumBobr, T. eximium Steph. Ex. DC., Chronosemium(T. campestre Schreb. and Trifolium (T. arvenseL., T. pratense L. of the genus Trifolium. Dimensional and qualitative morphological characteristics of the main structural elements of the seedlings of these species are represented in the article.

  18. Onion seedlings versus onion sets in organic onion production


    Kivijärvi, Pirjo; Hannukkala, Asko; Haapalainen, Minna; Iivonen, Sari


    The objective of this study is to find onion varieties that are suitable for seedling cultivation and high-yielding in our relatively cool and short growing season. In addition, the yield quantity, quality and long-term storage durability of onions produced from either seedlings or sets are compared. Rot incidence and composition of pathogen populations in diseased onions is monitored during the growing season and long-term storage. The field experiments and on-farm trials will be carried out...

  19. Stimulatory effects of aluminum on growth of sugar maple seedlings (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie


    To determine the effect of aluminum (Al) on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), seedlings were grown in sand irrigated with nutrient solution (pH 3.8) containing 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg L-1 Al. Seedling growth was enhanced at 2.5 and 5mgL-1 Al. Although higher levels of Al reduced calcium (Ca) and...

  20. Changes in taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy, as well as levels of malondialdehyde serum in radiographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agniz Nur Aulia


    on the effects of radiation on cancer patients show that radiation can cause an increase in bitterness and metal taste [in cancer patients] leading to discomfort in the oral cavity. In body, free radicals then can cause lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing malondialdehyde (MDA. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of radiation on changes in the taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy as well as the levels of MDA serum in radiographers. Method: This study was an observational laboratory research using post- test control design. Samples were selected using simple random sampling technique. The samples were seven radiographers who have been working for five years in the laboratory and radiographic units in Surabaya. Result: Based on the results of statistical tests, it showed that there were no differences in the sensitivity of all tastes between the groups tested. Moreover, the results also depicted considerable value for the sour taste was 0.550, the saltiness was 0.775, the sweetness was 0.294, the bitter taste was 0.065, the umami taste was 0.705, and the spicy taste was 0.319 (p>0.05. However, the dramatic increase was higlighted in levels of MDA serum with a significant value of 0.065 (p>0.005. Conclusion. There were no changes in the sensitivity of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy tastes, but there was a significant increased in level of MDA serum in the radiographers compared to the control group.

  1. Complex layering of the Orange Mountain Basalt: New Jersey, USA (United States)

    Puffer, John H.; Block, Karin A.; Steiner, Jeffrey C.; Laskowich, Chris


    The Orange Mountain Basalt of New Jersey is a Mesozoic formation consisting of three units: a single lower inflated sheet lobe about 70 m thick (OMB1), a middle pillow basalt about 10 to 20 m thick (OMB2), and an upper compound pahoehoe flow about 20 to 40 m thick (OMB3). The Orange Mountain Basalt is part of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Quarry and road-cut exposures of OMB1 near Paterson, New Jersey, display some unusual layering that is the focus of this study. OMB1 exposures displays the typical upper crust, core, and basal crust layers of sheet lobes but throughout the Patterson area also display distinct light gray layers of microvesicular basalt mineralized with albite directly over the basal crust and under the upper crust. The lower microvesicular layer is associated with mega-vesicular diapirs. We propose that the upper and lower microvesicular layers were composed of viscous crust that was suddenly quenched before it could devolatilize immediately before the solidification of the core. During initial cooling, the bottom of the basal layer was mineralized with high concentrations of calcite and albite during a high-temperature hydrothermal event. Subsequent albitization, as well as zeolite, prehnite, and calcite precipitation events, occurred during burial and circulation of basin brine heated by recurring Palisades magmatism below the Orange Mountain Basalt. Some of the events experienced by the Orange Mountain Basalt are unusual and place constraints on the fluid dynamics of thick flood basalt flows in general. The late penetration of vesicular diapirs through the entire thickness of the flow interior constrains its viscosity and solidification history.

  2. Environmental Statement. Disposition of Orange Herbicide by Incineration (United States)


    remote as possible from both residential and industrial population centers and from land currently in agronomic pro- duction., Vegetation should be...sparse, of little agronomic value, and of species resistant to the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides contained in Orange or to the pyrolytic products of...each to induce intoxication . The above results are summarized in Table 11-7. b. Behavior in Humans: Gehring et al., (1973) studied the effects of 2,4,5-T

  3. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  4. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree


    Jorgino Pompeu Junior; Silvia Blumer


    The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis) trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni), Sunki mandarin (C. sunki) and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata), which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthor...

  5. Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange. (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Cao, Ming-Qin; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-hua


    To test direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability, perspex pots separated by 37-μm nylon mesh in the middle were used to form root-free hyphae and root/hyphae chambers, where trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were colonized by Funneliformis mosseae or Paraglomus occultum in the root/hyphae chamber. Both fungal species induced significantly higher plant growth, root total length, easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP), and mean weight diameter (an aggregate stability indicator). The Pearson correlation showed that root colonization or soil hyphal length significantly positively correlated with EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), T-GRSP, and water-stable aggregates in 2.00-4.00, 0.50-1.00, and 0.25-0.50 mm size fractions. The path analysis indicated that in the root/hyphae chamber, aggregate stability derived from a direct effect of root colonization, EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP. Meanwhile, the direct effect was stronger by EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP than by mycorrhizal colonization. In the root-free hyphae chamber, mycorrhizal-mediated aggregate stability was due to total effect but not direct effect of soil hyphal length, EE-GRSP and T-GRSP. Our results suggest that GRSP among these tested factors may be the primary contributor to aggregate stability in the citrus rhizosphere.

  6. Silvicultural Attempts to Induce Browse Resistance in Conifer Seedlings

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    Bruce A. Kimball


    Full Text Available A multiyear study was conducted to determine if soil amendment combined with topical application of elemental sulfur could be employed to reduce deer browse damage to four conifer species. Fertilizer and sulfur were applied to conifer seedlings at seven sites near Corvallis, OR. Growth and browse damage data were collected for all seedlings over a period of 17 months. Additionally, foliar concentrations of monoterpenes and simple carbohydrates were assessed in western redcedar (Thuja plicata seedlings over a period of three years. Fertilization and sulfur treatments had a moderate impact on growth and no influence on browse damage or the chemical responses. Over the course of the study, browse damage diminished while foliar monoterpene concentrations increased in redcedar. It appears that silvicultural manipulation via sulfur application and/or soil amendment cannot accelerate or alter the ontogenetical changes that may naturally defend seedlings against mammalian herbivores. In a brief trial with captive deer, redcedar browse resistance was influenced by seedling maturation, but not monoterpene content. Other maturation effects may yield significant browse protection to young seedlings.

  7. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings. (United States)

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R


    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.

  8. Image seedling analysis to evaluate tomato seed physiological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neumann Silva

    Full Text Available Computerized seedling image analysis are one of the most recently techniques to detect differences of vigor between seed lots. The aim of this study was verify the hability of computerized seedling image analysis by SVIS® to detect differences of vigor between tomato seed lots as information provided by traditionally vigor tests. Ten lots of tomato seeds, cultivar Santa Clara, were stored for 12 months in controlled environment at 20 ± 1 ºC and 45-50% of relative humidity of the air. The moisture content of the seeds was monitored and the physiological potential tested at 0, 6 and 12 months after storage, with germination test, first count of germination, traditional accelerated ageing and with saturated salt solution, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence and with seed vigor imaging system (SVIS®. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications. The parameters obtained by the computerized seedling analysis (seedling length and indexes of vigor and seedling growth with software SVIS® are efficient to detect differences between tomato seed lots of high and low vigor.

  9. Acclimatization and growth of ornamental pineapple seedlings under organic substrates

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    Ronan Carlos Colombo


    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation techniques are commonly used to produce ornamental pineapple seedlings in commercial scale, aiming to attend the growers with genetic and sanitary quality seedlings. However, the choice of the ideal substrate is essential for the acclimatization and growth stage of the seedlings propagated by this technique, since some substrates can increase the seedling mortality and/or limit the seedling growth due to its physical and chemical characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acclimatization of ornamental pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. var. ananassoides (Baker Coppens & Leal] on different substrates. Seedlings with approximately seven centimeters, obtained from in vitro culture, were transplanted into styrofoam trays filled with the following substrates: sphagnum; semi-composed pine bark; carbonized rice husk; sphagnum + semicomposed pine bark; sphagnum + carbonized rice husk; and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk. Each treatment was replicated five times using 10 plants. At 180 days, there were evaluated the following variables: survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, largest root length, and shoot and root dry matter. The substrate semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk presented the lowest mean (62% for survival percentage. The semi-composed pine bark and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk treatments presented significant increments in some evaluated biometric characteristics. The semi-composed pine bark is the most favorable substrate for the A. comosus var. ananassoids acclimatization.

  10. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

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    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  11. Findings of a retrospective survey conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout to determine if the natural occurrence of bovine abortions and fetal anomalies increased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavano, G.G.; Christian, R.G.


    A survey was conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout of October 1982 to determine if the incident changed the number and type of bovine abortions and abnormal bovine feti submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from the blowout area. The records of the total number of bovine feti submitted were compared between three areas to determine if there was a significant difference between the areas closer to the well site and the larger total area. No changes or trends could be ascribed to the well blowout. 2 refs., 5 tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. de ARAUJO


    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  13. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation. (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; To, Tai Lun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter


    The potential acute genoprotective effect of orange juice supplementation was investigated. Six healthy subjects (aged 33 to 60 years; 3 women and 3 men) were asked to drink 400 mL of commercial orange juice, which contained 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g sugar. Venous blood (2 mL) was taken before and 2 h after ingestion (test trial). A week later, the subjects were asked to repeat the trial by drinking 400 mL water with 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g glucose (control trial). Lymphocytes isolated from blood samples underwent comet assay on the day of collection. Pre- and postingestion DNA damage scores were measured in both the test and control trials. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide after 2 h of supplementation with orange juice, and no change in baseline DNA damage. There was no significant decrease in the DNA damage in lymphocytes in the control trial.

  14. The CaO orange system in meteor spectra (United States)

    Berezhnoy, A. A.; Borovička, J.; Santos, J.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; Sandoval, L.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Palma, A.


    The CaO orange band system was simulated in the region 5900-6300 Å and compared with the experimentally observed spectra of Benešov bolide wake. The required vibronic Einstein emission coefficients were estimated by means of the experimental radiative lifetimes under the simplest Franck-Condon approximation. A moderate agreement was achieved, and the largest uncertainties come from modeling shape of FeO orange bands. Using a simple model the CaO column density in the wake of the Benešov bolide at the height of 29 km was estimated as (5 ± 2) × 1014 cm-2 by a comparison of the present CaO spectra with the AlO bands nicely observed at 4600-5200 Å in the same spectrum. The obtained CaO content is in a good agreement with the quenching model developed for the impact-produced cloud, although future theoretical and experimental studies of both CaO and FeO orange systems contribution would be needed to confirm these results.

  15. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge


    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  16. Assessing a traceability technique in fresh oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with an HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Towards a volatile characterisation of organic oranges. (United States)

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Ruiz-Moreno, María José


    A targeted approach using HS-SPME-GC-MS was performed to compare flavour compounds of 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana' orange cultivars from organic and conventional management systems. Both varieties of conventional oranges showed higher content of ester compounds. On the other hand, higher content of some compounds related with the geranyl-diphosphate pathway (neryl and geranyl acetates) and some terpenoids were found in the organic samples. Furthermore, the partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification for oranges based on the farming system using their volatile profiles (90 and 100% correct classification). To our knowledge, it is the first time that a comparative study dealing with farming systems and orange aroma profile has been performed. These new insights, taking into account local databases, cultivars and advanced analytical tools, highlight the potential of volatile composition for organic orange discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

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    Mann David GJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  18. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.


    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  19. Structural and luminescence properties of Sm3+ -doped bismuth phosphate glass for orange-red photonic applications. (United States)

    Damodaraiah, S; Reddy Prasad, V; Ratnakaram, Y C


    In the present study, the effect of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) content on the structural and optical properties of 0.5Sm 3+ -doped phosphate glass and the effect of concentration on structural and optical properties of Sm 3+ -doped bismuth phosphate (BiP) glass were studied. Structural characterization was accomplished using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Optical properties were studied using absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Using optical absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt parameters were derived to determine the local structure and bonding in the vicinity of Sm 3+ ions. The emission spectra of Sm 3+ -doped BiP glass showed two intense emission bands, 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 (orange) and 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 9/2 (red) for which the stimulated emission cross-sections (σ e ) and branching ratios (β) were found to be higher. The quantum efficiencies were also calculated from decay measurements recorded for the 4 G 5/2 level of Sm 3+ ions. The suitable combination of Bi 2 O 3 (10 mol%) and Sm 3+ (0.5 mol%) ions in these glasses acted as an efficient lasing material and might be suitable for the development of visible orange-red photonic materials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Un établissement du début du premier âge du Fer en Eure-et-Loir : Sours, Les Ouches A settlement from the first Iron Age in Eure-et-Loir: Sours, Les Ouches

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    Frédéric Dupont


    Full Text Available La fouille du site des Ouches à Sours (28 a permis la mise au jour d’une importante occupation du Néolithique ancien et la découverte, dans la partie nord de l’emprise, de plusieurs structures datables du début de l’âge du Fer (Hallstatt C. Elles correspondent à des structures domestiques (un bâtiment et des fosses et à une entité “ cultuelle ”: un double enclos en “ U ”.L’habitation et ses annexes sont représentées par un bâtiment de plan quadrangulaire sur poteaux et une grande fosse riche en mobilier (céramiques, ossements et silex taillés. Cette structure peut être associée au fonctionnement d’un four de type “ polynésien ” et avoir servi de fosse de rejet.Le double enclos, ouvert vers le nord, est localisé au nord-est du site.Même si trois céramiques entières ont été trouvées dans son fossé externe, l’essentiel du mobilier céramique (177 individus sur 192 est issu de la grande fosse. Il s’agit principalement de coupes, de jattes parfois incisées, de petits gobelets à panse globulaire typiques du Hallstatt C ou de vases servant au stockage. Ils sont dotés de manière régulière de cordons digités.Ce petit établissement du début de l’âge du Fer a livré un bon échantillon des céramiques en usage en Eure-et-Loir à cette époque ainsi que des vestiges archéozoologiques et lithiques en quantité intéressante. Ces découvertes donnent de nouvelles informations sur les affinités culturelles à la transition entre l’âge du Bronze et l’âge du Fer, période peu documentée dans le Nord de la région Centre.The excavation of the site of Ouches at Sours (28 has enabled the updating of an important settlement from the early Neolithic and the discovery, in the northern part of the site, of several structures datable to the beginning of the Iron Age (Hallstatt C. They correspond to domestic structures (a building and some ditches and a “worship” entity: a double

  1. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobutadiene in pumpkin seedlings after waterborne exposure. (United States)

    Hou, Xingwang; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yanlin; Yu, Miao; Liu, Jiyan; Jiang, Guibin


    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has been listed as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in the Stockholm Convention, and is now drawing more and more research interest. However, the understanding of its bioaccumulation, especially in plants, is still very limited. In this work, the behavior of HCBD in aqueous solution and pumpkin seedlings was studied through in-lab hydroponic exposure experiments. It was found that 69% of HCBD volatilized from water to the atmosphere after one day of exposure, and only 1% remained in the solution after four days. This high volatility might be the main cause of the low HCBD levels in aqueous environments. Although a great amount of HCBD volatilized into the atmosphere, only a small proportion of airborne HCBD was captured by the leaves and stems of the blank pumpkin seedling controls. The translocation of HCBD from the leaves to the bottom roots, as well as its release from the roots into the water, was detected. For the exposure groups, the pumpkin seedlings absorbed HCBD from both the hydroponic solution and the air via the roots and leaves, respectively. The concentration of HCBD in the exposed pumpkin roots linearly increased with the continuous addition of HCBD into the exposure system. Upward translocation from the roots to the leaves and downward translocation from the leaves to the roots existed simultaneously in the exposed pumpkin seedlings. However, the concentrations of HCBD in the leaves, stems and roots in the exposure group were much higher than those of the blank plant controls, suggesting little contribution from the airborne HCBD in the hydroponically exposed pumpkin seedlings. The lipid content did not show obvious effects on the bioaccumulation and biodistribution of HCBD in the pumpkin seedlings, indicating that the translocation of HCBD within the pumpkin seedlings might be an active process. This study provided new findings on the environmental behavior of HCBD, which will be helpful for understanding the exposure

  2. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

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    Sonia Hernandez Garcia


    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  3. Applications of UT results to confirm defects findings by utilization of relevant metallurgical investigations techniques on gas/condensate pipeline working in wet sour gas environment (United States)

    El-Azhari, O. A.; Gajam, S. Y.


    The gas/condensate pipe line under investigation is a 12 inch diameter, 48 km ASTM, A106 steel pipeline, carrying hydrocarbons containing wet CO2 and H2S.The pipe line had exploded in a region 100m distance from its terminal; after 24 years of service. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sour gas corrosion were expected due to the presence of wet H2S in the gas analysis. In other areas of pipe line ultrasonic testing was performed to determine whether the pipeline can be re-operated. The results have shown presence of internal planner defects, this was attributed to the existence of either laminations, type II inclusions or some service defects such as HIC and step wise cracking (SWC).Metallurgical investigations were conducted on fractured samples as per NACE standard (TM-0284-84). The obtained results had shown macroscopic cracks in the form of SWC, microstructure of steel had MnS inclusions. Crack sensitivity analyses were calculated and the microhardness testing was conducted. These results had confirmed that the line material was suffering from sour gas deteriorations. This paper correlates the field UT inspection findings with those methods investigated in the laboratory. Based on the results obtained a new HIC resistance material pipeline needs to be selected.

  4. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement (United States)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc


    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  5. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica


    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  6. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

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    Yu-Kyong Shin


    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved.Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants.These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  7. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

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    Rabcewicz Jacek


    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy William [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Goodwin, Verona Marie [VM Goodwin Research and Consulting Ltd. (Canada); Stefani, Dennis [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada); Strosher, Lisa [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)


    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H{sub 2}S at concentrations up to 100 ppm and that the H{sub 2}S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90 ppm H{sub 2}S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20 ppm H{sub 2}S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H{sub 2}S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear



    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Spreen, Thomas H.; Wysocki, Allen F.


    From 2000 through 2004, per capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected Southern region newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. This data was included in a Southern region orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange ...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of 4′,5...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthalenyl)azo]benzenesulfonic...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein, 2′,4′,5...

  19. Influence of Immigration on Epiphytic Bacterial Populations on Navel Orange Leaves


    Lindow, S. E.; Andersen, G. L.


    Factors that influenced the increase in epiphytic bacterial population size on navel orange leaves during winter months were investigated to test the assumption that such populations were the result of multiplication on orange leaves. The population sizes of bacteria of different kinds, including ice nucleation-active (Ice(sup+)) bacteria, were from 6- to 30-fold larger on leaves of navel orange trees adjacent to other plant species than on trees growing near other citrus species. Total and I...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1255(a...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein (CAS...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1254(a...

  4. Gene expression in plant lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shan Hsiao

    Full Text Available Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, β-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1 and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6 in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  5. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel


    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  6. A review of Agent Orange and its associated oncologic risk of genitourinary cancers. (United States)

    Chang, Chrystal; Benson, Michael; Fam, Mina M


    Agent Orange is an herbicide sprayed widely in Vietnam that is linked to a variety of malignancies in as early as 1991.Since then, there has been concern for, and subsequent interest in studying, the potential connection between Agent Orange and other malignancies. In the past 2 decades, there have been significant changes in the opinion of the National Academy of Science regarding Agent Orange and certain genitourinary malignancies. Herein, we review the literature regarding the potential link between Agent Orange and various urological cancers, including prostate, bladder, testicular, and renal cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mangrove microclimates alter seedling dynamics at the range edge. (United States)

    Devaney, John L; Lehmann, Michael; Feller, Ilka C; Parker, John D


    Recent climate warming has led to asynchronous species migrations, with major consequences for ecosystems worldwide. In woody communities, localized microclimates have the potential to create feedback mechanisms that can alter the rate of species range shifts attributed to macroclimate drivers alone. Mangrove encroachment into saltmarsh in many areas is driven by a reduction in freeze events, and this encroachment can further modify local climate, but the subsequent impacts on mangrove seedling dynamics are unknown. We monitored microclimate conditions beneath mangrove canopies and adjacent open saltmarsh at a freeze-sensitive mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone and assessed survival of experimentally transplanted mangrove seedlings. Mangrove canopies buffered night time cooling during the winter, leading to interspecific differences in freeze damage on mangrove seedlings. However, mangrove canopies also altered biotic interactions. Herbivore damage was higher under canopies, leading to greater mangrove seedling mortality beneath canopies relative to saltmarsh. While warming-induced expansion of mangroves can lead to positive microclimate feedbacks, simultaneous fluctuations in biotic drivers can also alter seedling dynamics. Thus, climate change can drive divergent feedback mechanisms through both abiotic and biotic channels, highlighting the importance of vegetation-microclimate interactions as important moderators of climate driven range shifts. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Growth and ABA responses of maple seedlings to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, A.; Robitaille, G.; Boutin, R. [Canadian Forestry Service, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Nadeau, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Station, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)


    The impacts of low pH and 2.0 mM aluminum (Al) on the growth of sugar maple seedlings was assessed over a 13-week period. The hypothesis was that low pH and high aluminum concentration would lower the vigor of sugar maple seedlings and were contributing factors to sugar maple stand decline. The effects of the stresses were measured in roots and shoots. The concentration of abscisis acid (ABA) in xylem sap in response to Al over time was measured to determine whether it could be used as an indicator of Al stress in sugar maple seedlings. At week 9, total leaf area of Al-treated seedlings was reduced by 27%, but by week 13 leaf area was similar for seedlings in all treatments. None of the other growth parameters examined were negatively affected by the treatments at either week 9 or week 13. ABA concentration in the xylem sap was not affected by any of the treatments. The duration of exposure to Al was found critical when assessing a threshold concentration for Al toxicity because plants can acclimate to an Al concentration previously considered toxic. 36 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  9. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł


    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Maria Copaciu


    Full Text Available After germination process, the green seedlings accumulate important quantities of bioactive compounds such as: enzymes, vitamins, minerals, chlorophylls and nutrients. The current study presents a comparison between different bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity, after the seedling germination and growth of five seeds (arugula, lentil, wheat, beans and mustard both on soil, in a pot (natural system, and directly on cotton wool soaked, in water (artificial system. In this study the carotenoids content and the antioxidant capacity were analysed. The data of the present study showed that the highest amount of zeaxanthin and β - carotene was found in cultivars of wheat grown in natural system, while the highest antioxidant activity was found in cultivars of wheat, lentils and beans, though in this case with no statistical differences between the systems. The results show statistical differences between the values of bioactive compounds in the five types of seedlings but also in the values obtained for the same seedlings in different systems. The best cultivars for improving the nutritional quality for human consumption are wheat seedlings followed by lentil ones.

  11. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck


    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  12. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Khanh


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  13. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.


    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  14. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães


    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  15. Preliminary screening oxidative degradation methyl orange using ozone/ persulfate (United States)

    Aqilah Razali, Nur; Zulzikrami Azner Abidin, Che; An, Ong Soon; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Haqi Ibrahim, Abdul; Nasuha Sabri, Siti; Huan Kow, Su


    The present study focusing on the performances of advanced oxidation process by using ozonation method towards Methyl Orange based on the efficiency of colour removal and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal. Factorial design with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interaction between operational conditions, such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and persulfate dosage to obtain the optimum range conditions using a semi-batch reactor. The range of independent variables investigated were pH (3-11), initial concentration (100-500mg/L), contact time (10-50min) and persulfate dosage (20-100mM) while the response variables were colour removal and COD removal of Methyl Orange. The experimental results and statistical analysis showed all the parameters were significant. Thus, from this findings, optimization of operational conditions that had been suggested from the ozone/persulfate RSM analysis were (pH 3, 100 mg/L, 50min, 60mM) that would be produced 99% Colour Removal and 80% COD Removal and help in promoting an efficient ozonation process. The effect list data that showed the most contributed effects to increase the percentages of colour removal were pH and persulfate dosage whereas the contact time and initial concentration had the highest positive effects on the COD removal. Other than that, the interaction between pH, contact time and persulfate dosage were found to be the most influencing interaction. Therefore the least influencing interaction was interaction between persulfate dosage and pH. In this study, the correlation coefficient value R2 for colour removal and COD removal of Methyl Orange were R2= 0.9976 and R2= 0.9924 which suggested a good fit of the first-order regression model with the experimental data.

  16. Enhancing quality of orange juice by irradiation and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.


    Recent concern about the presence of disease-causing bacteria in orange juice has highlighted the need to develop alternative means of pathogen control that preserve sensory properties and nutrient content. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of irradiation and chitosan on the microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory properties in orange juice during refrigerated storage at 4 c. Irradiation treatments with 1 and 2 kGy decreased the log counts of total bacterial counts (TBC) and total mould and yeast (TM and Y)of orange juice (OJ). Whereas, irradiation with 2 kGy after treated OJ with 0.1% chitosan (Cs) the log counts were less than 10 cfu/ml during storage periods up to 6 months. Also, no viable cells of salmonella typhimurium and escherichia coli were found after these treatments. Therefore, it was concluded that irradiation with 2 kGy 0.1% Cs of oj improved the microbiological safety. D 1 0-value of s. typhimirium in oj and saline solution were 0.48 and 0.40 kGy, while those of e.coli were 0.25 and 0.20 kGy. Irradiation and chitosan resulted in reduction of ascorbic acid content by 7.47%.however, the contents of acidity were stable during storage periods. After 6 months of storage, sensory quality of the irradiated 2 kGy.1% Cs oj samples was adequate, while the quality of the non-irradiated control was deteriorated. Using 2 kGy.1% Cs treatment would allow to inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms or slow down their development without affecting its sensory quality. The results indicated that the oj behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. The measurements of viscosity were applied in power low model to analyze the behavior





    ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunk...

  18. An Investigation of Potential Fraud in Commercial Orange Juice Products in Malaysian Market by Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, S.E.; Abbas Fadhl Mubarek Al-Karkhi; Mohd Khairuddin Mohd Talib; Azhar Mat Easa; Hoong, C.L.


    This study was triggered by Malaysia Ministry of Health to monitor quality of commercial orange juice products sold in Malaysia market. A total of 19 orange juice samples from 14 different brands of packed orange juice products and 5 different brands of fresh orange fruit juices were analyzed for total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, sugar composition and amino acid profiles. Hierarchical Cluster analysis (HCA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) on amino acid composition alone allowed visual discrimination between fresh squeezed orange juices and commercial packed orange juices. Suspicion of mislabel was raised in cases of miss-classification. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Creanga


    Full Text Available The seedlings of two tree species, the black poplar hybrid (Populus canadiensis Moench. and the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L., among the most important for the temperate region, were treated with various concentrations of oil-ferrofluid based on natural hydrocarbons. The experiment has revealed the ferrofluid influence on the assimilatory pigments as well as on the nucleic acids (spectral measurements in young plantlets aged of 3 months. It was found that the levels of assimilatory pigments are generally diminished though the ratio chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b is generally enhanced for ferrofluid samples suggesting the seedlings sensitivity to the chemical and magnetic stimuli consistent with the ferrofuid addition. The LHC II system (Light Harvesting Complex II sensitivity to external factors might be associated with the ferrofluid influence on the young seedlings photosynthesis.

  20. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.


    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  1. Propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Rafaie Abdul Salam; Nurhayati Irwan; Affrida Abu Hassan; Rusli Ibrahim


    Aquilaria malaccensis or karas is the principal source of gaharu resin, which is used in many cultures for incense, perfumes and traditional medicines. The species is mainly propagated conventionally through seeds, cuttings and graftings. Propagation by seeds is usually a reliable method for other forest species, but for karas, this technique is inadequate to meet the current demand of seedling supplies. This is principally due to its low seed viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting of seedlings, long life-cycle and rare seed production. Tissue culture has several advantages over conventional propagation, especially for obtaining large number of uniform and high-yielding plantlets or clones. This paper presents the current progress on mass-propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture technique at Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  2. Survival and Growth of Northern Red Oak Seedlings Following a Prescribed Burn (United States)

    Paul S. Johnson


    Mortality of northern red oak seedlings in a spring prescribed burn was related to temperature near the root collar. Most of the 42 percent of seedlings that survived the burn developed new shoots from the root collar.

  3. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara


    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  4. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.


    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  5. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol. (United States)

    Lilja, Jari J; Juntti-Patinen, Laura; Neuvonen, Pertti J


    Grapefruit juice was recently found to decrease plasma concentrations of the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent celiprolol. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study with 2 phases and a washout of 2 weeks, 10 healthy volunteers ingested either 200 mL normal-strength orange juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On the morning of day 3, 1 hour after ingestion of 200 mL orange juice or water, each subject ingested 100 mg celiprolol with either 200 mL orange juice or water. In addition, 200 mL orange juice or water was ingested at 4, 10, 22, and 27 hours after celiprolol intake. The concentrations of celiprolol in plasma and its excretion into urine were measured up to 33 hours after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded up to 10 hours. Orange juice reduced the mean peak plasma concentration of celiprolol by 89% (P orange juice. Orange juice reduced the urinary excretion of celiprolol by 77% (P Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of celiprolol, but the mechanism of this interaction remains to be resolved. For example, modulation of intestinal pH and of function of transporters implicated in the absorption of celiprolol may be involved. Because of the great extent of the orange juice-celiprolol interaction and a wide use of orange juice, this interaction is likely to have clinical importance in some patients, although hemodynamic consequences were not seen in young healthy subjects.

  6. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos


    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  7. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda


    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  8. Growth of short-day treated spruce seedlings planted throughout British Columbia. FRDA report No. 209

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasowski, M.J.; Letchford, T.; Eastham, A.M.


    Short photoperiod (SD) treatments of conifer seedlings induce bud dormancy and enhance cold acclimation. Such treatments are also useful in regulating seedling height to meet a specific target and in preparing seedlings for lifting at a desirable time. These trials were designed to compare different SD-treated and untreated stock in terms of their annual height and ground-line stem diameter increments, 1st year post-planting terminal bud phenology, and seedling survival and condition.

  9. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))


    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  10. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures. (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M


    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange dye using nano-photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin ahmadpour


    Full Text Available Environmental contamination, which is growing around the world, is a serious problem can not to be neglected. Among all contaminations, water pollution is a major problem. Azo dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants found in the drinking water, coming from, and the food and textile industries. TiO2/Fe3O4 and TiO2/Fe2O3 nanocomposites with various ratios were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted deposition-precipitation method and their UV-light decolorization of methyl orange (MO dye was investigated. The effect of Fe3O4/TiO2 and Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites ratio on the photocatalytic activity and magnetic property of the nanocomposites was studied by comparing their decolorization curves and magnetism in the presence of magnet, respectively. The results revealed that the decolorization efficiency of 1 wt% Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposite reached about 40% within 60 min UV irradiation at room temperature. However, this sample showed the least magnetism. Also, the ability of synthesized nanocomposites in holding the adsorbed methyl orange dye on their surface and the effect of pH were investigated.

  12. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  13. Rapid root extension during water pulses enhances establishment of shrub seedlings in the Atacama Desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, M.F.; Squeo, F.A.; Gutierrez, J.R.; Holmgren, M.


    Questions: (1) What is the water threshold for shrub seedling establishment in arid scrubland? (2) How do seedling root growth morphological traits affect the water threshold required for seedling establishment? Location: Arid scrubland, Atacama Desert, north-central Chile. Methods: We conducted a

  14. Naturally seeded versus planted ponderosa pine seedlings in group-selection openings (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary Fiddler; Martin Ritchie; Paula Anderson


    The purpose of this article was to determine whether natural regeneration or planted seedlings should be used in group-selection openings. The answer dependson the survival and growth rate of both types of seedlings, and that could depend on the size of the openings and the effect of trees on their edge. In thisside-by-side study, the natural pine seedlings originated...

  15. Air lateral root pruning affects longleaf pine seedling root system morphology (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dave Haywood


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings were cultured with air lateral root pruning (side-vented containers, VT) or without (solid-walled containers, SW). Seedling root system morphology and growth were assessed before planting and 8 and 14 months after planting. Although VT seedlings had greater root collar diameter than the SW before planting,...

  16. [Physiological responses of mycorrhizal Pinus massoniana seedlings to drought stress and drought resistance evaluation]. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ding, Gui-jie


    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculating Pisolithus tinctorius, Cenococcum geophilum, Cantharellus cibarius, and Suillus luteus on the physiological characteristics of Pinus massoniana seedlings under the conditions of drought stress and re-watering, with the drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings evaluated. Under drought stress, the MDA content and membrane' s relative permeability of P. massoniana seedlings increased, but these two indices in the inoculated (mycorrhizal) seedlings were significantly lower than these in the un-inoculated (control) seedlings. After re-watering, the MDA content and membrane's relative permeability of mycorrhizal seedlings had a rapid decrease, as compared with the control. In the first 21 days of drought stress, the production rate of superoxide radical of the seedlings increased, and the SOD, POD and NR activities of mycorrhizal seedlings increased significantly. With the extending of drought stress, the seedlings after re-watering had different recovery ability. Under the re-watering after 14 days drought stress, the SOD, POD and NR activities recovered. The drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings was in the order of Suillus luteus 1 > Suillus luteus 7 > Cantharellus cibarius > Cenococcum geophilum > Pisolithus tinctorius. The SOD and MDA activities had a greater correlation with the mycorrhizal seedlings drought resistance, being able to be used as the indicators to evaluate the drought resistance of mycorrhizal seedlings.

  17. Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia (United States)

    Nicole M Hughes; Daniel M. Johnson; Maia Akhalkatsi; Otar Abdaladze


    Seedling establishment is an important factor dictating the altitudinal limits of treeline species. Factors that affect seedling mortality and survival, however, have yet to be fully characterized, especially for deciduous treeline species. Here we describe microsite characteristics of successfully established Betula litwinowii seedlings at the...

  18. Four different Phytophthora species that are able to infect Scots pine seedlings in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz


    Full Text Available To investigate susceptibility of young Scots pine seedlings to four Phytophthora species: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora pini; seven-day-old seedlings of Scots pine (15 seedlings per experiment were infected using agar plugs of the respective species. Control group also consisted of 15 seedlings and was inoculated with sterile agar plugs. Results unambiguously show that after 4.5 days, all seedlings show clear signs of infection and display severe symptoms of tissue damage and necrosis. Moreover, three and two seedlings in the P. cactorum and P. cambivora infected seedlings groups, respectively, collapsed. The length of largest necrosis measured 13.4±3.90 mm and was caused by P. cactorum. To rule out any putative contamination or infection by secondary pathogens, re-isolations of pathogens from infection sites were performed and were positive in 100% of plated pieces of infected seedlings. All re-isolations were, however, negative in the case of the control group. Detailed microscopic analyses of infected tissues of young seedlings confirmed the presence of numerous Phytophthora species inside and on the surface of infected seedlings. Therefore, our results suggest Phytophthora spp. and mainly P. cactorum and P. cambivora as aggressive pathogens of Scots pine seedlings and highlight a putative involvement of these species in the damping off of young Scots pine seedlings frequently observed in forest nurseries.

  19. Effects of Fusarium circinatum on Disease Development and Gas Exchange in the Seedlings of Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Soo Woo


    Full Text Available Four-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida were inoculated with Fusarium circinatum isolate (FT-7, the pitch canker fungus, from P. thunbergii, to evaluate the effects of the pathogen on disease development and gas exchange rate. Needle dehydration was evident on 2 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii and P. rigida at 18 and 21 days after inoculation, respectively, while no symptoms were observed in P. densiflora seedlings throughout the experiment. Gas exchange stopped completely in 4 of 5 measured seedlings of P. thunbergii and 2 of 5 measured seedlings of P. rigida at 25 days after inoculation, and in the remaining 3 seedlings of P. rigida at 39 days after inoculation. Disease development in P. thunbergii seedlings was faster than that in P. rigida seedlings. By the time, the experiment was ended at 78 days after inoculation, 9 of 10 seedlings of P. rigida and 8 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii seedlings treated with FT-7 was almost dead, but all seedlings of P. densiflora were still healthy. We suggest that P. densiflora is resistant to F. circinatum in the current study, and gas exchange rate of the species after inoculation does not differ significantly compared to that of untreated control.

  20. Economic rationale for planting less trees in the face of seedling mortality (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; S. Joseph Chang


    Simple economic analyses are used to demonstrate that planting extra trees to compensate for initial seedling mortality can actually reduce the profit expected from a pine plantation. At a 6-percent interest rate, the cost of planting 15 or 25 percent additional seedlings compounded to the end of a 30-year rotation exceeds the revenue lost to these rates of seedling...

  1. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett


    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  2. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.


    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetti Kristianingrum


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji hubungan antara dukungan keluarga dengan kepatuhan minum obat. Subjek penelitian adalah orang dengan diabetes melitus, sebanyak 60 orang. Data variabel penelitian diungkap dengan Skala Dukungan Keluarga dan Skala Kepatuhan Minum Obat. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah korelasi Product Moment dari Karl Pearson. Berdasarkan analisis data diperoleh koefisien sebesar r = 0,707 (p

  4. Adsorption study on orange peel: Removal of Ni(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orange peel was investigated to evaluate the effects of pH, initial nickel ion concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of Ni(II) systematically. The optimal pH value for Ni(II) adsorption onto the orange peel was found to be 5.0. Greater ...

  5. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil (United States)


    ... Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...) initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On...), the Department is revoking the antidumping duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five...

  6. Surficial sediments of the wave-dominated Orange River Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The textural and compositional characteristics of the surficial shelf sediments north and south of the Orange River Delta are reviewed and compared. Sediments are fractionated and dispersed both north- and southwards of the Orange River mouth by wave action, longshore drift and subsurface currents. The mean grain ...

  7. 78 FR 55214 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0723] Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Neches River in Orange, TX from 3 p.m. on September 20, 2013, through 6 p.m. on September 22, 2013. This...

  8. Effect of orange rust on sugarcane breeding program at canal Point (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, appeared in the Western Hemisphere ten years ago. Orange rust substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. Majority of the commercial cultivars were susceptible at the time of o...

  9. 77 FR 47519 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0656] Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Regulations for the S.P.O.R.T. Power Boat Neches River in Orange, TX from 3 p.m. on September 21, 2012...

  10. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), North Carolina Department of... US 70 Business and US 70 Bypass in Orange County, North Carolina. The project is now cancelled...

  11. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Docket No. AB-33 (Sub-No. 281X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA Union Pacific Railroad....65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip...

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and hydrolytic enzymes on fermentation and ruminal degradability of orange pulp silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid; Lashkari, Saman


    The current study was carried out to examine the effect of inoculants, enzymes and mixtures of them on the fermentation, degradability and nutrient value of orange pulp silage. Orange pulp was treated with water (control), inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum), enzymes (multiple enzyme) or inoculants...

  13. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  14. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  15. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.


    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  16. Metabolic engineering of β-carotene in orange fruit increases its in vivo antioxidant properties. (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro


    Orange is a major crop and an important source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. Increasing the levels of specific antioxidants in orange fruit through metabolic engineering could strengthen the fruit's health benefits. In this work, we have afforded enhancing the β-carotene content of orange fruit through blocking by RNA interference the expression of an endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase gene (Csβ-CHX) that is involved in the conversion of β-carotene into xanthophylls. Additionally, we have simultaneously overexpressed a key regulator gene of flowering transition, the FLOWERING LOCUS T from sweet orange (CsFT), in the transgenic juvenile plants, which allowed us to obtain fruit in an extremely short period of time. Silencing the Csβ-CHX gene resulted in oranges with a deep yellow ('golden') phenotype and significant increases (up to 36-fold) in β-carotene content in the pulp. The capacity of β-carotene-enriched oranges for protection against oxidative stress in vivo was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans as experimental animal model. Golden oranges induced a 20% higher antioxidant effect than the isogenic control. This is the first example of the successful metabolic engineering of the β-carotene content (or the content of any other phytonutrient) in oranges and demonstrates the potential of genetic engineering for the nutritional enhancement of fruit tree crops. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9767-6; CERCLA-04-2012-3780] Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange County, Florida. DATES: The Agency...

  18. The survey reasarch about groundwater in a mine making use of the sour method to immerse at originl place in Xinjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yiqun; Yang Yihan


    Basing on a mine making use of a sour method to immerse at original place in Xiniang province, building up a monitor network of mine and its Surroundings groundwater, by the mispreads experiment at the spot and the Earth physical method to mointer Pollute scope and imitate the flow of groundwater and the movement of dissolve quality. Making use of the method speaking of to investigate groundwater in mineral layer completely. According to the investigating result, Comparing the original date of groundwater in mineral layer and the national Quality standard of groundwater to evaluate the present Pollute condition of groundwater existmg in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer. This studies Proves that Pollution mainly exists in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer and its surrounding limited area, groundwater upper or lower the ore aquifer is not affected by pollution. (authors)

  19. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome. (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling


    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at

  20. Effect of anionic surfactants on the process of Fenton degradation of methyl orange. (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D


    Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by surfactants and the formation of Methyl Orange-SDS complex. No evidence was found that the Methyl Orange degradation pathway was affected by the presence of SDS. The kinetics modelling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange.