WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound reference source

  1. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  2. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  3. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  4. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  5. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  6. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  7. Source Reference File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file contains a national set of names and contact information for doctors, hospitals, clinics, and other facilities (known collectively as sources) from which...

  8. Orientation Estimation and Signal Reconstruction of a Directional Sound Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco

    , one for each call emission, were compared to those calculated through a pre-existing technique based on interpolation of sound-pressure levels at microphone locations. The application of the method to the bat calls could provide knowledge on bat behaviour that may be useful for a bat-inspired sensor......Previous works in the literature about one tone or broadband sound sources mainly deal with algorithms and methods developed in order to localize the source and, occasionally, estimate the source bearing angle (with respect to a global reference frame). The problem setting assumes, in these cases......, omnidirectional receivers collecting the acoustic signal from the source: analysis of arrival times in the recordings together with microphone positions and source directivity cues allows to get information about source position and bearing. Moreover, sound sources have been included into sensor systems together...

  9. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  10. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  11. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  12. The Environmental Cost of Marine Sound Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative acoustic exposure is used as an indicator for the risk of negative impact to animals as a consequence of exposure to underwater sound. The free-field energy of a single source, defined as the total acoustic energy that would exist in the source’s free field, is shown to be closely related

  13. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...... positioned 1.5 m from the centre of the listener’s head, one straight ahead, and two 10 degrees to the right and left, respectively. Six participants matched the loudness of either one, or two simultaneous sounds (narrow-band noises with 1-kHz, and 3.15-kHz centre frequencies) to a 2-kHz, 60-dB SPL narrow......-band noise placed in the frontal loudspeaker. The two sounds were either originating from the central speaker, or from the two offset loudspeakers. It turned out that the subjects perceived the noises to be softer when they were distributed in space. In addition, loudness was calculated from the recordings...

  14. Sound source location in cavitating tip vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, H.; Taghavi, R.; Arndt, R.E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Utilizing an array of three hydrophones, individual cavitation bursts in a tip vortex could be located. Theoretically, four hydrophones are necessary. Hence the data from three hydrophones are supplemented with photographic observation of the cavitating tip vortex. The cavitation sound sources are found to be localized to within one base chord length from the hydrofoil tip. This appears to correspond to the region of initial tip vortex roll-up. A more extensive study with a four sensor array is now in progress

  15. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla......, as they are the most thoroughly studied frogs in terms of sound source localization and segregation. They also represent promising model systems for future work aimed at understanding better how internally coupled ears contribute to sound source localization and segregation. We conclude our review by enumerating...

  16. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  17. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polack, Jean-Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent...

  18. On the suitability of ISO 16717-1 reference spectra for rating airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašović, Draško B; Pavlović, Dragana S Šumarac; Mijić, Miomir M

    2013-11-01

    A standard proposal for rating airborne sound insulation in buildings [ISO 16717-1 (2012)] defines the reference noise spectra. Since their shapes influence the calculated values of single-number descriptors, reference spectra should approximate well typical noise spectra in buildings. There is, however, very little data in the existing literature on a typical noise spectrum in dwellings. A spectral analysis of common noise sources in dwellings is presented in this paper, as a result of an extensive monitoring of various noisy household activities. Apart from music with strong bass content, the proposed "living" reference spectrum overestimates noise levels at low frequencies.

  19. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  20. Reference Sources: Little Known to Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    RQ, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article lists seventy-eight reference sources, and is divided into the following four sections: (1) Useful But Little-Known Reference Tools by John Fetros, (2) The Statesman's Year-Book by James Becker, (3) Single Volume Scientific Encyclopedias by Jack Clarke and (4) Ten Basic Sources of Business and Economic Statistics by James Woy. (MF)

  1. Second Sound for Heat Source Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Vennekate, Hannes; Uhrmacher, Michael; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Defects on the surface of superconducting cavities can limit their accelerating gradient by localized heating. This results in a phase transition to the normal conduction state | a quench. A new application, involving Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) to locate such quench inducing heat spots on the surface of the cavities, has been developed by D. Hartill et al. at Cornell University in 2008. The OSTs enable the detection of heat transfer via second sound in super uid helium. This thesis presents new results on the analysis of their signal. Its behavior has been studied for dierent circumstances at setups at the University of Gottingen and at CERN. New approaches for an automated signal processing have been developed. Furthermore, a rst test setup for a single-cell Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cavity has been prepared. Recommendations of a better signal retrieving for its operation are presented.

  2. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  3. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    Sound is the most efficient radiation in the ocean. Sounds of seismic and biological origin contain information regarding the underlying processes that created them. A single hydrophone records summary time-frequency information from the volume within acoustic range. Beamforming using a hydrophone array additionally produces azimuthal estimates of sound sources. A two-dimensional array and acoustic focusing produce an unambiguous two-dimensional `image' of sources. This dissertation describes the application of these techniques in three cases. The first utilizes hydrophone arrays to investigate T-phases (water-borne seismic waves) in the Philippine Sea. Ninety T-phases were recorded over a 12-day period, implying a greater number of seismic events occur than are detected by terrestrial seismic monitoring in the region. Observation of an azimuthally migrating T-phase suggests that reverberation of such sounds from bathymetric features can occur over megameter scales. In the second case, single hydrophone recordings from coral reefs in the Line Islands archipelago reveal that local ambient reef sound is spectrally similar to sounds produced by small, hard-shelled benthic invertebrates in captivity. Time-lapse photography of the reef reveals an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at sundown, consistent with an increase in sound level. The dominant acoustic phenomenon on these reefs may thus originate from the interaction between a large number of small invertebrates and the substrate. Such sounds could be used to take census of hard-shelled benthic invertebrates that are otherwise extremely difficult to survey. A two-dimensional `map' of sound production over a coral reef in the Hawaiian Islands was obtained using two-dimensional hydrophone array in the third case. Heterogeneously distributed bio-acoustic sources were generally co-located with rocky reef areas. Acoustically dominant snapping shrimp were largely restricted to one location within the area surveyed

  4. A particle velocity based method for separating all multi incoherent sound sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, J.C.; Yntema, Doekle Reinder; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; de Bree, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to separate the contributions of different uncorrelated sound sources to the total sound field. When the contribution of each sound source to the total sound field is known, techniques with array-applications like direct sound field measurements or inverse acoustics

  5. Offshore dredger sound: source levels, sound maps and risk assessment (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is expanding to meet the growing demand to accommodate large cargo vessels. One of the licensing conditions was the monitoring of the underwater sound produced during its construction, with an emphasis on the establishment of acoustic source levels of the Trailing Suction

  6. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject's mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model was 4.03 dB (95% CI 3

  7. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  8. Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic

  9. The effect of sound sources on soundscape appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten; Andringa, Tjeerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore how the perception of sound sources (like traffic, birds, and the presence of distant people) influences the appraisal of soundscapes (as calm, lively, chaotic, or boring). We have used 60 one-minute recordings, selected from 21 days (502 hours) in March and July 2010.

  10. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  11. Numerical design and testing of a sound source for secondary calibration of microphones using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Secondary calibration of microphones in free field is performed by placing the microphone under calibration in an anechoic chamber with a sound source, and exposing it to a controlled sound field. A calibrated microphone is also measured as a reference. While the two measurements are usually made...... apart to avoid acoustic interaction. As a part of the project Euromet-792, aiming to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones, a sound source suitable for simultaneous secondary free-field calibration has been designed using the Boundary Element Method...... of the Danish Fundamental Metrology Institute (DFM). The design and verification of the source are presented in this communication....

  12. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  13. On the relevance of source effects in geomagnetic pulsations for induction soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neska, Anne; Tadeusz Reda, Jan; Leszek Neska, Mariusz; Petrovich Sumaruk, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to close a gap between recent research on geomagnetic pulsations and their usage as source signals in electromagnetic induction soundings (i.e., magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, and magnetovariational sounding). The plane-wave assumption as a precondition for the proper performance of these methods is partly violated by the local nature of field line resonances which cause a considerable portion of pulsations at mid latitudes. It is demonstrated that and explained why in spite of this, the application of remote reference stations in quasi-global distances for the suppression of local correlated-noise effects in induction arrows is possible in the geomagnetic pulsation range. The important role of upstream waves and of the magnetic equatorial region for such applications is emphasized. Furthermore, the principal difference between application of reference stations for local transfer functions (which result in sounding curves and induction arrows) and for inter-station transfer functions is considered. The preconditions for the latter are much stricter than for the former. Hence a failure to estimate an inter-station transfer function to be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic induction, e.g., because of field line resonances, does not necessarily prohibit use of the station pair for a remote reference estimation of the impedance tensor.

  14. On the relevance of source effects in geomagnetic pulsations for induction soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to close a gap between recent research on geomagnetic pulsations and their usage as source signals in electromagnetic induction soundings (i.e., magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, and magnetovariational sounding. The plane-wave assumption as a precondition for the proper performance of these methods is partly violated by the local nature of field line resonances which cause a considerable portion of pulsations at mid latitudes. It is demonstrated that and explained why in spite of this, the application of remote reference stations in quasi-global distances for the suppression of local correlated-noise effects in induction arrows is possible in the geomagnetic pulsation range. The important role of upstream waves and of the magnetic equatorial region for such applications is emphasized. Furthermore, the principal difference between application of reference stations for local transfer functions (which result in sounding curves and induction arrows and for inter-station transfer functions is considered. The preconditions for the latter are much stricter than for the former. Hence a failure to estimate an inter-station transfer function to be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic induction, e.g., because of field line resonances, does not necessarily prohibit use of the station pair for a remote reference estimation of the impedance tensor.

  15. Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerlemans, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic measurements are possible in both wind tunnels. Then, the array technique is applied to characterize the noise sources on two modern large wind turbines. It is shown that practically all noise emitted to the ground is produced by the outer part of the blades during their downward movement. This asymmetric source pattern, which causes the typical swishing noise during the passage of the blades, can be explained by trailing edge noise directivity and convective amplification. Next, a semi-empirical prediction method is developed for the noise from large wind turbines. The prediction code is successfully validated against the experimental results, not only with regard to sound levels, spectra, and directivity, but also with regard to the noise source distribution in the rotor plane and the temporal variation in sound level (swish). The validated prediction method is then applied to calculate wind turbine noise footprints, which show that large swish amplitudes can occur even at large distance. The influence of airfoil shape on blade noise is investigated through acoustic wind tunnel tests on a series of wind turbine airfoils. Measurements are carried out at various wind speeds and angles of attack, with and without upstream turbulence and boundary layer tripping. The speed dependence, directivity, and tonal behaviour are determined for both trailing edge noise and inflow turbulence noise. Finally, two noise reduction concepts are tested on a large wind turbine: acoustically optimized airfoils and trailing edge serrations. Both blade modifications yield a significant trailing edge noise reduction at low frequencies, but also cause increased tip noise at high frequencies

  16. Extended nonnegative tensor factorisation models for musical sound source separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Derry; Cranitch, Matt; Coyle, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.

  17. Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry FitzGerald

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.

  18. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comesana, D. Fernandez; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially...... extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring......One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has...

  19. Community Response to Multiple Sound Sources: Integrating Acoustic and Contextual Approaches in the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures—although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice. The ALPNAP-study population (N = 1641 shows sufficient subgroups with combinations of rail-highway, highway-main road and rail-highway-main road sound exposure. In this paper we apply a few suggested approaches of the literature to investigate exposure-response curves and its major determinants in the case of exposure to multiple traffic sources. Highly/moderate annoyance and full scale mean annoyance served as outcome. The results show several limitations of the current approaches. Even facing the inherent methodological limitations (energy equivalent summation of sound, rating of overall annoyance the consideration of main contextual factors jointly occurring with the sources (such as vibration, air pollution or coping activities and judgments of the wider area soundscape increases the variance explanation from up to 8% (bivariate, up to 15% (base adjustments up to 55% (full contextual model. The added predictors vary significantly, depending on the source combination. (e.g., significant vibration effects with main road/railway, not highway. Although no significant interactions were found, the observed additive effects are of public health importance. Especially in the case of a three source exposure situation the overall annoyance is already high at lower levels and the contribution of the acoustic indicators is small compared with the non-acoustic and contextual predictors. Noise mapping needs to go down to

  20. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, D/L, was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for D/L = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance (D/L=2.5 was greater than that without acoustic resonance (D/L=0.5. To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.

  1. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun; Jadhali, Rasha Al; Zhang, Likun; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation

  2. Movement and Perceptual Strategies to Intercept Virtual Sound Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem eKomeilipoor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To intercept a moving object, one needs to be in the right place at the right time. In order to do this, it is necessary to pick up and use perceptual information that specifies the time to arrival of an object at an interception point. In the present study, we examined the ability to intercept a laterally moving virtual sound object by controlling the displacement of a sliding handle and tested whether and how the interaural time difference (ITD could be the main source of perceptual information for successfully intercepting the virtual object. The results revealed that in order to accomplish the task, one might need to vary the duration of the movement, control the hand velocity and time to reach the peak velocity (speed coupling, while the adjustment of movement initiation did not facilitate performance. Furthermore, the overall performance was more successful when subjects employed a time-to-contact (tau coupling strategy. This result shows that prospective information is available in sound for guiding goal-directed actions.

  3. Sound Photographs to reveal vehicle pass-by sources with a calibrated source-strength level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mast, A.; Dool, T.C. van den; Toorn, J.D. van der; Watts, G.

    2003-01-01

    In national and European discussions, it appears that the conventional sound measurement techniques are insufficient to answer some relevant questions with respect to source strength of road vehicles. An example of such a question is: What is the importance of tyre-road noise on the one hand and

  4. Sound Spectrum Influences Auditory Distance Perception of Sound Sources Located in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Spiousas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the effect of spectral content on auditory distance perception (ADP focused on the physically measurable cues occurring either in the near field (low-pass filtering due to head diffraction or when the sound travels distances >15 m (high-frequency energy losses due to air absorption. Here, we study how the spectrum of a sound arriving from a source located in a reverberant room at intermediate distances (1–6 m influences the perception of the distance to the source. First, we conducted an ADP experiment using pure tones (the simplest possible spectrum of frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Then, we performed a second ADP experiment with stimuli consisting of continuous broadband and bandpass-filtered (with center frequencies of 0.5, 1.5, and 4 kHz and bandwidths of 1/12, 1/3, and 1.5 octave pink-noise clips. Our results showed an effect of the stimulus frequency on the perceived distance both for pure tones and filtered noise bands: ADP was less accurate for stimuli containing energy only in the low-frequency range. Analysis of the frequency response of the room showed that the low accuracy observed for low-frequency stimuli can be explained by the presence of sparse modal resonances in the low-frequency region of the spectrum, which induced a non-monotonic relationship between binaural intensity and source distance. The results obtained in the second experiment suggest that ADP can also be affected by stimulus bandwidth but in a less straightforward way (i.e., depending on the center frequency, increasing stimulus bandwidth could have different effects. Finally, the analysis of the acoustical cues suggests that listeners judged source distance using mainly changes in the overall intensity of the auditory stimulus with distance rather than the direct-to-reverberant energy ratio, even for low-frequency noise bands (which typically induce high amount of reverberation. The results obtained in this study show that, depending on

  5. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  6. Awareness and perception of reference sources and services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... e-mail, telephone and social media (e.g. facebook). It was also revealed that 228 (70.45%) have good knowledge of what reference source are; 192 (59.08%) have good understanding of what reference services are, and 241 (74.15%) make use of reference sources in the Federal University of Technology, Owerri library.

  7. Optimal Prediction of Moving Sound Source Direction in the Owl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Cox

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Capturing nature's statistical structure in behavioral responses is at the core of the ability to function adaptively in the environment. Bayesian statistical inference describes how sensory and prior information can be combined optimally to guide behavior. An outstanding open question of how neural coding supports Bayesian inference includes how sensory cues are optimally integrated over time. Here we address what neural response properties allow a neural system to perform Bayesian prediction, i.e., predicting where a source will be in the near future given sensory information and prior assumptions. The work here shows that the population vector decoder will perform Bayesian prediction when the receptive fields of the neurons encode the target dynamics with shifting receptive fields. We test the model using the system that underlies sound localization in barn owls. Neurons in the owl's midbrain show shifting receptive fields for moving sources that are consistent with the predictions of the model. We predict that neural populations can be specialized to represent the statistics of dynamic stimuli to allow for a vector read-out of Bayes-optimal predictions.

  8. Directivity of Spherical Polyhedron Sound Source Used in Near-Field HRTF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guang-Zheng; Xie Bo-Sun; Rao Dan

    2010-01-01

    The omnidirectional character is one of important requirements for the sound source used in near-field head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements. Based on the analysis on the radiation sound pressure and directivity character of various spherical polyhedron sound sources, a spherical dodecahedral sound source with radius of 0.035m is proposed and manufactured. Theoretical and measured results indicate that the sound source is approximately omnidirectional below the frequency of 8 kHz. In addition, the sound source has reasonable magnitude response from 350Hz to 20kHz and linear phase characteristics. Therefore, it is suitable for the near-field HRTF measurements. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  10. Arkansas Reference Sources. Bibliographic Series No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Joan; Roberts, Joan

    Varied sources for information on Arkansas held by the Arkansas University library are listed. Bibliographies and indexes of Arkansas publications are included, as well as materials dealing with the state's folklore and literature, arts and humanities, government and law, business and economics, social conditions, labor, history and biography,…

  11. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  12. Meaning From Environmental Sounds: Types of Signal-Referent Relations and Their Effect on Recognizing Auditory Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Stevens, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which…

  13. Zotero : a free and open-source reference manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Zotero is a free, open-source reference management program compatible with Linux®, Mac®, and Windows® operating systems. Libraries are backed up online allowing sharing between computers and even multiple users. Zotero makes it easy to keep your reference library organised and ‘clean’. Reference...

  14. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2018-01-12

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation directivity in far fields. The strong directivity formed in the presence of the enclosure is attributed to interference of sources under degenerate Mie resonances in the enclosure of anisotropic property. Our numerical simulations of sound emission from the sources demonstrate the radiation of a highly directed sound beam of unidirectional or bidirectional patterns, depending on how the sources are configured inside the enclosure. Our scheme, if achieved, can solve the challenging problem of poor directivity of a subwavelength sound system, and can guide beam forming and collimation by miniaturized devices.

  15. JOKARUS - design of a compact optical iodine frequency reference for a sounding rocket mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkolnik, Vladimir; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Gutsch, Franz Balthasar; Krutzik, Markus [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Oswald, Markus [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Schuldt, Thilo [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Braxmaier, Claus [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Lezius, Matthias; Holzwarth, Ronald [Menlo Systems GmbH, Martinsried (Germany); Kuerbis, Christian; Bawamia, Ahmad [Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    We present the design of a compact absolute optical frequency reference for space applications based on hyperfine transitions in molecular iodine with a targeted fractional frequency instability of better than 3 x 10{sup -14} after 1 s. It is based on a micro-integrated extended cavity diode laser with integrated optical amplifier, fiber pigtailed second harmonic generation wave-guide modules, and a quasi-monolithic spectroscopy setup with operating electronics. The instrument described here is scheduled for launch end of 2017 aboard the TEXUS 54 sounding rocket as an important qualification step towards space application of iodine frequency references and related technologies. The payload will operate autonomously and its optical frequency will be compared to an optical frequency comb during its space flight. (orig.)

  16. Hearing the Sound in the Brain: Influences of Different EEG References

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available If the scalp potential signals, the electroencephalogram (EEG, are due to neural “singers” in the brain, how could we listen to them with less distortion? One crucial point is that the data recording on the scalp should be faithful and accurate, thus the choice of reference electrode is a vital factor determining the faithfulness of the data. In this study, music on the scalp derived from data in the brain using three different reference electrodes were compared, including approximate zero reference—reference electrode standardization technique (REST, average reference (AR, and linked mastoids reference (LM. The classic music pieces in waveform format were used as simulated sources inside a head model, and they were forward calculated to scalp as standard potential recordings, i.e., waveform format music from the brain with true zero reference. Then these scalp music was re-referenced into REST, AR, and LM based data, and compared with the original forward data (true zero reference. For real data, the EEG recorded in an orthodontic pain control experiment were utilized for music generation with the three references, and the scale free index (SFI of these music pieces were compared. The results showed that in the simulation for only one source, different references do not change the music/waveform; for two sources or more, REST provide the most faithful music/waveform to the original ones inside the brain, and the distortions caused by AR and LM were spatial locations of both source and scalp electrode dependent. The brainwave music from the real EEG data showed that REST and AR make the differences of SFI between two states more recognized and found the frontal is the main region that producing the music. In conclusion, REST can reconstruct the true signals approximately, and it can be used to help to listen to the true voice of the neural singers in the brain.

  17. Analysis, Design and Implementation of an Embedded Realtime Sound Source Localization System Based on Beamforming Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Djajadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is intended to analyze, design and implement a realtime sound source localization system by using a mobile robot as the media. The implementated system uses 2 microphones as the sensors, Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller system with ATMega328p as the microprocessor, two permanent magnet DC motors as the actuators for the mobile robot and a servo motor as the actuator to rotate the webcam directing to the location of the sound source, and a laptop/PC as the simulation and display media. In order to achieve the objective of finding the position of a specific sound source, beamforming theory is applied to the system. Once the location of the sound source is detected and determined, the choice is either the mobile robot will adjust its position according to the direction of the sound source or only webcam will rotate in the direction of the incoming sound simulating the use of this system in a video conference. The integrated system has been tested and the results show the system could localize in realtime a sound source placed randomly on a half circle area (0 - 1800 with a radius of 0.3m - 3m, assuming the system is the center point of the circle. Due to low ADC and processor speed, achievable best angular resolution is still limited to 25o.

  18. Sources of underwater sound and their characterisation (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    After centuries of speculation, punctuated by occasional theoretical or experimental advances, the first intensive research into underwater sound took place 100 years ago, applied initially to provide advance warning of icebergs after the loss of RMS Titanic in 1912, and later to counter the U-boat

  19. A SOUND SOURCE LOCALIZATION TECHNIQUE TO SUPPORT SEARCH AND RESCUE IN LOUD NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    At some sites of earthquakes and other disasters, rescuers search for people buried under rubble by listening for the sounds which they make. Thus developing a technique to localize sound sources amidst loud noise will support such search and rescue operations. In this paper, we discuss an experiment performed to test an array signal processing technique which searches for unperceivable sound in loud noise environments. Two speakers simultaneously played a noise of a generator and a voice decreased by 20 dB (= 1/100 of power) from the generator noise at an outdoor space where cicadas were making noise. The sound signal was received by a horizontally set linear microphone array 1.05 m in length and consisting of 15 microphones. The direction and the distance of the voice were computed and the sound of the voice was extracted and played back as an audible sound by array signal processing.

  20. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  1. Reproduction of nearby sound sources using higher-order ambisonics with practical loudspeaker arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    the impact of two existing and a new proposed regularization function on the reproduced sound fields and on the main auditory cue for nearby sound sources outside the median plane, i.e, low-frequencies interaural level differences (ILDs). The proposed regularization function led to a better reproduction......In order to reproduce nearby sound sources with distant loudspeakers to a single listener, the near field compensated (NFC) method for higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) has been previously proposed. In practical realization, this method requires the use of regularization functions. This study analyzes...... of point source sound fields compared to existing regularization functions for NFC-HOA. Measurements in realistic playback environments showed that, for very close sources, significant ILDs for frequencies above about 250 Hz can be reproduced with NFC-HOA and the proposed regularization function whereas...

  2. Differences in directional sound source behavior and perception between assorted computer room models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    considering reverberation time. However, for the three other parameters evaluated (sound pressure level, clarity index and lateral fraction), the changing diffusivity of the room does not diminish the importance of the directivity. The study therefore shows the importance of considering source directivity......Source directivity is an important input variable when using room acoustic computer modeling programs to generate auralizations. Previous research has shown that using a multichannel anechoic recording can produce a more natural sounding auralization, particularly as the number of channels...

  3. Reproduction of nearby sources by imposing true interaural differences on a sound field control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badajoz, Javier; Chang, Ji-ho; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    In anechoic conditions, the Interaural Level Difference (ILD) is the most significant auditory cue to judge the distance to a sound source located within 1 m of the listener's head. This is due to the unique characteristics of a point source in its near field, which result in exceptionally high...... as Pressure Matching (PM), and a binaural control technique. While PM aims at reproducing the incident sound field, the objective of the binaural control technique is to ensure a correct reproduction of interaural differences. The combination of these two approaches gives rise to the following features: (i......, distance dependent ILDs. When reproducing the sound field of sources located near the head with line or circular arrays of loudspeakers, the reproduced ILDs are generally lower than expected, due to physical limitations. This study presents an approach that combines a sound field reproduction method, known...

  4. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    is of particular importance to achieve a sound field that reaches both microphones with the same level and that is sufficiently uniform at the microphone positions, in order to reduce the effect of misalignment. An existing sound source has been modeled using the Boundary Element Method, and the simulations have......The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source...... been used to modify the source and make it suitable for this kind of calibration. It has been found that a central plug, already present in the device, can be re-shaped in such a way that makes the sound field on the microphone positions more uniform, even at rather high frequencies. Measurements have...

  5. Separation of non-stationary multi-source sound field based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In the sound field with multiple non-stationary sources, the measured pressure is the sum of the pressures generated by all sources, and thus cannot be used directly for studying the vibration and sound radiation characteristics of every source alone. This paper proposes a separation model based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method (ITDESM) to separate the pressure field belonging to every source from the non-stationary multi-source sound field. In the proposed method, ITDESM is first extended to establish the relationship between the mixed time-dependent pressure and all the equivalent sources distributed on every source with known location and geometry information, and all the equivalent source strengths at each time step are solved by an iterative solving process; then, the corresponding equivalent source strengths of one interested source are used to calculate the pressure field generated by that source alone. Numerical simulation of two baffled circular pistons demonstrates that the proposed method can be effective in separating the non-stationary pressure generated by every source alone in both time and space domains. An experiment with two speakers in a semi-anechoic chamber further evidences the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Improving the efficiency of deconvolution algorithms for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lylloff, Oliver Ackermann; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    of the unknown acoustic source distribution and the beamformer's response to a point source, i.e., point-spread function. A significant limitation of deconvolution is, however, an additional computational effort compared to beamforming. In this paper, computationally efficient deconvolution algorithms...

  7. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......-free sound signal of the target talker at the HAS via the wireless connection. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which we call MLSSL, to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the target signal given access to the target signal content. Compared with other "informed...

  8. Sound power emitted by a pure-tone source in a reverberation room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    Energy considerations are of enormous practical importance in acoustics. In "energy acoustics," sources of noise are described in terms of the sound power they emit, the underlying assumption being that this property is independent of the particular environment where the sources are placed. Howev...

  9. Musicking Online: Organizing Reference Sources in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Kimmy

    2012-01-01

    Online music research resources took center stage at the second plenary session "Wrangling the Information Universe: Moving From Institutional Portals to a Shared Resource for Online Music Sources" held on Friday, February 17, 2012, at the Music Library Association (MLA) 2012 Annual Meeting in Dallas, Texas. The Reference Sources…

  10. A method for estimating the orientation of a directional sound source from source directivity and multi-microphone recordings: principles and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Jakobsen, Lasse; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in the ultra......Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in...

  11. A novel method for direct localized sound speed measurement using the virtual source paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    ) mediums. The inhomogeneous mediums were arranged as an oil layer, one 6 mm thick and the other 11 mm thick, on top of a water layer. To complement the phantom studies, sources of error for spatial registration of virtual detectors were simulated. The sources of error presented here are multiple sound...... registered virtual detector. Between a pair of registered virtual detectors a spherical wave is propagated. By beamforming the received data the time of flight between the two virtual sources can be calculated. From this information the local sound speed can be estimated. Validation of the estimator used...... both phantom and simulation results. The phantom consisted of two wire targets located near the transducer's axis at depths of 17 and 28 mm. Using this phantom the sound speed between the wires was measured for a homogeneous (water) medium and for two inhomogeneous (DB-grade castor oil and water...

  12. Low sound level source path contribution on a HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    For compliance test purposes, the noise level of a HVAC is usually measured with a pressure microphone positioned at a certain distance. This measurement is normally performed in an anechoic room. However, this method doesn't provide the engineer any insight on what noise sources do contribute to

  13. MODEL OF A PERSONWALKING AS A STRUCTURE BORNE SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, Matthias; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    has to be considered and the contact history must be integrated in the model. This is complicated by the fact that nonlinearities occur at different stages in the system either on the source or receiver side. ot only lightweight structures but also soft floor coverings would benefit from an accurate...

  14. A study investigating sound sources and noise levels in neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Exposure to noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has the potential to affect neonatal auditory development, sleep patterns and physiological stability, thus impacting on developmental progress. Objectives. This study aimed to identify noise sources in three NICUs in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ...

  15. Differences in directional sound source behavior and perception between assorted computer room models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, M. C.; Wang, L. M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    time. However, for the three other parameters evaluated (sound-pressure level, clarity index, and lateral fraction), the changing diffusivity of the room does not diminish the importance of the directivity. The study therefore shows the importance of considering source directivity when using computer......Source directivity is an important input variable when using room acoustic computer modeling programs to generate auralizations. Previous research has shown that using a multichannel anechoic recording can produce a more natural sounding auralization, particularly as the number of channels...

  16. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH 2 cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept

  17. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R. [and others

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  18. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design (using these codes) of future cryogenic upper stages. References Eckart Fuhrmann, Michael E. Dreyer, Description of the Sounding Rocket Experiment SOURCE, Microgravity sci. technol., 20/3-4, 206 (2008)

  19. The Reduction of Vertical Interchannel Crosstalk: The Analysis of Localisation Thresholds for Natural Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Wallis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In subjective listening tests, natural sound sources were presented to subjects as vertically-oriented phantom images from two layers of loudspeakers, ‘height’ and ‘main’. Subjects were required to reduce the amplitude of the height layer until the position of the resultant sound source matched that of the same source presented from the main layer only (the localisation threshold. Delays of 0, 1 and 10 ms were applied to the height layer with respect to the main, with vertical stereophonic and quadraphonic conditions being tested. The results of the study showed that the localisation thresholds obtained were not significantly affected by sound source or presentation method. Instead, the only variable whose effect was significant was interchannel time difference (ICTD. For ICTD of 0 ms, the median threshold was −9.5 dB, which was significantly lower than the −7 dB found for both 1 and 10 ms. The results of the study have implications both for the recording of sound sources for three-dimensional (3D audio reproduction formats and also for the rendering of 3D images.

  20. Auralization of airborne sound insulation including the influence of source room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a simple and acoustically accurate method for the auralization of airborne sound insulation between two rooms by means of a room acoustic simulation software (ODEON). The method makes use of a frequency independent transparency of the transmitting surface combined...... with a frequency dependent power setting of the source in the source room. The acoustic properties in terms of volume and reverberation time as well as the area of the transmitting surface are all included in the simulation. The user only has to select the position of the source in the source room and the receiver...... of the transmitting surface is used for the simulation of sound transmission. Also the reduced clarity of the auralization due to the reverberance of the source room is inherent in the method. Currently the method is restricted to transmission loss data in octave bands....

  1. Cost Analysis Sources and Documents Data Base Reference Manual (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    M: Refcrence Manual PRICE H: Training Course Workbook 11. Use in Cost Analysis. Important source of cost estimates for electronic and mechanical...Nature of Data. Contains many microeconomic time series by month or quarter. 5. Level of Detail. Very detailed. 6. Normalization Processes Required...Reference Manual. Moorestown, N.J,: GE Corporation, September 1986. 64. PRICE Training Course Workbook . Moorestown, N.J.: GE Corporation, February 1986

  2. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  3. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities

  4. Performance of an open-source heart sound segmentation algorithm on eight independent databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Springer, David; Clifford, Gari D

    2017-08-01

    Heart sound segmentation is a prerequisite step for the automatic analysis of heart sound signals, facilitating the subsequent identification and classification of pathological events. Recently, hidden Markov model-based algorithms have received increased interest due to their robustness in processing noisy recordings. In this study we aim to evaluate the performance of the recently published logistic regression based hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) heart sound segmentation method, by using a wider variety of independently acquired data of varying quality. Firstly, we constructed a systematic evaluation scheme based on a new collection of heart sound databases, which we assembled for the PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2016. This collection includes a total of more than 120 000 s of heart sounds recorded from 1297 subjects (including both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients) and comprises eight independent heart sound databases sourced from multiple independent research groups around the world. Then, the HSMM-based segmentation method was evaluated using the assembled eight databases. The common evaluation metrics of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, as well as the [Formula: see text] measure were used. In addition, the effect of varying the tolerance window for determining a correct segmentation was evaluated. The results confirm the high accuracy of the HSMM-based algorithm on a separate test dataset comprised of 102 306 heart sounds. An average [Formula: see text] score of 98.5% for segmenting S1 and systole intervals and 97.2% for segmenting S2 and diastole intervals were observed. The [Formula: see text] score was shown to increases with an increases in the tolerance window size, as expected. The high segmentation accuracy of the HSMM-based algorithm on a large database confirmed the algorithm's effectiveness. The described evaluation framework, combined with the largest collection of open access heart sound data, provides essential resources for

  5. The Encoding of Sound Source Elevation in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeau, Régis; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2018-03-28

    tuning functions in low-level auditory cortex underlie the perceived elevation of a sound source. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/383252-13$15.00/0.

  6. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source is of p...

  7. Evolution of Sound Source Localization Circuits in the Nonmammalian Vertebrate Brainstem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, Peggy L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement...... to increased sensitivity to a broader frequency range and to modification of the preexisting circuitry for sound source localization....

  8. Aerofoil broadband and tonal noise modelling using stochastic sound sources and incorporated large scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurov, S.; Darbyshire, O. R.; Karabasov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The present work discusses modifications to the stochastic Fast Random Particle Mesh (FRPM) method featuring both tonal and broadband noise sources. The technique relies on the combination of incorporated vortex-shedding resolved flow available from Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation with the fine-scale turbulence FRPM solution generated via the stochastic velocity fluctuations in the context of vortex sound theory. In contrast to the existing literature, our method encompasses a unified treatment for broadband and tonal acoustic noise sources at the source level, thus, accounting for linear source interference as well as possible non-linear source interaction effects. When sound sources are determined, for the sound propagation, Acoustic Perturbation Equations (APE-4) are solved in the time-domain. Results of the method's application for two aerofoil benchmark cases, with both sharp and blunt trailing edges are presented. In each case, the importance of individual linear and non-linear noise sources was investigated. Several new key features related to the unsteady implementation of the method were tested and brought into the equation. Encouraging results have been obtained for benchmark test cases using the new technique which is believed to be potentially applicable to other airframe noise problems where both tonal and broadband parts are important.

  9. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  10. Developing a Reference of Normal Lung Sounds in Healthy Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E.; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chavez, Miguel A.; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. Methods 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81 %) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Results Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47 % were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Conclusions Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments. PMID:24943262

  11. Reference volumetric samples of gamma-spectroscopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, E.; Taskaeva, M.; Grigorov, T.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the requirements for matrices of reference volumetric radiation sources necessary for detector calibration. The first stage of this determination consists in analysing some available organic and nonorganic materials. Different sorts of food, grass, plastics, minerals and building materials have been considered, taking into account the various procedures of their processing (grinding, screening, homogenizing) and their properties (hygroscopy, storage life, resistance to oxidation during gamma sterilization). The procedures of source processing, sample preparation, matrix irradiation and homogenization have been determined. A rotation homogenizing device has been elaborated enabling to homogenize the matrix activity irrespective of the vessel geometry. 33 standard volumetric radioactive sources have been prepared: 14 - on organic matrix and 19 - on nonorganic matrix. (author)

  12. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises.

  13. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  14. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  15. The influence of signal parameters on the sound source localization ability of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Haan, D.de; Verboom, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear how well harbor porpoises can locate sound sources, and thus can locate acoustic alarms on gillnets. Therefore the ability of a porpoise to determine the location of a sound source was determined. The animal was trained to indicate the active one of 16 transducers in a 16-m -diam

  16. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  17. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of 57 Co, 60 Co, 133 Ba, 241 Am, 152 Eu and 166 Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  18. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  19. Reconstruction of Sound Source Pressures in an Enclosure Using the Phased Beam Tracing Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2009-01-01

    . First, surfaces of an extended source are divided into reasonably small segments. From each source segment, one beam is projected into the field and all emitted beams are traced. Radiated beams from the source reach array sensors after traveling various paths including the wall reflections. Collecting...... all the pressure histories at the field points, source-observer relations can be constructed in a matrix-vector form for each frequency. By multiplying the measured field data with the pseudo-inverse of the calculated transfer function, one obtains the distribution of source pressure. An omni......-directional sphere and a cubic source in a rectangular enclosure were taken as examples in the simulation tests. A reconstruction error was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of field point locations. When the source information was reconstructed by the present method, it was shown that the sound power...

  20. Development of Reference Source Terms for EU-APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, ByungIl; Lee, Chonghui; Lee, Dongsu; Ko, Heejin; Kang, Sangho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These source terms are developed for the typical U. S. NPP and do not reflect the design characteristics of EU-APR1400 (1,400 MWe PWR) which will be applied for the EUR certification in European countries. The process of developing the RST for EU-APR1400 is to undergo a similar process that NUREG-1465 had gone through when it came out with its proposed source terms. The purpose of this study is to develop the EU-APR1400 design-specific RST complied with the EUR. The Large LOCA is the reference equence used in the NUREG-1465 evaluation, whereas the EUAPR1400 risk-significant sequences are dominated by small LOCA and non-LOCA sequences. Moreover, when considering the EU-APR1400 has many design features to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena, it is not surprising that the aspects of both release fractions and durations are distinctly different from NUREG-1465. This RST will be continuously updated to reflect to the design features of EU-APR1400, and then, be used as the reference for design purposes such as criteria satisfaction of radioactivity releases, equipment survivability, control room habitability for severe accident, and so on.

  1. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of MEMS AC Voltage Reference Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of physical parameters of a tunable MEMS capacitor, as the major part of MEMS AC voltage reference, is of great importance to achieve an accurate output voltage free of the malfunctioning noise and disturbance. Even though strenuous endeavors are made to fabricate MEMS tunable capacitors with desiderated accurate physical characteristics and ameliorate exactness of physical parameters’ values, parametric uncertainties ineluctably emerge in fabrication process attributable to imperfections in micromachining process. First off, this paper considers applying an adaptive sliding mode controller design in the MEMS AC voltage reference source so that it is capable of giving off a well-regulated output voltage in defiance of jumbling parametric uncertainties in the plant dynamics and also aggravating external disturbance imposed on the system. Secondly, it puts an investigatory comparison with the designed model reference adaptive controller and the pole-placement state feedback one into one’s prospective. Not only does the tuned adaptive sliding mode controller show remarkable robustness against slow parameter variation and external disturbance being compared to the pole-placement state feedback one, but also it immensely gets robust against the external disturbance in comparison with the conventional adaptive controller. The simulation results are promising.

  2. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  3. Perception by Operators of Approach and Withdrawal of Moving Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Tucker, 1988; Strybel and Neal, 1994) or between stationary and moving sound sources or auditory images (Perrott and Musikant , 1977; Strybel and Neale...conditions of stimulation (Viskov, 1975; Perrott and Musikant , 1977; Strybel et al., 1989; Sabery and Perrott, 1990; Strybel et al., 1992; Strybel and...noise and its relation to masking and loudness// JASA, 1947. V.19. P. 609-619. 24. Perrott D.R., Musicant A.D. Minimum auditory movement angle: binaural

  4. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  5. Forced sound transmission through a finite-sized single leaf panel subject to a point source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong

    2018-03-01

    In the case of a point source in front of a panel, the wavefront of the incident wave is spherical. This paper discusses spherical sound waves transmitting through a finite sized panel. The forced sound transmission performance that predominates in the frequency range below the coincidence frequency is the focus. Given the point source located along the centerline of the panel, forced sound transmission coefficient is derived through introducing the sound radiation impedance for spherical incident waves. It is found that in addition to the panel mass, forced sound transmission loss also depends on the distance from the source to the panel as determined by the radiation impedance. Unlike the case of plane incident waves, sound transmission performance of a finite sized panel does not necessarily converge to that of an infinite panel, especially when the source is away from the panel. For practical applications, the normal incidence sound transmission loss expression of plane incident waves can be used if the distance between the source and panel d and the panel surface area S satisfy d/S>0.5. When d/S ≈0.1, the diffuse field sound transmission loss expression may be a good approximation. An empirical expression for d/S=0  is also given.

  6. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R., E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 241}Am, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 166}Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  7. Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN. Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability.

  8. Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability. PMID:22319401

  9. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  10. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  11. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  12. On the influence of microphone array geometry on HRTF-based Sound Source Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The direction dependence of Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) forms the basis for HRTF-based Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms. In this paper, we show how spectral similarities of the HRTFs of different directions in the horizontal plane influence performance of HRTF-based SSL...... algorithms; the more similar the HRTFs of different angles to the HRTF of the target angle, the worse the performance. However, we also show how the microphone array geometry can assist in differentiating between the HRTFs of the different angles, thereby improving performance of HRTF-based SSL algorithms....... Furthermore, to demonstrate the analysis results, we show the impact of HRTFs similarities and microphone array geometry on an exemplary HRTF-based SSL algorithm, called MLSSL. This algorithm is well-suited for this purpose as it allows to estimate the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) of the target sound using any...

  13. Measurement of acoustic characteristics of Japanese Buddhist temples in relation to sound source location and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeta, Yoshiharu; Shimokura, Ryota; Kim, Yong Hee; Ohsawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Although temples are important buildings in the Buddhist community, the acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. Buddhist monks change the location and direction according to the ceremony, and associated acoustical changes have not yet been examined scientifically. To discuss the desired acoustics of temples, it is necessary to know the acoustic characteristics appropriate for each phase of a ceremony. In this study, acoustic measurements were taken at various source locations and directions in Japanese temples. A directional loudspeaker was used as the source to provide vocal acoustic fields, and impulse responses were measured and analyzed. The speech transmission index was higher and the interaural cross-correlation coefficient was lower for the sound source directed toward the side wall than that directed toward the altar. This suggests that the change in direction improves speech intelligibility, and the asymmetric property of direct sound and complex reflections from the altar and side wall increases the apparent source width. The large and coupled-like structure of the altar of a Buddhist temple may have reinforced the reverberation components and the table in the altar, which is called the "syumidan," may have decreased binaural coherence.

  14. The sound power emitted by a source of low acoustic impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Verholt, Lars M.

    1998-01-01

    Several authors have maintained that a source of low acoustic impedance (which includes standardised reference sources of the aerodynamic type) would radiate less than the free field power in a reverberation room. However, neither computer simulations nor experiments have confirmed this assertion....

  15. A method for recognition of coexisting environmental sound sources based on the Fisher’s linear discriminant classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell Mediante, Ester; Haddad, Karim; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    A method for sound recognition of coexisting environmental noise sources by applying pattern recognition techniques is developed. The investigated technique could benefit several areas of application, such as noise impact assessment, acoustic pollution mitigation and soundscape characterization...

  16. Localization of Simultaneous Moving Sound Sources for Mobile Robot Using a Frequency-Domain Steered Beamformer Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valin, Jean-Marc; Michaud, François; Hadjou, Brahim; Rouat, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots in real-life settings would benefit from being able to localize sound sources. Such a capability can nicely complement vision to help localize a person or an interesting event in the environment, and also to provide enhanced processing for other capabilities such as speech recognition. In this paper we present a robust sound source localization method in three-dimensional space using an array of 8 microphones. The method is based on a frequency-domain implementation of a steered...

  17. Evaluation of the uniformity of wide circular reference source and application of correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the uniformity of wide circular reference sources is evaluated. This kind of reference source is still widely used in Brazil. In previous works wide rectangular reference sources were analyzed and it was shown the importance of the application of correction factors in calibration procedures of radiation monitors. Now a transposition of the methods used formerly is performed, evaluating the uniformities of circular reference sources and calculating the associated correction factors. (author)

  18. Towards a Synesthesia Laboratory: Real-time Localization and Visualization of a Sound Source for Virtual Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Ahmet; Tepljakov, Aleksei; Astapov, Sergei; Draheim, Dirk; Petlenkov, Eduard; Vassiljeva, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present our findings related to the problem of localization and visualization of a sound source placed in the same room as the listener. The particular effect that we aim to investigate is called synesthesia—the act of experiencing one sense modality as another, e.g., a person may vividly experience flashes of colors when listening to a series of sounds. Towards that end, we apply a series of recently developed methods for detecting sound source in a three-dimensional space ...

  19. A location procedure for sound sources in reactor-technical enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, D.

    1982-07-01

    A passive method requiring one detector only has been developed for the location of sound emitting faults in nuclear power plant components. It is adapted for use in a frequency range the wavelength of which is of the same order of magnitude as characteristic dimensions of the considered enclosure. The location is performed in the following way: (1) For a fixed detector position the Auto Power Spectral Density (APSD) of the source to be located is measured. (2) For this detector position the APSD is calculated for the potential source locations. For this, the free-field APSD as well as the acoustic normal modes of the enclosure are necessary. (3) The measured APSD is compared with the theoretically obtained APSD's. (4) That APSD is determined which is most similar to the measured APSD, and consequently an information about the unknown source position is got. (author)

  20. A Survey of Sound Source Localization Methods in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Cobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs are formed by a distributed group of acoustic-sensing devices featuring audio playing and recording capabilities. Current mobile computing platforms offer great possibilities for the design of audio-related applications involving acoustic-sensing nodes. In this context, acoustic source localization is one of the application domains that have attracted the most attention of the research community along the last decades. In general terms, the localization of acoustic sources can be achieved by studying energy and temporal and/or directional features from the incoming sound at different microphones and using a suitable model that relates those features with the spatial location of the source (or sources of interest. This paper reviews common approaches for source localization in WASNs that are focused on different types of acoustic features, namely, the energy of the incoming signals, their time of arrival (TOA or time difference of arrival (TDOA, the direction of arrival (DOA, and the steered response power (SRP resulting from combining multiple microphone signals. Additionally, we discuss methods not only aimed at localizing acoustic sources but also designed to locate the nodes themselves in the network. Finally, we discuss current challenges and frontiers in this field.

  1. Reference sound speed profile and related ray acoustics of Bay of Bengal for tomographic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    wave guide situated much below the surface as seen by the variation in the conjugate depth. Ray-tracing carried out using range-independent software revealed that acoustic rays with a flat angle of emergence from the source reach the receiver faster...

  2. The role of envelope shape in the localization of multiple sound sources and echoes in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Caitlin S; Nelson, Brian S; Takahashi, Terry T

    2013-02-01

    Echoes and sounds of independent origin often obscure sounds of interest, but echoes can go undetected under natural listening conditions, a perception called the precedence effect. How does the auditory system distinguish between echoes and independent sources? To investigate, we presented two broadband noises to barn owls (Tyto alba) while varying the similarity of the sounds' envelopes. The carriers of the noises were identical except for a 2- or 3-ms delay. Their onsets and offsets were also synchronized. In owls, sound localization is guided by neural activity on a topographic map of auditory space. When there are two sources concomitantly emitting sounds with overlapping amplitude spectra, space map neurons discharge when the stimulus in their receptive field is louder than the one outside it and when the averaged amplitudes of both sounds are rising. A model incorporating these features calculated the strengths of the two sources' representations on the map (B. S. Nelson and T. T. Takahashi; Neuron 67: 643-655, 2010). The target localized by the owls could be predicted from the model's output. The model also explained why the echo is not localized at short delays: when envelopes are similar, peaks in the leading sound mask corresponding peaks in the echo, weakening the echo's space map representation. When the envelopes are dissimilar, there are few or no corresponding peaks, and the owl localizes whichever source is predicted by the model to be less masked. Thus the precedence effect in the owl is a by-product of a mechanism for representing multiple sound sources on its map.

  3. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  4. Identification of radioactive sources and devices. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a basic guide and not a comprehensive tool kit to identify and provide detailed emergency handling instructions for radioactive sources, devices and transport containers. In addition, this publication helps to identify sources and highlight the risks they present, and provides information on appropriate action. It is a small but significant step in the international community's continuing efforts to strengthen control of radioactive sources and nuclear material, increase safety and security, and thereby make the benefits of radioactive sources ever more broadly accessible. This publication was partly funded through the Nuclear Security Fund established under the Nuclear Security Plan

  5. The low-frequency sound power measuring technique for an underwater source in a non-anechoic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Ming; Tang, Rui; Li, Qi; Shang, Da-Jing

    2018-03-01

    In order to determine the radiated sound power of an underwater source below the Schroeder cut-off frequency in a non-anechoic tank, a low-frequency extension measuring technique is proposed. This technique is based on a unique relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed field and those of the free field, which can be obtained as a correction term based on previous measurements of a known simple source. The radiated sound power of an unknown underwater source in the free field can thereby be obtained accurately from measurements in a non-anechoic tank. To verify the validity of the proposed technique, a mathematical model of the enclosed field is established using normal-mode theory, and the relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed and free fields is obtained. The radiated sound power of an underwater transducer source is tested in a glass tank using the proposed low-frequency extension measuring technique. Compared with the free field, the radiated sound power level of the narrowband spectrum deviation is found to be less than 3 dB, and the 1/3 octave spectrum deviation is found to be less than 1 dB. The proposed testing technique can be used not only to extend the low-frequency applications of non-anechoic tanks, but also for measurement of radiated sound power from complicated sources in non-anechoic tanks.

  6. Numeric data services and sources for the general reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Kellam, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online access to social science statistical and numeric data sources, such as the U.S. Census Bureau's American Fact Finder, has lead to an increased interest in supporting these sources in academic libraries. Many large libraries have been able to devote staff to data services for years, and recently smaller academic libraries have recognized the need to provide numeric data services and support. This guidebook serves as a primer to developing and supporting social science statistical and numerical data sources in the academic library. It provides strategies for the estab

  7. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; van Looy, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes

  8. Shakespeare: A Student's Guide to Basic Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claener, Anne, Comp.

    Basic and standard reference materials dealing with William Shakespeare are listed in this bibliography. Annotated entries are grouped under the following headings: concordances, dictionaries, encyclopedias and handbooks, and bibliographies. The section on bibliographies is further divided into lists of editions of Shakespeare's work, general…

  9. The Web as a Reference Tool: Comparisons with Traditional Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Joseph; McClure, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary study suggests that the same level of timeliness and accuracy can be obtained for answers to reference questions using resources in freely available World Wide Web sites as with traditional print-based resources. Discusses implications for library collection development, new models of consortia, training needs, and costing and…

  10. Microsoft C#.NET program and electromagnetic depth sounding for large loop source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar Rao, K.; Ashok Babu, G.

    2009-07-01

    A program, in the C# (C Sharp) language with Microsoft.NET Framework, is developed to compute the normalized vertical magnetic field of a horizontal rectangular loop source placed on the surface of an n-layered earth. The field can be calculated either inside or outside the loop. Five C# classes with member functions in each class are, designed to compute the kernel, Hankel transform integral, coefficients for cubic spline interpolation between computed values and the normalized vertical magnetic field. The program computes the vertical magnetic field in the frequency domain using the integral expressions evaluated by a combination of straightforward numerical integration and the digital filter technique. The code utilizes different object-oriented programming (OOP) features. It finally computes the amplitude and phase of the normalized vertical magnetic field. The computed results are presented for geometric and parametric soundings. The code is developed in Microsoft.NET visual studio 2003 and uses various system class libraries.

  11. High frequency source localization in a shallow ocean sound channel using frequency difference matched field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthmann, Brian M; Song, H C; Dowling, David R

    2015-12-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an established technique for source localization in known multipath acoustic environments. Unfortunately, in many situations, particularly those involving high frequency signals, imperfect knowledge of the actual propagation environment prevents accurate propagation modeling and source localization via MFP fails. For beamforming applications, this actual-to-model mismatch problem was mitigated through a frequency downshift, made possible by a nonlinear array-signal-processing technique called frequency difference beamforming [Abadi, Song, and Dowling (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3018-3029]. Here, this technique is extended to conventional (Bartlett) MFP using simulations and measurements from the 2011 Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI experiment (KAM11) to produce ambiguity surfaces at frequencies well below the signal bandwidth where the detrimental effects of mismatch are reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results suggest that frequency difference MFP can be more robust against environmental mismatch than conventional MFP. In particular, signals of frequency 11.2 kHz-32.8 kHz were broadcast 3 km through a 106-m-deep shallow ocean sound channel to a sparse 16-element vertical receiving array. Frequency difference MFP unambiguously localized the source in several experimental data sets with average peak-to-side-lobe ratio of 0.9 dB, average absolute-value range error of 170 m, and average absolute-value depth error of 10 m.

  12. Sound Source Localization through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  13. Sound Source Localization Through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  14. Sources and performance criteria of uncertainty of reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Andrea; Paleari, Renata

    2018-05-29

    This article wants to focus on the today available Reference Measurement Procedures (RMPs) for the determination of various analytes in Laboratory Medicine and the possible tools to evaluate their performance in the laboratories who are currently using them. A brief review on the RMPs has been performed by investigating the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM) database. In order to evaluate their performances, we have checked the organization of three international ring trials, i.e. those regularly performed by the IFCC External Quality assessment scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA), by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cholesterol network and by the IFCC Network for HbA 1c . Several RMPs are available through the JCTLM database, but the best way to collect information about the RMPs and their uncertainties is to look at the reference measurement service providers (RMS). This part of the database and the background on how to listed in the database is very helpful for the assessment of expanded uncertainty (MU) and performance in general of RMPs. Worldwide, 17 RMS are listed in the database, and for most of the measurands more than one RMS is able to run the relative RMPs, with similar expanded uncertainties. As an example, for a-amylase, 4 SP offer their services with MU between 1.6 and 3.3%. In other cases (such as total cholesterol, the U may span over a broader range, i.e. from 0.02 to 3.6%). With regard to the performance evaluation, the approach is often heterogenous, and it is difficult to compare the performance of laboratories running the same RMP for the same measurand if involved in more than one EQAS. The reference measurement services have been created to help laboratory professionals and manufacturers to implement the correct metrological traceability, and the JCTLM database is the only correct way to retrieve all the necessary important information to this end. Copyright © 2018

  15. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Dziak

    Full Text Available Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10-20 dB higher in the open, deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus and fin (B. physalus whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15-28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns, likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean.

  16. Timing reference generators and chopper controllers for neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.; Merl, R.; Rose, C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to AC-power-grid frequency fluctuations, the designers for accelerator-based spallation-neutron facilities have worked to optimize the competing and contrasting demands of accelerator and neutron chopper performance. Powerful new simulation techniques have enabled the modeling of the timing systems that integrate chopper controllers and chopper hardware. For the first time, we are able to quantitatively access the tradeoffs between these two constraints and design or upgrade a facility to optimize total system performance. Thus, at LANSCE, we now operate multiple chopper systems and the accelerator as simple slaves to a single master-timing-reference generator. For the SNS we recommend a similar system that is somewhat less tightly coupled to the power grid. (author)

  17. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  18. The US EPA reference dose for methylmercury: sources of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) derived a reference dose for methylmercury in 2001, based on an extensive analysis by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences. The NRC performed benchmark dose analysis on a number of endpoints from three longitudinal prospective studies: the Seychelles Islands, the Faroe Islands, and the New Zealand studies. Adverse effects were reported in the latter two studies, but not in the Seychelles study. The NRC also performed an integrative analysis of all three studies. Dose conversion from cord blood or maternal hair mercury concentration was performed by EPA using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. A total uncertainty factor of 10 was applied for intrahuman pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. There are numerous decisions made by the NRC/EPA that could greatly affect the value of the reference dose (RfD). Some of these include the choice of a linear model for the relationship between mercury body burden and neuropsychological performance, the choice of values of P 0 and the benchmark response, the use of the 'critical study/critical endpoint' approach in the interpretation of the maternal body burden that corresponds to the RfD, the use of central tendencies in a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model rather than the inclusion of the distributions of variables for the population of reproductive-age women, the assumption of unity for the ratio of fetal cord blood to maternal blood methylmercury concentrations, the choice of a total of 10 as an uncertainty factor, and the lack of dose-response analysis for other health effects such as cardiovascular disease. In addition, it may be argued that derivation of a RfD for methylmercury is inappropriate, given that there does not appear to be a threshold for adverse neuropsychological effects based on available data

  19. An investigation of the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Kaplan, Özgür; Büyük, Osman; Güllü, M Kemal

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines (RVMs). For this purpose, an experimental setup equipped with a sound recording mechanism was prepared. Packaging waste sounds generated by three physical impacts such as free falling, pneumatic hitting and hydraulic crushing were separately recorded using two different microphones. To classify the waste types and sizes based on sound features of the wastes, a support vector machine (SVM) and a hidden Markov model (HMM) based sound classification systems were developed. In the basic experimental setup in which only free falling impact type was considered, SVM and HMM systems provided 100% classification accuracy for both microphones. In the expanded experimental setup which includes all three impact types, material type classification accuracies were 96.5% for dynamic microphone and 97.7% for condenser microphone. When both the material type and the size of the wastes were classified, the accuracy was 88.6% for the microphones. The modeling studies indicated that hydraulic crushing impact type recordings were very noisy for an effective sound recognition application. In the detailed analysis of the recognition errors, it was observed that most of the errors occurred in the hitting impact type. According to the experimental results, it can be said that the proposed novel approach for the separation of packaging wastes could provide a high classification performance for RVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Submarine groundwater discharge driven nitrogen fluxes to Long Island Sound, NY: Terrestrial vs. marine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, J. J.; Cochran, J. K.; Bokuniewicz, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Bottom-waters in Smithtown Bay (Long Island Sound, NY) are subject to hypoxic conditions every summer despite limited nutrient inputs from waste-water and riverine sources, while modeling estimates of groundwater inputs are thought to be insignificant. Terrestrial and marine fluxes of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were quantified to Smithtown Bay using mass balances of 222Rn, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra during the spring and summer of 2014/2015, in order to track this seasonal transition period. Intertidal pore waters from a coastal bluff (terrestrial SGD) and from a barrier beach (marine SGD) displayed substantial differences in N concentrations and sources, traced using a multi-isotope approach (222Rn, Ra, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-). NO3- in terrestrial SGD did not display any seasonality and was derived from residential septic systems and fertilizer. Marine SGD N concentrations varied month-to-month because of mixing between oxic seawater and hypoxic saline pore waters; N concentrations were greatest during the summer, when NO3- was derived from the remineralization of organic matter. Short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra SGD fluxes were used to determine remineralized N loads along tidal recirculation flow paths, while long-lived 228Ra was used to trace inputs of anthropogenic N in terrestrial SGD. 228Ra-derived terrestrial N load estimates were between 20 and 55% lower than 224Ra-derived estimates (excluding spring 2014); 228Ra may be a more appropriate tracer of terrestrial SGD N loads. Terrestrial SGD NO3- (derived from 228Ra) to Smithtown Bay varied from (1.40-12.8) ∗ 106 mol N y-1, with comparable marine SGD NO3- fluxes of (1.70-6.79) ∗ 106 mol N y-1 derived from 222Rn and 224Ra. Remineralized N loads were greater during the summer compared with spring, and these may be an important driver toward the onset of seasonal hypoxic conditions in Smithtown Bay and western Long Island Sound. Seawater recirculation through the coastal aquifer can rival the N load from

  1. Influence of sound source location on the behavior and physiology of the precedence effect in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Micheal L; Tollin, Daniel J; Yin, Tom C T

    2009-08-01

    Psychophysical experiments on the precedence effect (PE) in cats have shown that they localize pairs of auditory stimuli presented from different locations in space based on the spatial position of the stimuli and the interstimulus delay (ISD) between the stimuli in a manner similar to humans. Cats exhibit localization dominance for pairs of transient stimuli with |ISDs| from approximately 0.4 to 10 ms, summing localization for |ISDs| 10 ms, which is the approximate echo threshold. The neural correlates to the PE have been described in both anesthetized and unanesthetized animals at many levels from auditory nerve to cortex. Single-unit recordings from the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex of cats demonstrate that neurons respond to both lead and lag sounds at ISDs above behavioral echo thresholds, but the response to the lag is reduced at shorter ISDs, consistent with localization dominance. Here the influence of the relative locations of the leading and lagging sources on the PE was measured behaviorally in a psychophysical task and physiologically in the IC of awake behaving cats. At all configurations of lead-lag stimulus locations, the cats behaviorally exhibited summing localization, localization dominance, and breakdown of fusion. Recordings from the IC of awake behaving cats show neural responses paralleling behavioral measurements. Both behavioral and physiological results suggest systematically shorter echo thresholds when stimuli are further apart in space.

  2. Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design

  3. A "looming bias" in spatial hearing? Effects of acoustic intensity and spectrum on categorical sound source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa; Olsen, Kirk N

    2017-01-01

    Continuous increases of acoustic intensity (up-ramps) can indicate a looming (approaching) sound source in the environment, whereas continuous decreases of intensity (down-ramps) can indicate a receding sound source. From psychoacoustic experiments, an "adaptive perceptual bias" for up-ramp looming tonal stimuli has been proposed (Neuhoff, 1998). This theory postulates that (1) up-ramps are perceptually salient because of their association with looming and potentially threatening stimuli in the environment; (2) tonal stimuli are perceptually salient because of an association with single and potentially threatening biological sound sources in the environment, relative to white noise, which is more likely to arise from dispersed signals and nonthreatening/nonbiological sources (wind/ocean). In the present study, we extrapolated the "adaptive perceptual bias" theory and investigated its assumptions by measuring sound source localization in response to acoustic stimuli presented in azimuth to imply looming, stationary, and receding motion in depth. Participants (N = 26) heard three directions of intensity change (up-ramps, down-ramps, and steady state, associated with looming, receding, and stationary motion, respectively) and three levels of acoustic spectrum (a 1-kHz pure tone, the tonal vowel /ә/, and white noise) in a within-subjects design. We first hypothesized that if up-ramps are "perceptually salient" and capable of eliciting adaptive responses, then they would be localized faster and more accurately than down-ramps. This hypothesis was supported. However, the results did not support the second hypothesis. Rather, the white-noise and vowel conditions were localized faster and more accurately than the pure-tone conditions. These results are discussed in the context of auditory and visual theories of motion perception, auditory attentional capture, and the spectral causes of spatial ambiguity.

  4. Metals, organic compounds, and nutrients in Long Island Sound: sources, magnitudes, trends, and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.; Varekamp, J.C.; MCElroy, A.E.; Brsslin, V.T.

    2014-01-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a relatively shallow estuary with a mean depth of 20 m (maximum depth 49 m) and a unique hydrology and history of pollutant loading. Those factors have contributed to a wide variety of contamination problems in its muddy sediments, aquatic life and water column. The LIS sediments are contaminated with a host of legacy and more recently released toxic compounds and elements related to past and present wastewater discharges and runoff. These include non-point and storm water runoff and groundwater discharges, whose character has changed over the years along with the evolution of its watershed and industrial history. Major impacts have resulted from the copious amounts of nutrients discharged into LIS through atmospheric deposition (N), domestic and industrial waste water flows, fertilizer releases, and urban runoff. All these sources and their effects are in essence the result of human presence and activities in the watershed, and the severity of pollutant loading and their impacts generally scales with total population in the watersheds surrounding LIS. Environmental legislation passed since the mid-to late 1900s (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act) has had a beneficial effect, however, and contaminant loadings for many toxic organic and inorganic chemicals and nutrients have diminished over the last few decades (O’Shea and Brosnan 2000; Trench, et al, 2012; O’Connor and Lauenstein 2006; USEPA 2007). Major strides have been made in reducing the inflow of nutrients into LIS, but cultural eutrophication is still an ongoing problem and nutrient control efforts will need to continue. Nonetheless, LIS is still a heavily human impacted estuary (an ‘Urban Estuary’, as described for San Francisco Bay by Conomos, 1979), and severe changes in water quality and sediment toxicity as well as ecosystem shifts have been witnessed over the relatively short period since European colonization in the early 1600s (Koppelman et al., 1976).

  5. Laser Lights or Dim Bulbs? Evaluating Reference Librarians' Use of Electronic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jeanie M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of academic library reference librarians' effectiveness in providing services to patrons using electronic sources based on experiences at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Topics include core technical competencies for subject specialists and reference desk service; the Internet; and methods of evaluation.…

  6. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  7. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  8. Efficient Location of Research Reference Sources in the Field of Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat; Jay, Danielle

    More than 45 basic dance reference research sources that would be useful to students, scholars, teachers, historians, and therapists are discussed in this bibliographic essay. Aspects of dance covered include choreography, criticism, teaching principles, aesthetic theory, dance therapy, and history. Sources are grouped by type: dictionaries and…

  9. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... products) for calendar year 2012. DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  10. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... products) for calendar year 2010. DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  11. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... calendar year 2011. DATES: The 2011 inflation adjustment factor and nonconventional source fuel credit... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  12. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Brown

    Full Text Available Hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1 sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2 speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3 tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive, including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions.

  13. Audio-Visual Fusion for Sound Source Localization and Improved Attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Gi; Choi, Jong Suk; Yoon, Sang Suk; Choi, Mun Taek; Kim, Mun Sang; Kim, Dai Jin

    2011-01-01

    Service robots are equipped with various sensors such as vision camera, sonar sensor, laser scanner, and microphones. Although these sensors have their own functions, some of them can be made to work together and perform more complicated functions. AudioFvisual fusion is a typical and powerful combination of audio and video sensors, because audio information is complementary to visual information and vice versa. Human beings also mainly depend on visual and auditory information in their daily life. In this paper, we conduct two studies using audioFvision fusion: one is on enhancing the performance of sound localization, and the other is on improving robot attention through sound localization and face detection

  14. Audio-Visual Fusion for Sound Source Localization and Improved Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Gi; Choi, Jong Suk; Yoon, Sang Suk; Choi, Mun Taek; Kim, Mun Sang [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dai Jin [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Service robots are equipped with various sensors such as vision camera, sonar sensor, laser scanner, and microphones. Although these sensors have their own functions, some of them can be made to work together and perform more complicated functions. AudioFvisual fusion is a typical and powerful combination of audio and video sensors, because audio information is complementary to visual information and vice versa. Human beings also mainly depend on visual and auditory information in their daily life. In this paper, we conduct two studies using audioFvision fusion: one is on enhancing the performance of sound localization, and the other is on improving robot attention through sound localization and face detection.

  15. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zenere, Katrina A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  16. A holistic approach to hydrocarbon source allocation in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, embayments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    The complex organic geochemistry record in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska is a result of much industrial and human activity in the region. Recent oil spills and a regional background of natural petroleum hydrocarbons originating from active hydrocarbon systems in the northern Gulf of Alaska also contribute to the geochemical record. Pyrogenic and petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are introduced regularly to the subtidal sediments at sites of past and present human activities including villages, fish hatcheries, fish camps and recreational campsites as well as abandoned settlements, canneries, sawmills and mines. Hydrocarbon contributions are fingerprinted and quantified using a holistic approach where contributions from multiple sources is determined. The approach involves a good understanding of the history of the area to identify potential sources. It also involves extensive collection of representative samples and an accurate quantitative analysis of the source and sediment samples for PAH analytes and chemical biomarker compounds. Total organic carbon (TOC) does not work in restricted embayments because of a constrained least-square algorithm to determine hydrocarbon sources. It has been shown that sources contributing to the natural petrogenic background are present in Prince William Sound. In particular, pyrogenic hydrocarbons such as combustion products of diesel is significant where there was much human activity. In addition, petroleum produced from the Monterey Formation in California is present in Prince William Sound because in the past, oil and asphalt shipped from California was widely used for fuel. Low level residues of weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill are also still present. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Insights into Optimal Soft Start and Shutdown Procedures for Stationary or Moving Sound Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the risk of impact on marine life of underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities (such as offshore construction, seismic surveys and sonar searches), various mitigation measures are often put in place. Two commonly adopted mitigation measures are the soft start (or "ramp-up" –

  18. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  19. A 6.13MeV gamma reference source, measurement of the emission rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Andre; Blondel, Maurice; Morel, Jean; Thomas, Claude.

    1977-08-01

    A 6.13MeV γ reference source has been produced by using 13 C(α, nγ) 16 O reaction occurring in an intimate 13 C and 238 Pu mixture. With two walls made leak proof this standard source is easy handled and convenient to the calibration of detectors. The 6.13MeV gamma ray is emitted without Doeppler effect, is measured with an uncertainty of 6% by three independent methods [fr

  20. On Distributions of Emission Sources and Speed-of-Sound in Proton-Proton (Proton-Antiproton Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The revised (three-source Landau hydrodynamic model is used in this paper to study the (pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions at high energies. The central source is assumed to contribute with a Gaussian function which covers the rapidity distribution region as wide as possible. The target and projectile sources are assumed to emit isotropically particles in their respective rest frames. The model calculations obtained with a Monte Carlo method are fitted to the experimental data over an energy range from 0.2 to 13 TeV. The values of the squared speed-of-sound parameter in different collisions are then extracted from the width of the rapidity distributions.

  1. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Rosewll, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  2. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O'Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison

  3. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Reassessment of the hydrocarbons in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska : identifying the source using partial least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska there has been much discussion regarding the clean-up and long term fate of the oil. There has also been debate regarding the origin of the background hydrocarbons present within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GoA). There is evidence that background (pre-spill) hydrocarbons may come from either nearby coal deposits or from natural oil seeps and eroding source rocks in the region. This paper presented a study in which the multivariate statistical methodology of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to reassess the percentage contribution of coal, seep oil, shales and rivers to the hydrocarbon loading in the GoA. Data was provided by researchers at the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Bowdoin College, for Exxon. The data was analysed using selected sites as sources in order to develop signatures. The signatures were based on 40 and 136 compounds respectively, including the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and terpane biomarkers from the Exxon data. The key components describing the sources were fitted to the data for other sites around the GoA to determine the proportion of the variability described by each source. The large complex datasets can be used to develop complex fingerprints for sources rather than using relatively simplistic ratios between selected compounds. The results indicate that 30 per cent of the signature is common between each source and that the small PAHs are the best diagnostic compounds in the model for the oil signature and the large PAHs are good for coal. Naphthalene, methyl and dimethyl naphthalene are the best markers for the seep oil signature. For the pre-spill background, coals and shales are best defined by the larger PAHs such as perylene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In general, the average partitioning between the two sources across all the sampling sites within the region indicated that 53 per cent is attributable to the

  5. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  6. Reference-Frame-Independent and Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Using One Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing

    2018-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.

  7. Comparison between two methodologies for uniformity correction of extensive reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Iremar Alves S.; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Nascimento, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the procedures to obtain the uniformity correction factors for extensive reference sources proposed by two different methodologies. The first methodology is presented by the Good Practice Guide of Nº 14 of the NPL, which provides a numerical correction. The second one uses the radiation transport code, MCNP5, to obtain the correction factor. Both methods retrieve very similar corrections factor values, with a maximum deviation of 0.24%. (author)

  8. Recent equivalent source methods for quantifying airborne and structureborne sound transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristically noise reduction in technical products like road vehicles, ships, aircraft and machines is complicated by the multitude of primary sources and transfer paths. Examples of well-known approaches for transfer path investigations are selective shielding, mechanical uncoupling,

  9. Comparison of the Equine Reference Sequence with Its Sanger Source Data and New Illumina Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Rebolledo-Mendez

    Full Text Available The reference assembly for the domestic horse, EquCab2, published in 2009, was built using approximately 30 million Sanger reads from a Thoroughbred mare named Twilight. Contiguity in the assembly was facilitated using nearly 315 thousand BAC end sequences from Twilight's half brother Bravo. Since then, it has served as the foundation for many genome-wide analyses that include not only the modern horse, but ancient horses and other equid species as well. As data mapped to this reference has accumulated, consistent variation between mapped datasets and the reference, in terms of regions with no read coverage, single nucleotide variants, and small insertions/deletions have become apparent. In many cases, it is not clear whether these differences are the result of true sequence variation between the research subjects' and Twilight's genome or due to errors in the reference. EquCab2 is regarded as "The Twilight Assembly." The objective of this study was to identify inconsistencies between the EquCab2 assembly and the source Twilight Sanger data used to build it. To that end, the original Sanger and BAC end reads have been mapped back to this equine reference and assessed with the addition of approximately 40X coverage of new Illumina Paired-End sequence data. The resulting mapped datasets identify those regions with low Sanger read coverage, as well as variation in genomic content that is not consistent with either the original Twilight Sanger data or the new genomic sequence data generated from Twilight on the Illumina platform. As the haploid EquCab2 reference assembly was created using Sanger reads derived largely from a single individual, the vast majority of variation detected in a mapped dataset comprised of those same Sanger reads should be heterozygous. In contrast, homozygous variations would represent either errors in the reference or contributions from Bravo's BAC end sequences. Our analysis identifies 720,843 homozygous discrepancies

  10. Heat Transfer by Thermo-Capillary Convection. Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a sounding rocket experiment which was partly dedicated to study the heat transfer from a hot wall to a cold liquid with a free surface. Natural or buoyancy-driven convection does not occur in the compensated gravity environment of a ballistic phase. Thermo-capillary convection driven by a temperature gradient along the free surface always occurs if a non-condensable gas is present. This convection increases the heat transfer compared to a pure conductive case. Heat transfer correlations are needed to predict temperature distributions in the tanks of cryogenic upper stages. Future upper stages of the European Ariane V rocket have mission scenarios with multiple ballistic phases. The aims of this paper and of the COMPERE group (French-German research group on propellant behavior in rocket tanks) in general are to provide basic knowledge, correlations and computer models to predict the thermo-fluid behavior of cryogenic propellants for future mission scenarios. Temperature and surface location data from the flight have been compared with numerical calculations to get the heat flux from the wall to the liquid. Since the heat flux measurements along the walls of the transparent test cell were not possible, the analysis of the heat transfer coefficient relies therefore on the numerical modeling which was validated with the flight data. The coincidence between experiment and simulation is fairly good and allows presenting the data in form of a Nusselt number which depends on a characteristic Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. The results are useful for further benchmarking of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as FLOW-3D and FLUENT, and for the design of future upper stage propellant tanks.

  11. Evaluation of Skin Surface as an Alternative Source of Reference DNA Samples: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albujja, Mohammed H; Bin Dukhyil, Abdul Aziz; Chaudhary, Abdul Rauf; Kassab, Ahmed Ch; Refaat, Ahmed M; Babu, Saranya Ramesh; Okla, Mohammad K; Kumar, Sachil

    2018-01-01

    An acceptable area for collecting DNA reference sample is a part of the forensic DNA analysis development. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin surface cells (SSC) as an alternate source of reference DNA sample. From each volunteer (n = 10), six samples from skin surface areas (forearm and fingertips) and two traditional samples (blood and buccal cells) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified then genotyped using standard techniques. The highest DNA concentration of SSC samples was collected using the tape/forearm method of collection (2.1 ng/μL). Cotton swabs moistened with ethanol yielded higher quantities of DNA than swabs moistened with salicylic acid, and it gave the highest percentage of full STR profiles (97%). This study supports the use of SSC as a noninvasive sampling technique and as a extremely useful source of DNA reference samples among certain cultures where the use of buccal swabs can be considered socially unacceptable. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Numerical study of the aerodynamics of sound sources in a bass-reflex port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Garcia-Alcaide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the aerodynamics phenomena of a bass-reflex port that causes noise in the audible frequency range. After discarding structural and mechanical vibration issues, the hypothesis considered is that vortex shedding is the source of the noise. Experimental and numerical evidences of the vortex, an analysis of its noise and the similarities between real and simulated performance are presented. The numerically simulated cases with the original geometry are excited at different frequencies and with modifications of the port geometry. Likewise, the internal performance of an enclosure with a closed port was simulated. The simulations have been performed with axisymmetrical geometries using the open-source OpenFOAM® toolbox. Moreover, experimental measurements were carried out. First, acoustic signal experiments were done to analyse the response of the bass-reflex ports. Secondly, a structure vibration measurement was conducted in order to exclude the cabinet structure vibration as a source of the noise in question. A good agreement was found between numerical and experimental results, especially in the frequency band of the detected noise, i.e. the 1000–1500 Hz range. Despite no remarkable improvement being made with the geometry changes explored, the presented CFD approach has proved a useful and cost-effective tool to address this kind of phenomenon.

  13. Fourier transform holography with extended references using a coherent ultra-broadband light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenner, Vasco T; Eikema, Kjeld S E; Witte, Stefan

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a technique that enables lensless holographic imaging with extended reference structures, using ultra-broadband radiation sources for illumination. We show that this 'two-pulse imaging' approach works with one- and two-dimensional HERALDO reference structures, and demonstrate that the obtained spectrally resolved data can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the final image. Intensity stitching of multiple exposures is applied to increase the detected dynamic range, leading to an improved image reconstruction. Furthermore, we show that a combination of holography and iterative phase retrieval can be used to obtain high-quality images quickly and reliably, by using the HERALDO reconstruction as the initial support constraint in the iterative phase retrieval algorithm. A signal-to-noise improvement of two orders of magnitude is achieved compared to the basic HERALDO result.

  14. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  15. Deconvolution for the localization of sound sources using a circular microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the aeroacoustic community has examined various methods based on deconvolution to improve the visualization of acoustic fields scanned with planar sparse arrays of microphones. These methods assume that the beamforming map in an observation plane can be approximated by a c......-negative least squares, and the Richardson-Lucy. This investigation examines the matter with computer simulations and measurements....... that the beamformer's point-spread function is shift-invariant. This makes it possible to apply computationally efficient deconvolution algorithms that consist of spectral procedures in the entire region of interest, such as the deconvolution approach for the mapping of the acoustic sources 2, the Fourier-based non...

  16. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  17. A seafloor electromagnetic receiver for marine magnetotellurics and marine controlled-source electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wei, Wen-Bo; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhong-Liang; Yu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    In planning and executing marine controlled-source electromagnetic methods, seafloor electromagnetic receivers must overcome the problems of noise, clock drift, and power consumption. To design a receiver that performs well and overcomes the abovementioned problems, we performed forward modeling of the E-field abnormal response and established the receiver's characteristics. We describe the design optimization and the properties of each component, that is, low-noise induction coil sensor, low-noise Ag/AgCl electrode, low-noise chopper amplifier, digital temperature-compensated crystal oscillator module, acoustic telemetry modem, and burn wire system. Finally, we discuss the results of onshore and offshore field tests to show the effectiveness of the developed seafloor electromagnetic receiver and its performance: typical E-field noise of 0.12 nV/m/rt(Hz) at 0.5 Hz, dynamic range higher than 120 dB, clock drift lower than 1 ms/day, and continuous operation of at least 21 days.

  18. Using ILD or ITD Cues for Sound Source Localization and Speech Understanding in a Complex Listening Environment by Listeners with Bilateral and with Hearing-Preservation Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Louise H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Yost, William A.; Cook, Sarah J.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of interaural time differences and interaural level differences in (a) sound-source localization, and (b) speech understanding in a cocktail party listening environment for listeners with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) and for listeners with hearing-preservation CIs. Methods: Eleven bilateral listeners with MED-EL…

  19. Sources of Nutrients to Nearshore Areas of a Eutrophic Estuary: Implications for Nutrient-Enhanced Acidification in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification has recently been highlighted as a major stressor for coastal organisms. Further work is needed to assess the role of anthropogenic nutrient additions in eutrophied systems on local biological processes, and how this interacts with CO2 emission-driven acidification. This study sought to distinguish changes in pH caused by natural versus anthropogenically affected processes. We quantified the variability in water column pH attributable to primary production and respiration fueled by anthropogenically derived nitrogen in a shallow nearshore area. Two study sites were located in shallow subtidal areas of the Snohomish River estuary, a eutrophic system located in central Puget Sound, Washington. These sites were chosen due to the presence of heavy agricultural activity, urbanized areas with associated waste water treatment, as well as influence from deep, high CO2 marine waters transported through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and upwelled into the area during spring and summer. Data was collected from July-December 2015 utilizing continuous moorings and discrete water column sampling. Analysis of stable isotopes, δ15N, δ18O-NO3, δ15N-NH4, was used to estimate the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus upwelled marine nitrogen sources. Continuous monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity was conducted at both study sites to link changes in nutrient source and availability with changes in pH. We predicted that isotope data would indicate greater contributions of nitrogen from agriculture and wastewater rather than upwelling in the shallow, nearshore study sites. This study seeks to distinguish the relative magnitude of pH change stimulated by anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen to inform public policy decisions in critically important nearshore ecosystems.

  20. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    , doing so requires overcoming significant limitations typically including much lower sample rates, reduced sensitivity and dynamic range, more expensive video hardware, and the need for sophisticated video processing. The ATCOM real time image processing software environment provides many of the needed capabilities for researching video-acoustic signal extraction. ATCOM currently is a powerful tool for the visual enhancement of atmospheric turbulence distorted telescopic views. In order to explore the potential of acoustic signal recovery from video imagery we modified ATCOM to extract audio waveforms from the same telescopic video sources. In this paper, we demonstrate and compare both readout techniques for several aerospace test scenarios to better show where each has advantages.

  1. Cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-02-01

    This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/ no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Twenty typically developing 2-year-olds completed the newly modified toddler change/no-change procedure. Behavioral tests and parent report questionnaires were used to measure several cognitive and linguistic constructs. Stepwise linear regression was used to relate discrimination sensitivity to the cognitive and linguistic measures. In addition, discrimination results from the current experiment were compared with those from 2-year-old children tested in a previous experiment. Receptive vocabulary and working memory explained 56.6% of variance in discrimination performance. Performance was not different on the modified toddler change/no-change procedure used in the current experiment from in a previous investigation, which used the original version of the procedure. The relationship between speech discrimination and receptive vocabulary and working memory provides further evidence that the procedure is sensitive to the strength of perceptual representations. The role for working memory might also suggest that there are specific subject-related, nonsensory factors limiting the applicability of the procedure to children who have not reached the necessary levels of cognitive and linguistic development.

  2. Clinical pathology reference intervals for an in-water population of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; McNeill, Joanne Braun; Avens, Larisa; Hall, April Goodman; Goshe, Lisa R; Hohn, Aleta A; Godfrey, Matthew H; Mihnovets, A Nicole; Cluse, Wendy M; Harms, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is found throughout the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It is a protected species throughout much of its range due to threats such as habitat loss, fisheries interactions, hatchling predation, and marine debris. Loggerheads that occur in the southeastern U.S. are listed as "threatened" on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and receive state and federal protection. As part of an on-going population assessment conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, samples were collected from juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in Core Sound, North Carolina, between 2004 and 2007 to gain insight on the baseline health of the threatened Northwest Atlantic Ocean population. The aims of the current study were to establish hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for this population, and to assess variation of the hematologic and plasma biochemical analytes by season, water temperature, and sex and size of the turtles. Reference intervals for the clinical pathology parameters were estimated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Season, water temperature, sex, and size of the turtles were found to be significant factors of variation for parameter values. Seasonal variation could be attributed to physiological effects of decreasing photoperiod, cooler water temperature, and migration during the fall months. Packed cell volume, total protein, and albumin increased with increasing size of the turtles. The size-related differences in analytes documented in the present study are consistent with other reports of variation in clinical pathology parameters by size and age in sea turtles. As a component of a health assessment of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in North Carolina, this study will serve as a baseline aiding in evaluation of trends for this population and as a diagnostic tool for assessing the health and prognosis for loggerhead sea turtles undergoing rehabilitation.

  3. Clinical pathology reference intervals for an in-water population of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta is found throughout the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It is a protected species throughout much of its range due to threats such as habitat loss, fisheries interactions, hatchling predation, and marine debris. Loggerheads that occur in the southeastern U.S. are listed as "threatened" on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and receive state and federal protection. As part of an on-going population assessment conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, samples were collected from juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in Core Sound, North Carolina, between 2004 and 2007 to gain insight on the baseline health of the threatened Northwest Atlantic Ocean population. The aims of the current study were to establish hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for this population, and to assess variation of the hematologic and plasma biochemical analytes by season, water temperature, and sex and size of the turtles. Reference intervals for the clinical pathology parameters were estimated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Season, water temperature, sex, and size of the turtles were found to be significant factors of variation for parameter values. Seasonal variation could be attributed to physiological effects of decreasing photoperiod, cooler water temperature, and migration during the fall months. Packed cell volume, total protein, and albumin increased with increasing size of the turtles. The size-related differences in analytes documented in the present study are consistent with other reports of variation in clinical pathology parameters by size and age in sea turtles. As a component of a health assessment of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in North Carolina, this study will serve as a baseline aiding in evaluation of trends for this population and as a diagnostic tool for assessing the health and prognosis for loggerhead sea turtles undergoing

  4. Contribution of a 3D ray tracing model in a complex medium to the localization of infra-sound sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialle, Pierrick

    2007-01-01

    Localisation of infra-sound sources is a difficult task due to large propagation distances at stake and because of the atmospheric complexity. In order to resolve this problem, one can seek as many necessary information as the comprehension of wave propagation, the role and influence of the atmosphere and its spatio-temporal variations, the knowledge of sources and detection parameters, but also the configuration of the stations and their global spreading. Two methods based on the construction of propagation tables depending on station, date and time are introduced. Those tables require a long range propagation tool to simulate the propagation through a complex medium, which are carried out by WASP-3D Sph a 3D paraxial ray tracing based-theory tool integrating both amplitude estimation and horizontal wind fields in space and time. Tables are centered on the receptor. They describe spatial variations of the main observation parameters and offer a snapshot of the atmospheric propagation depending on the range for every simulated phase. For each path, celerity, azimuth deviation, attenuation and return altitude are predicted and allow building the tables. The latter help to identify detected phases and are integrated in an accurate localization procedure. The procedure is tested on three case study, such as the explosion of gas-pipeline in Belgium 2004 near Ghislenghien, the explosion of a military facility in 2007 in Novaky, Slovakia and the explosion of the Buncefield oil depot in 2005 in the United Kingdom, where event specificities, propagation parameters and used configurations are introduced. The accuracy and optimization of the localization are discussed. A validation study is presented regarding International Monitoring System stations along a meridian - I18DK (Greenland, Denmark), I51UK (Bermuda, United Kingdom), I25FR (Guyane, France), I08BO (La Paz, Bolivia), I01AR (Paso Flores, Argentina), I02AR (Ushuaia, Argentina), I54US (Antarctica, U.S.A.) - to

  5. Cannibalism in Latin-Greek sources: its references in mythology and ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo F. Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and comment on the greater amount of references regarding the phenomenon of cannibalism that there exists in Greek and Latin literary tradition. After reviewing many of the sources, it is possible to distinguish the different ways in which this tradition approached such phenomenon and to discover a common intention: starting from the mythology or the Homeric epic, going through the different philosophical trends and schools of thought, we will begin to realize and conclude that in many occasions there is a use of the concept of cannibalism to negatively define «the other», the outcast or foreigner, opening thus a topic that still survives nowadays.

  6. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  7. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  8. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  9. Marine Animal Sound Database. Twelve Years of Tracking 52-Hz Whale Calls from a Unique Source in the North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, William

    2004-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of underwater sounds using U.S. Navy SOSUS and other hydrophone arrays allowed us to follow the seasonal distribution of underwater calls produced by blue, fin and humpback whales across the North Pacific...

  10. 224Ra distribution in surface and deep water of Long Island Sound: sources and horizontal transport rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; O'Donnell, J.; DeAngelo, E.; Turekian, K.K.; Turekian, V.C.; Tanaka, N.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of surface water and deep water 224 Ra(half-life 3.64 days) distributions in Long Island Sound (LIS) were conducted in July 1991. Because the pycnocline structure of LIS had been in place for about 50 days in July (long compared to the half-life of 224 Ra) in the surface water and the deep water operate as separate systems. In the surface water, the fine-grain sediments of nearshore and saltmarsh environments provide a strong source of 224 Ra, which is horizontally mixed away from the short to central LIS. A one-dimensional model of 224 Ra distribution suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity of 5-50 m 2 s -1 . In the deep water, the mid-LIS sediment flux of 224 Ra is enhanced by ∼ 2x relative to the periphery, and the horizontal eddy flux is from central LIS to the periphery. A second one-dimensional model suggests a cross-LIS horizontal eddy dispersivity below the thermocline of 5-50 m 2 -1 . 224 Ra fluxes into the deep water of the central LIS are likely enhanced by (1) inhomogeneous sediment or (2) a reduced scavenging of 224 Ra in the sediments of central LIS brought about by low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) and the loss of the MnO 2 scavenging layer in the sediments. These rates of horizontal eddy dispersivity are significantly less than the estimate of 100-650 m 2 s -1 (Riley, 1967) but are consistent with the transport necessary to explain the dynamics of oxygen depletion in summer LIS. These results demonstrate the use of 224 Ra for quantifying the parameters needed to describe estuarine mixing and transport. (Author)

  11. Application Research of Horn Array Multi-Beam Antenna in Reference Source System for Satellite Interference Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The reference source system is a key factor to ensure the successful location of the satellite interference source. Currently, the traditional system used a mechanical rotating antenna which leaded to the disadvantages of slow rotation and high failure-rate, which seriously restricted the system’s positioning-timeliness and became its obvious weaknesses. In this paper, a multi-beam antenna scheme based on the horn array was proposed as a reference source for the satellite interference location, which was used as an alternative to the traditional reference source antenna. The new scheme has designed a small circularly polarized horn antenna as an element and proposed a multi-beamforming algorithm based on planar array. Moreover, the simulation analysis of horn antenna pattern, multi-beam forming algorithm and simulated satellite link cross-ambiguity calculation have been carried out respectively. Finally, cross-ambiguity calculation of the traditional reference source system has also been tested. The comparison between the results of computer simulation and the actual test results shows that the scheme is scientific and feasible, obviously superior to the traditional reference source system.

  12. A global multicenter study on reference values: 2. Exploration of sources of variation across the countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Xia, Liangyu; Hoffmann, Mariza; Shah, Swarup; Matsha, Tandi; Wassung, Janette; Smit, Francois; Ruzhanskaya, Anna; Straseski, Joely; Bustos, Daniel N; Kimura, Shogo; Takahashi, Aki

    2017-04-01

    The intent of this study, based on a global multicenter study of reference values (RVs) for serum analytes was to explore biological sources of variation (SVs) of the RVs among 12 countries around the world. As described in the first part of this paper, RVs of 50 major serum analytes from 13,396 healthy individuals living in 12 countries were obtained. Analyzed in this study were 23 clinical chemistry analytes and 8 analytes measured by immunoturbidimetry. Multiple regression analysis was performed for each gender, country by country, analyte by analyte, by setting four major SVs (age, BMI, and levels of drinking and smoking) as a fixed set of explanatory variables. For analytes with skewed distributions, log-transformation was applied. The association of each source of variation with RVs was expressed as the partial correlation coefficient (r p ). Obvious gender and age-related changes in the RVs were observed in many analytes, almost consistently between countries. Compilation of age-related variations of RVs after adjusting for between-country differences revealed peculiar patterns specific to each analyte. Judged fromthe r p , BMI related changes were observed for many nutritional and inflammatory markers in almost all countries. However, the slope of linear regression of BMI vs. RV differed greatly among countries for some analytes. Alcohol and smoking-related changes were observed less conspicuously in a limited number of analytes. The features of sex, age, alcohol, and smoking-related changes in RVs of the analytes were largely comparable worldwide. The finding of differences in BMI-related changes among countries in some analytes is quite relevant to understanding ethnic differences in susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; de Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.; Malin, D. F.; White, G. L.; Kawaguchi, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  14. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  15. SU-E-T-284: Revisiting Reference Dosimetry for the Model S700 Axxent 50 KVp Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, JR; Rivard, MJ

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft was characterized in 2006 by Rivard et al. The source design was modified in 2006 to include a plastic centering insert at the source tip to more accurately position the anode. The objectives of the current study were to establish an accurate Monte Carlo source model for simulation purposes, to dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and to determine dose differences between the source with and without the centering insert. Methods: Design information from dissected sources and vendor-supplied CAD drawings were used to devise the source model for radiation transport simulations of dose distributions in a water phantom. Collision kerma was estimated as a function of radial distance, r, and polar angle, θ, for determination of reference TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.03% at r=1 cm and 0.08% at r=10 cm. Results: The dose rate distribution the transverse plane did not change beyond 2% between the 2006 model and the current study. While differences exceeding 15% were observed near the source distal tip, these diminished to within 2% for r>1.5 cm. Differences exceeding a factor of two were observed near θ=150° and in contact with the source, but diminished to within 20% at r=10 cm. Conclusions: Changes in source design influenced the overall dose rate and distribution by more than 2% over a third of the available solid angle external from the source. For clinical applications using balloons or applicators with tissue located within 5 cm from the source, dose differences exceeding 2% were observed only for θ>110°. This study carefully examined the current source geometry and presents a modern reference TG-43 dosimetry dataset for the model S700 source

  16. [Mechanism of the constant representation of the position of a sound signal source by the cricket cercal system neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, G I; Polishcuk, N A

    1976-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that some abdominal giant neurones of the cricket have constant preffered directions of sound stimulation in relation not to the cerci (the organs bearing sound receptors) but to the insect body (fig. 1) [1]. Now it is found that the independence of directional sensitivity of giant neurones on the cerci position disappears after cutting all structures connecting the cerci to the body (except cercal nerves) (fig 2). Therefore the constancy of directional sensitivity of the giant nerones is provided by proprioceptive signals about cerci position.

  17. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  18. Determination of the reference air kerma rate for 192Ir brachytherapy sources and the related uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Eduard van; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Damen, Patricia M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods exist to determine the air kerma calibration factor of an ionization chamber for the spectrum of a 192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) source. An analysis of two methods to obtain such a calibration factor was performed: (i) the method recommended by [Goetsch et al., Med. Phys. 18, 462-467 (1991)] and (ii) the method employed by the Dutch national standards institute NMi [Petersen et al., Report S-EI-94.01 (NMi, Delft, The Netherlands, 1994)]. This analysis showed a systematic difference on the order of 1% in the determination of the strength of 192 Ir HDR and PDR sources depending on the method used for determining the air kerma calibration factor. The definitive significance of the difference between these methods can only be addressed after performing an accurate analysis of the associated uncertainties. For an NE 2561 (or equivalent) ionization chamber and an in-air jig, a typical uncertainty budget of 0.94% was found with the NMi method. The largest contribution in the type-B uncertainty is the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factor for isotope i, N k i , as determined by the primary or secondary standards laboratories. This uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainties in the physical constants for the average mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio and the stopping power ratios. This means that it is not foreseeable that the standards laboratories can decrease the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factors for ionization chambers in the short term. When the results of the determination of the 192 Ir reference air kerma rates in, e.g., different institutes are compared, the uncertainties in the physical constants are the same. To compare the applied techniques, the ratio of the results can be judged by leaving out the uncertainties due to these physical constants. In that case an uncertainty budget of 0.40% (coverage factor=2) should be taken into account. Due to the differences in approach between the

  19. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  20. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feier, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 ± 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 ± 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system

  1. Thermal management of thermoacoustic sound projectors using a free-standing carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as a heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Baughman, Ray H; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank; Zarnetske, Michael R; Blottman, John B

    2014-10-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel sheets produce smooth-spectra sound over a wide frequency range (1-10(5) Hz) by means of thermoacoustic (TA) sound generation. Protective encapsulation of CNT sheets in inert gases between rigid vibrating plates provides resonant features for the TA sound projector and attractive performance at needed low frequencies. Energy conversion efficiencies in air of 2% and 10% underwater, which can be enhanced by further increasing the modulation temperature. Using a developed method for accurate temperature measurements for the thin aerogel CNT sheets, heat dissipation processes, failure mechanisms, and associated power densities are investigated for encapsulated multilayered CNT TA heaters and related to the thermal diffusivity distance when sheet layers are separated. Resulting thermal management methods for high applied power are discussed and deployed to construct efficient and tunable underwater sound projector for operation at relatively low frequencies, 10 Hz-10 kHz. The optimal design of these TA projectors for high-power SONAR arrays is discussed.

  2. Thermal management of thermoacoustic sound projectors using a free-standing carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as a heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Baughman, Ray H; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank; Zarnetske, Michael R; Blottman, John B

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel sheets produce smooth-spectra sound over a wide frequency range (1–10 5 Hz) by means of thermoacoustic (TA) sound generation. Protective encapsulation of CNT sheets in inert gases between rigid vibrating plates provides resonant features for the TA sound projector and attractive performance at needed low frequencies. Energy conversion efficiencies in air of 2% and 10% underwater, which can be enhanced by further increasing the modulation temperature. Using a developed method for accurate temperature measurements for the thin aerogel CNT sheets, heat dissipation processes, failure mechanisms, and associated power densities are investigated for encapsulated multilayered CNT TA heaters and related to the thermal diffusivity distance when sheet layers are separated. Resulting thermal management methods for high applied power are discussed and deployed to construct efficient and tunable underwater sound projector for operation at relatively low frequencies, 10 Hz–10 kHz. The optimal design of these TA projectors for high-power SONAR arrays is discussed. (paper)

  3. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  4. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  5. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  6. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  7. Mass balance constraints on the sources of the petrogenic hydrocarbon background in offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Brown, J.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive sampling program was conducted in 1999 in the offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to verify a recent claim that eroding coal beds are the source of petrogenic hydrocarbons background in the area. Samples taken in 1993 and 1994 were reanalyzed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Three Bering River coal samples plus 10 archived source-rock and 3 archived Gulf of Alaska seep and field oil samples from exploration activities in the 1960s and 1970s were also analyzed. The linear combination of the analyte distributions of 18 representative sources that most likely matched the compositions of each sample was derived using the least-squares method. Some of the potential contributing sources which were examined for this study included seep oil, eroding source rocks, eroding coal beds, glacial flour, recent terrestrial sources and human activity. It was determined that the recent claim was incorrect. Eroding Tertiary petroleum source rocks and residues of seep oils are the main sources of hydrocarbon background in the area, rather than area coals or residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  9. Systematical and statistical errors in using reference light sources to calibrate TLD readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three light sources, namely an NaI(Tl) scintillator + Ra, an NaI(Tl) scintillator + 14 C and a plastic scintillator + 14 C, were used during a period of 24 months for a daily check of two TLD readers: the Harshaw 2000 A + B and the Toledo 651. On the basis of light source measurements long-term changes and day-to-day fluctuations of the reader response were investigated. Systematical changes of the Toledo reader response of up to 6% during a working week are explained by nitrogen effects in the plastic scintillator light source. It was found that the temperature coefficient of the light source intensity was -0.05%/ 0 C for the plastic scintillator and -0.3%/ 0 C for the NaI(Tl) scintillator. The 210 Pb content in the Ra activated NaI(Tl) scintillator caused a time-dependent decrease in light source intensity of 3%/yr for the light source in the Harshaw reader. The internal light sources revealed a relative standard deviation of 0.5% for the Toledo reader and the Harshaw reader after respective reading times of 0.45 and 100 sec. (author)

  10. Metrics for Polyphonic Sound Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Mesaros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses various metrics proposed for evaluation of polyphonic sound event detection systems used in realistic situations where there are typically multiple sound sources active simultaneously. The system output in this case contains overlapping events, marked as multiple sounds detected as being active at the same time. The polyphonic system output requires a suitable procedure for evaluation against a reference. Metrics from neighboring fields such as speech recognition and speaker diarization can be used, but they need to be partially redefined to deal with the overlapping events. We present a review of the most common metrics in the field and the way they are adapted and interpreted in the polyphonic case. We discuss segment-based and event-based definitions of each metric and explain the consequences of instance-based and class-based averaging using a case study. In parallel, we provide a toolbox containing implementations of presented metrics.

  11. The Role of Virtual Reference in Library Web Site Design: A Qualitative Source for Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Amanda Clay; Shedd, Julie; Hill, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Gathering qualitative information about usage behavior of library Web sites is a time-consuming process requiring the active participation of patron communities. Libraries that collect virtual reference transcripts, however, hold valuable data regarding how the library Web site is used that could benefit Web designers. An analysis of virtual…

  12. Motion Pictures: An Update Survey of Reference Sources, 1982-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eleanor S.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys motion picture reference materials published since 1982. Materials are presented in the following categories: encyclopedic works about films, filmmakers and the industry; film criticism; people on the screen and behind it; horror, science fiction and Westerns; literature on film; catalogs and filmographies; and special collections. (70…

  13. Summer sound-level characterization of the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A description of sound levels and sound sources in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin during a period representative of the summer season is presented. Included are data collected during the period August 4 through 8, 1982, for both locations. 3 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  14. Winter sound-level characterization of the Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A description of sound levels and sound sources in the Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin during a period representative of the winter season is presented. Data were collected during the period February 26 through March 1, 1983. 4 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  15. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  16. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  17. On the source material of magmas - with special reference to Nd isotopic ratios of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuto, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    In 1973, the Sm-Nd method was first used for the measurement of the absolute age of igneous rocks and meteorites. Subsequently in the following years, the research works by means of the Nd isotopic ratio in igneous rocks have been made strenuously in order to reveal the chemistry of the source materials of magma giving rise to the igneous rocks and further the evolution process of mantle and earth's crust. The fundamental items for the Sm-Nd method are explained. Then, the research results more important in the above connection are given. Finally, the ideas by the author concerning the source materials of magma are presented from the data available on the Nd isotopes in meteorites and igneous rocks. The following matters are described: the fundamentals of Sm-Nd method, the Nd content in seawater, the negative correlation between Nd and Sr isotopic ratios in igneous rocks, magma source materials and Nd isotopes, and considerations on magma source materials. (J.P.N.)

  18. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  19. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  20. Development and validation of a combined phased acoustical radiosity and image source model for predicting sound fields in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A model, combining acoustical radiosity and the image source method, including phase shifts on reflection, has been developed. The model is denoted Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method (PARISM), and it has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse...... radiosity by regarding the model as being stochastic. Three methods of implementation are proposed and investigated, and finally, recommendations are made for their use. Validation of the image source method is done by comparison with finite element simulations of a rectangular room with a porous absorber...

  1. Acoustic Holography With Incoherent Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Raangs, R.

    2005-01-01

    In near field acoustic holography the sound field is scanned near the surface of the vibrating object; from these measurements the vibration of the structure can be calculated. In the case of correlated sources one reference signal is sufficient. When incoherent sources are present the separation of

  2. Variability of extragalactic sources: its contribution to the link between ICRF and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, F.; Damljanovic, G.; Andrei, A.; Souchay, J.; Klotz, A.; Vachier, F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The first release of the Gaia catalog is available since 14 September 2016. It is a first step in the realization of the future Gaia reference frame. This reference frame will be materialized by the optical positions of the sources and will be compared with and linked to the International Celestial Reference Frame, materialized by the radio position of extragalactic sources. Aim. As in the radio domain, it can be reasonably postulated that quasar optical flux variations can alert us to potential changes in the source structure. These changes could have important implications for the position of the target photocenters (together with the evolution in time of these centers) and in parallel have consequences for the link of the reference systems. Methods: A set of nine optical telescopes was used to monitor the magnitude variations, often at the same time as Gaia, thanks to the Gaia Observation Forecast Tool. The Allan variances, which are statistical tools widely used in the atomic time and frequency community, are introduced. Results: This work describes the magnitude variations of 47 targets that are suitable for the link between reference systems. We also report on some implications for the Gaia catalog. For 95% of the observed targets, new information about their variability is reported. In the case of some targets that are well observed by the TAROT telescopes, the Allan time variance shows that the longest averaging period of the magnitudes is in the range 20-70 d. The observation period by Gaia for a single target largely exceeds these values, which might be a problem when the magnitude variations exhibit flicker or random walk noises. Preliminary computations show that if the coordinates of the targets studied in this paper were affected by a white-phase noise with a formal uncertainty of about 1 mas (due to astrophysical processes that are put in evidence by the magnitude variations of the sources), it would affect the precision of the link at the

  3. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length.

  4. LED deep UV source for charge management of gravitational reference sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Kexun; Allard, Brett; Buchman, Saps; Williams, Scott; Byer, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Proof mass electrical charge management is an important functionality for the ST-7-LTP technology demonstration flight and for LISA. Photoemission for charge control is accomplished by using deep ultraviolet (UV) light to excite photoelectron emission from an Au alloy. The conventional UV source is a mercury vapour lamp. We propose and demonstrate charge management using a deep UV light emitting diode (LED) source. We have acquired selected AlGaN UV LEDs, characterized their performance and successfully used them to realize charge management. The UV LEDs emit at a 257 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of ∼12 nm. The UV power for a free-space LED is ∼120 μW, and after fibre coupling is ∼16 μW, more than sufficient for LISA applications. We have directly observed the LED UV light-induced photocurrent response from an Au photocathode and an Au-coated GRS/ST-7 proof mass. We demonstrated fast switching of UV LEDs and associated fast changes in photocurrent. This allows modulation and continuous discharge to meet stringent LISA disturbance reduction requirements. We propose and demonstrate AC charge management outside the gravitational wave signal band. Further, the megahertz bandwidth for UV LED switching allows for up to six orders of magnitude dynamic power range and a number of novel modes of operations. The UV LED based charge management system offers the advantages of small-size, lightweight, fibre-coupled operation with very low power consumption

  5. Design and validation of an open-source library of dynamic reference frames for research and education in optical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alisa; Uneri, Ali; Silva, Tharindu De; Manbachi, Amir; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic reference frames (DRFs) are a common component of modern surgical tracking systems; however, the limited number of commercially available DRFs poses a constraint in developing systems, especially for research and education. This work presents the design and validation of a large, open-source library of DRFs compatible with passive, single-face tracking systems, such as Polaris stereoscopic infrared trackers (NDI, Waterloo, Ontario). An algorithm was developed to create new DRF designs consistent with intra- and intertool design constraints and convert to computer-aided design (CAD) files suitable for three-dimensional printing. A library of 10 such groups, each with 6 to 10 DRFs, was produced and tracking performance was validated in comparison to a standard commercially available reference, including pivot calibration, fiducial registration error (FRE), and target registration error (TRE). Pivot tests showed calibration error [Formula: see text], indistinguishable from the reference. FRE was [Formula: see text], and TRE in a CT head phantom was [Formula: see text], both equivalent to the reference. The library of DRFs offers a useful resource for surgical navigation research and could be extended to other tracking systems and alternative design constraints.

  6. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  7. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  8. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  9. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  10. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-04-07

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  11. The use of surface power for characterisation of structure-borne sound sources of low modal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    The use of the surface power methods for source characterisaiton of vibrating machinery of low modal density is investigated in this paper. It was demonstrated by Ohlrich and Larsen that this relatively simple, but very useful measurement technique for quantifying the vibratory strength of machin......The use of the surface power methods for source characterisaiton of vibrating machinery of low modal density is investigated in this paper. It was demonstrated by Ohlrich and Larsen that this relatively simple, but very useful measurement technique for quantifying the vibratory strength...

  12. Experimental research on specific activity of 24Na using Chinese reference man phantom irradiated by 252Cf neutrons source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Yang Yifang; Lu Yongjie; Zhang Jianguo; Xing Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specific activity of '2 4 Na per unit neutron fluence, A B/Φ ,in blood produced for Chinese reference man irradiated by 252 Cf neutron source,and to analyze the effects of scattering neutrons from ground,wall,and ceiling in irradiation site on it.Methods: A 252 Cf neutron source of 3×10 8 n/s and the anthropomorphic phantom were used for experiments. The phantom was made from 4 mm thick of outer covering by perspex and the liquid tissue-equivalent substitute in it. The data of phantom dimensions fit into Chinese reference man.The weight ratios of H, N, O and C in substitute equal from source to long axis of phantom were 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 m, respectively. Both the neutron source and the position of xiphisternum of the phantom were 1.6 m above the floor. Results: The average specific activity of 24 Na per unit neutron fluence was related to the irradiation-distances, d, and its maximum value, A B/ΦM , deduced by experimental data was about 1.85×10 -7 Bq·cm 2 ·g -1 . Conclusions: The A B/ΦM corresponds to that of phantom irradiated by plane-parallel beams, and the value is about more 3% than that by BOMAB phantom reported in literature. It has shown that floor-(wall-)scattered neutrons in irradiation site have significant contribution to the specific activity of 24 Na, but they contributed relatively little to the induced neutron doses. Consequently,using the specific activity of 24 Na for assessing accidental neutron doses received by an individual, the contribution of scattered neutrons in accident site will lead dose to be overestimated, and need to be correct. (authors)

  13. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  14. Development and validation of a combined phased acoustical radiosity and image source model for predicting sound fields in rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Nilsson, Erling

    2015-09-01

    A model, combining acoustical radiosity and the image source method, including phase shifts on reflection, has been developed. The model is denoted Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method (PARISM), and it has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued and angle-dependent boundary conditions. This paper mainly describes the combination of the two models and the implementation of the angle-dependent boundary conditions. It furthermore describes how a pressure impulse response is obtained from the energy-based acoustical radiosity by regarding the model as being stochastic. Three methods of implementation are proposed and investigated, and finally, recommendations are made for their use. Validation of the image source method is done by comparison with finite element simulations of a rectangular room with a porous absorber ceiling. Results from the full model are compared with results from other simulation tools and with measurements. The comparisons of the full model are done for real-valued and angle-independent surface properties. The proposed model agrees well with both the measured results and the alternative theories, and furthermore shows a more realistic spatial variation than energy-based methods due to the fact that interference is considered.

  15. A simplified approach to estimating reference source terms for LWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    systems. The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1996, devoted to the estimation of the radioactive source term in nuclear reactors. It focuses mainly on light water reactors (LWRs)

  16. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a {sup 252}Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a {sup 252} Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the {sup 252} Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments.

  17. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a 252Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N.

    2002-01-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a 252 Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the 252 Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments

  18. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  19. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B

    2018-03-01

    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  20. A lifting-surface theory solution for the diffraction of internal sound sources by an engine nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R.

    1986-07-01

    Lifting-surface theory is used to solve the problem of diffraction by a rigid open-ended pipe of zero thickness and finite length, with application to the prediction of acoustic insertion-loss performance for the encasing structure of a ducted propeller or turbofan. An axisymmetric situation is assumed, and the incident field due to a force applied directly to the fluid in the cylinder axial direction is used. A virtual-source distribution of unsteady dipoles is found whose integrated component of radial velocity is set to cancel that of the incident field over the surface. The calculated virtual load is verified by whether its effect on the near-field input power at the actual source is consistent with the far-field power radiated by the system, a balance which is possible if the no-flow-through boundary condition has been satisfied over the rigid pipe surface such that the velocity component of the acoustic intensity is zero.

  1. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  2. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  3. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  4. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  5. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  6. Reference masses for precision mass spectrometry design and implementation of a Pierce geometry to the cluster Ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Lommen, Jonathan

    At the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP carbon clusters ($^{12}$Cn, 1$\\leqslant$n$\\leqslant$25) are provided as reference masses, which are of particular importance in higher mass ranges (m $\\geqslant$ 200u). In this mass range the measurlment uncertainty is increasingly dominated by the difference of the reference mass and the mass of the ion of interest. Using carbon clusters instead of the common $^{133}$Cs ions, this difference decreases. The carbon clusters are produced in a laser ion source which has been improved in the frame of this thesis. The fluctuations of the count rate have been investigated as a function of the laser energy. Furthermore, the energy density at the target has been increased by implementation of a telescope into the laser beam line, which leads to a more narrow energy distribution of the ions. Through the exact adjustment of timing and length of a pulsed cavity an energy range with constant count rate could be selected. In order to provide ideal starting conditions during and after the ...

  7. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  8. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  9. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  10. The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

    2013-05-01

    The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

  11. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  12. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  13. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  14. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type

  15. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  16. Estuarine Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (30 meter and 3 arc second resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic Survey Soundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were generated from original point soundings collected during hydrographic surveys conducted by the National Ocean...

  17. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  18. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  19. Development of a Rigid One-Meter-Side and Cooled Coil Sensor at 77 K for Magnetic Resonance Sounding to Detect Subsurface Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Du, Guanfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yi, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Chuandong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-06-12

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) using the Earth's magnetic field is a noninvasive and on-site geophysical technique providing quantitative characteristics of aquifers in the subsurface. When the MRS technology is applied in a mine or tunnel for advance detecting the source of water that may cause disastrous accident, spatial constraints limit the size of coil sensor and thus lower the detection capability. In this paper, a coil sensor for detecting the weak MRS signal is designed and the signal to noise (SNR) for the coil sensor is analyzed and optimized. The coil sensor has a rigid structure and square size of 1 m for deploying in a narrow underground space and is cooled at a low temperature of 77 K for improving the SNR. A theoretical calculation and an experimental test in an electromagnetically shielded room (EMSR) show that the optimal design of coil sensor consists of an 80-turn coil and a low-current-noise preamplifier AD745. It has a field sensitivity of 0.17 fT / Hz in the EMSR at 77 K, which is superior to the low temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (LT SQUID) that is the latest application in MRS and the cooled coil with a diameter of 9 cm when detecting the laboratory NMR signal in kHz range. In the field experiment above the Taipingchi Reservoir near Changchun in China, the cooled coil sensor (CCS) developed in this paper has successfully obtained a valid weak MRS signal in high noise environment. The field results showed that the quality of measured MRS signal at 77 K is significantly superior to that at 298 K and the SNR is improved up to three times. This property of CCS makes the MRS instrument more convenient and reliable in a constricted space underground engineering environment (e.g., a mine or a tunnel).

  20. Development of a Rigid One-Meter-Side and Cooled Coil Sensor at 77 K for Magnetic Resonance Sounding to Detect Subsurface Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS using the Earth’s magnetic field is a noninvasive and on-site geophysical technique providing quantitative characteristics of aquifers in the subsurface. When the MRS technology is applied in a mine or tunnel for advance detecting the source of water that may cause disastrous accident, spatial constraints limit the size of coil sensor and thus lower the detection capability. In this paper, a coil sensor for detecting the weak MRS signal is designed and the signal to noise (SNR for the coil sensor is analyzed and optimized. The coil sensor has a rigid structure and square size of 1 m for deploying in a narrow underground space and is cooled at a low temperature of 77 K for improving the SNR. A theoretical calculation and an experimental test in an electromagnetically shielded room (EMSR show that the optimal design of coil sensor consists of an 80-turn coil and a low-current-noise preamplifier AD745. It has a field sensitivity of 0.17 fT / Hz in the EMSR at 77 K, which is superior to the low temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (LT SQUID that is the latest application in MRS and the cooled coil with a diameter of 9 cm when detecting the laboratory NMR signal in kHz range. In the field experiment above the Taipingchi Reservoir near Changchun in China, the cooled coil sensor (CCS developed in this paper has successfully obtained a valid weak MRS signal in high noise environment. The field results showed that the quality of measured MRS signal at 77 K is significantly superior to that at 298 K and the SNR is improved up to three times. This property of CCS makes the MRS instrument more convenient and reliable in a constricted space underground engineering environment (e.g., a mine or a tunnel.

  1. Evaluation of the uniformity of wide circular reference source and application of correction factors; Avaliação da uniformidade de fonte extensa de referência circular e aplicação de fatores de correção

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: iremarjr@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work the uniformity of wide circular reference sources is evaluated. This kind of reference source is still widely used in Brazil. In previous works wide rectangular reference sources were analyzed and it was shown the importance of the application of correction factors in calibration procedures of radiation monitors. Now a transposition of the methods used formerly is performed, evaluating the uniformities of circular reference sources and calculating the associated correction factors. (author)

  2. SU-E-T-284: Revisiting Reference Dosimetry for the Model S700 Axxent 50 KV{sub p} Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, JR [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft was characterized in 2006 by Rivard et al. The source design was modified in 2006 to include a plastic centering insert at the source tip to more accurately position the anode. The objectives of the current study were to establish an accurate Monte Carlo source model for simulation purposes, to dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and to determine dose differences between the source with and without the centering insert. Methods: Design information from dissected sources and vendor-supplied CAD drawings were used to devise the source model for radiation transport simulations of dose distributions in a water phantom. Collision kerma was estimated as a function of radial distance, r, and polar angle, θ, for determination of reference TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.03% at r=1 cm and 0.08% at r=10 cm. Results: The dose rate distribution the transverse plane did not change beyond 2% between the 2006 model and the current study. While differences exceeding 15% were observed near the source distal tip, these diminished to within 2% for r>1.5 cm. Differences exceeding a factor of two were observed near θ=150° and in contact with the source, but diminished to within 20% at r=10 cm. Conclusions: Changes in source design influenced the overall dose rate and distribution by more than 2% over a third of the available solid angle external from the source. For clinical applications using balloons or applicators with tissue located within 5 cm from the source, dose differences exceeding 2% were observed only for θ>110°. This study carefully examined the current source geometry and presents a modern reference TG-43 dosimetry dataset for the model S700 source.

  3. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lee, Ming-Chun; Bringel, Françoise; Lajus, Aurélie; Zhou, Yang; Gourion, Benjamin; Barbe, Valérie; Chang, Jean; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Dossat, Carole; Gillett, Will; Gruffaz, Christelle; Haugen, Eric; Hourcade, Edith; Levy, Ruth; Mangenot, Sophie; Muller, Emilie; Nadalig, Thierry; Pagni, Marco; Penny, Christian; Peyraud, Rémi; Robinson, David G; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Saenampechek, Channakhone; Salvignol, Grégory; Vallenet, David; Wu, Zaining; Marx, Christopher J; Vorholt, Julia A; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder; Weissenbach, Jean; Médigue, Claudine; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared. The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm) gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau) gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17) that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid). These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire methylotrophic

  4. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  5. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  6. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  7. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  8. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  9. Sound response of superheated drop bubble detectors to neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Size; Chen Zhe; Liu Chao; Ni Bangfa; Zhang Guiying; Zhao Changfa; Xiao Caijin; Liu Cunxiong; Nie Peng; Guan Yongjing

    2012-01-01

    The sound response of the bubble detectors to neutrons by using 252 Cf neutron source was described. Sound signals were filtered by sound card and PC. The short-time signal energy. FFT spectrum, power spectrum, and decay time constant were got to determine the authenticity of sound signal for bubbles. (authors)

  10. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  11. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  12. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Vuilleumier

    Full Text Available Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared.The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17 that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid.These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire

  13. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  14. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  15. Is popular radio a source of exposure to alcohol references in mid to later life? A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haighton, C; Halligan, J; Scott, S

    2017-04-20

    There is concern around alcohol consumption in mid to later life yet little understanding about what influences this behaviour. No previous research has explored the extent to which adults in mid to later life may be exposed to alcohol references in the media. This project aimed to determine the frequency of alcohol references on radio stations with a high proportion of listeners in mid to later life. Content analysis of alcohol references on four popular UK music-based radio stations with a high proportion of listeners aged 55-64 years over three time points. Alcohol references occur frequently, but vary by time of year and type of radio station. When alcohol is mentioned its consumption is portrayed as the norm, without negative consequences. On three commercial stations, the majority of mentions came from advertising, whereas on BBC Radio 2 nearly all references were talk-based. All adverts for direct promotion of alcohol were by supermarkets. Alcohol was frequently associated with celebrations, socializing or something to consume for its own sake. Adults in the age group 55-64 may be exposed to references to alcohol that could serve to reinforce norms of consumption of alcohol and promote purchases of cheap alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  17. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  18. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  19. To implement REX today: why? How? References for an event-related return on experience as a source of learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringaud, Violaine; Fayolle, Patrice; Madec, Veronique; Gauthereau, Vincent; Raud, Geraldine; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-Francois; Le Roy, Guilhem; Maffre, Jean-Francois; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The REX (Return on Experience) is an arrangement which is supposed to allow lessons to be learned from dysfunctions occurring during activities in nuclear installations. This report, written by a work group, proposes a synthesis of some references regarding REX arrangements, and aims at deepening the discussion and at the evolution of these arrangements. It presents the different components of a REX arrangement, and outlines its operational objectives: to understand, to share and to act. It highlights the conditions for an efficient REX arrangement: definition of an event, analysis methods, analysis abilities, management approaches, corrective actions, and so on. It indicates how to use this document and some useful references

  20. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  1. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  2. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  3. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  4. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  5. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  6. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over......The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  7. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  8. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  9. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  10. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mat......Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops...... control restores the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the MicroGrid to the grid. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the parallel VSI system control...

  11. The position of the individual gods and goddesses in various types of sources - with special reference to the female divinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Mundal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the written sources the gods are arranged in a patriarchal family structure with Odin on the top. If we try to rank the gods in order of precedence on the basis of the number of instances in the toponymic material, Odin would be found a good way down the list. Generally, we should expect gods connected with the cult of fertility and the agricultural society to be overrepresented in the toponymic material in comparison with a god of war. If we consider our literary sources and ask which of the goddesses' names are most frequently used as basic words in kenningar for women, we see that many of the more "unknown" goddesses are very well represented in this material. In the toponymic material, it was the leading goddess who was considered to be the leading god's wife, but not necessarily. Both Frigg and Freyja belong to the type of fertility goddess.

  12. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic sound radiated from a two-dimensional airfoil

    OpenAIRE

    飯田, 明由; 大田黒, 俊夫; 加藤, 千幸; Akiyoshi, Iida; Toshio, Otaguro; Chisachi, Kato; 日立機研; 日立機研; 東大生研; Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.; Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.; University of Tokyo

    2000-01-01

    An aerodynamic sound radiated from a two-dimensional airfoil has been computed with the Lighthill-Curle's theory. The predicted sound pressure level is agreement with the measured one. Distribution of vortex sound sources is also estimated based on the correlation between the unsteady vorticity fluctuations and the aerodynamic sound. The distribution of vortex sound source reveals that separated shear layers generate aerodynamic sound. This result is help to understand noise reduction method....

  13. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D 2 O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252 Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuteriumtritium (D–T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252 Cf. To be viable, the 14 MeV D–T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2–5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered. - Highlights: • D–T generator neutron calibration field replacement for D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf. • Determination of representative nuclear power plant workplace neutron spectrum. • Simulations to assess moderating materials to soften 14

  14. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  15. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  16. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  17. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    and discussed. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the VSIs functionality during Islanded and grid-connected operations, allowing a seamless transition between these modes through control hierarchies by regulating frequency and voltage, main-grid interactivity......Power electronics based microgrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mathematical models...

  18. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  19. Reliability of published data on radionuclide half lives - relevance to the use of reference sources for checking instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldock, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived calibrated radioisotopes are frequently used for checking of instrumentation used in the measurement of radiation; examples include: radioisotope assay meters, radiation monitors and sample counting equipment. In 1986 we purchased a radioisotope calibrator (Capintec CRC120) which was supplied with a number of long-lived check sources by the manufacturer, one of which was barium-133. The source came with its own calibration certificate and a quoted half life of 10.74 years ± 0.05 years, traceable to the National Bureau of Standards in the USA, and is consistent with data published by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1985 (Tuli 1985). However, we noted at the time that this is significantly different to the value of 7.2 years quoted in the Radiochemical Manual (Wilson 1966) published by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham (now Nycomed-Amersham), and more recently we have noted that it is significantly different to the value of 10.53 years currently quoted on various Internet sites including the University of Sheffield Chemistry Department (Winter 1999). Further investigation showed similar or worse variations of published half lives with time for several radioisotopes. Letter-to-the-editor

  20. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  1. When Distance Matters: Perceptual Bias and Behavioral Response for Approaching Sounds in Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camponogara, I.; Komeilipoor, N.; Cesari, P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on sound perception show a tendency to overestimate the distance of an approaching sound source, leading to a faster reaction time compared to a receding sound source. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether motor preparation and execution change according to the perceived sound direction and

  2. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  3. Lexical and perceptual grounding of a sound ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobanova, Anna; Spenader, Jennifer; Valkenier, Bea; Matousek,; Mautner, P

    2007-01-01

    Sound ontologies need to incorporate source unidentifiable sounds in an adequate and consistent manner. Computational lexical resources like WordNet have either inserted these descriptions into conceptual categories, or make no attempt to organize the terms for these sounds. This work attempts to

  4. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  5. The IPEM code of practice for determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on the NPL air kerma standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidmead, A M; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F; Locks, S M; Lee, C D; Aird, E G A; Flynn, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the recommendations of the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy working party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a Code of Practice (COP) for the UK for measuring the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. In 2004, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) commissioned a primary standard for the realization of RAKR of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. This has meant that it is now possible to calibrate ionization chambers directly traceable to an air kerma standard using an 192 Ir source (Sander and Nutbrown 2006 NPL Report DQL-RD 004 (Teddington: NPL) http://publications.npl.co.uk). In order to use the source specification in terms of either RAKR, .K R (ICRU 1985 ICRU Report No 38 (Washington, DC: ICRU); ICRU 1997 ICRU Report No 58 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)), or air kerma strength, S K (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34), it has been necessary to develop algorithms that can calculate the dose at any point around brachytherapy sources within the patient tissues. The AAPM TG-43 protocol (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34) and the 2004 update TG-43U1 (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633-74) have been developed more fully than any other protocol and are widely used in commercial treatment planning systems. Since the TG-43 formalism uses the quantity air kerma strength, whereas this COP uses RAKR, a unit conversion from RAKR to air kerma strength was included in the appendix to this COP. It is recommended that the measured RAKR determined with a calibrated well chamber traceable to the NPL 192 Ir primary standard is used in the treatment planning system. The measurement uncertainty in the source calibration based on the system described in this COP has been reduced considerably compared to other methods based on interpolation techniques.

  6. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 μm resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 μm endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 μm shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  7. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 {mu}m resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 {mu}m endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 {mu}m shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  8. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    . The third chapter examines how listeners understand and make sense of phonographic space. In the form of a critique of Pierre Schaeffer and Roger Scruton’s notion of the acousmatic situation, I argue that our experience of recorded music has a twofold focus: the sound-in-itself and the sound’s causality...... the use of metaphors and image schemas in the experience and conceptualisation of phonographic space. With reference to descriptions of recordings by sound engineers, I argue that metaphors are central to our understanding of recorded music. This work is grounded in the tradition of cognitive linguistics......This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...

  9. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  10. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  11. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  12. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  13. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  14. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  15. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  16. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  17. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  18. Fault sound sources position estimation based on L array method%基于L型阵列的故障声源位置估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 栾忠权; 马超; 余周祥

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of fault diagnosis is mainly based on the analysis of the vibration, whichhas great limitations in some special circumstances, but the method based on the sound signal from the equipment in the process can solve the problem.A new method for fault diagnosis based on L type acoustic array is presented in this paper.The DOA estimation based on two-dimensional MUSIC is used in radar, and the performance of the algorithm is studied.And with three kinds of different parameterson 2DDOA estimation, the computation is carried out.The comparison with the result of the rectangular arraysis carried out.The resultsshowthat the corresponding algorithm performance is changed while the different parameters have different values.And the method with suitable parameters could be better for the fault diagnosis of the gear drive system.%传统的故障诊断方法主要是基于接触式的振动信号分析,在某些特殊环境下该方法具有很大的局限性,而基于设备运转过程中的声音信号就可以解决该问题.提出了基于L型声阵列的位置估计方法来进行故障诊断,采取了雷达中常用的基于二维MUSIC的DOA估计,并研究了算法的估计性能情况.分别研究了在不同的阵元个数、信噪比和快拍数下的2D-DOA估计的计算机仿真结果,并和基于矩形阵列的DOA估计进行了比较.研究结果表明,在不同的参数下该算法的估计结果也会有很大的不同.所以在选择合适的参数条件下,该算法可以应用于齿轮箱的故障诊断中.

  19. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  20. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  1. Enhanced electricity system analysis for decision making - A reference book[Inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The objective of electricity system analysis in support of decision making is to provide comparative assessment results upon which relevant policy choices between alternative technology options and supply strategies can be based. This reference book offers analysts, planners and decision makers documented information on enhanced approaches to electricity system analysis, that can assist in achieving this objective. The book describes the main elements of comprehensive electricity system analysis and outlines an advanced integrated analysis and decision making framework for the electric power sector. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms for building consensus between interested and affected parties, and on aspects of planning that go beyond the traditional economic optimisation approach. The scope and contents of the book cover the topics to be addressed in decision making for the power sector and the process of integrating economic, social, health and environmental aspects in the comparative assessment of alternative options and strategies. The book describes and discusses overall frameworks, processes and state of the art methods and techniques available to analysts and planners for carrying out comparative assessment studies, in order to provide sound information to decision makers. This reference book is published as part of a series of technical reports and documents prepared in the framework of the inter-agency joint project (DECADES) on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation. The overall objective of the DECADES project is to enhance capabilities for incorporating economic, social, health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of electricity generation options and strategies in the process of decision making for the power sector. The project, established in 1992, is carried out jointly by the European Commission (EC), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

  2. Best Reference Practices are Not Observed in Telephone Ready Reference Services. A review of: Agosto, Denise A. and Holly Anderton. “Whatever Happened to ‘Always Cite the Source?’” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47.1 (2007: 44-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study source citing practice in telephone reference service in large public libraries in the United States and Canada. Design – Field simulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Large public libraries in the United States and Canada.Subjects – Telephone reference staff of the 25 largest public libraries in the United States and Canada.Methods – The 2005 World Book Almanac was used to select the 25 largest (in terms of population served public libraries in Canada and the United States. Each system’s Web site was checked to locate the telephone number for reference service. For some systems it was necessary to call the general telephone number for the main library or the first branch listed on the Web site. Five ready reference test questions were developed from a list of questions that students in a graduate library and information science course had previously asked of public library telephone reference services. The selected questions in the order that they were asked were: 1. Can you tell me when Valentine’s Day is?2. Who is the current governor/premier (of the state/province where the library is located?3. What is the population of Montana?4. In which state is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC located?5. What is the French word for “chiropractor”?The authors called each of the 25 libraries during five consecutive weeks at different times of the business day. Each week, one question was asked; once an answer was received, no clarification was requested and the call was ended. The study reports the results of 125 reference transactions. For this study, the following definitions were used to assess complete citation for each type of information resource:• For a Web site – the complete URL (title and sponsor of the site not required.• For a digital database – the database title and the title and year of the specific item (author, publisher, page number not required.• For a print resource – the title

  3. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  4. Radio thermal sounding of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Martin; Lomukhin, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    At the moment, methods of sounding a status of soil, plant, forest and aquatic environments using radiometry and radar methods are intensively used. The main source of information using radar sounding is the back reflection ratio. The radiometric method is used for detection of the brightness temperature. In this paper, a communication between the back reflection ratio and the brightness temperature is described. This communication is proportional.

  5. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  6. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  7. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  8. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  9. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  10. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  11. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  12. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  13. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  14. A Lower-Crust or Mantle Source for Mineralizing Fluids Beneath the Olympic Dam IOCG Deposit, Australia: New Evidence From Magnetotelluric Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinson, G.

    2005-12-01

    The iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) Olympic Dam (OD) deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit, and sixth largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver and rare-earth elements (REE). Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic mineralisation is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal-settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses OD and the major crustal boundaries. We present results from 58 long-period (10-104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 to 10 km. A 2D inversion of all MT data to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (a) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (1000 Ω.m) Archaean crustal core, from a more conductive crust to the north (typically <500 Ω.m); (c) to the north of OD, the crust to about 20 km is quite resistive (~1000 Ω.m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (<100 Ω.m); and (d) beneath OD, we image a low-resistivity region (<100 Ω.m) throughout the crust, coincident with a seismically transparent region. We argue that the cause of the low-resistivity and low-reflectivity region beneath OD may be due to the upward movement of crustal-volatiles that have deposited conductive graphite mineralisation along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle-degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic crustal deformation.

  15. Early visual deprivation prompts the use of body-centered frames of reference for auditory localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2018-01-01

    The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified. We investigated auditory spatial perception in early blind adults and demonstrated that the deficit derives from blind individual's reduced ability to remap sound locations using an external frame of reference. We found that performance in blind population was severely impaired when they were required to localize brief auditory stimuli with respect to external acoustic landmarks (external reference frame) or when they had to reproduce the spatial distance between two sounds. However, they performed similarly to sighted controls when had to localize sounds with respect to their own hand (body-centered reference frame), or to judge the distances of sounds from their finger. These results suggest that early visual deprivation and the lack of visual contextual cues during the critical period induce a preference for body-centered over external spatial auditory representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  17. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  18. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  19. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  20. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  1. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  2. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  3. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  4. Towards the standardisation of lung sound nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, Hans; Brand, Paul L. P.; Everard, Mark; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Melbye, Hasse; Priftis, Kostas N.

    Auscultation of the lung remains an essential part of physical examination even though its limitations, particularly with regard to communicating subjective findings, are well recognised. The European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force on Respiratory Sounds was established to build a reference

  5. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  6. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  7. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shanshan; Li, Pei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai, E-mail: hugeng@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Dynamics and Control of Flight Vehicle, Ministry of Education and School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  8. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  9. Evaluating Environmental Sounds from a Presence Perspective for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users’ actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks...... as well as self-induced interactive sounds simulated using physical models. Results show that subjects’ motion in the environment is significantly enhanced when dynamic sound sources and sound of egomotion are rendered in the environment....

  10. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  11. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  12. SU-F-T-276: Source Modeling and VMAT Quality Assurance Referring to the TrueBeam Representative Beam Data for Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Beijing Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after the 6MV and 10MV photon beam source modeling, referring to the Varian TrueBeam representative beam data for Eclipse. Methods: The source model needs specific measured beam data, such as PDDs and profiles, diagonal profile, output factors (OFs), and MLC transmission factor (TF) and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), et al. We downloaded the representative data from myVarian website, which includes TrueBeam 4MV-15MV photon beam data and 6MeV-22MeV electron beam data in w2CAD file format for use with Eclipse and in Excel spreadsheet format for use in data comparison. The beam data in W2CAD format can be imported into the Eclipse system and calibrated for use, as appropriate. We used PTW MP3 water tank to measure the beam data in some typical field sizes, and compared the measured data with the representative data. We found that the PDDs, profiles and OFs are similar. However according to some papers and our measurements, we decided that our MLC TF and DLG are 1.58 and 1.33 (6MV), 1.79 and 1.57 (10MV), respectively. After we had configured the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) with the representative data in Eclipse, we also have done dosimetric verification for 88 VMAT plans. Results: The end-to-end test procedures of VMAT were performed for 6MV and 10MV energy modes. The NE Farmer ion chamber mean measurements showed 1.2% (6MV, 38 cases) and 1.2% (10MV, 50 cases) between measurement and calculation; the Sun Nuclear ArcCheck mean measurements demonstrated gamma pass rates are as followings: 98.9%, 93.2%, 61.0% for 6MV, and 98.9%, 91.9%, 59.5% for 10MV, using 3%/3mm, 2%/2mm, 1%/1mm, 10% threshold criteria, respectively. Conclusion: The representative data is applicable to our TrueBeam for the VMAT plan, though our MLC factors are a little different, and its patientspecific QA is good.

  13. Estimation of Completeness of Cancer Registration for Patients Referred to Shiraz Selected Centers through a Two Source Capture Re-capture Method, 2009 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Roxana; SedaghatNia, Mohammad Hossein; Nematolahi, Mohtram; Zare, Najaf; Barzegari, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has important social consequences with cancer registration as the basis of moving towards prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the completeness of registration of the ten most common cancers in patients referred to selected hospitals in Shiraz, Iran by using capture-recapture method. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed in 2014 based on the data of 2009, on a total of 4,388 registered cancer patients. After cleaning data from two sources, using capture-recapture common findings were identified. Then, the percentage of the completeness of cancer registration was estimated using Chapman and Chao methods. Finally, the effects of demographic and treatment variables on the completeness of cancer registration were investigated. The results showed that the percentages of completeness of cancer registration in the selected hospitals of Shiraz were 58.6% and 58.4%, and influenced by different variables. The age group between 40-49 years old was the highest represented and for the age group under 20 years old was the lowest for cancer registration. Breast cancer had the highest registration level and after that, thyroid and lung cancers, while colorectal cancer had the lowest registration level. According to the results, the number of cancers registered was very few and it seems that factors like inadequate knowledge of some doctors, imprecise diagnosis about the types of cancer, incorrectly filled out medical documents, and lack of sufficient accuracy in recording data on the computer cause errors and defects in cancer registration. This suggests a necessity to educate and teach doctors and other medical workers about the methods of documenting information related to cancer and also conduct additional measures to improve the cancer registration system.

  14. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  15. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe

  16. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  17. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  18. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  19. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  20. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  1. Final report on COOMET.AUV.A-S1: Technical report on supplementary comparison 'Comparison of national standards of the sound pressure unit in air through calibration of working reference microphones'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Valentina; Chalyy, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary comparison COOMET.AUV.A-S1 for secondary calibration methods using WS1 and WS2 measurement microphones was carried out from 2009 to 2010. The results were submitted to and approved by CCAUV in April 2014. Four National Metrology Institutes took part in this comparison and are as follows: BelGIM (Belarus), VNIIFTRI (Russia), SMU (Slovakia) and DP NDI 'Sistema' (Ukraine). Three of the above NMIs (VNIIFTRI, SMU and DP NDI 'Sistema') had earlier participated in COOMET key comparisons and one NMI (VNIIFTRI) had also participated in CCAUV key comparisons. The Comparison Reference Values were calculated as the weighted mean values from results obtained by three institutes. The comparison results show agreement for all participants in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz for WS1 microphones, and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 16 kHz for WS2 microphones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulation. 11 5. References 1. Attenborough K. Sound propagation in the atmosphere. In: Rossing TD, editor. Springer handbook of...ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound ...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice

  3. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  4. Shape analysis of pulsed second sound in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, T.; Yan, J.; Trefny, J.U.

    1976-01-01

    Second sound in He II has been observed using a heat pulse method. At temperatures where well-developed second sound is observed, the entire pulse shape can be understood if heat sources and geometrical effects are properly taken into account. 4 figures

  5. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  6. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  7. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  8. Human-assisted sound event recognition for home service robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha Manh; Sheng, Weihua; Liu, Meiqin

    This paper proposes and implements an open framework of active auditory learning for a home service robot to serve the elderly living alone at home. The framework was developed to realize the various auditory perception capabilities while enabling a remote human operator to involve in the sound event recognition process for elderly care. The home service robot is able to estimate the sound source position and collaborate with the human operator in sound event recognition while protecting the privacy of the elderly. Our experimental results validated the proposed framework and evaluated auditory perception capabilities and human-robot collaboration in sound event recognition.

  9. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  10. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  11. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2002-01-01

    -tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds....

  12. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  13. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  14. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  15. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  16. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  17. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  18. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  19. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  20. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  1. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  3. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  4. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  5. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  6. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  7. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  8. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  9. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  10. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  11. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  12. Differential presence of anthropogenic compounds dissolved in the marine waters of Puget Sound, WA and Barkley Sound, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard; Salemme, Keri; Forrest, Brittany; Neibauer, Jaqui; Logsdon, Miles

    2011-11-01

    Organic compounds were evaluated in March 2010 at 22 stations in Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island Canada and at 66 locations in Puget Sound. Of 37 compounds, 15 were xenobiotics, 8 were determined to have an anthropogenic imprint over natural sources, and 13 were presumed to be of natural or mixed origin. The three most frequently detected compounds were salicyclic acid, vanillin and thymol. The three most abundant compounds were diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), ethyl vanillin and benzaldehyde (∼600 n g L(-1) on average). Concentrations of xenobiotics were 10-100 times higher in Puget Sound relative to Barkley Sound. Three compound couplets are used to illustrate the influence of human activity on marine waters; vanillin and ethyl vanillin, salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, and cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid. Ratios indicate that anthropogenic activities are the predominant source of these chemicals in Puget Sound. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reconstruction of sound fields with a spherical microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Walton, Tim

    2014-01-01

    waves traveling in any direction. In particular, rigid sphere microphone arrays are robust, and have the favorable property that the scattering introduced by the array can be compensated for - making the array virtually transparent. This study examines a recently proposed sound field reconstruction...... method based on a point source expansion, i.e. equivalent source method, using a rigid spherical array. The study examines the capability of the method to distinguish between sound waves arriving from different directions (i.e., as a sound field separation method). This is representative of the potential...

  14. Recent paleoseismicity record in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Miller, Eric J.; Marshall, Nicole R.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological and geochemical investigation of sediment cores collected in the deep (>400 m) central basin of Prince William Sound, along with geochemical fingerprinting of sediment source areas, are used to identify earthquake-generated sediment gravity flows. Prince William Sound receives sediment from two distinct sources: from offshore (primarily Copper River) through Hinchinbrook Inlet, and from sources within the Sound (primarily Columbia Glacier). These sources are found to have diagnostic elemental ratios indicative of provenance; Copper River Basin sediments were significantly higher in Sr/Pb and Cu/Pb, whereas Prince William Sound sediments were significantly higher in K/Ca and Rb/Sr. Within the past century, sediment gravity flows deposited within the deep central channel of Prince William Sound have robust geochemical (provenance) signatures that can be correlated with known moderate to large earthquakes in the region. Given the thick Holocene sequence in the Sound ( 200 m) and correspondingly high sedimentation rates (>1 cm year-1), this relationship suggests that sediments within the central basin of Prince William Sound may contain an extraordinary high-resolution record of paleoseismicity in the region.

  15. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  16. Reference-quality genome sequence of Aegilops tauschii, the source of wheat D genome, shows that recombination shapes genome structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat and an important genetic resource for wheat. A reference-quality sequence for the Ae. tauschii genome was produced with a combination of ordered-clone sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical geno...

  17. A model for calculating specular and diffuse reflections in outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In many practical outdoor situations, the direct sound path between a noise source and a receiver is screened by an obstacle. In these situations indirect sound paths become important, in particular reflections of sound waves. Reflections may occur at objects such as a vertical wall, but also at the

  18. Prediction model for sound transmission from machinery in buildings: feasible approaches and problems to be solved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Prediction models for the airborne and impact sound transmission in buildings have recently been established (EN 12354- 1&2:1999). However, these models do not cover technical installations and machinery as a source of sound in buildings. Yet these can cause unacceptable sound levels and it is

  19. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  20. Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan F M Goodman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing is precise in the auditory system and it has been argued that it conveys information about auditory stimuli, in particular about the location of a sound source. However, beyond simple time differences, the way in which neurons might extract this information is unclear and the potential computational advantages are unknown. The computational difficulty of this task for an animal is to locate the source of an unexpected sound from two monaural signals that are highly dependent on the unknown source signal. In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. The model was able to accurately estimate the location of previously unknown sounds in both azimuth and elevation (including front/back discrimination in a known acoustic environment. We found that multiple representations of different acoustic environments could coexist as sets of overlapping neural assemblies which could be associated with spatial locations by Hebbian learning. The model demonstrates the computational relevance of relative spike timing to extract spatial information about sources independently of the source signal.

  1. Airframe related aeroacoustics of transport aircraft� -research into prediction and reduction of sound radiation-�

    OpenAIRE

    Delfs, Jan Werner

    2013-01-01

    As the sound generation in turbofan engines has decreased the significance of airframe related sound has increased. For example in landing approach the sound associated with the airframe may even dominate the overall sound radiation of an aircraft. The influence of the airframe on aerosound is threefold: i) Airframe components subjected to either their own turbulent boundary layer flow or to installation related turbulent flow act as sources of sound, ii) The aerodynamic influence of the airf...

  2. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  3. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  4. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  5. By the sound of it. An ERP investigation of human action sound processing in 7-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that human adults perceive human action sounds as a distinct category from human vocalizations, environmental, and mechanical sounds, activating different neural networks (Engel et al., 2009; Lewis et al., 2011. Yet, little is known about the development of such specialization. Using event-related potentials (ERP, this study investigated neural correlates of 7-month-olds’ processing of human action (HA sounds in comparison to human vocalizations (HV, environmental (ENV, and mechanical (MEC sounds. Relative to the other categories, HA sounds led to increased positive amplitudes between 470 and 570 ms post-stimulus onset at left anterior temporal locations, while HV led to increased negative amplitudes at the more posterior temporal locations in both hemispheres. Collectively, human produced sounds (HA + HV led to significantly different response profiles compared to non-living sound sources (ENV + MEC at parietal and frontal locations in both hemispheres. Overall, by 7 months of age human action sounds are being differentially processed in the brain, consistent with a dichotomy for processing living versus non-living things. This provides novel evidence regarding the typical categorical processing of socially relevant sounds.

  6. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  7. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  8. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  9. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  10. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  11. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  12. Noise detection during heart sound recording using periodicity signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Antunes, M

    2011-01-01

    Heart sound is a valuable biosignal for diagnosis of a large set of cardiac diseases. Ambient and physiological noise interference is one of the most usual and highly probable incidents during heart sound acquisition. It tends to change the morphological characteristics of heart sound that may carry important information for heart disease diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new method applicable in real time to detect ambient and internal body noises manifested in heart sound during acquisition. The algorithm is developed on the basis of the periodic nature of heart sounds and physiologically inspired criteria. A small segment of uncontaminated heart sound exhibiting periodicity in time as well as in the time-frequency domain is first detected and applied as a reference signal in discriminating noise from the sound. The proposed technique has been tested with a database of heart sounds collected from 71 subjects with several types of heart disease inducing several noises during recording. The achieved average sensitivity and specificity are 95.88% and 97.56%, respectively

  13. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  15. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  16. Analysis of acoustic sound signal for ONB measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Kim, H. I.; Han, K. Y.; Chai, H. T.; Park, C.

    2003-01-01

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) was measured in a test fuel bundle composed of several fuel element simulators (FES) by analysing the aquatic sound signals. In order measure ONBs, a hydrophone, a pre-amplifier, and a data acquisition system to acquire/process the aquatic signal was prepared. The acoustic signal generated in the coolant is converted to the current signal through the microphone. When the signal is analyzed in the frequency domain, each sound signal can be identified according to its origin of sound source. As the power is increased to a certain degree, a nucleate boiling is started. The frequent formation and collapse of the void bubbles produce sound signal. By measuring this sound signal one can pinpoint the ONB. Since the signal characteristics is identical for different mass flow rates, this method can be applicable for ascertaining ONB

  17. Design and Calibration Tests of an Active Sound Intensity Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kletschkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an active sound intensity probe that can be used for sound source localization in standing wave fields. The probe consists of a sound hard tube that is terminated by a loudspeaker and an integrated pair of microphones. The microphones are used to decompose the standing wave field inside the tube into its incident and reflected part. The latter is cancelled by an adaptive controller that calculates proper driving signals for the loudspeaker. If the open end of the actively controlled tube is placed close to a vibrating surface, the radiated sound intensity can be determined by measuring the cross spectral density between the two microphones. A one-dimensional free field can be realized effectively, as first experiments performed on a simplified test bed have shown. Further tests proved that a prototype of the novel sound intensity probe can be calibrated.

  18. Determining the speed of sound in the air by sound wave interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Abel A.

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical waves propagate through material media. Sound is an example of a mechanical wave. In fluids like air, sound waves propagate through successive longitudinal perturbations of compression and decompression. Audible sound frequencies for human ears range from 20 to 20 000 Hz. In this study, the speed of sound v in the air is determined using the identification of maxima of interference from two synchronous waves at frequency f. The values of v were correct to 0 °C. The experimental average value of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp =336 +/- 4 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1 was found. It is 1.5% larger than the reference value. The standard deviation of 4 m s-1 (1.2% of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp ) is an improved value by the use of the concept of the central limit theorem. The proposed procedure to determine the speed of sound in the air aims to be an academic activity for physics classes of scientific and technological courses in college.

  19. Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J.C.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

  20. First experience with single-source dual-energy computed tomography in six patients with acute arthralgia: a feasibility experiment using joint aspiration as a reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Kiefer, Tobias; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ziegeler, Katharina; Feist, Eugen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Berlin (Germany); Mews, Juergen [Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, BV, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging technique for examining patients with suspected gout. Single-source dual-energy CT (S-DECT) is a new way of obtaining DECT information on conventional CT scanners rather than using special dual-source CT systems. We tested the feasibility of S-DECT (320-row CT; Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean age 61.3, range 48 to 69 years) with acute arthralgia and suspected gout, and compared the S-DECT findings with the results of joint aspiration. Three patients had a diagnosis of gouty arthritis with negatively birefringent crystals in synovial fluid, in addition to gouty tophi in S-DECT. Three patients had no detectable crystals by polarization microscopy and no tophi on DECT. Their final diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis, activated osteoarthritis, and septic arthritis in one case each. This initial experience suggests that S-DECT might be a valuable alternative to dual-source CT. Hence, more patients may benefit from its additional diagnostic abilities in the future. (orig.)

  1. First experience with single-source dual-energy computed tomography in six patients with acute arthralgia: a feasibility experiment using joint aspiration as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Kiefer, Tobias; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A.; Ziegeler, Katharina; Feist, Eugen; Mews, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging technique for examining patients with suspected gout. Single-source dual-energy CT (S-DECT) is a new way of obtaining DECT information on conventional CT scanners rather than using special dual-source CT systems. We tested the feasibility of S-DECT (320-row CT; Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean age 61.3, range 48 to 69 years) with acute arthralgia and suspected gout, and compared the S-DECT findings with the results of joint aspiration. Three patients had a diagnosis of gouty arthritis with negatively birefringent crystals in synovial fluid, in addition to gouty tophi in S-DECT. Three patients had no detectable crystals by polarization microscopy and no tophi on DECT. Their final diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis, activated osteoarthritis, and septic arthritis in one case each. This initial experience suggests that S-DECT might be a valuable alternative to dual-source CT. Hence, more patients may benefit from its additional diagnostic abilities in the future. (orig.)

  2. On the sound field requirements in the hearing protector standard ISO 4869-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. S.; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    The sound field requirements in the ISO 4869 1 standard for hearing protector attenuation measurements comprise two parts: 1) a sound level difference requirement for positions around the head of the listener (ie at positions 15 cm from a reference point; up-down, front-back and left-right) and 2......) a directivity requirement for the sound incidence at the reference point, measured with a directional microphone, to ensure an approximate diffuse sound field. The level difference requirement (1) is not difficult to fulfil but the directivity requirement (2) may lead to contradicting results if the measurement...

  3. Spatial aspects of sound quality - and by multichannel systems subjective assessment of sound reproduced by stereo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain

    the fidelity with which sound reproduction systems can re-create the desired stereo image, a laser pointing technique was developed to accurately collect subjects' responses in a localization task. This method is subsequently applied in an investigation of the effects of loudspeaker directivity...... on the perceived direction of panned sources. The second part of the thesis addresses the identification of auditory attributes which play a role in the perception of sound reproduced by multichannel systems. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to evoke various...

  4. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  6. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  7. A unified approach for the spatial enhancement of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2005-09-01

    This paper aims to control the sound field spatially, so that the desired or target acoustic variable is enhanced within a zone where a listener is located. This is somewhat analogous to having manipulators that can draw sounds in any place. This also means that one can somehow see the controlled shape of sound in frequency or in real time. The former assures its practical applicability, for example, listening zone control for music. The latter provides a mean of analyzing sound field. With all these regards, a unified approach is proposed that can enhance selected acoustic variables using multiple sources. Three kinds of acoustic variables that have to do with magnitude and direction of sound field are formulated and enhanced. The first one, which has to do with the spatial control of acoustic potential energy, enables one to make a zone of loud sound over an area. Otherwise, one can control directional characteristic of sound field by controlling directional energy density, or one can enhance the magnitude and direction of sound at the same time by controlling acoustic intensity. Throughout various examples, it is shown that these acoustic variables can be controlled successfully by the proposed approach.

  8. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  9. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  10. What the Toadfish Ear Tells the Toadfish Brain About Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edds-Walton, Peggy L

    2016-01-01

    Of the three, paired otolithic endorgans in the ear of teleost fishes, the saccule is the one most often demonstrated to have a major role in encoding frequencies of biologically relevant sounds. The toadfish saccule also encodes sound level and sound source direction in the phase-locked activity conveyed via auditory afferents to nuclei of the ipsilateral octaval column in the medulla. Although paired auditory receptors are present in teleost fishes, binaural processes were believed to be unimportant due to the speed of sound in water and the acoustic transparency of the tissues in water. In contrast, there are behavioral and anatomical data that support binaural processing in fishes. Studies in the toadfish combined anatomical tract-tracing and physiological recordings from identified sites along the ascending auditory pathway to document response characteristics at each level. Binaural computations in the medulla and midbrain sharpen the directional information provided by the saccule. Furthermore, physiological studies in the central nervous system indicated that encoding frequency, sound level, temporal pattern, and sound source direction are important components of what the toadfish ear tells the toadfish brain about sound.

  11. Development of the Database for Environmental Sound Research and Application (DESRA: Design, Functionality, and Retrieval Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gygi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and applied environmental sounds research is gaining prominence but progress has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, high quality, accessible database of environmental sounds. An ongoing project to develop such a resource is described, which is based upon experimental evidence as to the way we listen to sounds in the world. The database will include a large number of sounds produced by different sound sources, with a thorough background for each sound file, including experimentally obtained perceptual data. In this way DESRA can contain a wide variety of acoustic, contextual, semantic, and behavioral information related to an individual sound. It will be accessible on the Internet and will be useful to researchers, engineers, sound designers, and musicians.

  12. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  13. The Opponent Channel Population Code of Sound Location Is an Efficient Representation of Natural Binaural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian auditory cortex, sound source position is represented by a population of broadly tuned neurons whose firing is modulated by sounds located at all positions surrounding the animal. Peaks of their tuning curves are concentrated at lateral position, while their slopes are steepest at the interaural midline, allowing for the maximum localization accuracy in that area. These experimental observations contradict initial assumptions that the auditory space is represented as a topographic cortical map. It has been suggested that a “panoramic” code has evolved to match specific demands of the sound localization task. This work provides evidence suggesting that properties of spatial auditory neurons identified experimentally follow from a general design principle- learning a sparse, efficient representation of natural stimuli. Natural binaural sounds were recorded and served as input to a hierarchical sparse-coding model. In the first layer, left and right ear sounds were separately encoded by a population of complex-valued basis functions which separated phase and amplitude. Both parameters are known to carry information relevant for spatial hearing. Monaural input converged in the second layer, which learned a joint representation of amplitude and interaural phase difference. Spatial selectivity of each second-layer unit was measured by exposing the model to natural sound sources recorded at different positions. Obtained tuning curves match well tuning characteristics of neurons in the mammalian auditory cortex. This study connects neuronal coding of the auditory space with natural stimulus statistics and generates new experimental predictions. Moreover, results presented here suggest that cortical regions with seemingly different functions may implement the same computational strategy-efficient coding. PMID:25996373

  14. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  15. Optical Reading and Playing of Sound Signals from Vinyl Records

    OpenAIRE

    Hensman, Arnold; Casey, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    While advanced digital music systems such as compact disk players and MP3 have become the standard in sound reproduction technology, critics claim that conversion to digital often results in a loss of sound quality and richness. For this reason, vinyl records remain the medium of choice for many audiophiles involved in specialist areas. The waveform cut into a vinyl record is an exact replica of the analogue version from the original source. However, while some perceive this media as reproduc...

  16. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  17. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  18. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  19. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M

    2012-01-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  20. A comparison of two different sound intensity measurement principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; de Bree, Hans-Elias

    2005-01-01

    , and compares the two measurement principles with particular regard to the sources of error in sound power determination. It is shown that the phase calibration of intensity probes that combine different transducers is very critical below 500 Hz if the measurement surface is very close to the source under test...

  1. Sustained Magnetic Responses in Temporal Cortex Reflect Instantaneous Significance of Approaching and Receding Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    Full Text Available Rising sound intensity often signals an approaching sound source and can serve as a powerful warning cue, eliciting phasic attention, perception biases and emotional responses. How the evaluation of approaching sounds unfolds over time remains elusive. Here, we capitalised on the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalograpy (MEG to investigate in humans a dynamic encoding of perceiving approaching and receding sounds. We compared magnetic responses to intensity envelopes of complex sounds to those of white noise sounds, in which intensity change is not perceived as approaching. Sustained magnetic fields over temporal sensors tracked intensity change in complex sounds in an approximately linear fashion, an effect not seen for intensity change in white noise sounds, or for overall intensity. Hence, these fields are likely to track approach/recession, but not the apparent (instantaneous distance of the sound source, or its intensity as such. As a likely source of this activity, the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction emerged. Our results indicate that discrete temporal cortical areas parametrically encode behavioural significance in moving sound sources where the signal unfolded in a manner reminiscent of evidence accumulation. This may help an understanding of how acoustic percepts are evaluated as behaviourally relevant, where our results highlight a crucial role of cortical areas.

  2. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  3. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  4. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  5. Improving Robustness against Environmental Sounds for Directing Attention of Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-modal system for finding out where to direct the attention of a social robot in a dialog scenario, which is robust against environmental sounds (door slamming, phone ringing etc.) and short speech segments. The method is based on combining voice activity detection (VAD......) and sound source localization (SSL) and furthermore apply post-processing to SSL to filter out short sounds. The system is tested against a baseline system in four different real-world experiments, where different sounds are used as interfering sounds. The results are promising and show a clear improvement....

  6. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-09-30

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  7. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  8. Techniques and instrumentation for the measurement of transient sound energy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, P. S.; Fahy, F. J.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of sound intensity distributions, and sound powers, of essentially continuous sources such as automotive engines, electric motors, production line machinery, furnaces, earth moving machinery and various types of process plants were studied. Although such systems are important sources of community disturbance and, to a lesser extent, of industrial health hazard, the most serious sources of hearing hazard in industry are machines operating on an impact principle, such as drop forges, hammers and punches. Controlled experiments to identify major noise source regions and mechanisms are difficult because it is normally impossible to install them in quiet, anechoic environments. The potential for sound intensity measurement to provide a means of overcoming these difficulties has given promising results, indicating the possibility of separation of directly radiated and reverberant sound fields. However, because of the complexity of transient sound fields, a fundamental investigation is necessary to establish the practicability of intensity field decomposition, which is basic to source characterization techniques.

  9. Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas; Deskins, Greg (Maurer Technology Inc.); Ward, Stephen L. (Advantage Energy Services Ltd); Hightower, Mel

    2001-09-30

    This Coiled-Tubing Drilling (CTD) Sound Practices Manual provides tools needed by CTD engineers and supervisors to plan, design and perform safe, successful CTD operations. As emphasized throughout, both careful planning and attention to detail are mandatory for success. A bibliography of many useful CTD references is presented in Chapter 6. This manual is organized according to three processes: 1) Pre-Job Planning Process, 2) Operations Execution Process, and 3) Post-Job Review Process. Each is discussed in a logical and sequential format.

  10. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basáñez María-Gloria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO. There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  11. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources. PMID:19243576

  12. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  13. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  14. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  15. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.

  16. Noise detection in heart sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Mohammad K; Griffel, Benjamin; Fridman, Vladimir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although progression of CAD can be controlled using drugs and diet, it is usually detected in advanced stages when invasive treatment is required. Current methods to detect CAD are invasive and/or costly, hence not suitable as a regular screening tool to detect CAD in early stages. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive and cost-effective system to detect CAD using the acoustic approach. This method identifies sounds generated by turbulent flow through partially narrowed coronary arteries to detect CAD. The limiting factor of this method is sensitivity to noises commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Because the CAD sounds are faint, these noises can easily obscure the CAD sounds and make detection impossible. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and eliminate noise encountered in the clinical setting using a reference channel. We show that our method is effective in detecting noise, which is essential to the success of the acoustic approach.

  17. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  18. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  19. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  20. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  1. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  2. Interactive Sound Propagation using Precomputation and Statistical Approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Lakulish

    Acoustic phenomena such as early reflections, diffraction, and reverberation have been shown to improve the user experience in interactive virtual environments and video games. These effects arise due to repeated interactions between sound waves and objects in the environment. In interactive applications, these effects must be simulated within a prescribed time budget. We present two complementary approaches for computing such acoustic effects in real time, with plausible variation in the sound field throughout the scene. The first approach, Precomputed Acoustic Radiance Transfer, precomputes a matrix that accounts for multiple acoustic interactions between all scene objects. The matrix is used at run time to provide sound propagation effects that vary smoothly as sources and listeners move. The second approach couples two techniques---Ambient Reverberance, and Aural Proxies---to provide approximate sound propagation effects in real time, based on only the portion of the environment immediately visible to the listener. These approaches lie at different ends of a space of interactive sound propagation techniques for modeling sound propagation effects in interactive applications. The first approach emphasizes accuracy by modeling acoustic interactions between all parts of the scene; the second approach emphasizes efficiency by only taking the local environment of the listener into account. These methods have been used to efficiently generate acoustic walkthroughs of architectural models. They have also been integrated into a modern game engine, and can enable realistic, interactive sound propagation on commodity desktop PCs.

  3. Sound segregation via embedded repetition is robust to inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A framework for automatic heart sound analysis without segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungpimolrut Kanokvate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new framework for heart sound analysis is proposed. One of the most difficult processes in heart sound analysis is segmentation, due to interference form murmurs. Method Equal number of cardiac cycles were extracted from heart sounds with different heart rates using information from envelopes of autocorrelation functions without the need to label individual fundamental heart sounds (FHS. The complete method consists of envelope detection, calculation of cardiac cycle lengths using auto-correlation of envelope signals, features extraction using discrete wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and classification using neural network bagging predictors. Result The proposed method was tested on a set of heart sounds obtained from several on-line databases and recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Geometric mean was used as performance index. Average classification performance using ten-fold cross-validation was 0.92 for noise free case, 0.90 under white noise with 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and 0.90 under impulse noise up to 0.3 s duration. Conclusion The proposed method showed promising results and high noise robustness to a wide range of heart sounds. However, more tests are needed to address any bias that may have been introduced by different sources of heart sounds in the current training set, and to concretely validate the method. Further work include building a new training set recorded from actual patients, then further evaluate the method based on this new training set.

  5. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  6. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  7. A new system for rating impact sound insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The rating of impact sound insulation on the basis of tapping machine measurements with the ISO reference values has proved to be unsatisfactory in practice. This is mainly due to the differences in spectrum shape of tapping machine noise and real life impact noises, such as walking. The problem can

  8. An objective measure for the sensitivity of room impulse response and its link to a diffuse sound field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prislan, Rok; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This study is relevant to acoustic measurements in reverberation rooms such as measurements of sound transmission, sound absorption, and sound power levels of noise sources. The study presents a quantitative measure for the diffuseness in a room, which is first introduced theoretically and sub...

  9. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  10. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency-dependent shaping of binaural cues such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound......, for sounds that contain frequencies above about 1 kHz the ILD fluctuations were found to be an essential cue for externalization....

  11. Segmentation of heart sound recordings by a duration-dependent hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S E; Graff, C; Toft, E; Struijk, J J; Holst-Hansen, C

    2010-01-01

    Digital stethoscopes offer new opportunities for computerized analysis of heart sounds. Segmentation of heart sound recordings into periods related to the first and second heart sound (S1 and S2) is fundamental in the analysis process. However, segmentation of heart sounds recorded with handheld stethoscopes in clinical environments is often complicated by background noise. A duration-dependent hidden Markov model (DHMM) is proposed for robust segmentation of heart sounds. The DHMM identifies the most likely sequence of physiological heart sounds, based on duration of the events, the amplitude of the signal envelope and a predefined model structure. The DHMM model was developed and tested with heart sounds recorded bedside with a commercially available handheld stethoscope from a population of patients referred for coronary arterioangiography. The DHMM identified 890 S1 and S2 sounds out of 901 which corresponds to 98.8% (CI: 97.8–99.3%) sensitivity in 73 test patients and 13 misplaced sounds out of 903 identified sounds which corresponds to 98.6% (CI: 97.6–99.1%) positive predictivity. These results indicate that the DHMM is an appropriate model of the heart cycle and suitable for segmentation of clinically recorded heart sounds

  12. Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A

    2013-11-01

    Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.

  13. Wave field synthesis, adaptive wave field synthesis and ambisonics using decentralized transformed control: Potential applications to sound field reproduction and active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to

  14. Regularization in global sound equalization based on effort variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    . Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources......Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea...

  15. Jump in the amplitude of a sound wave associated with contraction of a nitrogen discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a sound wave created by an external source and directed along the positive column of a nitrogen discharge in order to make the discharge pass to the contracted state is studied experimentally. A phenomenon involving a jump in the sound wave amplitude, caused by the discharge contraction, is observed and studied. It is established that the amplitude of the sound wave as a function of the discharge current near the jump exhibits hysteresis. It is shown that in the field of a high-intensity sound wave causing the discharge to expand eliminates the jump in the sound amplitude. The dependence of the growth time of the sound amplitude caused by the jump in this quantity on the sound wave intensity is determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  17. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  18. Discrimination of musical instrument sounds resynthesized with simplified spectrotemporal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, S; Beauchamp, J W; Meneguzzi, S

    1999-02-01

    The perceptual salience of several outstanding features of quasiharmonic, time-variant spectra was investigated in musical instrument sounds. Spectral analyses of sounds from seven musical instruments (clarinet, flute, oboe, trumpet, violin, harpsichord, and marimba) produced time-varying harmonic amplitude and frequency data. Six basic data simplifications and five combinations of them were applied to the reference tones: amplitude-variation smoothing, coherent variation of amplitudes over time, spectral-envelope smoothing, forced harmonic-frequency variation, frequency-variation smoothing, and harmonic-frequency flattening. Listeners were asked to discriminate sounds resynthesized with simplified data from reference sounds resynthesized with the full data. Averaged over the seven instruments, the discrimination was very good for spectral envelope smoothing and amplitude envelope coherence, but was moderate to poor in decreasing order for forced harmonic frequency variation, frequency variation smoothing, frequency flattening, and amplitude variation smoothing. Discrimination of combinations of simplifications was equivalent to that of the most potent constituent simplification. Objective measurements were made on the spectral data for harmonic amplitude, harmonic frequency, and spectral centroid changes resulting from simplifications. These measures were found to correlate well with discrimination results, indicating that listeners have access to a relatively fine-grained sensory representation of musical instrument sounds.

  19. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  20. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  1. Localization of a sound source in in a guided medium and reverberating field. Contribution to a study on leak localization in the internal wall of containment of a nuclear reactor in the case of a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Basic data necessary for the localization of a leak in the internal wall of the containment are presented by studying the sound generated by gas jets coming out of (leaking fissures) as well as propagation in a guided medium. The results acquired have led us to choose the simple intercorrelation method and the matched filed processing method, both of which are likely to adequately handle our problems. Whereas the intercorrelation method appears to be limited in scope when dealing in the guided medium, the matched field processing is suited to leak localization over a surface of approximately 1000 m 2 (for a total surface of 10 000 m 2 ). Preliminary studies on the leak signal and on replicated signals have led us to limit the frequency band to 2600 - 3000 Hz. We have succeeded in locating a leak situated in an ordinary position with a minimum amount of replicated signals and basic data. We have improved on the estimation of Bartlett and MVDE (minimum variance distortion less filter) rendering them even more effective. Afterwards, we considered the severe accident situation and showed that the system can be installed in situ. (author)

  2. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  3. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A.; Monahan, R.; Stacey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development

  4. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  5. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  6. Buddhism: A Brief Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jerry

    The annotated bibliography lists 48 articles, atlases, dictionaries, bibliographies, and general and subject indexes on Buddhism. The bibliography is intended to provide college students with an introduction to the more complex literature of Buddhism and to stimulate further research and study. Topics include the history of Buddhism; the practice…

  7. SU-F-T-16: Experimental Determination of Ionization Chamber Correction Factors for In-Phantom Measurements of Reference Air Kerma Rate and Absorbed Water Dose Rate of Brachytherapy 192Ir Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M; Lee, V; Wong, M; Leung, R; Law, G; Lee, K; Cheung, S; Tung, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. Methods: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor. Similarly, Ka is determined by M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)ka, where (kglob)ka the in-phantom Ka correction factor. Two thimble ICs PTW30013 and another PTW30016 having a ND,w,60Co from the German primary standard laboratory (PTB) were simultaneously exposed to the microselectron 192Ir v2 source at 8cm in a PMMA phantom. A reference well chamber (PTW33004) with a PTB transfer Ka calibration Nka was used for comparing the in-phantom measurements to derive the experimental (kglob)ka factors. We determined the experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 by comparing the PTW30016 measurements with MC-calculated (kglob)Dw1. Results: Ka results of the PTW30016 based on ND,w,60Co and MC-calculated (kglob)ka differ from the well chamber results based on Nka by 1.6% and from the manufacturer by 1.0%. Experimental (kglob)ka factors for the PTW30016 and two other PTW30013 are 0.00683, 0.00681 and 0.00679, and vary <0.5% with 1mm source positioning uncertainty. Experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 ICs are 75.3 and 75.6, and differ by 1.6% from the conversion by dose rate constant from the AAPM report 229. Conclusion: The 1.7% difference between MC and experimental (kglob)ka for the PTW30016 IC is within the PTB 2.5% expanded uncertainty in Ka calibration standard. Using a single IC with ND,w,60Co to calibrate the brachytherapy source and dose output in external

  8. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  9. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    be used for realistic environmental sound. Natural unstructured environment sounds contain a large variety of sounds, which are in fact noise-like and are not effectively modeled by Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) or other commonly-used audio features, e.g. energy, zero-crossing, etc. Due to the lack of appropriate features that is suitable for environmental audio and to achieve a more effective representation, I proposed a specialized feature extraction algorithm for environmental sounds that utilizes the matching pursuit (MP) algorithm to learn the inherent structure of each type of sounds, which we called MP-features. MP-features have shown to capture and represent sounds from different sources and different ranges, where frequency domain features (e.g., MFCCs) fail and can be advantageous when combining with MFCCs to improve the overall performance. The third component leads to our investigation on modeling and detecting the background audio. One of the goals of this research is to characterize an environment. Since many events would blend into the background, I wanted to look for a way to achieve a general model for any particular environment. Once we have an idea of the background, it will enable us to identify foreground events even if we havent seen these events before. Therefore, the next step is to investigate into learning the audio background model for each environment type, despite the occurrences of different foreground events. In this work, I presented a framework for robust audio background modeling, which includes learning the models for prediction, data knowledge and persistent characteristics of the environment. This approach has the ability to model the background and detect foreground events as well as the ability to verify whether the predicted background is indeed the background or a foreground event that protracts for a longer period of time. In this work, I also investigated the use of a semi-supervised learning technique to

  10. Lung and Heart Sounds Analysis: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortiz, Ana L; Ibarra, David

    2018-01-01

    Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively. In this article, we review the research conducted during the last six years on lung and heart sounds, instrumentation and data sources (sensors and databases), technological advances, and perspectives in processing and data analysis. Our review suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases reported on in the literature; related diseases that are less analyzed include chronic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and parenchymal pathology. Some new findings regarding the methodologies associated with advances in the electronic stethoscope have been presented for the auscultatory heart sound signaling process, including analysis and clarification of resulting sounds to create a diagnosis based on a quantifiable medical assessment. The availability of automatic interpretation of high precision of heart and lung sounds opens interesting possibilities for cardiovascular diagnosis as well as potential for intelligent diagnosis of heart and lung diseases.

  11. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  12. Loudness estimation of simultaneous sources using beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for estimating the loudness of several simultaneous sound sources by means of microphone-array beamforming. The algorithm is derived from two listening experiments in which the loudness of two simultaneous sounds (narrow-band noises with 1-kHz and 3.15-kHz center...... frequencies) was matched to a single sound (2-kHz narrow-band noise). The simultaneous sounds were presented from either one sound source or two spatially separated sources, whereas the single sound was presented from the frontal direction. The results indicate that overall loudness can be calculated...... by summing the loudnesses of the individual sources according to a simple psychophysical relationship....

  13. Objective Scaling of Sound Quality for Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    ) Subjective sound quality ratings of clean and distorted speech and music signals, by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, to provide reference data, 2) An auditory model of the ear, including the effects of hearing loss, based on existing psychoacoustic knowledge, coupled to 3) An artificial neural......A new method for the objective estimation of sound quality for both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners has been presented: OSSQAR (Objective Scaling of Sound Quality and Reproduction). OSSQAR is based on three main parts, which have been carried out and documented separately: 1...... network, which was trained to predict the sound quality ratings. OSSQAR predicts the perceived sound quality on two independent perceptual rating scales: Clearness and Sharpness. These two scales were shown to be the most relevant for assessment of sound quality, and they were interpreted the same way...

  14. Assessing the contribution of binaural cues for apparent source width perception via a functional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; Hahmann, Manuel; May, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In echoic conditions, sound sources are not perceived as point sources but appear to be expanded. The expansion in the horizontal dimension is referred to as apparent source width (ASW). To elicit this perception, the auditory system has access to fluctuations of binaural cues, the interaural time...... a statistical representation of ITDs and ILDs based on percentiles integrated over time and frequency. The model’s performance was evaluated against psychoacoustic data obtained with noise, speech and music signals in loudspeakerbased experiments. A robust model prediction of ASW was achieved using a cross...

  15. Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliya Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed.

  16. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhao-Hui; Zhang Ling-Shan

    2016-01-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. (special topic)

  17. Takete and Maluma in Action: A Cross-Modal Relationship between Gestures and Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kazuko; Yamauchi, Naoto; Kawahara, Shigeto; Tanaka, Hideyuki

    Despite Saussure's famous observation that sound-meaning relationships are in principle arbitrary, we now have a substantial body of evidence that sounds themselves can have meanings, patterns often referred to as "sound symbolism". Previous studies have found that particular sounds can be associated with particular meanings, and also with particular static visual shapes. Less well studied is the association between sounds and dynamic movements. Using a free elicitation method, the current experiment shows that several sound symbolic associations between sounds and dynamic movements exist: (1) front vowels are more likely to be associated with small movements than with large movements; (2) front vowels are more likely to be associated with angular movements than with round movements; (3) obstruents are more likely to be associated with angular movements than with round movements; (4) voiced obstruents are more likely to be associated with large movements than with small movements. All of these results are compatible with the results of the previous studies of sound symbolism using static images or meanings. Overall, the current study supports the hypothesis that particular dynamic motions can be associated with particular sounds. Building on the current results, we discuss a possible practical application of these sound symbolic associations in sports instructions.

  18. Takete and Maluma in Action: A Cross-Modal Relationship between Gestures and Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Shinohara

    Full Text Available Despite Saussure's famous observation that sound-meaning relationships are in principle arbitrary, we now have a substantial body of evidence that sounds themselves can have meanings, patterns often referred to as "sound symbolism". Previous studies have found that particular sounds can be associated with particular meanings, and also with particular static visual shapes. Less well studied is the association between sounds and dynamic movements. Using a free elicitation method, the current experiment shows that several sound symbolic associations between sounds and dynamic movements exist: (1 front vowels are more likely to be associated with small movements than with large movements; (2 front vowels are more likely to be associated with angular movements than with round movements; (3 obstruents are more likely to be associated with angular movements than with round movements; (4 voiced obstruents are more likely to be associated with large movements than with small movements. All of these results are compatible with the results of the previous studies of sound symbolism using static images or meanings. Overall, the current study supports the hypothesis that particular dynamic motions can be associated with particular sounds. Building on the current results, we discuss a possible practical application of these sound symbolic associations in sports instructions.

  19. Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng

    1995-01-01

    The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord

  20. An integrated system for dynamic control of auditory perspective in a multichannel sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Jason Andrew

    An integrated system providing dynamic control of sound source azimuth, distance and proximity to a room boundary within a simulated acoustic space is proposed for use in multichannel music and film sound production. The system has been investigated, implemented, and psychoacoustically tested within the ITU-R BS.775 recommended five-channel (3/2) loudspeaker layout. The work brings together physical and perceptual models of room simulation to allow dynamic placement of virtual sound sources at any location of a simulated space within the horizontal plane. The control system incorporates a number of modules including simulated room modes, "fuzzy" sources, and tracking early reflections, whose parameters are dynamically changed according to sound source location within the simulated space. The control functions of the basic elements, derived from theories of perception of a source in a real room, have been carefully tuned to provide efficient, effective, and intuitive control of a sound source's perceived location. Seven formal listening tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm design choices. The tests evaluated: (1) loudness calibration of multichannel sound images; (2) the effectiveness of distance control; (3) the resolution of distance control provided by the system; (4) the effectiveness of the proposed system when compared to a commercially available multichannel room simulation system in terms of control of source distance and proximity to a room boundary; (5) the role of tracking early reflection patterns on the perception of sound source distance; (6) the role of tracking early reflection patterns on the perception of lateral phantom images. The listening tests confirm the effectiveness of the system for control of perceived sound source distance, proximity to room boundaries, and azimuth, through fine, dynamic adjustment of parameters according to source location. All of the parameters are grouped and controlled together to