WorldWideScience

Sample records for sophomore-level microbiology laboratory

  1. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  2. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  3. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  4. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching information literacy skills to sophomore-level biology majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann

    2015-05-01

    Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner.

  7. Exploring Three-Phase Systems and Synchronous Motors: A Low-Voltage and Low-Cost Experiment at the Sophomore Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular and societal needs, a three-phase system and synchronous motor laboratory experience for sophomore-level students in a wide variety of engineering majors was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum, and in that it focuses primarily on basic…

  8. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S J

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  10. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  11. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  12. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  13. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  15. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)

  16. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  17. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Welker (Martin); M. Erhard (Marcel); S. Chatellier (Sonia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been

  19. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  20. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  2. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology (AFSC 90470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology (the history of bacteriology; aseptic techniques and sterilization procedures; bacterial morphology and…

  3. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  5. Brucella abortus infection acquired in microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, P L; Mastrandrea, S; Rappelli, P; Cappuccinelli, P

    2000-05-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  6. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  7. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  10. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  11. Implementing a Quality Management System in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Roberta B; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Kehl, Sue C; Matukas, Larissa M; Pentella, Michael A; Salfinger, Max; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2018-07-01

    This document outlines a comprehensive practical approach to a laboratory quality management system (QMS) by describing how to operationalize the management and technical requirements described in the ISO 15189 international standard. It provides a crosswalk of the ISO requirements for quality and competence for medical laboratories to the 12 quality system essentials delineated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The quality principles are organized under three main categories: quality infrastructure, laboratory operations, and quality assurance and continual improvement. The roles and responsibilities to establish and sustain a QMS are outlined for microbiology laboratory staff, laboratory management personnel, and the institution's leadership. Examples and forms are included to assist in the real-world implementation of this system and to allow the adaptation of the system for each laboratory's unique environment. Errors and nonconforming events are acknowledged and embraced as an opportunity to improve the quality of the laboratory, a culture shift from blaming individuals. An effective QMS encourages "systems thinking" by providing a process to think globally of the effects of any type of change. Ultimately, a successful QMS is achieved when its principles are adopted as part of daily practice throughout the total testing process continuum. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  14. Candida bloodstream infection: a clinical microbiology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Kristóf, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) has been on the rise in several countries worldwide. Species distribution is changing; an increase in the percentage of non-albicans species, mainly fluconazole non-susceptible C. glabrata was reported. Existing microbiology diagnostic methods lack sensitivity, and new methods need to be developed or further evaluation for routine application is necessary. Although reliable, standardized methods for antifungal susceptibility testing are available, the determination of clinical breakpoints remains challenging. Correct species identification is important and provides information on the intrinsic susceptibility profile of the isolate. Currently, acquired resistance in clinical Candida isolates is rare, but reports indicate that it could be an issue in the future. The role of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to isolate and correctly identify the infective agent and provide relevant and reliable susceptibility data as soon as possible to guide antifungal therapy.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS in the Microbiology Laboratory: Current Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sören; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Within less than a decade matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a gold standard for microbial identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. Besides identification of microorganisms the typing of single strains as well as the antibiotic and antimycotic resistance testing has come into focus in order to speed up the microbiological diagnostic. However, the full potential of MALDI-TOF MS has not been tapped yet and future technological advancements will certainly expedite this method towards novel applications and enhancement of current practice. So, the following chapter shall be rather a brainstorming and forecast of how MALDI-TOF MS will develop to influence clinical diagnostics and microbial research in the future. It shall open up the stage for further discussions and does not claim for overall validity.

  16. Medical microbiology: laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werno, Anja M; Murdoch, David R

    2008-03-15

    The laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to rely on culture-based methods that have been used for many decades. The most significant recent developments have occurred with antigen detection assays, whereas the role of nucleic acid amplification tests has yet to be fully clarified. Despite developments in laboratory diagnostics, a microbiological diagnosis is still not made in most cases of IPD, particularly for pneumococcal pneumonia. The limitations of existing diagnostic tests impact the ability to obtain accurate IPD burden data and to assess the effectiveness of control measures, such as vaccination, in addition to the ability to diagnose IPD in individual patients. There is an urgent need for improved diagnostic tests for pneumococcal disease--especially tests that are suitable for use in underresourced countries.

  17. Transformation From a Conventional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory to Full Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Camacho, José L; Calva-Espinosa, Diana Y; Leal-Leyva, Yoseli Y; Elizalde-Olivas, Dolores C; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan

    2017-12-22

    To validate the performance, reproducibility, and reliability of BD automated instruments in order to establish a fully automated clinical microbiology laboratory. We used control strains and clinical samples to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the BD Kiestra WCA, the BD Phoenix, and BD Bruker MALDI-Biotyper instruments and compared them to previously established conventional methods. The following processes were evaluated: sample inoculation and spreading, colony counts, sorting of cultures, antibiotic susceptibility test, and microbial identification. The BD Kiestra recovered single colonies in less time than conventional methods (e.g. E. coli, 7h vs 10h, respectively) and agreement between both methodologies was excellent for colony counts (κ=0.824) and sorting cultures (κ=0.821). Antibiotic susceptibility tests performed with BD Phoenix and disk diffusion demonstrated 96.3% agreement with both methods. Finally, we compared microbial identification in BD Phoenix and Bruker MALDI-Biotyper and observed perfect agreement (κ=1) and identification at a species level for control strains. Together these instruments allow us to process clinical urine samples in 36h (effective time). The BD automated technologies have improved performance compared with conventional methods, and are suitable for its implementation in very busy microbiology laboratories. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Challenges for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, Peera; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Risa; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-12-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical diagnosis of melioidosis can be challenging since there is no pathognomonic clinical syndrome, and the organism is often misidentified by methods used routinely in clinical laboratories. Although the disease is more prevalent in Thailand and northern Australia, sporadic cases may be encountered in areas where it is not endemic, including the United States. Since the organism is considered a tier 1 select agent according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, clinical laboratories must be proficient at rapidly recognizing isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei, be able to safely perform necessary rule-out tests, and to refer suspect isolates to Laboratory Response Network reference laboratories. In this minireview, we report a case of melioidosis encountered at our institution and discuss the laboratory challenges encountered when dealing with clinical isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei or clinical specimens from suspected melioidosis cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed.

  20. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Megan H; Pulido, Lila; Garza, Melinda N; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy; Einspahr, Christopher L; Yarsa, Joseph; Sood, Pramilla K; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine is committed to providing the best pathology and medicine through: state-of-the art techniques, progressive ground-breaking research, education and training for the clinical diagnosis and research of cancer and related diseases. After surveying the laboratory staff and other hospital professionals, the Department administrators and Human Resource generalists developed a professional development model for Microbiology to support laboratory skills, behavior, certification, and continual education within its staff. This model sets high standards for the laboratory professionals to allow the labs to work at their fullest potential; it provides organization to training technologists based on complete laboratory needs instead of training technologists in individual areas in which more training is required if the laboratory needs them to work in other areas. This model is a working example for all microbiology based laboratories who want to set high standards and want their staff to be acknowledged for demonstrated excellence and professional development in the laboratory. The PDM model is designed to focus on the needs of the laboratory as well as the laboratory professionals.

  1. An investigative, cooperative learning approach to the general microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience involving culture and identification of microbial isolates that the students obtained from various environments. To assess whether this strategy was successful, students were asked to complete a survey at the beginning and at the end of the semester regarding their comfort level with a variety of topics. For most of the topics queried, the students reported that their comfort had increased significantly during the semester. Furthermore, this group of students thought that the quality of this investigative lab experience was much better than that of any of their previous lab experiences.

  2. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  3. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  4. The Role of the Clinical Laboratory in the Future of Health Care: Lean Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj

    2014-01-01

    This commentary will introduce lean concepts into the clinical microbiology laboratory. The practice of lean in the clinical microbiology laboratory can remove waste, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Lean, Six Sigma, and other such management initiatives are useful tools and can provide dividends but must be accompanied by organizational leadership commitment to sustaining the lean culture in the laboratory setting and providing resources and time to work through the process. PMID:24574289

  5. Kimchi: Spicy Science for the Undergraduate Microbiology Laboratory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Virginia A.; Kiefer, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. The fermentation of vegetables, as occurs in the preparation of sauerkraut and kimchi, uses an enrichment step to select for the growth of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria (LAB).  This is an active learning exercise in which students learn a food preparation skill and basic microbiological terms such as selection and enrichment.  W...

  6. The Recording of Student Performance in the Microbiology Laboratory as a Training, Tutorial, and Motivational Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lipson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory component of a microbiology course consists of exercises which mandate a level of proficiency and manual dexterity equal to and often beyond that recognized among other biology courses. Bacterial growth, maintenance, identification (e.g., Gram stain, biochemical tests, genomics, as well as the continuous need to maintain laboratory safety and sterile technique, are only a few skills/responsibilities critical to the discipline of microbiology. Performance of the Gram stain remains one of the most basic and pivotal skills that must be mastered in the microbiology laboratory. However, a number of students continually have difficulty executing the Gram stain and preparative procedures associated with the test. In order to address this issue, we incorporated real-time digital recording as a supplemental teaching aid in the microbiology laboratory. Our use of the digital movie camera in the teaching setting served to enhance interest, motivate students, and in general, improve student performance.

  7. The recording of student performance in the microbiology laboratory as a training, tutorial, and motivational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Steven M; Gair, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The laboratory component of a microbiology course consists of exercises which mandate a level of proficiency and manual dexterity equal to and often beyond that recognized among other biology courses. Bacterial growth, maintenance, identification (e.g., Gram stain, biochemical tests, genomics), as well as the continuous need to maintain laboratory safety and sterile technique, are only a few skills/responsibilities critical to the discipline of microbiology. Performance of the Gram stain remains one of the most basic and pivotal skills that must be mastered in the microbiology laboratory. However, a number of students continually have difficulty executing the Gram stain and preparative procedures associated with the test. In order to address this issue, we incorporated real-time digital recording as a supplemental teaching aid in the microbiology laboratory. Our use of the digital movie camera in the teaching setting served to enhance interest, motivate students, and in general, improve student performance.

  8. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Kimchi: Spicy Science for the Undergraduate Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A. Young

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. The fermentation of vegetables, as occurs in the preparation of sauerkraut and kimchi, uses an enrichment step to select for the growth of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria (LAB.  This is an active learning exercise in which students learn a food preparation skill and basic microbiological terms such as selection and enrichment.  When performed in conjunction with cultured fermentations, such as yogurt making, students can see the difference between fermentations by naturally occurring microorganisms versus inoculated microorganisms. Additionally, this exercise introduces students to concepts of food safety, intrinsic factors influencing microbial growth such as pH, and cultural uses of fermentation to preserve locally available foods.

  10. The Individualized Quality Control Plan - Coming Soon to Clinical Microbiology Laboratories Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy

    2015-11-15

    As of January 1, 2016, microbiology laboratories can choose to adopt a new quality control option, the Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP), under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA). This voluntary approach increases flexibility for meeting regulatory requirements and provides laboratories the opportunity to customize QC for their testing in their unique environments and by their testing personnel. IQCP is an all-inclusive approach to quality based on risk management to address potential errors in the total testing process. It includes three main steps, (1) performing a risk assessment, (2) developing a QC plan, and (3) monitoring the plan through quality assessment. Resources are available from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Microbiology, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and accrediting organizations, such as the College of American Pathologists and Joint Commission, to assist microbiology laboratories implementing IQCP.

  11. [Medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals: essential for safe patient care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, M J M

    2008-12-06

    The Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate investigated the quality of medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals. By and large the laboratories fulfilled the requirements for appropriate care, although some processes were unsatisfactory and some were insufficiently formalised. In the Netherlands, laboratories for medical microbiology are integrated within hospitals and medical microbiologists are responsible for the diagnostic processes as well as for co-treatment of patients, infection prevention and research. This integrated model contrasts to the more industrialised model in many other countries, where such laboratories are physically distinct from hospitals with a strong focus on diagnostics. The Inspectorate also concludes that the current position of medical microbiology in Dutch hospitals is necessary for patient safety and that outsourcing of these facilities is considered unacceptable.

  12. Performance of Kiestra total laboratory automation combined with MS in clinical microbiology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hodiamont, Caspar J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Overmeijer, Hendri P. J.; van den Boogaard, Mandy; Visser, Caroline E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological laboratories seek technologically innovative solutions to cope with large numbers of samples and limited personnel and financial resources. One platform that has recently become available is the Kiestra Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) system (BD Kiestra B.V., the Netherlands). This

  13. Combined use of random access and ELISA analyzers in the microbiological serology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Moroni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the trend of centralizing small laboratories in large reference centers led to a careful evaluation of the diagnostic profiles. In the serology laboratory of Microbiology Unit, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy the choice has been to combine random access analyzers (ARCHITECT Abbott and ELISA analyzers (BEPIII Dade Behring.

  14. [Applications of MALDI-TOF-MS in clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Nassif, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    For twenty years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a particularly powerful tool for analysis and characterization of proteins in research. It is only recently that this technology, especially MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight) has entered the field of routine microbiology. This method has proven to be reliable and safe for the identification of bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid, precise and cost-effective method for identification, compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology. Its ability to analyse whole microorganisms with few sample preparation has greatly reduced the time to identification (1-2 min). Furthermore, this technology can be used to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples as blood culture bottles or urines. Future applications will be developed in order to provide direct information concerning virulence or resistance protein markers. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  15. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Heather L; Anderson, Nancy L

    2013-09-15

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a cooperative agreement with the Association of Public Health Laboratories to convene a series of focus groups to query laboratory professionals responsible for PT. The seven focus groups were comprised of 60 laboratory professionals representing large and small clinical laboratories, microbiology subspecialties, and public health. While participants acknowledged the need to perform PT to meet regulatory requirements, many also cited benefits and challenges beyond regulatory compliance.

  16. Collection, transport and general processing of clinical specimens in Microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, M Isabel; García-Lechuz Moya, Juan Manuel; González López, Juan José; Orta Mira, Nieves

    2018-02-06

    The interpretation and the accuracy of the microbiological results still depend to a great extent on the quality of the samples and their processing within the Microbiology laboratory. The type of specimen, the appropriate time to obtain the sample, the way of sampling, the storage and transport are critical points in the diagnostic process. The availability of new laboratory techniques for unusual pathogens, makes necessary the review and update of all the steps involved in the processing of the samples. Nowadays, the laboratory automation and the availability of rapid techniques allow the precision and turn-around time necessary to help the clinicians in the decision making. In order to be efficient, it is very important to obtain clinical information to use the best diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  18. Improving Gram stain proficiency in hospital and satellite laboratories that do not have microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Street, Cassandra; Matlock, Margaret; Cole, Lisa; Brierre, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    Consolidation of laboratories has left many hospitals and satellite laboratories with minimal microbiologic testing. In many hospitals and satellite laboratories, Gram stains on primary specimens are still performed despite difficultly in maintaining proficiency. To maintain Gram stain proficiency at a community 450-bed hospital with an active emergency room we designed bimonthly challenges that require reporting Gram staining and morphology of different organisms. The challenges consist of five specimens prepared by the reference microbiology laboratory from cultures and primary specimens. Twenty to 23 medical laboratory scientists participate reading the challenges. Results from the challenges are discussed with each medical laboratory scientists. In addition, printed images from the challenges are presented at huddle to add microbiology knowledge. On the first three challenges, Gram staining was read correctly in 71%-77% of the time while morphology 53%-66%. In the last six challenges correct answers for Gram stain were 77%-99% while morphology 73%-96%. We observed statistically significant improvement when reading Gram stains by providing frequent challenges to medical laboratory scientists. The clinical importance of Gram stain results is emphasized during huddle presentations increasing knowledge and motivation to perform the test for patients.

  19. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Heather L.; Anderson, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requir...

  20. Assuring the Quality of Next-Generation Sequencing in Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargis, Amy S; Kalman, Lisa; Lubin, Ira M

    2016-12-01

    Clinical microbiology and public health laboratories are beginning to utilize next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a range of applications. This technology has the potential to transform the field by providing approaches that will complement, or even replace, many conventional laboratory tests. While the benefits of NGS are significant, the complexities of these assays require an evolving set of standards to ensure testing quality. Regulatory and accreditation requirements, professional guidelines, and best practices that help ensure the quality of NGS-based tests are emerging. This review highlights currently available standards and guidelines for the implementation of NGS in the clinical and public health laboratory setting, and it includes considerations for NGS test validation, quality control procedures, proficiency testing, and reference materials. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The impact of automation on organizational changes in a community hospital clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, Alessandro

    2004-06-01

    The diagnosis of infectious diseases and the role of the microbiology laboratory are currently undergoing a process of change. The need for overall efficiency in providing results is now given the same importance as accuracy. This means that laboratories must be able to produce quality results in less time with the capacity to interpret the results clinically. To improve the clinical impact of microbiology results, the new challenge facing the microbiologist has become one of process management instead of pure analysis. A proper project management process designed to improve workflow, reduce analytical time, and provide the same high quality results without losing valuable time treating the patient, has become essential. Our objective was to study the impact of introducing automation and computerization into the microbiology laboratory, and the reorganization of the laboratory workflow, i.e. scheduling personnel to work shifts covering both the entire day and the entire week. In our laboratory, the introduction of automation and computerization, as well as the reorganization of personnel, thus the workflow itself, has resulted in an improvement in response time and greater efficiency in diagnostic procedures.

  2. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  3. Networking of Public Health Microbiology Laboratories Bolsters Europe’s Defenses against Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Albiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing. Cooperation among the European laboratory networks in the past 7 years has proved successful in strengthening epidemic preparedness by enabling adaptive capabilities for rapid detection of emerging pathogens across Europe. In partnership with food safety authorities, international public health agencies and learned societies, ECDC-supported laboratory networks have also progressed harmonization of routinely used antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, thereby significantly advancing the quality, comparability and precision of microbiological information gathered by ECDC for surveillance for zoonotic diseases and multidrug-resistant pathogens in Europe. ECDC continues to act as a catalyst for sustaining continuous practice improvements and strengthening wider access to laboratory capacity across the European Union. Key priorities include optimization and broader use of rapid diagnostics, further integration of whole-genome sequencing in surveillance and electronic linkage of laboratory and public health systems. This article highlights some of the network contributions to public health in Europe and the role that ECDC plays managing these networks.

  4. Practical aspects during sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, L.; Ene, M.; Alexandru, M.; Constantin, M.; Ionita, A.; Zorila, F.; Moise, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The state of being free of living microorganisms is called sterility. The sterility state can be achieved by different means of sterilization. In practice the results of the process cannot be fully verified by tests, so the efficacy of the sterilization process must be validated. ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of product. Each product needs distinct protocol for bioburden determination and sterility testing. During time, the Microbiological Laboratories from Multipurpose Irradiation Center deals with different types of products, mainly for VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. Special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton, packed in large quantities. VD max 25 method can not be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU / pack, no matter which is the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for manufacturer, when choosing other method. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases the bioburden and sterility testing. These are time and money consuming. The costs can be reduced if taking into account some aspects. Reason for performing the bacteriostasis-fungistasis just for sterility testing will be given. The present study puts forward aspects during the validation studies for medical devices (cotton wool, cotton gauze, surgical sutures, dental screws), at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory.

  5. Real-Time PCR in Clinical Microbiology: Applications for Routine Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, M. J.; Uhl, J. R.; Sloan, L. M.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Jones, M. F.; Vetter, E. A.; Yao, J. D. C.; Wengenack, N. L.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Cockerill, F. R.; Smith, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR has revolutionized the way clinical microbiology laboratories diagnose many human microbial infections. This testing method combines PCR chemistry with fluorescent probe detection of amplified product in the same reaction vessel. In general, both PCR and amplified product detection are completed in an hour or less, which is considerably faster than conventional PCR detection methods. Real-time PCR assays provide sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of conventional PCR combined with Southern blot analysis, and since amplification and detection steps are performed in the same closed vessel, the risk of releasing amplified nucleic acids into the environment is negligible. The combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, low contamination risk, and speed has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to culture- or immunoassay-based testing methods for diagnosing many infectious diseases. This review focuses on the application of real-time PCR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:16418529

  6. Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with a community college microbiology laboratory--Maine, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    On May 2, 2013, a case of salmonellosis was reported to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient reported symptoms of diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and nausea, after attending a community college microbiology laboratory class. A second case was reported on May 8. Epidemiologic interviews conducted with both patients indicated common exposure at a community college, including one patient specifically naming the other patient.

  7. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Evaluating effectiveness of infection control efforts in hospitals using information in microbiological laboratory databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihiro; Itoga, Masamichi; Kimura, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Minakawa, Satoko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Hiromi; Saito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fujishima, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Sumie; Ogawa, Shin; Kitayama, Yuko; Kudo, Kazumi; Minami, Kazushi; Abo, Fumiko; Takano, Yasuyuki; Ohdaira, Naotake; Hamada, Satoshi; Ueki, Shigeharu; Hirokawa, Makoto; Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the quality of infection control activities, bacteriological data relevant to infection control was evaluated through the microbiological data warehouse networking hospitals in two medical regions. Data regarding bacterial test results of 19 hospitals were extracted from two microbiological laboratory information data bases. The rate of MRSA among total S. aureus was used as a general indicator of infection control activities. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs among MRSA-positive bacteriological samples was used as an indicator of attention paid for infection control in intensive care wards. The number of blood culture sets per examined patient was utilized as an indicator for life-long vocational education on updated medical practice relevant to infectious diseases. The rate of MRSA was significantly higher in secondary private hospitals. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs was significantly higher in tertiary hospitals. The average number of blood culture set per examined patient were 1.55, 1.54 and 1.39 in tertiary, secondary public and secondary private hospitals, respectively; however, there were no statistical differences between groups. Data bases of microbiological test results shared by hospital laboratories are useful for evaluating regional infection control activities.

  9. An audit of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in Scottish National Health Service Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C L; Currie, S; Pollock, K; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L

    2017-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed. Twenty Scottish diagnostic microbiology laboratories were invited to participate with questions on sample acceptance criteria, testing methods, testing rates and future plans for pathogen detection. Reponses were received from 19 of the 20 laboratories representing each of the 14 territorial Health Boards. Detection methods varied between laboratories with the majority performing microscopy, one using a lateral flow immunochromatographic antigen assay, another using a manually washed plate-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one laboratory trialling a plate-based EIA automated with an EIA plate washer. Whereas all laboratories except one screened every stool for Cryptosporidium species, an important finding was that significant variation in the testing algorithm for detecting Giardia was noted with only four laboratories testing all diagnostic stools. The most common criteria were 'travel history' (11 laboratories) and/or 'when requested' (14 laboratories). Despite only a small proportion of stools being examined in 15 laboratories for Giardia (2%-18% of the total number of stools submitted), of interest is the finding that a higher positivity rate was observed for Giardia than Cryptosporidium in 10 of these 15 laboratories. These findings highlight that the underreporting of Giardia in Scotland is likely based on current selection and testing algorithms.

  10. 76 FR 63615 - Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...The U.S. EPA invites interested stakeholders to participate in a laboratory-based technical workshop that will focus on the conduct of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Use-dilution method (UDM) and the status and implementation of a new test method, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Quantitative Method for Evaluating Bactericidal Activity of Microbicides Used on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces. The workshop is being held to discuss current and proposed revisions mainly associated with the Staphyloccocus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa methodologies. The goals of the workshop are to provide a comprehensive review and discussion period on the status of the UDM and OEDC methods integrated with hands-on laboratory demonstrations. An overview of various data sets and collaborative studies will be used to supplement the discussions which will be held at the EPA Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory.

  11. Comparison of Three Commercial Systems for Identification of Yeasts Commonly Isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlin, Jill K.; Hanko, Gayle; Stewart, Rebecca; Pape, John; Nachamkin, Irving

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P clinically relevant yeasts. PMID:10325356

  12. The Changing Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in Defining Resistance in Gram-negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endimiani, Andrea; Jacobs, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of resistance in Gram-negatives has challenged the clinical microbiology laboratory to implement new methods for their detection. Multidrug-resistant strains present major challenges to conventional and new detection methods. More rapid pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been developed for use directly on specimens, including fluorescence in situ hybridization tests, automated polymerase chain reaction systems, microarrays, mass spectroscopy, next-generation sequencing, and microfluidics. Review of these methods shows the advances that have been made in rapid detection of resistance in cultures, but limited progress in direct detection from specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory Diagnosis and Characterization of Fungal Disease in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF): A Survey of Current UK Practice in a Cohort of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Maeve; Moore, John E; Whitehouse, Joanna L; Bilton, Diana; Downey, Damian G

    2018-03-02

    There is much uncertainty as to how fungal disease is diagnosed and characterized in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A 19-question anonymous electronic questionnaire was developed and distributed to ascertain current practice in clinical microbiology laboratories providing a fungal laboratory service to CF centres in the UK. Analyses of responses identified the following: (1) current UK laboratory practice, in general, follows the current guidelines, but the scope and diversity of what is currently being delivered by laboratories far exceeds what is detailed in the guidelines; (2) there is a lack of standardization of fungal tests amongst laboratories, outside of the current guidelines; (3) both the UK CF Trust Laboratory Standards for Processing Microbiological Samples from People with Cystic Fibrosis and the US Cumulative Techniques and Procedures in Clinical Microbiology (Cumitech) Guidelines 43 Cystic Fibrosis Microbiology need to be updated to reflect both new methodological innovations, as well as better knowledge of fungal disease pathophysiology in CF; (4) there is a need for clinical medicine to decide upon a stratification strategy for the provision of new fungal assays that will add value to the physician in the optimal management of CF patients; (5) there is also a need to rationale what assays should be performed at local laboratory level and those which are best served at National Mycology Reference Laboratory level; and (6) further research is required in developing laboratory assays, which will help ascertain the clinical importance of 'old' fungal pathogens, as well as 'emerging' fungal pathogens.

  14. [Resistance of gonococci in the Netherlands; results of a survey of medical microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, I H M; Spaargaren, J; van de Laar, M J W

    2005-05-28

    To collect information about the incidence ofgonorrhoea and gonococcal resistance in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was sent to 39 medical microbiology laboratories to obtain information on current diagnostics and the susceptibility testing method, and on the number of positive results and the susceptibility pattern of gonococcal isolates in 2002 and 2003 (up to and including November). 32 laboratories participated in this survey. 13 laboratories used culture alone and 19 laboratories used culture and/or a molecular test. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed 2,666 times in 2002 and 2,190 times in 2003, with an incidence of 33.5 and 27.0 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The rate of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and amoxicillin) was 12.2% and 10.7% in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and the rates of resistance to tetracycline were 18.5% and 20.6%. An increase in the resistance to quinolones was observed from 6.6% in 2002 to 9.5% in 2003. Resistance to cephalosporins was low (0.5% in 2002 and 1.2% in 2003). Furthermore, regional differences in susceptibility were found within the Netherlands. The observed gonococcal incidence and resistance form the basis for a gonorrhoea prevention and treatment programme in the Netherlands.

  15. Ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Stéphanie; Ferroni, Agnès; Lotz, Aurélie; Jolley, Keith A; Guérin, Philippe; Leto, Julie; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Jamet, Anne; Maiden, Martin C J; Nassif, Xavier; Armengaud, Jean

    2013-09-01

    Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of microorganisms that is increasingly used in microbiology laboratories. This identification is based on the comparison of the tested isolate mass spectrum with reference databases. Using Neisseria meningitidis as a model organism, we showed that in one of the available databases, the Andromas database, 10 of the 13 species-specific biomarkers correspond to ribosomal proteins. Remarkably, one biomarker, ribosomal protein L32, was subject to inter-strain variability. The analysis of the ribosomal protein patterns of 100 isolates for which whole genome sequences were available, confirmed the presence of inter-strain variability in the molecular weight of 29 ribosomal proteins, thus establishing a correlation between the sequence type (ST) and/or clonal complex (CC) of each strain and its ribosomal protein pattern. Since the molecular weight of three of the variable ribosomal proteins (L30, L31 and L32) was included in the spectral window observed by MALDI-TOF MS in clinical microbiology, i.e., 3640-12000 m/z, we were able by analyzing the molecular weight of these three ribosomal proteins to classify each strain in one of six subgroups, each of these subgroups corresponding to specific STs and/or CCs. Their detection by MALDI-TOF allows therefore a quick typing of N. meningitidis isolates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory-scale trials of electrolytic treatment on industrial wastewaters: microbiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardini, E; Valle, A; Gigliotti, C; Papagno, G; Ranalli, G; Sorlini, C

    2002-09-01

    Animal, civil and industrial waste matter is a source of potential chemical, microbiological and air pollutants. In populated areas the presence of faecal bacteria and the production of malodorous compounds during waste storage and in the tanks of wastewater treatment plants, can cause concern. The general aim of the work was to study electrolytic waste treatment (recently applied on animal slurry) using low electric current across graphite and copper electrodes, determining its effect on the microflora of sludge, collected from the equalisation basin of an industrial aerobic wastewater treatment plant, and on odour emission abatement. Biochemical and enzymatic indicators like ATP content and a pool of 19 enzymatic activities were tested, comparing them with viable cell counts by traditional microbiological methods, to verify the validity of such indicators in monitoring the electrolytic treatment and to assess their correlation with odour reduction. The preliminary results of our laboratory-scale trials showed that in the presence of inert electrodes, such as graphite, metabolic activity is stimulated, whereas with copper electrodes the ATP content and some enzymatic activities are inhibited quite considerably after only four days, this being accompanied by a marked reduction in odour. Consideration was also given to the total copper released from the electrodes and its recovery using iron electrodes.

  17. Limits determination of microbial contamination present on surfaces from a pharmaceutical microbiology district reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Charry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The bioburden present on the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory’s surfaces, may increase the risk of cross-contamination when analytical tests are being carried out; periodic monitoring allows to set limits that reduce the risk. Aims: To determinate the limits of bioburden present on seven surfaces of the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory, after the cleaning and disinfection process. Methods: The swabbing method was used for sampling. With a 25 cm2 stencil and a sterile swab, a sample was taken, passing the swab over five points of every surface chosen. A total aerobic microbial count and a total yeast and mold count was done. Finally, the average and the standard deviation of the counts was obtained. Results: The average from the counts obtained on each surface selected for the study, were below the recommended limits by international entities like the World Health Organization and the European Union, between others; also, the results generated in this study, allow to classify the biosafety cabinet as an ISO 5 area and the other areas as ISO 7. Conclusions: Bioburden levels on the tested surfaces are considered low, reducing the risk of cross-contamination, which could have a negative impact on laboratory’s activities. Also, it follows that disinfectant concentration used, is effectively.

  18. Yeast identification in routine clinical microbiology laboratory and its clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of yeast infections is helpful in prompt appropriate antifungal therapy. In the present study, the usefulness of chromogenic medium, slide culture technique and Vitek2 Compact (V2C has been analysed. A total of 173 clinical isolates of yeast species were included in the study. An algorithm to identify such isolates in routine clinical microbiology laboratory was prepared and followed. Chromogenic medium was able to identify Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Trichosporon asahii. Chromogenic medium was also helpful in identifying "multi-species" yeast infections. The medium was unable to provide presumptive identification of C. pelliculosa, C. utilis, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii. Vitek 2 compact (V2C differentiated all pseudohypae non-producing yeast species. The algorithm followed was helpful in timely presumptive identification and final diagnosis of yeast infections, including multi-species yeast infections.

  19. [Isolation of anaerobes during a 30-month observation at a hospital microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistono, P G; Rapetti, I; Stacchini, E; Vironda, N; D'Usi, M P; Guasco, C

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate retrospectively the results obtained from the research of anaerobial bacteria on 1313 samples received at the Microbiology Laboratory of the "Ospedale Civile di Ivrea" over a period of 31 months (6/1/86-12/31/88). From this evaluation, high percentages of detection of anaerobic bacteria are emerging in the following infections: appendiculare abscesses (60%), intestinal operations (71%), wounds (57%), tubovarian abscesses (100%), as well as thoracic empyema (50%). Also relevant are the isolations from skin and subcutaneous tissues: breast infections (50%) preputial infections (60%), perineal and perirectal abscesses (60%). The incident of anaerobic bacteria in bacteriemia is 17%. The most representative anaerobic bacteria group are: Bacteroides spp. (56%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (12%), Propionibacterium spp. (9%), Fusobacterium spp. (7%) Clostridium spp. (6%), Veillonella spp. and Eubacterium spp. (3%). In the intraabdominal infections prevails the Bacteroides group, particularly fragilis species, while in the skin and subcutaneous infections prevails the Peptostreptococcus group.

  20. Revolutionizing clinical microbiology laboratory organization in hospitals with in situ point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Bacrie, Stéphan; Ninove, Laetitia; Nougairède, Antoine; Charrel, Rémi; Richet, Hervé; Minodier, Philippe; Badiaga, Sékéné; Noël, Guilhem; La Scola, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Clinical microbiology may direct decisions regarding hospitalization, isolation and anti-infective therapy, but it is not effective at the time of early care. Point-of-care (POC) tests have been developed for this purpose. One pilot POC-lab was located close to the core laboratory and emergency ward to test the proof of concept. A second POC-lab was located inside the emergency ward of a distant hospital without a microbiology laboratory. Twenty-three molecular and immuno-detection tests, which were technically undemanding, were progressively implemented, with results obtained in less than four hours. From 2008 to 2010, 51,179 tests yielded 6,244 diagnoses. The second POC-lab detected contagious pathogens in 982 patients who benefited from targeted isolation measures, including those undertaken during the influenza outbreak. POC tests prevented unnecessary treatment of patients with non-streptococcal tonsillitis (n = 1,844) and pregnant women negative for Streptococcus agalactiae carriage (n = 763). The cerebrospinal fluid culture remained sterile in 50% of the 49 patients with bacterial meningitis, therefore antibiotic treatment was guided by the molecular tests performed in the POC-labs. With regard to enterovirus meningitis, the mean length-of-stay of infected patients over 15 years old significantly decreased from 2008 to 2010 compared with 2005 when the POC was not in place (1.43±1.09 versus 2.91±2.31 days; p = 0.0009). Altogether, patients who received POC tests were immediately discharged nearly thrice as often as patients who underwent a conventional diagnostic procedure. The on-site POC-lab met physicians' needs and influenced the management of 8% of the patients that presented to emergency wards. This strategy might represent a major evolution of decision-making regarding the management of infectious diseases and patient care.

  1. Revolutionizing clinical microbiology laboratory organization in hospitals with in situ point-of-care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphan Cohen-Bacrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical microbiology may direct decisions regarding hospitalization, isolation and anti-infective therapy, but it is not effective at the time of early care. Point-of-care (POC tests have been developed for this purpose. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One pilot POC-lab was located close to the core laboratory and emergency ward to test the proof of concept. A second POC-lab was located inside the emergency ward of a distant hospital without a microbiology laboratory. Twenty-three molecular and immuno-detection tests, which were technically undemanding, were progressively implemented, with results obtained in less than four hours. From 2008 to 2010, 51,179 tests yielded 6,244 diagnoses. The second POC-lab detected contagious pathogens in 982 patients who benefited from targeted isolation measures, including those undertaken during the influenza outbreak. POC tests prevented unnecessary treatment of patients with non-streptococcal tonsillitis (n = 1,844 and pregnant women negative for Streptococcus agalactiae carriage (n = 763. The cerebrospinal fluid culture remained sterile in 50% of the 49 patients with bacterial meningitis, therefore antibiotic treatment was guided by the molecular tests performed in the POC-labs. With regard to enterovirus meningitis, the mean length-of-stay of infected patients over 15 years old significantly decreased from 2008 to 2010 compared with 2005 when the POC was not in place (1.43±1.09 versus 2.91±2.31 days; p = 0.0009. Altogether, patients who received POC tests were immediately discharged nearly thrice as often as patients who underwent a conventional diagnostic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The on-site POC-lab met physicians' needs and influenced the management of 8% of the patients that presented to emergency wards. This strategy might represent a major evolution of decision-making regarding the management of infectious diseases and patient care.

  2. Overview and challenges of molecular technologies in the veterinary microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mónica V; Inácio, João

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial animals, either domestic or wild, humans, and plants all face similar health threats caused by infectious agents. Multifaceted anthropic pressure caused by an increasingly growing and resource-demanding human population has affected biodiversity at all scales, from the DNA molecule to the pathogen, to the ecosystem level, leading to species declines and extinctions and, also, to host-pathogen coevolution processes. Technological developments over the last century have also led to quantic jumps in laboratorial testing that have highly impacted animal health and welfare, ameliorated animal management and animal trade, safeguarded public health, and ultimately helped to "secure" biodiversity. In particular, the field of molecular diagnostics experienced tremendous technical progresses over the last two decades that significantly have contributed to our ability to study microbial pathogens in the clinical and research laboratories. This chapter highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (or challenges) of molecular technologies in the framework of a veterinary microbiology laboratory, in view of the latest advances.

  3. Fifteen years of microbiological investigation in Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Bernier-Latmani, R.; Bagnoud, A. [Swiss Federal Office of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moors, H.; Leys, N.; Wouters, K. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Stroes-Gascoyne, S. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Microbiological studies related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste have been conducted at the Mont Terri rock laboratory in Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock for a deep geologic repository, since 2002. The metabolic potential of microorganisms and their response to excavation-induced effects have been investigated in undisturbed and disturbed claystone cores and in pore- (borehole) water. Results from nearly 15 years of research at the Mont Terri rock laboratory have shown that microorganisms can potentially affect the environment of a repository by influencing redox conditions, metal corrosion and gas production and consumption under favourable conditions. However, the activity of microorganisms in undisturbed Opalinus Clay is limited by the very low porosity, the low water activity, and the largely recalcitrant nature of organic matter in the claystone formation. The presence of microorganisms in numerous experiments at the Mont Terri rock laboratory has suggested that excavation activities and perturbation of the host rock combined with additional contamination during the installation of experiments in boreholes create favourable conditions for microbial activity by providing increased space, water and substrates. Thus effects resulting from microbial activity might be expected in the proximity of a geological repository i.e., in the excavation damaged zone, the engineered barriers, and first containments (the containers). (authors)

  4. Perceptions of a medical microbiology service: a survey of laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M S

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To ascertain the perception of laboratory users regarding the quality of the medical microbiology services in a district general hospital. METHODS--Detailed questionnaires were circulated to all clinicians in the locality, with headings covering the quality of medical advice provided, the availability of information on specimen collection, format of request forms, specimen transport arrangements, turnaround times, the quality and need for interpretative advice, and the overall impression of the quality of the services provided. RESULTS--Two hundred and thirty five replies were received, giving a response rate of 69%. Transportation of specimens and communication of reports were identified as priority areas for improvement. The overall quality of the service was perceived as satisfactory, although areas were identified where substantial improvements could be made, some at little or no cost to the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS--The survey focused clinicians' attention on the service, raised the profile of the laboratory, and resulted in improved communications and a better understanding of customer needs. Overall, the exercise was felt to be extremely useful, and worthwhile repeating to gauge the effect of the changes instituted as a result. PMID:8537489

  5. Fifteen years of microbiological investigation in Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Bagnoud, A.; Moors, H.; Leys, N.; Wouters, K.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological studies related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste have been conducted at the Mont Terri rock laboratory in Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock for a deep geologic repository, since 2002. The metabolic potential of microorganisms and their response to excavation-induced effects have been investigated in undisturbed and disturbed claystone cores and in pore- (borehole) water. Results from nearly 15 years of research at the Mont Terri rock laboratory have shown that microorganisms can potentially affect the environment of a repository by influencing redox conditions, metal corrosion and gas production and consumption under favourable conditions. However, the activity of microorganisms in undisturbed Opalinus Clay is limited by the very low porosity, the low water activity, and the largely recalcitrant nature of organic matter in the claystone formation. The presence of microorganisms in numerous experiments at the Mont Terri rock laboratory has suggested that excavation activities and perturbation of the host rock combined with additional contamination during the installation of experiments in boreholes create favourable conditions for microbial activity by providing increased space, water and substrates. Thus effects resulting from microbial activity might be expected in the proximity of a geological repository i.e., in the excavation damaged zone, the engineered barriers, and first containments (the containers). (authors)

  6. Perceptions of a medical microbiology service: a survey of laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M S

    1995-10-01

    To ascertain the perception of laboratory users regarding the quality of the medical microbiology services in a district general hospital. Detailed questionnaires were circulated to all clinicians in the locality, with headings covering the quality of medical advice provided, the availability of information on specimen collection, format of request forms, specimen transport arrangements, turnaround times, the quality and need for interpretative advice, and the overall impression of the quality of the services provided. Two hundred and thirty five replies were received, giving a response rate of 69%. Transportation of specimens and communication of reports were identified as priority areas for improvement. The overall quality of the service was perceived as satisfactory, although areas were identified where substantial improvements could be made, some at little or no cost to the laboratory. The survey focused clinicians' attention on the service, raised the profile of the laboratory, and resulted in improved communications and a better understanding of customer needs. Overall, the exercise was felt to be extremely useful, and worthwhile repeating to gauge the effect of the changes instituted as a result.

  7. PCR identification of bacteria in blood culture does not fit the daily workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumaa, Santra; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the GenoType blood culture assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) for the identification of bacteria in 233 positive blood cultures and assessed its suitability in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. In 68/233 (29.2%) samples, the culture result could not be confirmed by the GenoType assay due to a lack of primers in the test, multiple organisms in the sample, or inconsistency with respect to the identification by culture. Although the GenoType blood culture assay gives satisfactory results for bacteria for which primers are available, there are difficulties in applying the test in the routine microbiology laboratory.

  8. Assessing Clinical Microbiology Practice Guidelines: American Society for Microbiology Ad Hoc Committee on Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, Irving; Kirn, Thomas J; Westblade, Lars F; Humphries, Romney

    2017-11-01

    As part of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Committee of the Professional Practice Committee, an ad hoc committee was formed in 2014 to assess guidelines published by the committee using an assessment tool, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation II (AGREE II). The AGREE II assessment helps reviewers determine whether published guidelines are robust, transparent, and clear in presenting practice recommendations in a standardized manner. Identifying strengths and weaknesses of practice guidelines by ad hoc assessments helps with improving future guidelines through the participation of key stakeholders. This minireview describes the development of the ad hoc committee and results from their review of several ASM best practices guidelines and a non-ASM practice guideline from the Emergency Nurses Association. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Autoclaving practice in microbiology laboratories: report of a survey. The Public Health Laboratory Service Subcommittee on laboratory autoclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of autoclaves in 27 laboratories, operated in accordance with the normal routine of local practice, has been monitored using thermometric equipment. Sterilising performance was unsatisfactory on 10 of 62 occasions, and cooling was inadequate on 52 of 60 occasions. PMID:649767

  10. Interdisciplinary STEM education reform: dishing out art in a microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Sarah J; Rock, Rachel K; Morris, J Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    In the modern educational framework, life science and visual art are usually presented as mutually exclusive subjects. Despite this perceived disciplinary contrast, visual art has the ability to engage and provoke students in ways that can have important downstream effects on scientific discovery, especially when applied in a practical setting such as a laboratory course. This review broadly examines the benefit of interdisciplinary fusions of science and art as well as recent ways in which art strategies have been used in undergraduate biology classrooms. In a case study, we found that undergraduate students in an introductory microbiology laboratory course who participated in open-inquiry activities involving agar art had greater confidence in their personal efficacy as scientists compared to a control class. Collectively, these observations suggest that visual art can be a useful enhancement in the course-based undergraduate research setting, and science educators at all levels should consider incorporating artistic creativity in their own classroom strategies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Use of Long-Term E. Coli Cultures: To Study Generation of Genetic Diversity & Teach General Microbiology Laboratory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Angela; Finkel, Steven E.; Erbe, Jarrod

    2005-01-01

    A novel method of studying the generation of genetic diversity in an undergraduate microbiology laboratory is described. The basis of this approach is the accumulation of mutations that confer a competitive advantage, or growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype, to E. coli grown in stationary phase for extended periods of time.

  12. Assessment of accuracy of identification of pathogenic yeasts in microbiology laboratories in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2012-08-01

    Rapid, accurate identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples has always been important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. Recently, this has become paramount with the proposed introduction of species-specific interpretive breakpoints for MICs obtained in yeast antifungal susceptibility tests (M. A. Pfaller, D. Andes, D. J. Diekema, A. Espinel-Ingroff, D. Sheehan, and CLSI Subcommittee for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resist. Updat. 13:180-195, 2010). Here, we present the results of a 12-month evaluation of the accuracy of identifications that accompany yeast isolates submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory (United Kingdom) for either confirmation of identity or susceptibility testing. In total, 1,781 yeast isolates were analyzed, and the robustness of prior identifications obtained in microbiology laboratories throughout the United Kingdom was assessed using a combination of culture on chromogenic agar, morphology on cornmeal agar, and molecular identification by pyrosequencing. Over 40% of isolates (755) were submitted without any suggested identification. Of those isolates with a prior identification, 100 (9.7%) were incorrectly identified. Error rates ranged from 5.2% (for organisms submitted for antifungal susceptibility testing) to 18.2% (for organisms requiring confirmation of identity) and varied in a strictly species-specific manner. At least 50% of identification errors would be likely to affect interpretation of MIC data, with a possible impact on patient management. In addition, 2.3% of submitted cultures were found to contain mixtures of at least two yeast species. The vast majority of mixtures had gone undetected in the referring laboratory and would have impacted the interpretation of antifungal susceptibility profiles and patient management. Some of the more common misidentifications are discussed according to the identification method employed, with suggestions for avoiding such

  13. Generation and composition of medical wastes from private medical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Makroleivaditis, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulou, Eftychia

    2017-03-01

    A study on the generation rate and the composition of solid medical wastes (MW) produced by private medical microbiology laboratories (PMML) was conducted in Greece. The novelty of the work is that no such information exists in the literature for this type of laboratories worldwide. Seven laboratories were selected with capacities that ranged from 8 to 88 examinees per day. The study lasted 6months and daily recording of MW weights was done over 30days during that period. The rates were correlated to the number of examinees, examinations and personnel. Results indicated that on average 35% of the total MW was hazardous (infectious) medical wastes (IFMW). The IFMW generation rates ranged from 11.5 to 32.5g examinee -1 d -1 while an average value from all 7 labs was 19.6±9.6g examinee -1 d -1 or 2.27±1.11g examination -1 d -1 . The average urban type medical waste generation rate was 44.2±32.5g examinee -1 d -1 . Using basic regression modeling, it was shown that the number of examinees and examinations can be predictors of the IFMW generation, but not of the urban type MW generation. The number of examinations was a better predictor of the MW amounts than the number of examinees. Statistical comparison of the means of the 7PMML was done with standard ANOVA techniques after checking the normality of the data and after doing the appropriate transformations. Based on the results of this work, it is approximated that 580 tonnes of infectious MW are generated annually by the PMML in Greece. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Comparison of Conventional and Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Cindy; Verduin, Cees M.; Goessens, Wil H. F.; Vos, Margreet C.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Segonds, Christine; Reubsaet, Frans; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situation is not in the least due to the poorly defined taxonomic status of these bacteria, and further validation of the available diagnostic assays is required. A total of 114 geographically diverse bacterial isolates, previously identified in reference laboratories as Burkholderia cepacia (n = 51), B. gladioli (n = 14), Ralstonia pickettii (n = 6), B. multivorans (n = 2), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 3), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11), were collected from environmental, clinical, and reference sources. In addition, 27 clinical isolates putatively identified as Burkholderia spp. were recovered from the sputum of Dutch CF patients. All isolates were used to evaluate the accuracy of two selective growth media, four systems for biochemical identification (API 20NE, Vitek GNI, Vitek NFC, and MicroScan), and three different PCR-based assays. The PCR assays amplify different parts of the ribosomal DNA operon, either alone or in combination with cleavage by various restriction enzymes (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] analysis). The best system for the biochemical identification of B. cepacia appeared to be the API 20NE test. None of the biochemical assays successfully grouped the B. gladioli strains. The PCR-RFLP method appeared to be the optimal method for accurate nucleic acid-mediated identification of the different Burkholderia spp. With this method, B. gladioli was also reliably classified in a separate group. For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test. For final confirmation of species identities, PCR

  15. BiOutils: an interface to connect university laboratories with microbiology classes in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Massimo; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of microbiology to the scientific advances of modern experimental biology has very often made the difference. Despite this, its role as an independent discipline has slowly started to fade away. This situation has been worsening due to (i) a marginal role of microbiology in academic curricula and (ii) a low or misplaced interest by the public at large towards this field of study. In order to counter this phenomenon, microbiology researchers and passionate scientists have made several efforts to engage and inform the broad public and academic policymakers about the importance of microbiology as an independent discipline. One of the approaches used in this direction is to support the teaching of microbiology in schools. BiOutils, a science communication platform based within a microbiology lab, has been committed to this goal since its creation in 2007. In this article, we describe how the platform is able to work in synergy with school teachers, providing engaging activities that can be performed in schools' classrooms. Our aim is to provide a perspective on how every microbiology lab with little costs and efforts can support the teaching of a discipline that will remain independent thanks to the fascination that they will be able to transmit. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Multidrug- Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Implications for Hospital and Laboratory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan M.; Hacek, Donna M.; Degen, Lisa A.; Wright, Marc O.; Noskin, Gary A.; Peterson, Lance R.

    2001-01-01

    We surveyed environmental surfaces in our clinical microbiology laboratory to determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) during a routine working day. From a total of 193 surfaces, VRE were present on 20 (10%) and MDRE were present on 4 (2%) of the surfaces tested. In a subsequent survey after routine cleaning, all of the 24 prior positive surfaces were found to be negative. Thus, those in the laboratory should recognize that many surfaces may be contaminated by resistant organisms during routine processing of patient specimens. PMID:11574615

  17. A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Hoffmann, Lucien; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen. The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects. The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be

  18. Compliance of clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States with current recommendations for processing respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia cepacia complex (99%), Staphylococcus aureus (82%), and Haemophilus influenzae (89%) and identified the species of all gram-negative bacilli (87%). Only 52% delineated the use of agar diffusion assays for susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Standardizing laboratory practices will improve treatment, infection control, and our understanding of the changing epidemiology of CF microbiology.

  19. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  20. Description of the MHS Health Level 7 Microbiology Laboratory for Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    co:IV..ct\\or of i1lom:tioo is e~t n:~I:M tv £1\\’?ft:)? 1 t"vJrr.err~>~f. )’" ISo ? , irck.K’ r:, tho? tir? for r.,.,\\1"’~’· 1:) instr J-:1 :11s, so?er...activities at the request of the DODGEIS. The HL7 data source includes records from anatomic pathology, chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy , and radiology

  1. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in infection control - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J

    2001-01-01

    for standardization and documentation of quality. Currently a national standard for infection control is being prepared. It consists of a main standard defining requirements for the management system and 12 subsidiary standards defining requirements for specific areas of infection control. Adoption of the standard...... will undoubtedly require additional resources for infection control at a local level, and some organizational changes may also be needed. Infection control should be maintained as an integrated part of clinical microbiology....

  2. Using Model Organisms in an Undergraduate Laboratory to Link Genotype, Phenotype, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-McDaniels, Nicole L.; Maine, Eleanor M.; Albertson, R. Craig; Wiles, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    We developed laboratory exercises using zebrafish ("Danio rerio") and nematodes ("Caenorhabditis elegans") for a sophomore-level Integrative Biology Laboratory course. Students examined live wildtype zebrafish at different stages of development and noted shifts occurring in response to "fgf8a" deficiency. Students were introduced to development in…

  3. What do physicians tell laboratories when requesting tests? A multi-method examination of information supplied to the microbiology laboratory before and after the introduction of electronic ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Prgomet, Mirela; Toouli, George; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna

    2011-09-01

    The provision of relevant clinical information on pathology requests is an important part of facilitating appropriate laboratory utilization and accurate results interpretation and reporting. (1) To determine the quantity and importance of handwritten clinical information provided by physicians to the Microbiology Department of a hospital pathology service; and (2) to examine the impact of a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system on the nature of clinical information communication to the laboratory. A multi-method and multi-stage investigation which included: (a) a retrospective audit of all handwritten Microbiology requests received over a 1-month period in the Microbiology Department of a large metropolitan teaching hospital; (b) the administration of a survey to laboratory professionals to investigate the impact of different clinical information on the processing and/or interpretation of tests; (c) an expert panel consisting of medical staff and senior scientists to assess the survey findings and their impact on pathology practice and patient care; and (d) a comparison of the provision and value of clinical information before CPOE, and across 3 years after its implementation. The audit of handwritten requests found that 43% (n=4215) contained patient-related clinical information. The laboratory survey showed that 97% (84/86) of the different types of clinical information provided for wound specimens and 86% (43/50) for stool specimens were shown to have an effect on the processing or interpretation of the specimens by one or more laboratory professionals. The evaluation of the impact of CPOE revealed a significant improvement in the provision of useful clinical information from 2005 to 2008, rising from 90.1% (n=749) to 99.8% (n=915) (p<.0001) for wound specimens and 34% (n=129) to 86% (n=422) (p<.0001) for stool specimens. This study showed that the CPOE system provided an integrated platform to access and exchange valuable patient-related information

  4. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  5. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  6. Comparison of microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young children by routine health service laboratories and a research laboratory: Diagnostic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kate; Hay, Alastair D.; Wootton, Mandy; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Whiting, Penny; Lawton, Michael; Delaney, Brendan; Downing, Harriet; Dudley, Jan; Hollingworth, William; Lisles, Catherine; Little, Paul; O’Brien, Kathryn; Pickles, Timothy; Rumsby, Kate; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Van der Voort, Judith; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Harman, Kim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory. Population and methods We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard), was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the “index test”), separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper) pads. Results 251 (5.2%) and 88 (1.8%) children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43), and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63) than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28). In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80) than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92). Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively) than clean catch samples. Conclusions The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples) could be due to contamination. Health service

  7. Comparison of microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young children by routine health service laboratories and a research laboratory: Diagnostic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Birnie

    Full Text Available To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory.We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard, was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the "index test", separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper pads.251 (5.2% and 88 (1.8% children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43, and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63 than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28. In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80 than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92. Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively than clean catch samples.The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples could be due to contamination. Health service laboratories should consider adopting procedures used

  8. OXA-244-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates, a Challenge for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannick; Naas, Thierry; Bonnin, Rémy A; Patino, Rafael; Glaser, Philippe; Fortineau, Nicolas; Dortet, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    OXA-244 is a single-point-mutant derivative of OXA-48 displaying reduced carbapenemase activity. Here, we report the microbiological features of seven OXA-244-producing Escherichia coli isolates. Only one isolate grew on ChromID Carba Smart medium (bioMérieux), but six of the seven isolates grew on ChromID extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) medium (bioMérieux), as they coproduced an ESBL and/or a plasmid-encoded cephalosporinase. The production of a carbapenemase was detected in 57.1%, 71.4%, 71.4%, and 100% of the E. coli isolates using the Carba NP test, the Rapidec Carba NP test (bioMérieux), a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) hydrolysis assay (Bruker), and the OXA-48 K-SeT assay (Coris BioConcept), respectively. Our results indicate that OXA-244-producing E. coli isolates are difficult to detect, which may lead to their silent spread. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Interaction between the microbiology laboratory and clinician: what the microbiologist can provide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J

    1999-01-01

    The work of the clinical microbiologist comprises three major areas: diagnostic work in the laboratory, advice to clinicians about treatment of infected patients, and infection control. By clinical alertness, either from work in the laboratory or from clinical contacts, the microbiologist may...

  10. Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raiger Iustman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology is an optional 128h-course for Chemistry and Biology students at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This course is usually attended by 25 students, working in teams of two. The curriculum, with 8 lab exercises, includes an oil bioremediation practice covering an insight of bioremediation processes: the influence of pollutants on autochthonous microbiota, biodegrader isolation and biosurfactant production for bioavailability understanding. The experimental steps are: (A evaluation of microbial tolerance to pollutants by constructing pristine soil microcosms contaminated with diesel or xylene and (B isolation of degraders and biosurfactant production analysis. To check microbial tolerance, microcosms are incubated during one week at 25-28ºC. Samples are collected at 0, 4 and every 48 h for CFU/g soil testing. An initial decrease of total CFU/g related to toxicity is noticed. At the end of the experiment, a recovery of the CFU number is observed, evidencing enrichment in biodegraders. Some colonies from the CFU counting plates are streaked in M9-agar with diesel as sole carbon source. After a week, isolates are inoculated on M9-Broth supplemented with diesel to induce biosurfactant production. Surface tension and Emulsification Index are measured in culture supernatants to visualize tensioactive effect of bacterial products. Besides the improvement in the good microbiological practices, the students show enthusiasm in different aspects, depending on their own interests. While biology students explore and learn new concepts on solubility, emulsions and bioavailability, chemistry students show curiosity in bacterial behavior and manipulation of microorganisms for environmental benefits.

  11. Use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases related to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Sukrama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of infections relative to the oral cavity is rapidly expanding, similar to our overall understanding of how infectious diseases impact our daily lives. The complexity of the flora within the oral cavity is quite unique and often makes diagnosis difficult; however, it is becoming more apparent that accurate diagnostic testing is important from the standpoint of focusing appropriate therapy on pathogens within this crucial body site, and avoiding overuse of antimicrobial agents in settings of infection where they have no demonstrated benefit.Infections of the oral mucosa, teeth (caries and root canal infections and their supporting structures (periodontitis, dento-alveolar abscess are polymicrobial, although usually associated with a characteristic microbiota linked to the site of infection. However, identification of the relevant oral pathogens is not commonly undertaken in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories due to lack of expertise in handling fastidious oral microbes and interpretation of the findings. When specimens from oral diseases are processed, they are frequently reported as ‘mixed oral flora’. This type of reporting is unhelpful both to clinicians and to epidemiologists collating data for disease and anti-microbial susceptibility trends. This probably reflects the lack of input by experts in oral microbiology into general guidelines for processing and reporting samples from the oral cavity. Although there is a general consensus within the dental and maxillo-facial surgery community on the role of the major pathogens for many types of infection, there is controversy on the role of some species, first line anti-microbial agents and their associated breakpoints. Furthermore, there is poor uptake and understanding of microbiology diagnostic services by the dental profession, inappropriate specimens and misinterpretation of culture results.

  12. Microbiological control of a gamma-irradiated feed for laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.V.G. de

    1979-01-01

    A special feed for laboratory animals was prepared, that meets or surpasses the FAO requirements. Experiments were undertaken to determine the γ-radiation dose necessary to sterilize the feed, to free it from enterobacteria which grow abundantly in the rich medium and cause digestive disorders in the laboratory animals. Methods of identifying the various bacteria and fungi are given. The results are tabulated. (U.K.)

  13. Artificial Urine for Teaching Urinalysis Concepts and Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Latifa B; Read, Hannah M; Ritchie, Stephen R; Proft, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples. This practical class taught medical students how to use urinalysis data in conjunction with medical history to diagnose diseases from urine samples and to determine a treatment plan for clinical scenarios.

  14. Hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-07-03

    Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to

  15. Hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost

  16. Changes, disruption and innovation: An investigation of the introduction of new health information technology in a microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toouli, George; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that health information technology (HIT) will deliver a safer, more efficient and effective health care system. The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and video-ethnographic examination of the impact of information technologies on work processes in the reception area of a Microbiology Department, to ascertain what changed, how it changed and the impact of the change. The setting for this study was the microbiology laboratory of a large tertiary hospital in Sydney. The study consisted of qualitative (interview and focus group) data and observation sessions for the period August 2005 to October 2006 along with video footage shot in three sessions covering the original system and the two stages of the Cerner implementation. Data analysis was assisted by NVivo software and process maps were produced from the video footage. There were two laboratory information systems observed in the video footage with computerized provider order entry introduced four months later. Process maps highlighted the large number of pre data entry steps with the original system whilst the newer system incorporated many of these steps in to the data entry stage. However, any time saved with the new system was offset by the requirement to complete some data entry of patient information not previously required. Other changes noted included the change of responsibilities for the reception staff and the physical changes required to accommodate the increased activity around the data entry area. Implementing a new HIT is always an exciting time for any environment but ensuring that the implementation goes smoothly and with minimal trouble requires the administrator and their team to plan well in advance for staff training, physical layout and possible staff resource reallocation.

  17. The use of reference materials in quality assurance programmes in food microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In't Veld, P H

    1998-11-24

    Nine different reference materials (RMs) for use in food and water microbiology have been developed with the support of the European Commission (EC). The production process of RMs is based on spray drying bacteria suspended in milk. The highly contaminated milk powder (HCMP) obtained is mixed with sterile milk powder to achieve the desired level of contamination and is subsequently filled into gelatine capsules. The HCMP may need to be stabilised by storage for more than a year before a stable RM can be prepared. The HCMP are mixed with sterile milk powder using a pestle and mortar in order to produce homogeneous RMs. For routine use of RMs Shewhart control charts can be produced. Based on log10 transformed counts, control limits are calculated. Rules for the interpretation of results facilitate the detection of out of control situations. Besides RMs there are also CRMs (Certified Reference Materials) that are certified by the EC Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and are intended for occasional use. Based on the BCR certificate, user tables are produced presenting the 95% confidence limits for the number of capsules likely to be examined in practice. Also power analysis is made to indicate the minimum difference between the certified value and the observed geometric mean value in relation to the number of capsules examined.

  18. Food Microbiology--Design and Testing of a Virtual Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Steve; Stewart, Terry

    2010-01-01

    A web-based virtual laboratory exercise in identifying an unknown microorganism was designed for use with a cohort of 3rd-year university food-technology students. They were presented with a food-contamination case, and then walked through a number of diagnostic steps to identify the microorganism. At each step, the students were asked to select 1…

  19. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology, 10-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, the second of three courses in the medical laboratory technician field adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed as a refresher course for student self-study and evaluation. It is suitable for use by advanced students or beginning students participating in a supervised…

  20. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  1. Virtual Simulations as Preparation for Lab Exercises: Assessing Learning of Key Laboratory Skills in Microbiology and Improvement of Essential Non-Cognitive Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Makransky

    Full Text Available To investigate if a virtual laboratory simulation (vLAB could be used to replace a face to face tutorial (demonstration to prepare students for a laboratory exercise in microbiology.A total of 189 students who were participating in an undergraduate biology course were randomly selected into a vLAB or demonstration condition. In the vLAB condition students could use a vLAB at home to 'practice' streaking out bacteria on agar plates in a virtual environment. In the demonstration condition students were given a live demonstration from a lab tutor showing them how to streak out bacteria on agar plates. All students were blindly assessed on their ability to perform the streaking technique in the physical lab, and were administered a pre and post-test to determine their knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, and self-efficacy in the field of microbiology prior to, and after the experiment.The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on their lab scores, and both groups had similar increases in knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, as well as self-efficacy in the field of microbiology.Our data show that vLABs function just as well as face to face tutorials in preparing students for a physical lab activity in microbiology. The results imply that vLABs could be used instead of face to face tutorials, and a combination of virtual and physical lab exercises could be the future of science education.

  2. Virtual Simulations as Preparation for Lab Exercises: Assessing Learning of Key Laboratory Skills in Microbiology and Improvement of Essential Non-Cognitive Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Warming Thisgaard, Malene; Gadegaard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if a virtual laboratory simulation (vLAB) could be used to replace a face to face tutorial (demonstration) to prepare students for a laboratory exercise in microbiology. Methods A total of 189 students who were participating in an undergraduate biology course were randomly...... selected into a vLAB or demonstration condition. In the vLAB condition students could use a vLAB at home to 'practice' streaking out bacteria on agar plates in a virtual environment. In the demonstration condition students were given a live demonstration from a lab tutor showing them how to streak out......-efficacy in the field of microbiology. Conclusion Our data show that vLABs function just as well as face to face tutorials in preparing students for a physical lab activity in microbiology. The results imply that vLABs could be used instead of face to face tutorials, and a combination of virtual and physical lab...

  3. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data--The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years. We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014. One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national guidelines for standardized cAST data analysis and reporting

  5. Manual Laboratorio de Microbiologia. Documento de trabajo Programa de Educacion en Ocupaciones de Salud (Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Curriculum Document. Program of Education in Health Occupations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This laboratory manual on microbiology begins with an introduction relating the study of microorganisms to health occupations education and stressing the importance of teaching critical thinking. The introduction is followed by general instructions for the use of the manual and an illustration of hand washing procedures. The 13 laboratory…

  6. Effects of cadmium on the performance and microbiology of laboratory-scale lagoons treating domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J L; Bohatier, J; Pépin, D

    1999-06-01

    Two experiments were performed to assess the impact of cadmium on the sewage lagoon wastewater treatment process. For each one, three laboratory-scale pilot plants with one tank receiving the same raw effluent were used; one plant served as control and the other two were contaminated once only with cadmium. In the first study, the effects of a shock load of two concentrations of cadmium chloride (60 and 300 micrograms/l) on the plant performance, microbial populations (protists and bacteria) and enzyme activities were determined. Initially, most of the performance parameters were affected concentration-dependently. A reduction in the protist population density and some influence on the total bacterial population were observed, and the potential enzymatic activities were also modified. A second experiment with a lower cadmium concentration (30 micrograms/l), supplied as chloride or sulphate, still perturbed most of the parameters studied, and the effects of the two cadmium salts were identical.

  7. Will Regulatory and Financial Considerations Dampen Innovation in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Peter H; Miller, Melissa B

    2016-02-02

    Over a million prosthetic joints are placed in patients in the United States annually. Of those that fail, 25% will be due to infection, with an estimated cost approaching 1 billion dollars. Despite the clinical and economic importance of these infections, the techniques for their detection are relatively insensitive. An innovative method for detecting these infections by using blood culture bottles (BCB) to culture specimens of periprosthetic tissue (PPT) was described in a recent article [T. N. Peel, et al., mBio 7(1):e01776-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.01776-15]. There are two potential stumbling blocks to the widespread implementation of this innovation. First, the FDA judges such an application of BCB as an "off-label use" and as such, a laboratory-developed test (LDT). LDTs are coming under greater scrutiny by the FDA and may require extensive, costly validation studies in laboratories that adopt this methodology. Second, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has established a Hospital Acquired Condition Reduction Act under which institutions performing in the lowest quartile forfeit 1% of their Medicare reimbursement. Hospital-acquired infections are an important component of this quality metric. Although prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates are not currently a hospital quality metric, given their cost and increasing frequency, it is reasonable to expect that they may become one. Will those with financial oversight allow an innovative technique that will require an expensive validation and may put the institution at risk for loss of CMS reimbursement? Copyright © 2016 Gilligan and Miller.

  8. Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of

  9. Project-Based Laboratory Experiences in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe project-based laboratories in Mechanical Engineering designed to provide semester-long team experiences which mimic the real life industrial processes of design, development, testing and optimization. The labs are focused on courses at the sophomore level and thus require special attention to constraints of student backgrounds and experience. This paper describes laboratory projects in Dynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

  10. Diagnosis and definition of an action plan related to the management system conformed to the ISO 17025; case of the laboratory of Microbiology - CNSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeili, Abderrahmen

    2007-01-01

    The accreditations permit the laboratories of tests and analysis to prove the quality of their organization and to ensure the reliability of their results. This report - ratio approaches the various stages of the installation from a system of management quality, within a microbiological analysis laboratory with the CNSTN ( National center for nuclear sciences and technologies). The setting is begin with the staff training on the requirements from the standard ISO 17025. In continuation a plan of initial diagnosis to locate the laboratory compared to the requirements of the standard to succeed finally an action plan detailing the actions to be carried out to reach the accreditation. (Author). 7 refs

  11. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Allison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST. Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71% laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site. 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23% of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR needs to be explored.

  13. Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

    2014-07-01

    Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Based on Data Collected by a Network of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to STIs that are widespread yet often asymptomatic and to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of these infections in Italy, in 2009 the "Centro Operativo AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di SanitÁ", in collaboration with the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI, Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani), launched the sentinel STIs surveillance system based on a network of 13 clinical microbiology laboratories.The main objective of the surveillance was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections among individuals attending microbiology laboratories in Italy.

  15. [Evaluation of common commercial systems for the identification of yeast isolates in microbiology laboratories: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Uludağ Altun, Hatice; Karatuna, Onur; Hazırolan, Gülşen; Aksu, Neriman; Adiloğlu, Ali; Akyar, Işın

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of yeast isolates have become important in recent years for not only antifungal susceptibility testing due to the species-specific clinical resistance breakpoints but also early initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. In clinical microbiology laboratories species identification of yeasts is often performed with several commercial systems based on biochemical properties and rarely according to the physiological and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare the two common commercial systems, VITEK 2 YST ID Card (Vitek; bioMérieux, France) and API 20C AUX (API; bioMérieux, France) with conventional mycological methods. A total of 473 clinical yeast strains isolated from clinical specimens in different university and training/research hospitals and identified by Vitek system were included in the study. The isolates were re-identified with API and conventional methods including morphological identification in the Mycology Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Turkey. Candida dubliniensis MYA 583, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32268 were used as quality control strains and those standard strains were studied consecutively 10 days with both of the methods. The results of identification by Vitek and API were compared with the results of conventional methods for those 473 yeast isolates [6 genus (Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastoshizomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon), 17 species (5 common and 12 rarely isolated)]. The performances of the systems were better (Vitek: 95%; API: 96%) for the commonly detected species (C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C.krusei) than those for rarely detected species (Vitek: 78.4%; API: 71.6%) (p= 0.155). Misidentification or unidentification were mostly detected for C.parapsilosis (Vitek: 6/87; API: 7/87) and C.glabrata (Vitek: 9/104; API

  16. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Schrenzel, Jacques; Struelens, Marc Jean; Breuer, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale "microbiology laboratories network." Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s) for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  17. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Vandenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs, European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale “microbiology laboratories network.” Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  18. Selective testing of women based on age for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in a centralized regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Amante, L; Semeniuk, H; Gregson, D B

    2007-04-01

    Calgary Laboratory Services, Alberta, Canada, provides microbiology services via a centralized laboratory to the Calgary Health Region. A selective genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) testing policy for women >35 years was implemented. The changes in physician ordering practice, the rate of detection of infections, and the test turnaround times were monitored. The volume of tests, the cost/test, and the total service costs accrued in the year before and after this policy change were compared. An immediate impact was a 30% decrease in tests performed due to the laboratory rejecting samples from older women. Subsequently, physicians' practice changed so that tests were ordered when test criteria were met. Detection rates did not change in any age group. A 27.9% decrease in the total service costs resulted in a labor reduction of 0.2 FTE. Selective testing of women >35 years with a low prevalence of CT/GC infection is clinically relevant and cost-effective.

  19. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a

  20. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  1. Executive summary: a guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  2. Laboratory investigation of microbiologically influenced corrosion of C1018 carbon steel by nitrate reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Song, Fengmei; Gu, Tingyue

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate injection is used to suppress reservoir souring in oil and gas fields caused by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) through promotion of nitrate respiration by Nitrate Reducing Bacteria (NRB). However, it is not well publicized that nitrate reduction by NRB can cause Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) because nitrate reduction coupled with iron oxidation is thermodynamically favorable. NRB benefits bioenergetically from this redox reaction under biocatalysis. This work showed that the Bacillus licheniformis biofilm, when grown as an NRB biofilm, caused a 14.5 μm maximum pit depth and 0.89 mg/cm 2 normalized weight loss against C1018 carbon steel in one-week lab tests

  3. High-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S Q; Claas, E C J; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory.

  4. Manual versus automated streaking system in clinical microbiology laboratory: Performance evaluation of Previ Isola for blood culture and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Wan; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2018-01-04

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected. All samples were inoculated on both sheep blood agar plate (BAP) and MacConkey agar plate (MCK) using Previ Isola and manual method. We compared two methods in aspect of quality and quantity of cultures, and sample processing time. To ensure objective colony counting, an enumeration reading reference was made through a preliminary experiment. A total of 377 nonduplicate samples (102 blood culture, 203 urine, 72 body fluid) were collected and inoculated. The concordance rate of quality was 100%, 97.0%, and 98.6% in blood, urine, and other body fluids, respectively. In quantitative aspect, it was 98.0%, 97.0%, and 95.8%, respectively. The Previ Isola took a little longer to inoculate the specimen than manual method, but the hands-on time decreased dramatically. The shortened hands-on time using Previ Isola was about 6 minutes per 10 samples. We demonstrated that the Previ Isola showed high concordance with the manual method in the inoculation of various body fluids, especially in blood culture sample. The use of Previ Isola in clinical microbiology laboratories is expected to save considerable time and human resources. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Establishment of a System for Monitoring and Control of Cross Contamination in the Laboratory of Microbiological Analysis of Food during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpa- Iguarán Eduardo Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities for quality control in the laboratory, the final results of a particular analyteare now recognized as intermediates, due to the relevance given to quality assurance, as the ultimategoal of programs for quality management. This concept makes it necessary to establishmentof integral tools, to detect events such as cross-contamination, and measures to avoid affectingthe analysis method. Objective: to established a system for monitoring and control of crosscontaminationin the laboratory of microbiological analysis of food. Materials and methods:Flowcharts were developed to control the proceedings on the populations of aerobe mesophilicsand molds originated from pollution in the environment, surfaces, sterile material and culturemedia, which included a decision tree designed to perform control actions based on tolerance intervals,which were established as objective tool to decision-making leading to normalize countsof microbial populations in question. Results: Warning limits stricter were obtained for aerobicmesophilic and mold populations in the different controls, except for environment of media preparationand the corresponding for sterile material. Conclusion: The process developed allowedto complement the system of internal quality control in the laboratory, to provide of an objectivetool for closing nonconformities because of cross-contamination.

  6. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  7. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  8. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry analyser in a diagnostic microbiology laboratory in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atang Bulane

    2017-12-01

    Objective: We compared MALDI-TOF MS against two commercial systems, MicroScan Walkaway and VITEK 2 MS. Methods: Over a three-month period from July 2013 to September 2013, a total of 227 bacteria and yeasts were collected from an academic microbiology laboratory (N = 121; 87 Gramnegatives, seven Gram-positives, 27 yeasts and other laboratories (N = 106; 35 Gram-negatives, 34 Gram-positives, 37 yeasts. Sixty-five positive blood cultures were initially processed with Bruker Sepsityper kit for direct identification. Results: From the 65 blood culture bottles, four grew more than one bacterial pathogen and MALDI-TOF MS identified only one isolate. The blood cultures yielded 21 Gram-negatives, 43 Gram-positives and one Candida. There were 21 Escherirchia coli isolates which were reported by the MALDI-TOF MS as E. coli/Shigella. Of the total 292 isolates, discrepant results were found for one bacterial and three yeast isolates. Discrepant results were resolved by testing with the API system with MALDI-TOF MS showing 100% correlation. Conclusion: The MALDI-TOF MS proved to be very useful for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeasts directly from blood cultures and after culture of other specimens. The difference in time to identification was significant for all isolates. However, for positive blood cultures with minimal sample preparation time there was a massive difference in turn-around time with great appreciation by clinicians.

  9. Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany J. Gasper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  12. Development of e-Juba, a preliminary proof of concept unmanned aerial vehicle designed to facilitate the transportation of microbiological test samples from remote rural clinics to National Health Laboratory Service laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, B; Muir, P; Boshielo, B T; Robertson, J

    2007-11-01

    For students and academics within the field of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, it is readily apparent what an enormous professional contribution Professor Hendrik Koornhof has made to this critically important specialty, not only in Africa, but worldwide. For those outside of the specialty, his contributions as a thoroughly decent person and role model are no less evident. What emerges in both spheres is his clear commitment to the welfare of others, as opposed to himself. His modesty and self-effacing nature have endeared Hendrik to many generations of students, peers and others who have indeed been privileged to have benefited from knowing him and working with him. In his 50 years with the South African Institute for Medical Research, and subsequently with the National Health Laboratory Service, Hendrik Koornhof has been the ideal academic, who is not as concerned about receiving financial rewards, recognition, etc. as about contributing to scientific knowledge. Many of his contributions have been in guiding others by his words and his deeds, and as a result he has been rewarded in seeing the accomplishments of his students, many of whom have gone on to achieve greatness in diverse fields, both locally and abroad. As we reflect in this festschrift on Hendrik's many achievements over 80 years, we thank him for more than just his research and teaching contributions over half a century with the South African Institute for Medical Research and the National Health Laboratory Service. We thank him for showing us what a privilege it is to work in the world of academia. Although we are not microbiologists, we thank him for having inspired us with the will to address problems of service delivery in the fight against microbiological diseases, which constitute the overwhelming bulk of the burden of disease in the developing world, both in Africa and further afield.

  13. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  14. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Anamaria; McKee, Geoffrey; Munzner, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Background Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics—including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers—is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB) genomic test results. Methods We used Design Study Methodology—a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain—to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders’ needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. Results We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type). When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7%) of design

  15. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Crisan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics—including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers—is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB genomic test results. Methods We used Design Study Methodology—a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain—to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders’ needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. Results We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type. When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7% of

  16. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Anamaria; McKee, Geoffrey; Munzner, Tamara; Gardy, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics-including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers-is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB) genomic test results. We used Design Study Methodology-a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain-to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders' needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type). When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7%) of design comparisons, participants preferred the

  17. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  18. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  19. Surveillance by diagnostic microbiology laboratories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    account for almost threequarters of all Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections, supporting the decision to include colistin or tobramycin as empirical treatment options for ICU patients with suspected Gramnegative sepsis. The dissemination and utilisation of surveillance data is crucial if they are to impact on patient ...

  20. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  1. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  2. Recent advances in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the development of a variety of molecular diagnostics designed to rapidly identify or characterize medically important microorganisms. We briefly review important advances in molecular microbiology, and then discuss specific assays that have been implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the country. We also discuss emerging methods and technologies that will soon be more widely used for the prompt and accurate detection of the agents of infectious diseases.

  3. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known. This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  5. Analysis of Microbiological and Physiochemical Properties of Top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Medical Laboratory, Lonia Clinic and Maternity Ovwian Delta State ... ABSTRACT: The effect of disposing municipal waste on soil was evaluated by analyzing the microbiological and enzyme ..... Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological.

  6. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  7. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  8. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  9. High-risk febrile neutropenia in Auckland 2003-2004: the influence of the microbiology laboratory on patient treatment and the use of pathogen-specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S; Palmer, S; Ellis-Pegler, R

    2007-01-01

    International guidelines recommend routine microbiological assessment of patients with febrile neutropenia, but do not recommend a change from broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy to pathogen-specific therapy when a clinically relevant organism has been isolated. The aim of the study was to determine the aetiology of febrile neutropenia in adult haematology patients at Auckland City Hospital, to document the changes in treatment made following isolation of a clinically relevant organism and to assess adverse outcomes in any patient who received pathogen-specific therapy after a positive culture result. The results of all microbiological tests together with antibiotic therapy were recorded from consecutive patients with fever and a neutrophil count cultures in 40 episodes: Gram-positive cocci accounted for 46% of isolates and Gram-negative bacilli for 35%. Isolation of a pathogen from blood cultures resulted in a change of treatment in 25 of 40 (62.5%, 95%CI 46-77%) episodes. In 12 of these episodes, antibiotic therapy was optimized to a single pathogen-specific agent. No adverse events or subsequent changes in antibiotic therapy occurred in any of these 12 patients. Isolation of a pathogen from specimens other than blood seldom led to a change in therapy. Isolation of a pathogen from blood cultures often allows antibiotic therapy to be simplified to a pathogen-specific regimen. Further study of this approach is warranted.

  10. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  11. Princípios de biossegurança aplicados aos laboratórios de ensino universitário de microbiologia e parasitologia Principles of biosafety applied to microbiology and parasitology laboratories in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Sangioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os laboratórios de ensino de microbiologia e parasitologia nas universidades brasileiras são ambientes em que as atividades integradas, envolvendo ensino, pesquisa e extensão, demandam a convivência de pessoas, agentes e amostras biológicas, equipamentos, reagentes e resíduos num mesmo espaço, sendo inevitável a exposição das pessoas aos diferentes riscos. As atividades realizadas nesses laboratórios necessitam empregar as normas de segurança; pois, uma vez que o fator humano é susceptível aos acidentes, os programas de educação em biossegurança são imprescindíveis. Entretanto, para que esses programas sejam efetivos, é necessário que os usuários estejam devidamente informados acerca dos princípios de biossegurança, bem como aptos a colocá-los em prática de maneira correta, a fim de garantir a segurança dos profissionais, acadêmicos e do meio ambiente. Esta revisão compila os principais aspectos da biossegurança relacionados aos princípios e à classificação dos riscos, dos agentes biológicos e dos níveis de contenção laboratorial, bem como aborda as boas práticas laboratoriais nos laboratórios de ensino, pesquisa e extensão em microbiologia e parasitologia.The teaching laboratories of microbiology and parasitology in Brazilian universities are places where the integrated activities of teaching, research and extension are performed and require the coexistence in the same space, persons, biological agents and samples, equipment, reagents and waste, and where is inevitable the exposure of people to the different risks. The laboratorial activities practiced in Brazilian universities require the need for safety standards, since the human factor is likely the causes of accidents in laboratories, educational programs in biosafety become indispensable to the prevention of risks. However, for an education program become effective is necessary that the users are fully informed about the biosafety principles, as

  12. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  13. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  14. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Technical note: Discard the specimen collection swab directly at point of care to improve extensive automated processing in clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Manuela; Grosso, Shamanta; Bruschetta, Graziano; Camporese, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    We compared, in terms of microorganisms recovery, the discard of specimen collection swab, after swirling into its medium, directly at point of care, with its placing into the medium and vortexing on arrival in the laboratory. Our results show that these two procedures are overlapped in terms of bacterial recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  17. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  18. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  19. Comparative evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic-based methods for identification of clinically important yeasts in a UK-based medical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatania, Nita; Fraser, Mark; Savage, Mike; Hart, Jason; Abdolrasouli, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared in a side-by side-analysis with conventional phenotypic methods currently in use in our laboratory for identification of yeasts in a routine diagnostic setting. A diverse collection of 200 clinically important yeasts (19 species, five genera) were identified by both methods using standard protocols. Discordant or unreliable identifications were resolved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. MALDI-TOF and conventional methods were in agreement for 182 isolates (91%) with correct identification to species level. Eighteen discordant results (9%) were due to rarely encountered species, hence the difficulty in their identification using traditional phenotypic methods. MALDI-TOF MS enabled rapid, reliable and accurate identification of clinically important yeasts in a routine diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Isolates with rare, unusual or low probability identifications should be confirmed using robust molecular methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. [Laboratory diagnosis of pandemic influenza at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Regional Authority of Public Health based in Banská Bystrica in the season 2009-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissová, R; Mad'arová, L; Klement, C

    2011-02-01

    The Department of Medical Microbiology of the Regional Authority of Public Health (RAPH) in Banská Bystrica serves as a catchment laboratory of virology for the Central Slovakia Region, and in the influenza season 2009/10, it also served as such for the East Slovakia Region. Specimens (nasopharyngeal swabs and post-mortem specimens) from patients with suspected influenza were obtained from both sentinel and non-sentinel physicians. The specimens were analyzed by a rapid test, followed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for influenza A or B diagnosis. RT-PCR subtyping for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 was performed. From May 2009 to June 2010, 2497 specimens were analyzed for the presence of influenza A and B viruses and in particular for the presence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. As many as 537 of 589 influenza A-positive specimens, i.e. 21.5% of all specimens analyzed and 91.2% of influenza A-positive specimens, were subtyped as pandemic influenza A/H1N1. In the influenza season 2009/10, the new pandemic influenza A/H1N1 clearly predominated in Central and Eastern Slovakia. PCR tests have played a key role in diagnosing patients with suspected pandemic influenza in the laboratory participating in the surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in the Slovak Republic.

  1. Development of a microbiological method (heat treatment method) to confirm the irradiation of food samples in a blind trial of collaborating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, T.; Koshikawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    A practical screening method is needed so that any laboratory can easily and cheaply distinguish between non-irradiated and irradiated food. We carried out a study last year based on the findings that the sensitivity of bacteria to heat-treatment rose when bacteria was damaged by the irradiation, and the possibility that the irradiation could be detected in certain processing conditions. This method consists of a first assessment based on a general viable cell count and the second assessment based on the difference in the number of bacteria before and after the heat-treatment. A joint research study among a number of laboratories was conducted this year on the detection method by examining the effect of the heat-treatment on viable cells that adhered to spices. From the results, we found that there are two kinds of spices. For one type, both the first and second assessment need to be done, and for the other only the first assessment should be done. Therefore, the target spice should be classified into either the type only requiring the first assessment or the type for which the second assessment must also be carried out. In that case, we were able to obtain a high correct answer rate

  2. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  3. National prevalence survey in Brazil to evaluate the quality of microbiology laboratories: the importance of defining priorities to allocate limited resources Encuesta de prevalencia nacional para evaluar la calidad de los laboratorios de microbiología en el Brasil: importancia de la definición de prioridades para asignar recursos limitados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a survey of microbiology laboratories (n = 467 serving Brazilian hospitals with >10 intensive care beds and/or involved in the government health care adverse event reporting system. Coordinators were interviewed and laboratories classified as follows: Level 0 (no minimal functioning conditions-85.4% of laboratories; Level 1 (minimal functioning conditions but inadequate execution of basic routine-6.7%; Level 2 (minimal functioning conditions and adequate execution of basic routine but no adequate procedures for quality control-5.8%; Level 3 (minimal functioning conditions, adequate execution of basic routine, and adequate procedures for quality control, but no direct communication with the infection control department-0.9%; Level 4 (minimal functioning conditions, adequate execution of basic routine, adequate procedures for quality control, and direct communication with infection control, but no available advanced resources-none; and Level 5 (minimal functioning conditions, adequate execution of basic routine, adequate procedures for quality control, direct communication with infection control, and available advanced resources-0.9%. Twelve laboratories did not perform Ziehl-Neelsen staining; 271 did not have safety cabinets; and >30% without safety cabinets had automated systems. Low quality was associated with serving hospitals not participating in government adverse-event program; private hospitals; nonteaching hospitals; and those outside state capitals. Results may reflect what occurs in many other countries where defining priorities is important due to limited resources.Este artículo describe una encuesta realizada en Brasil en laboratorios de microbiología (n = 467 que prestaban servicio a hospitales que contaban al menos con 10 camas de cuidados intensivos. Se entrevistó a los coordinadores y los laboratorios se clasificaron de la siguiente manera: nivel 0 (sin condiciones de funcionamiento mínimas: 85,4% de los

  4. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  5. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  6. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology : present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the

  8. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  9. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  10. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  11. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  12. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  14. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing.

  16. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  17. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    .... A broad range of topics is covered including the basics of setting up a food microbiology laboratory, procedures for validating the efficacy of process and product food safety controls, practices...

  18. Applications of flow cytometry in food microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Valerin, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of data about cytometry and its applications is performed to analyze the impact on food microbiology. The technique of flow cytometry is described and the use in various fields of microbiology is analyzed. Flow cytometry future could be implemented in many clinical laboratories and food, considering the cost / benefit test to be done, because at the moment it has a high cost. The existence of new fluorochromes and monoclonal antibodies enable that many intracellular and extracellular cell parameters are detected in the future. The technique can be developed in the country in few years considering that the technique has improved the sensitivity and specificity of many tests [es

  19. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  20. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  1. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  2. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  3. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  5. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  6. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  7. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  8. 78 FR 54643 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Laboratory Quality Assurance Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... certification responsibilities for the chemistry and microbiology laboratories that they oversee in their current programs (e.g., initial evaluation of laboratory capability; ongoing assessment of the laboratory...

  9. The Use of Genomics in Microbiology: From Vaccines to Drug Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    of WGS in microbiology have only been demonstrated in highly specialised scientific laboratories in high-income countries. However, with continuingly decreasing costs and increasing throughput, many public health laboratories are now acquiring sequencers

  10. Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, J C; McCallum, N; Sintchenko, V; Howden, B P

    2015-04-01

    Genomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology.The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology.Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in public health laboratories, reference laboratories, and hospital infection control-affiliated laboratories.As WGS represents the pinnacle for strain characterisation and epidemiological analyses, it is likely to replace traditional typing methods, resistance gene detection and other sequence-based investigations (e.g., 16S rDNA PCR) in the near future.Although genomic technologies are rapidly evolving, widespread implementation in clinical and public health microbiology laboratories is limited by the need for effective semi-automated pipelines, standardised quality control and data interpretation, bioinformatics expertise, and infrastructure.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuytema, Eunice C.; And Others

    A problem solving, laboratory experience was devised in which first-year medical students were given a case description and then required to make judgments about what microbiology specimens should be collected and to analyze the results of laboratory tests in terms of implications for patient care. Over a four-year period revisions were made in…

  12. An audit of diagnostic tests performed in medical microbiology, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical audit is an important tool for reviewing and improving the quality of service in clinical laboratories. This is a three year audit of diagnostic test carried out in Medical Microbiology and Immunology laboratories of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The objectives were to document and ...

  13. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  14. Infection: microbiology and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  15. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  16. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  17. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2017-04-01

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing. Microbial-based treatment end points may help clinicians better identify patients in need of additional or altered dental therapies before the onset of clinical treatment failure, and help improve patient oral health outcomes. Microbiological testing appears particularly helpful in periodontal disease treatment planning. Further research and technological advances are likely to increase the availability and clinical utility of microbiological analysis in modern dental practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiology Services for External Company Sampling from 2009 until 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli; Mohd Rodzi Ali

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological Laboratory Medical Technology Division is committed in providing microbiological test service to internal and outside customer of Nuclear Malaysia. This paper presents a report on tests that have been performed on various type of samples received from outside customer from year 2009 to year 2012. Between 600 and 800 requests received ever year and 6 companies are our regular customers. Regular tests are sterility test, endotoxin limit test and incubation. Charge for the service contributes to agency's income every year. (author)

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than a thousand articles on biological safety in infectious disease laboratories are listed for the use of supervisors responsible for the safety of laboratory personnel. An author index is included.

  20. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  1. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  2. [Microbiological diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Reina González, Gabriel; Aguilera Guirao, Antonio; Rodríguez Martín, Carmen; García García, Federico

    2015-10-01

    This document attempts to update the main tasks and roles of the Clinical Microbiology laboratory in HIV diagnosis and monitoring. The document is divided into three parts. The first deals with HIV diagnosis and how serological testing has changed in the last few years, aiming to improve diagnosis and to minimize missed opportunities for diagnosis. Technological improvements for HIV Viral Load are shown in the second part of the document, which also includes a detailed description of the clinical significance of low-level and very low-level viremia. Finally, the third part of the document deals with resistance to antiretroviral drugs, incorporating clinical indications for integrase and tropism testing, as well as the latest knowledge on minority variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  4. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  5. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  6. Procedures For Microbial-Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial Ecology Laboratory Procedures Manual provides concise and well-defined instructions on routine technical procedures to be followed in microbiological laboratory to ensure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  7. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Medical Laboratory Science is a Quarterly Publication of the Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria. It Publishes Original Research and Review Articles in All Fields of Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Covering Medical Microbiology, Medical Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, ...

  8. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  9. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: MICROBIOLOGY AND HOST RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T.

    2016-01-01

    THE EARLIEST DESCRIPTIONS OF LUNG DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) DEMONSTRATED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THREE INTERACTING PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN CF AIRWAYS: MUCUS OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFECTION. OVER THE PAST 7 DECADES, OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CF RESPIRATORY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION HAS EVOLVED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW TREATMENTS, WITH INCREASED LONGEVITY, AND WITH INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION AND THEIR ROLES IN DRIVING LUNG DISEASE. WE WILL ALSO DISCUSS HOW THIS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING INFORMATION IS USED TO INFORM CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES, MEASURES AND PREDICTORS OF DISEASE SEVERITY, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES. PMID:27469179

  10. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality assurance in microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arora D

    2004-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and po...

  12. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. [Applications of MALDI-TOF technology in clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, S; Nassif, X; Ferroni, A

    2015-02-01

    Until now, the identification of micro-organisms has been based on the cultural and biochemical characteristics of bacterial and fungal species. Recently, Mass Spectrometry type Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed in clinical microbiology laboratories. This new technology allows identification of micro-organisms directly from colonies of bacteria and fungi within few minutes. In addition, it can be used to identify germs directly from positive blood culture bottles or directly from urine samples. Other ways are being explored to expand the use of MALDI-TOF in clinical microbiology laboratories. Indeed, some studies propose to detect bacterial antibiotic resistance while others compare strains within species for faster strain typing. The main objective of this review is to update data from the recent literature for different applications of MALDI-TOF technique in microbiological diagnostic routine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  15. Outbreak!: Teaching Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology Methodologies with an Interactive Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri; Smith, Geoffrey Battle

    2004-01-01

    Outbreak! is an online, interactive educational game that helps students and teachers learn and evaluate clinical microbiology skills. When the game was used in introductory microbiology laboratories, qualitative evaluation by students showed very positive responses and increased learning. Outbreak! allows students to design diagnostic tests and…

  16. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  17. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  18. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  19. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  20. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, BK; Alam, U; Dacanay, SJ; Lee, AK; Shaffer, JF

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol co...

  1. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  2. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  3. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  4. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  5. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...... learning. The aims of this study were to test 1) the students’ perception combining theory with small laboratory exercises and 2) the students’ perception of how the course collaborates with and combines theories and practices from other current semester courses. The students evaluated the course...

  6. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Brigati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading. T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading. While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  7. Facilitating improvements in laboratory report writing skills with less grading: a laboratory report peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigati, Jennifer R; Swann, Jerilyn M

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  8. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigati, Jennifer R.; Swann, Jerilyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings. PMID:25949758

  9. Laboratory exposure to Brucella melitensis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A; Kronborg, G; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    Brucella species are a frequent cause of laboratory-acquired infections. This report describes the handling of a laboratory exposure of 17 laboratory staff members exposed to Brucella melitensis in a large microbiology laboratory in a brucella-non-endemic area. We followed the US Centers...

  10. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  11. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  13. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  14. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  15. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  17. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  18. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  19. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  20. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  1. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  2. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordo B. A. Saeed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized the detection of DNA and RNA. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR is becoming the gold standard test for accurate, sensitive and fast diagnosis for a large range of infectious agents. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity, high throughout and quantification. RT-PCR assays have advanced the diagnostic abilities of clinical laboratories particularly microbiology and infectious diseases. In this review we would like to briefly discuss RT-PCR in diagnostic microbiology laboratory, beginning with a general introduction to RT-PCR and its principles, setting up an RT PCR, including multiplex systems and the avoidance and remediation of contamination issues. A segment of the review would be devoted to the application of RT-PCR in clinical practice concentrating on its role in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

  3. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  5. The value of case-based teaching vignettes in clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Jennifer O; Kraft, Colleen S; Burd, Eileen M; Armstrong, Wendy S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-03-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a case-based microbiology curriculum during daily microbiology rounds. Vignettes consist of short cases with images and questions that facilitate discussion among microbiologists, pathologists, infectious disease physicians, and trainees (residents and fellows). We performed a survey to assess the value of these vignettes to trainees. Motivation to come to rounds on time increased from 60% to 100%. Trainees attending rounds after implementation of the vignettes perceived the value of microbiology rounds to be significantly higher compared with those who attended rounds before implementation (P = .04). Pathology residents found that vignettes were helpful for retaining knowledge (8.3 of 10 points). The vignettes have enhanced the value of microbiology rounds by serving as a formalized curriculum exposing trainees from multiple specialties to various microbiology topics. Emphasis on interdisciplinary interactions between clinical and laboratory personnel was highlighted with this case-based curriculum.

  6. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  7. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  8. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  9. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Aims and scope. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is the official Journal of African Society for Clinical Microbiology. It publishes original research papers in all aspects of Medical Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Virology Rickettsiology and Chlamydiology, Mycology, ...

  10. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  12. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  13. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  14. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  15. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  16. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  17. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  18. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were <20, estimated uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  19. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  20. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  1. Interpretation of Blood Microbiology Results - Function of the Clinical Microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Katalin; Pongrácz, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    The proper use and interpretation of blood microbiology results may be one of the most challenging and one of the most important functions of clinical microbiology laboratories. Effective implementation of this function requires careful consideration of specimen collection and processing, pathogen detection techniques, and prompt and precise reporting of identification and susceptibility results. The responsibility of the treating physician is proper formulation of the analytical request and to provide the laboratory with complete and precise patient information, which are inevitable prerequisites of a proper testing and interpretation. The clinical microbiologist can offer advice concerning the differential diagnosis, sampling techniques and detection methods to facilitate diagnosis. Rapid detection methods are essential, since the sooner a pathogen is detected, the better chance the patient has of getting cured. Besides the gold-standard blood culture technique, microbiologic methods that decrease the time in obtaining a relevant result are more and more utilized today. In the case of certain pathogens, the pathogen can be identified directly from the blood culture bottle after propagation with serological or automated/semi-automated systems or molecular methods or with MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). Molecular biology methods are also suitable for the rapid detection and identification of pathogens from aseptically collected blood samples. Another important duty of the microbiology laboratory is to notify the treating physician immediately about all relevant information if a positive sample is detected. The clinical microbiologist may provide important guidance regarding the clinical significance of blood isolates, since one-third to one-half of blood culture isolates are contaminants or isolates of unknown clinical significance. To fully exploit the benefits of blood culture and other (non- culture

  2. Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esim Buyukbayrak, Esra; Kars, Bulent; Karsidag, Ayse Yasemin Karageyim; Karadeniz, Bernan Ilkay; Kaymaz, Ozge; Gencer, Serap; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Mehmet Cem

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered microorganisms by culture were Candida species (17.4%) and Gardnerella vaginalis (10.2%). Clinically, the most commonly made diagnoses were mixed infection (34.1%), bacterial vaginosis (32.4%) and fungal infection (14.1%). Symptoms did not predict laboratory results. Predisposing factors (DM, vaginal douching practice, presence of IUD and usage of oral contraceptive pills) were not found to be statistically important influencing factors for vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis based on combining symptoms with office-based testing improves diagnostic accuracy but is insufficient. The most effective approach also incorporates laboratory testing as an adjunct when a diagnosis is in question or treatment is failing.

  3. Mentor-mentee relationship in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, O; Greub, G

    2017-07-01

    Clinical microbiology is a field in constant evolution, with increasing technological opportunities and a growing emphasis on human and social issues. Maintaining knowledge and skills and anticipating future changes is challenging both for laboratory managers and for all the co-workers. Training and succession preparation represents a unique opportunity to adapt/prepare future generations according to the evolutions of the field. The aim of this review is to provide to clinical microbiologists a reflection on ongoing technological and social changes in their field and a deepening of the central role of preparing future generations to these changes through a fruitful mentor-mentee relationship. This narrative review relies on selected publications addressing mentor-mentee interactions in various academic fields, on interview with our colleagues and pairs, as well as on our personal experience. From the qualities and aspects that emerged as necessary for a productive mentor-mentee interaction, we selected and discuss five of them for the mentor: the role and responsibility, the positioning, the vision, the scientific credibility, and the moral credibility, as well as five for the mentee: creativity, flexibility, energy, responsibility, and self evaluation. This review emphasizes the importance of both the scientific and the ethical credibility of the mentor and the mentee as well as the importance of human and social values such as solidarity, equality, equity, respectfulness, and empathy, and might support mentor and mentee in the field of clinical microbiology and also in the field of infectious disease in their intent for a fruitful interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... subspecialty areas under CLIA: Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology... CLIA for the following specialties and subspecialties: Microbiology, including Bacteriology... requirements. The COLA requires the laboratory director to review quality control results for waived tests...

  5. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  7. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation in food microbiology: differences between quantitative and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Režić Dereani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to describe quality control procedures, procedures for validation and measurement uncertainty (MU determination as an important element of quality assurance in food microbiology laboratory for qualitative and quantitative type of analysis. Accreditation is conducted according to the standard ISO 17025:2007. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, which guarantees the compliance with standard operating procedures and the technical competence of the staff involved in the tests, recently are widely introduced in food microbiology laboratories in Croatia. In addition to quality manual introduction, and a lot of general documents, some of the most demanding procedures in routine microbiology laboratories are measurement uncertainty (MU procedures and validation experiment design establishment. Those procedures are not standardized yet even at international level, and they require practical microbiological knowledge, altogether with statistical competence. Differences between validation experiments design for quantitative and qualitative food microbiology analysis are discussed in this research, and practical solutions are shortly described. MU for quantitative determinations is more demanding issue than qualitative MU calculation. MU calculations are based on external proficiency testing data and internal validation data. In this paper, practical schematic descriptions for both procedures are shown.

  8. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  9. 75 FR 52957 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Food Emergency Response Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...) is to solicit applications from existing FERN Microbiology Laboratories to enhance current...). The isolates will be tested using methods agreed upon in consultation with the Center for Veterinary...

  10. Practical issues in implementing whole-genome-sequencing in routine diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, J W A; Friedrich, A W; Moran-Gilad, J

    2018-04-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being used in clinical microbiology. Like every new technology adopted in microbiology, the integration of NGS into clinical and routine workflows must be carefully managed. To review the practical aspects of implementing bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) in routine diagnostic laboratories. Review of the literature and expert opinion. In this review, we discuss when and how to integrate whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the routine workflow of the clinical laboratory. In addition, as the microbiology laboratories have to adhere to various national and international regulations and criteria for their accreditation, we deliberate on quality control issues for using WGS in microbiology, including the importance of proficiency testing. Furthermore, the current and future place of this technology in the diagnostic hierarchy of microbiology is described as well as the necessity of maintaining backwards compatibility with already established methods. Finally, we speculate on the question of whether WGS can entirely replace routine microbiology in the future and the tension between the fact that most sequencers are designed to process multiple samples in parallel whereas for optimal diagnosis a one-by-one processing of the samples is preferred. Special reference is made to the cost and turnaround time of WGS in diagnostic laboratories. Further development is required to improve the workflow for WGS, in particular to shorten the turnaround time, reduce costs, and streamline downstream data analyses. Only when these processes reach maturity will reliance on WGS for routine patient management and infection control management become feasible, enabling the transformation of clinical microbiology into a genome-based and personalized diagnostic field. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    OpenAIRE

    Chitnis V; Vaidya K; Chitnis D

    2005-01-01

    Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW). The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste...

  12. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  13. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  14. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  15. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  16. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  17. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  18. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  19. Application of the MALDI Biotyper to clinical microbiology: progress and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Markus

    2018-03-01

    The introduction of the MALDI Biotyper in laboratories substantially changed microbiology practice, this has been called a revolution. The system accelerated diagnostic while costs were reduced and accuracy was increased. In just a few years MALDI-TOF MS became the first-line identification tool for microorganisms. Ten years after its introduction, more than 2000 MALDI Biotyper systems are installed in laboratories which are performing routine diagnostic, and the number is still increasing. Areas covered: This article summarises changes in clinical microbiology introduced by the MALDI Biotyper and its effects, as it has been published in peer reviewed articles found in PubMed. Further, the potential of novel developments to increase the value of the system is described. Expert commentary: The MALDI Biotyper has significantly improved clinical microbiology in the area of microorganism identification. Now new developments and applications, e.g. for typing and resistance testing, might further increase its value in clinical microbiology. The systems might get the central diagnostic analyser which is getting integrated into the widely automated microbiology laboratories of the future.

  20. Interactive tele-education applied to a distant clinical microbiology specialization university course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazzi, Denise B; Rossi, Flávia; Wen, Chao L

    2011-09-01

    The microbiology laboratory provides a strategic support for infectious disease diagnosis and also alerts the medical community about bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The microbiologists' training is a challenge in Brazil, a country with an extensive territory, a diverse population, and disparity of resource allocation. The aim of this study was to implement an interactive tele-educational course in clinical microbiology to reach distant laboratory workers and to improve their professional skills. The course scientific content was defined according to competences associated, distributed in 560 h, with laboratory practices (knowledge matrix-contextual education). The 11-module course structure comprised 70% distance learning, 22% on campus (integrated modules), and 8% monographs. The group included 7 physicians and 21 microbiologists from 20 different Brazilian cities. The time flexibility and location were the two main reasons for student participation, thus decreasing absences to the workplace, different from the traditional teaching methodologies. The group performance was measured by monthly evaluations, and 1 year postcourse, the researcher visited their workplace. There was significant improvement in microbiological practices performed before compared with after group participation. Therefore, 76.9% of laboratory practices were modified because of the knowledge acquired in the course. Students showed behavioral changes in relation to performance in infection control as well as on the dissemination of their knowledge. This specialization course using distance education did not compromise the quality. This educational methodology represents an alternative to teach clinical microbiology to laboratory workers from remote hospitals, as a nationwide continuing educational strategy.

  1. Guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Testing of Ready-to-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (Revision 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2016-01-01

    This document provides guideline microbiological limits for ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. These guideline limits can be used if legal microbiological criteria (Appendix 1) do not exist for a particular combination of food and microorganism. This Guidance Note is intended to be used by: • Food business operators • Enforcement officers, and • Laboratories performing microbiological testing on ready-to-eat foods Food business operators may also use the limits prese...

  2. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  3. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  4. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  5. Molecular diagnostics in medical microbiology: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Clinical microbiology is clearly on the move, and various new diagnostic technologies have been introduced into laboratory practice over the past few decades. However, Henri D Isenberg recently stated that molecular biology techniques promised to revolutionise the diagnosis of infectious disease, but that, to date, this promise is still in its infancy. Molecular diagnostics have now surpassed these early stages and have definitely reached puberty. Currently, a second generation of automated molecular approaches is already within the microbiologists' reach. Quantitative amplification tests in combination with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related methodologies will pave the way to further enhancement of innovative microbial detection and identification.

  6. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  7. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  8. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms.

  9. The periodontal abscess (I). Clinical and microbiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D; Roldán, S; González, I; Sanz, M

    2000-06-01

    Little information is available regarding the diagnosis and microbiology of periodontal abscesses. The aim of this descriptive clinical and microbiological study was to provide more information in order to help in the characterisation of the periodontal abscess associated to periodontitis. 29 consecutive patients with a periodontal abscess were studied by the assessment of clinical variables, including both subjective (pain, edema, redness and swelling) and objective (bleeding on probing, suppuration, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility and cervical lymphadenopathy) parameters. Microbiological samples were taken for anaerobic microbiology and processed by means of culture. Systemic involvement was also studied through the analysis of blood and urine samples using conventional laboratory standards. 62% of the abscesses affected untreated periodontitis patients, and 69% were associated with a molar tooth. More than 75% of the abscesses had moderate-severe scores related to edema, redness and swelling, and 90% of the patients reported pain. Bleeding occurred in all abscesses, while suppuration on sampling was detected in 66%. Mean associated pocket depth was 7.28 mm, and 79% of teeth presented some degree of mobility. Cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in 10% of patients, while elevated leucocyte counts were observed in 31.6%. The absolute number of neutrophils was elevated in 42% of the patients. High prevalences of putative periodontal pathogens were found, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Bacteroides forsythus. The periodontal abscess has clear clinical characteristics and is usually associated with severe periodontal destruction. This condition may cause systemic involvement and the lesion generally has a large bacterial mass with a high prevalence of well-recognised periodontal pathogens.

  10. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  11. Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student's Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    We proposed in the Basic Microbiology Subject for food science and nutrition students, a "hands-on" activity consisting on sampling student's hands for bacterial presence and identification. This is a project to be implemented in multiple laboratory classes throughout the semester, allowing students to learn, and apply general…

  12. Clinical Application Projects (CAPs) for Health Science Students in Introductory Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyard, Rebecca A.

    Clinical Application Projects (CAPs) have been developed that allow dental hygiene and nursing students to apply introductory microbiology principles and skills learned in lecture and laboratory to a problem in an appropriate clinical situation. CAPs therefore substitute for the traditional study of "unknowns". Principles and processes emphasized…

  13. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  15. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350... consists primarily of liquid or solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate...

  16. [A day in Spanish microbiology. Descriptive study of the activity of the clinical microbiology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J; García-Rodríguez, Ja; Barberán, J; Granizo, Jj; Rodicio, Mp; González, J

    2008-12-01

    The laboratory is an essential part of the work in the Clinical Microbiology Department. This study has aimed to measure the activity of these laboratories. A survey was self-administered on the activity occurring during one work day by each hospital in October 2007. Thirty six hospitals reported 14,076 tests. Serology was the most frequently reported test (30.3%) followed by urine culture (27.8 %), blood tests (13.2 %), respiratory tract samples (8%), feces (7.1%), urethral (5.8%), skin (5.3%) and cerebrospinal fluid (2.6%). According to species, 73.2% of the isolates were bacteria (22.9 % were positive), 8.9% were virus (17% positive), fungi 8.1% (25.2% positive), and 5.5% mycobacterias (5.9% were positive) and parasite 4.5% (12.5% positive). Susceptibility test were performed by automatic methods (62.3%) followed by diffusion test (27.1%) and E-test (9.1%). A total of 5.6% of the susceptibility tests showed in vitro resistance to antibiotics. Fungi were identified in 108 isolates. Candida and Aspergillus were the most frequent genus (85.1% and 8.3%, respectively). Origins of the samples were: lower respiratory tract (32.4 %), genital tract (24.1 %), urine (10.2 %), blood (10.2 %) and skin (10.2 %). Twelve identification techniques were used, the most frequent being the morphological test (54.8%) and biochemical test (39.7%). Broken down by departments, 20.4% were sent from the ICU, 16.7% from surgery, 29.6% from medicine and 18.5% from primary care. Although the workload of the laboratories has been measured in this work, aspects such as specimen manipulation, clinical advice and research were not considered.

  17. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  18. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  19. Microbiological challenge testing for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food business operators (FBOs are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  20. Microbiological Challenge Testing for Listeria Monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Food: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Carlo; Scarano, Christian; Ibba, Michela; Pala, Carlo; Spanu, Vincenzo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product's shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes . Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  1. Avaliação do tratamento físico-químico e biológico dos resíduos de corantes produzidos em laboratório de microbiologia = Evaluation of the physical-chemical and biological treatment of residue from dyes produced at a microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Leiko Nozu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes resíduos produzidos pelo homem em diversas áreas representam grave problema ambiental, quando inadequadamente descartados. No presente trabalho, foram realizados experimentos de degradação de resíduos de corantes gerados no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, CampusCuritiba, por meio do cultivo líquido implementado com Pleurotus sajor-caju e processo oxidativo avançado (POA – Sistema UV/H2O2. A verificação da eficiência desses processos foi realizada por meio do acompanhamento da redução de cor e dos compostos aromáticos por análise espectrofotométrica em UV-vis, da redução de matéria orgânica (análise de DQO e de bioensaios de toxicidade com Escherichia coli e com sementes de Lactuca sativa. A partir dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que o processo combinado – cultivo líquido seguido de peroxidação com irradiação ultravioleta, demonstrou ser o tratamento mais eficiente para a redução de cor (90-95% e degradação de aromáticos (16-20%. Os bioensaios revelaram que as amostras do resíduo bruto não inibiram o crescimento da E. coli e mostraram potencial tóxico para a espécie L. sativa, apresentando de 30 a 57% de inibição da germinação das sementes testadas.Palavras-chave: Pleurotus sajor-caju, processo oxidativo avançado, bioensaios de toxicidade.The different types of waste produced by man in several areas represent a serious environmental problem when incorrectly discharged. This work carried out degradation experiments of dye wastegenerated at the laboratory of microbiology of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná State, Campus Curitiba. Assays were performed through liquid culture implemented with Pleurotus sajor-caju and advanced oxidative process (AOP - System UV/H2O2. Efficiency verification of these processes was carried out through monitoringcolor removal and aromatic compounds by spectrophotometric analysis (UV-vis, and also

  2. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Alam, Usman; Dacanay, Samantha J; Lee, Amanda K; Shaffer, Justin F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  3. Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Key words: Microbiological quality, quinine syrups, water for injection, pyrogen test. Received: 12 February ... pharmaceutical industry is indispensable, especially in ... Production of WFI or any other pharmaceutical products .... culture media.

  4. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbins, Joanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  5. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Cross-seasonal analysis of bacteriological profile of water sources as a disease risk ...

  6. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  7. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  10. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  11. Enhancing Scientific Inquiry Literacy of Prospective Biology Teachers through Inquiry Lab Project in Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.

  12. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  13. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  14. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  15. [Quality assessment program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Analysis of results. 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Pérez, José L; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2006-10-01

    Quality assurance of the analytical processes performed at the clinical microbiology laboratory is mandatory and should be carried out by using external and internal quality control activities. External quality assessment programs allow intercomparison within laboratories, detection of errors, and evaluation of the suitability of some reagents or diagnostic kits for the purpose for which they were designed; these activities are also useful for continuous education. The program launched 15 years ago by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology is based on sending typified materials along with a clinical and microbiological case related to these control materials. The spectrum of the samples is broad, including bacteriology (monthly and three-monthly), serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. After receiving the results from the participants, the program organization delivers an individual certificate comparing the results with those of a reference laboratory. Additionally, a report is generated by analyzing all the results sent by the participants; laboratories are also sent review articles on the subject of each assessment as a tool for continuous education in clinical microbiology. In this article, the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2005 assessments are presented.

  16. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  17. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  18. [Dr Guillermo Contreras Da Silva, a relevant figure in the development of Chilean microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the work of Dr. Guillermo Contreras Da Silva and his colaborators on the evolution of microbiology in Chile is briefly analyzed. Dr. Contreras was trained in modern virology at Yale University with Dr. J. Melnick under the sponsorhip of the Rockefeller Foundation. During this training, he used serological methods to classify Cocksakie viruses. After his return to Chile, he studied the epidemiology of enteroviruses, including poliovirus. His laboratory, the country's first in modern virology, took an active role in Chile's first Sabin polio vaccination in 1961. Dr. Contreras and his group transformed the teaching and the character of microbiology in Chile from a descriptive medically oriented discipline into an autonomous, quantitative and experimental science. They modernized microbiology with the introduction of molecular biology and microbial genetics and fostered collaborations with allied biological sciences. Dr. Contreras was a Guggenheim Fellow, and until his retirement, was the Chief of the Viral Products Division, Bureau of Biologies, Ottawa, Canada.

  19. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  1. [Accreditation of medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Ring, Rózsa; Fehér, Miklós; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-27

    In Hungary, the National Accreditation Body was established by government in 1995 as an independent, non-profit organization, and has exclusive rights to accredit, amongst others, medical laboratories. The National Accreditation Body has two Specialist Advisory Committees in the health care sector. One is the Health Care Specialist Advisory Committee that accredits certifying bodies, which deal with certification of hospitals. The other Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is directly involved in accrediting medical laboratory services of health care institutions. The Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is a multidisciplinary peer review group of experts from all disciplines of in vitro diagnostics, i.e. laboratory medicine, microbiology, histopathology and blood banking. At present, the only published International Standard applicable to laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Work has been in progress on the official approval of the new ISO 15189 standard, specific to medical laboratories. Until the official approval of the International Standard ISO 15189, as accreditation standard, the Hungarian National Accreditation Body has decided to progress with accreditation by formulating explanatory notes to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999 document, using ISO/FDIS 15189:2000, the European EC4 criteria and CPA (UK) Ltd accreditation standards as guidelines. This harmonized guideline provides 'explanations' that facilitate the application of ISO/IEC 17025:1999 to medical laboratories, and can be used as a checklist for the verification of compliance during the onsite assessment of the laboratory. The harmonized guideline adapted the process model of ISO 9001:2000 to rearrange the main clauses of ISO/IEC 17025:1999. This rearrangement does not only make the guideline compliant with ISO 9001:2000 but also improves understanding for those working in medical laboratories, and facilitates the training and education of laboratory staff. With the

  2. A Comprehensive Survey of Preclinical Microbiology Curricula Among US Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Dora J; Teherani, Arianne; Schwartz, Brian S

    2016-07-15

    A strong foundational understanding of microbiology is crucial for the 21st century physician. Given recent major advances in medical microbiology, curricular changes will likely be needed. Before transforming curricula, we must first obtain a comprehensive understanding of contemporary medical student microbiology education. We disseminated a 38-question survey to microbiology course directors and curriculum deans at 142 US medical schools accredited by the Liason Committee on Medical Education. Survey questions focused on course leadership, curricular structure, course content, and educator perceptions about microbiology education locally and nationally. One hundred and four (73%) of 142 schools completed the survey. Ninety-four (90%) schools identified a course director. Of these, 48% were led by microbiologists alone, 23% co-led by a microbiologist and a clinician, 20% by a clinician alone, and 8% by a laboratory medicine physician with or without a co-director. At 55 (53%) schools, the curricula were organized in a single block or course and at 47 (45%) it was integrated into other curricula. Areas of emerging importance, such as antimicrobial stewardship, global health, infection control, and the microbiome, were addressed at 66%, 65%, 64%, and 47% of institutions, respectively. Respondents reported the following concerns: challenges integrating microbiology into other courses, reduced total teaching hours, and difficulty balancing basic and clinical science topics. Preclinical microbiology course directors report significant challenges in meeting the needs of changing curriculum structure and content. Enhanced local collaboration between microbiologists and clinicians, as well as national collaboration among relevant societies to design best practices and support research, may be strategies for future success. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e

  3. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  4. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  5. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  6. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  7. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  8. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  9. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  10. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tauch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G + C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories.

  11. Current and past strategies for bacterial culture in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Microbiology of urinary tract infections in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Renuart

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The microbiology and epidemiology of UTI pathogens are largely unknown in Botswana, a high prevalence HIV setting. Using laboratory data from the largest referral hospital and a private hospital, we describe the major pathogens causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. METHODS: This retrospective study examined antimicrobial susceptibility data for urine samples collected at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH, Bokamoso Private Hospital (BPH, or one of their affiliated outpatient clinics. A urine sample was included in our dataset if it demonstrated pure growth of a single organism and accompanying antimicrobial susceptibility and subject demographic data were available. RESULTS: A total of 744 samples were included. Greater than 10% resistance was observed for amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance of E. coli isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was greater than 60% in all settings. HIV status did not significantly impact the microbiology of UTIs, but did impact antimicrobial resistance to co-trimoxazole. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggests that antimicrobial resistance has already emerged to most oral antibiotics, making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin should not be used as empiric treatment for UTI in this context. Nitrofurantoin could be used for simple cystitis; aminoglycosides for uncomplicated UTI in inpatients.

  13. Chloramine demand estimation using surrogate chemical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sina; Liu, Sanly; Chow, Christopher W K; van Leeuwen, John; Cook, David; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose

    2017-07-01

    A model is developed to enable estimation of chloramine demand in full scale drinking water supplies based on chemical and microbiological factors that affect chloramine decay rate via nonlinear regression analysis method. The model is based on organic character (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) of the water samples and a laboratory measure of the microbiological (F m ) decay of chloramine. The applicability of the model for estimation of chloramine residual (and hence chloramine demand) was tested on several waters from different water treatment plants in Australia through statistical test analysis between the experimental and predicted data. Results showed that the model was able to simulate and estimate chloramine demand at various times in real drinking water systems. To elucidate the loss of chloramine over the wide variation of water quality used in this study, the model incorporates both the fast and slow chloramine decay pathways. The significance of estimated fast and slow decay rate constants as the kinetic parameters of the model for three water sources in Australia was discussed. It was found that with the same water source, the kinetic parameters remain the same. This modelling approach has the potential to be used by water treatment operators as a decision support tool in order to manage chloramine disinfection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Manual de microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  15. [Microbiological testing of the artificial gingival margin in dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Péter; Klein, Ildikó; Barna, Zsuzsanna; Kaán, Miklós; Fejérdy, Pál

    2004-06-01

    In everyday practice dental laboratories try to reproduce the natural form of sulcus gingivae at the transitional area between artificial teeth and gingiva of removable dentures, even on esthetically less important areas. Aim of these investigations were to examine how artificial recreation of the sulcus gingivae influences plaque retention, and what is the microbiological relevance of these. Investigations were carried out on the vestibular side of removable dentures of 32 randomly selected patients treated at the Department of Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University. Microbiological samples were taken from each patient using the same method. Samples were taken from the left upper first molars' artificial gingival margin using sterile paper points. Paper points were then transported in Eppendorf-tubes, in 2 ml of physiological saline solution, and processed within a two-hour period of time. Series dilutions were made of the sample solutions, then surface-streaked on Subaraud and Gentamycin, blood-agar, eosin-methylene blue and Mitis Salivarius culture enriched with Bacitracin. Subaraud culture was induced under aerob conditions, at room temperature for two days, then the total amount of fungi quantified. After pure-culturing Candida albicans ID-culture was used for identification, and BioMerieux ATB automatic equipment to identify different Candida species. From pure cultures identification was carried out with Gram-staining, Neisser-staining, catalase, oxidase and also with other biochemical reactions. Blood-agar was used to determine total germ count, and normal commensal pharyngeal and oral bacteria. After collecting the microbiological samples, the conventional shape of the dental margin of gingiva was abolished on one side of the dentures and a smooth transition was created between denture teeth and the artificial gingiva in the molar and premolar region. During our investigations only blastomycetes were found. Besides most common

  16. New methods of microbiological identification using MALDI-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyr Pasternak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is decisive to guarantee adequatetherapy in infections: culture methods are precise and sensitive, butrather slow. New resources are available to enable faster diagnosis,and the most promising is MALDI-TOF technology: mass spectrometryapplied to microbiological diagnosis. Times as fast as 10 to 15 minutes to etiological diagnosis are possible after a positive blood culture result. We hope to have this technology in our laboratory, ANVISA permitting and improving their very slow rate of doing things… MALDI-TOF is basically putting a sample of culture or an enriched suspension of the probable pathogen over a small spot with a matrix and vaporizing it with a laser pulse: the products are aspired into a chamber, ionized and reach detectors at variable times: the detectors show time of arrival and quantity of the product, and each pathogen has its characteristic spectrum analyzed by a software.

  17. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry applications in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-11-01

    MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) has been successfully adapted for the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories in the past 10 years. This revolutionary technique allows for easier and faster diagnosis of human pathogens than conventional phenotypic and molecular identification methods, with unquestionable reliability and cost-effectiveness. This article will review the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in routine clinical diagnosis, including the identification of bacteria at the species, subspecies, strain and lineage levels, and the identification of bacterial toxins and antibiotic-resistance type. We will also discuss the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in the identification of Archaea, eukaryotes and viruses. Pathogenic identification from colony-cultured, blood-cultured, urine and environmental samples is also reviewed.

  18. Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly named plastics, are among the most widespread anthropogenic pollutants of marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. Disruptive effects of plastics are known to threaten wildlife and exert effects on natural food webs, but signs for and knowledge on plastic biodegradation are limited. Microorganisms are the most promising candidates for an eventual bioremediation of environmental plastics. Laboratory studies have reported various effects of microorganisms on many types of polymers, usually by enzymatic hydrolysis or oxidation. However, most common plastics have proved to be highly recalcitrant even under conditions known to favour microbial degradation. Knowledge on environmental degradation is yet scarcer. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on microbiological degradation of several of the most common plastic types. Furthermore, we illustrate the analytical challenges concerning the evaluation of plastic biodegradation as well as constraints likely standing against the evolution of effective biodegradation pathways.

  19. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  20. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  1. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Causative Organisms and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    enviromental composition as a potential method for reversing microbiologically influenced corrosion, Corrosion (NAC’E) International. Houston. Texas...International fellow and associate editor for Biofouling, The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research. J. Lee is a Materials and Corrosion Engineer

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of linolenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... Microbiological analysis revealed that the crude extracted oilseeds were pathogenic bacteria free and the lipolytic bacteria counted belonged to ... excitable membranes such as the brain and nervous ..... plasma cholesterol (Khosala and Sundram, 1996; Hunter.

  3. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  4. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in DNA recombinant technology and genetic engineering have created novel cell forms with improved characteristics which have impacted positively on human lives. However, the applications of cloning to humans have been resented by many governments due to ethical issues involved. Other microbiological ...

  5. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  6. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor working conditions , frequent stock depletion of chemicals , lack of maintenance culture , lack of emergency preparedness and poor communication were also cited. The study has revealed that the microbiological quality of raw water was very poor but that water treatment was efficient in the majority of SWTPs studied ...

  7. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  8. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  10. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  11. microbiological eva fermented african locust bea preservativ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    They are also important prote supplement (Omafuvbe, 2002). Shelf life is th period of time during which the food produc was remain safe , be certain to retain desire microbiology, physical, chemical and senso characteristics and comply the nutritional dat when stored under conditions (temperature o handling) Kolapo et al., ...

  12. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now

  13. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  14. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  15. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  16. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  17. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  18. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  19. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... and microbiological quality of sheep and goat meat and compares the .... of Rio Verde, GO and supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (Serviço de ... blood, skin, guts, internal organs, feet (severed at the level of the.

  20. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  1. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  2. Processing, screening and microbiological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the fresh stem of Laccosperma opacum (Rattan) found in coastal region of Niger Delta forest zones of West Africa was investigated to ascertain its microbiological standard for use as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. The product, coded LO-MCC, was prepared by treating ...

  3. Polar and Alpine Microbiology - Earth's Cryobiosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Margesin, R.; Wagner, D.; Häggblom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku fiw221. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * Polar regions * Polar Microbiology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  4. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  5. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  6. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Food by Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-04-15

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  7. Control of microbiological spoilage of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  8. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  9. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  10. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a disease in need of microbiological concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D H

    1989-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a life-threatening tick-transmitted infection, is the most prevalent rickettsiosis in the United States. This zoonosis is firmly entrenched in the tick host, which maintains the rickettsiae in nature by transovarian transmission. Although the incidence of disease fluctuates in various regions and nationwide, the problems of a deceptively difficult clinical diagnosis and little microbiologic diagnostic effort persist. Many empiric antibiotic regimens lack antirickettsial activity. There is neither an effective vaccine nor a generally available assay that is diagnostic during the early stages of illness, when treatment is most effective. Microbiology laboratories that offer only the archaic retrospective Weil-Felix serologic tests should review the needs of their patients. Research microbiologists who tackle these challenging organisms have an array of questions to address regarding rickettsial surface composition, structure-function analysis, and pathogenic and immune mechanisms, as well as laboratory diagnosis. PMID:2504480

  12. The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...

  13. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  14. Microbiological aspects of safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Safonov, A.V.; Nazina, T.N.; Gorbunova, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    In long-term storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste, microbiological processes play an important, and in some cases a vital role. The article discusses the issues of microbiological processes in underground liquid LLW repositories and microbiological destruction of cemented radwaste. It is shown that biological additives to cement matrices can be used to effectively prevent the occurrence of microbiological processes, increasing reliability of engineering barriers that block release of radionuclides into the areas adjacent to the repositories [ru

  15. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  17. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...

  18. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: A pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Bruins (Marjan); G. Ruijs (G.); M.J.H.M. Wolfhagen; P. Bloembergen (Peter); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available

  19. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  20. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  2. The potential of high resolution melting analysis (hrma) to streamline, facilitate and enrich routine diagnostics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskova, Lenka; Raclavsky, Vladislav

    2011-09-01

    Routine medical microbiology diagnostics relies on conventional cultivation followed by phenotypic techniques for identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This is not only due to tradition and economy but also because it provides pure culture needed for antibiotic susceptibility testing. This review focuses on the potential of High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) of double-stranded DNA for future routine medical microbiology. Search of MEDLINE database for publications showing the advantages of HRMA in routine medical microbiology for identification, strain typing and further characterization of pathogenic bacteria and fungi in particular. The results show increasing numbers of newly-developed and more tailor-made assays in this field. For microbiologists unfamiliar with technical aspects of HRMA, we also provide insight into the technique from the perspective of microbial characterization. We can anticipate that the routine availability of HRMA in medical microbiology laboratories will provide a strong stimulus to this field. This is already envisioned by the growing number of medical microbiology applications published recently. The speed, power, convenience and cost effectiveness of this technology virtually predestine that it will advance genetic characterization of microbes and streamline, facilitate and enrich diagnostics in routine medical microbiology without interfering with the proven advantages of conventional cultivation.

  3. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  4. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  5. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  8. 42 CFR 493.1406 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications on or before February 28, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Medical Microbiology, the American Board of Clinical Chemistry, the American Board of Bioanalysis, or... exists; and (b) The laboratory director must: (1) Be a physician certified in anatomical or clinical... biological science as a major subject and (i) Is certified by the American Board of Medical Microbiology, the...

  9. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  10. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  11. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  12. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  13. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated... and all-important tasks that include everything from pathogenesis to fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. An interesting question to be asked, therefore, is: has there been any realistic estimate of these bacteria on Earth? Now, for the first time, a...

  14. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Novak, Susan M; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated.

  15. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  16. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  17. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  18. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of microbiological and physico-chemical quality of pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gonzaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is defined, among other parameters, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms, low somatic cell count and the absence of pathogens and chemical waste. Several studies conducted in different regions of the country have emphasized the high percentage of samples not complying with the standard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of microbiological and physicochemical quality of pasteurized milk produced in the State of Paraná over 7 years. A total of 457 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed, 104 samples in 2008, 269 samples in 2011 and 84 samples in 2014. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis of cryoscopy and enzyme search for alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase. Regarding microbiological tests, coliform counts were performed at 30°C and 45°C and count plate pattern. In the laboratory, physicochemical analysis were performed according to the Normative 68 and microbiological as normative instruction 62, both of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The results showed that over the years the microbiological quality of milk decreased, with an increase of non-standard samples. For enzymes alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, the pasteurization temperature has been observed over time and the overheating of the milk was more frequent in 2011. Fraud by addition of water in milk has either decreased or become more sophisticated, making its detection difficult.

  20. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  1. Quality assurance in medical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroviczeny, K.G. von; Merten, R.; Merten, U.P.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive and specified survey of the quality assurance measures and methods applied in medical laboratories in the pre-analytical phase and in the analytical and post-analytical phases. It also gives information on computer-aided procedures, cost-benefit analyses in this field, and on official requirements and standards in the fields of clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology and microbiology, and equipment testing and inspection. One chapter of the book particularly deals with quality assurance for radioimmunological in-vitro analyses. With 112 figs., 337 tabs [de

  2. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infective endocarditis is life-threatening; identification of the underlying etiology informs optimized individual patient management. Changing epidemiology, advances in blood culture techniques, and new diagnostics guide the application of laboratory testing for diagnosis of endocarditis. Blood cultures remain the standard test for microbial diagnosis, with directed serological testing (i.e., Q fever serology, Bartonella serology) in culture-negative cases. Histopathology and molecular diagnostics (e.g., 16S rRNA gene PCR/sequencing, Tropheryma whipplei PCR) may be applied to resected valves to aid in diagnosis. Herein, we summarize recent knowledge in this area and propose a microbiologic and pathological algorithm for endocarditis diagnosis. PMID:28659319

  3. Microbiology of the active sludge as a system to improve the effluents quality in the wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Reina, E.; Fernandez, N.

    2009-01-01

    Grupo Bioindicacion Sevilla (GBS) is a Spanish group of professionals interested in microbiology. GBS celebrates an annual activity about transfer of technology on microbiology of the active sludge, which fifth edition was celebrated in 2008 with the participation of different universities (Complutense de Madrid, Politecnica de Valencia y Barcelona, etc.) and public and private water companies (DAM, Aguas de Valencia, Aqualia, Emasesa, Emacsa...), and will celebrate again in Seville the next October. During this conference, the GBS group informs about the inter-laboratories exercises too, which last results are showed in this article. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  5. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  6. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  7. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  8. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  9. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  10. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  11. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  12. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  13. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  14. The need for European professional standards and the challenges facing clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H; Nagy, E; Kahlmeter, G; Ruijs, G J H M

    2010-06-01

    Microorganisms spread across national boundaries and the professional activities of clinical (medical) microbiologists are critical in minimising their impact. Clinical microbiologists participate in many activities, e.g. diagnosis, antibiotic therapy, and there is a need for a set of professional standards for Europe with a common curriculum, to build upon the current strengths of the specialty and to facilitate the free movement of specialists within the European Union. Such standards will also better highlight the important contribution of clinical microbiologists to healthcare. There is a move to larger centralised microbiology laboratories often located off-site from an acute hospital, driven by the concentration of resources, amalgamation of services, outsourcing of diagnostics, automation, an explosion in the range of staff competencies and accreditation. Large off-site centralised microbiology laboratories are often distant to the patient and may not facilitate the early detection of microbial spread. Ultimately, the needs of patients and the public are paramount in deciding on the future direction of clinical microbiology. Potential conflicts between integration on an acute hospital site and centralisation can be resolved by a common set of professional standards and a team-based approach that puts patients first.

  15. Bacterial genome sequencing in clinical microbiology: a pathogen-oriented review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagini, F; Greub, G

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been perceived as a technology with the potential to revolutionise clinical microbiology. Herein, we reviewed the literature on the use of WGS for the most commonly encountered pathogens in clinical microbiology laboratories: Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci, mycobacteria and Chlamydia trachomatis. For each pathogen group, we focused on five different aspects: the genome characteristics, the most common genomic approaches and the clinical uses of WGS for (i) typing and outbreak analysis, (ii) virulence investigation and (iii) in silico antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Of all the clinical usages, the most frequent and straightforward usage was to type bacteria and to trace outbreaks back. A next step toward standardisation was made thanks to the development of several new genome-wide multi-locus sequence typing systems based on WGS data. Although virulence characterisation could help in various particular clinical settings, it was done mainly to describe outbreak strains. An increasing number of studies compared genotypic to phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing, with mostly promising results. However, routine implementation will preferentially be done in the workflow of particular pathogens, such as mycobacteria, rather than as a broadly applicable generic tool. Overall, concrete uses of WGS in routine clinical microbiology or infection control laboratories were done, but the next big challenges will be the standardisation and validation of the procedures and bioinformatics pipelines in order to reach clinical standards.

  16. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiologic endodontic status of young traumatized tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumotte, Karla; Bombana, Antonio C; Cai, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries could expose the dentin and, even the pulp, to the oral environment, making possible their contamination. The presence of microorganisms causes pulpal disease and further a tecidual clutter in the periradicular region. The therapy of periradicular pathosis is the consequence of a correct diagnoses which depends on the knowledge of the nature and complexity of endodontic infections. As there is no information on the microbiology of primary endodontic infection in young teeth, the aim of the current study was to investigate the microbiologic status of root canals from permanent young teeth with primary endodontic infection. Twelve patients with the need for endodontic treatment participated in the study. The selected teeth were uniradicular and had an incomplete root formation. They had untreated necrotic pulp. After the access preparation, nineteen microbiologic samples were obtained from the root canals with sterile paper points. Afterwards, the paper points were pooled in a sterile tube containing 2 ml of prereduced transport fluid. The samples were diluted and spread onto plates with selective medium for Enterococcus spp. and for yeast species and onto plates with non-selective medium. A quantitative analysis was performed. The mean number of cultivable bacterial cells in the root canals was 5.7 × 10(6). In four samples (21.05%) black pigmented species were recovered and the mean number of cells was 6.5 × 10(5). One specimen (5.25%) showed the growth of Enterococcus species and the mean number of cells in this case was of 1.5 × 10(4) . The results showed a root canal microbiota with similar design as seen in completely formed teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Lung abscess: update on microbiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Moussa F; Dahdel, Maher; Kalra, Ankur; Browne, Alexander S; Pratter, Melvin R

    2014-01-01

    A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus in the lung as a result of a microbial infection, which leads to cavity formation and often a radiographic finding of an air fluid level. Patients with lung abscesses commonly present to their primary care physician or to the emergency department with "nonresolving pneumonia." Although, the incidence of lung abscess has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment, it still carries a mortality of up to 10%-20%. This article discusses in detail the up-to-date microbiology and the management of lung abscesses.

  19. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  20. Arrowsmith (1931 or Research in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This film is an adaptation of the novel by Sinclair Lewis, directed by John Ford. Despite the number of years passed since its debut (December 7, 1931, the movie continues to awaken interest. It shows an approximation of what was once the practice of medicine, microbiology and research in the first third of the 20th Century in the United States of America. In addition, it presents many aspects of what is research and who are the researchers; in respect to this, the film has clear educational values.

  1. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  2. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release.......05). Combination of L-J and ACS was superior to using these tests alone (p

  3. Diagnostic molecular microbiology: a 2013 snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Marilynn Ransom; Salimnia, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Molecular testing has a large and increasing role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It has evolved significantly since the first probe tests were FDA approved in the early 1990s. This article highlights the uses of molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology, including "older," as well as innovative, probe techniques, qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, highly multiplexed PCR panels, some of which use sealed microfluidic test cartridges, MALDI TOF, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Tests are grouped together by technique and target. Tests with similar roles for similar analytes are compared with respect to benefits, drawbacks, and possible problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  5. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  6. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of peri-implantitis cases: a retrospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, G; Leonhardt, Å; Rabe, P; Dahlén, G

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to follow patient cases retrospectively in a longitudinal manner from the time of implant placement to the time they were diagnosed with peri-implant disease, and to identify associated clinical and microbiological features of peri-implant disease. A total of 281 patient cases were chosen from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden, based on bacterial samples taken from diseased implants. A form was designed and filled in separately for each case including data on patient, implant and disease profile. Most cases were severe peri-implantitis cases (91.4%). In 41.3% of the patients, peri-implantitis was developed early, already after having implants in function less than 4 years. The type of implant surface was significantly associated with the time in years implants were in function, before disease was developed (P < 0.05). The microbiological results by both culture and checkerboard analysis, although failed to fully correspond to the severity of the disease in terms of magnitude, proved to show that peri-implantitis is a polymicrobial anaerobic infection with increased number of AGNB (aerobic Gram-negative bacilli) in 18.6% of the patients. Peri-implantitis is a biological complication of implants in function that poses a threat to their long-term survival. It may develop earlier around implants with rough surfaces and it may represent a true infection. Microbiological sampling methods should be improved and uniformed so as to fully unveil the microbiological profile of the disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Microbiological analysis of a mummy from the archeological museum in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Mislav; Glasnović, Anton; Janković, Ivor; Sikanjić, Petra Rajić; Perić, Berislav; Brkljacić, Boris; Mlinarić-Missoni, Emilija; Skrlin, Jasenka

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we report the results of the microbiological analysis of the samples taken from the mummy from the collection of the Archaeological museum in Zagreb, Croatia. Samples were taken from specific places such as oral, orbital, abdominal cavity and bandages surrounding the mummy, and analyzed in Department of Microbiology and Hospital Infections in University Hospital "Dubrava" in Zagreb and in National Reference Laboratory for systemic mycoses of Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb. The analysis indicated that all of the found organisms were non-primary pathogenic and are not harmful for healthy humans. Isolated microorganisms mainly belonged to the group of saprophytic fungi as listed: Monilia spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Rhizopus spp. and Chrysosporium spp. and to the genus of saprophytic bacteria, Bacillus spp.

  8. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  11. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary); Zukal, E [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  12. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  13. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Damiana D; Dias, Manoela M S; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Reis, Sandra A; Conceição, Lisiane L; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

  14. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  15. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  16. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  17. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  18. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  19. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  20. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  1. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  2. Características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de la onicomicosis en un laboratorio de referencia, Manizales (Caldas, 2009 Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of onychomycosis in a reference laboratory in Manizales (Caldas, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de la onicomicosis en pacientes mayores de 16 años de Manizales. Método. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de 232 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de onicomicosis, remitidos de los diferentes centros de atención de Manizales en el año 2009. Se recolectaron las muestras y se hizo examen directo en KOH al 20 % y en dimetil-sulfóxido al 36 %, cultivo en agar Sabouraud y agar Sabouraud con antibióticos, en todos los casos. Se identificaron los 146 aislamientos obtenidos con métodos específicos para dermatofitos, levaduras y mohos. Resultados. La presentación más frecuente fue la forma distal de la enfermedad, la cual se asoció con mayor frecuencia a calzado oclusivo y predominio del sexo femenino; el número de casos de lesiones ungulares indicativas de onicomicosis fue menor en mayores de 70 años de edad; los agentes más frecuentemente aislados fueron Trichophyton rubrum (26,7 %, Fusarium spp. (14,4 %, T. mentagrophytes (11 %, Candida tropicalis (11 %, Candida krusei (6 % y Geotrichum candidum (6 %. Conclusiones. La onicomicosis es más frecuente en las mujeres de Manizales. Hay una alta frecuencia de aislamientos de hongos no dermatofitos. Trichophyton rubrum fue el hongo dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado. La frecuencia de personas con examen directo o cultivo positivo es mayor de 70 % en todos los grupos de edad, y la edad no se encontró como un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad.Introduction: Onychomycosis is the leading cause of nail disease and represents 30% of superficial fungal infections. The fungi that cause the condition vary according to geographic location and individual risk factors. Even with the identification of the causative agent, the treatment failure rate is high. Objective: To establish the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological causes of onychomycosis in patients over 16 years old in the

  3. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  4. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  5. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  6. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  7. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  8. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. [THE CONDITION AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL AND SANITARY MICROBIOLOGY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Shepelin, A P; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-08-01

    The import substitution becomes one of the strategic tasks of national economy as a result of prolongation of economic sanctions concerning the Russian Federation of part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other countries. It is not proper to be limited in import substitution only by goods because in conditions ofsanctions when access toforeign technologies is complicated Russia is needed to substitute foreign technologies by national designs in faster manner One of directions of effective import substitution is localization of production of laboratory equipment and consumables for clinical and sanitary microbiology on the territory ofthe Russian Federation and countries of Customs union. In Russia, in the field ofdiagnostic of dangerous and socially significant infections, all components for import substitution to implement gene diagnostic, immune diagnostic. bio-sensory and biochip approaches, isolation and storage of live microbial cultures, implementation of high-tech methods of diagnostic are available. At the same time, national diagnostic instrument-making industry for microbiology is factually absent. The few devices of national production more than on 50% consist of import components. The microbiological laboratories are to be equipped only with import devices of open type for applying national components. The most perspective national designs to be implemented are multiplex polimerase chain reaction test-systems and biochips on the basis of national plotters and readers. The modern development of diagnostic equipment and diagnostic instruments requires supplement of national collections of bacterial and viral pathogens and working-through of organizational schemes of supplying collections with strains. The presented data concerning justification of nomenclature of laboratory equipment and consumables permits to satisfy in fill scope the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in devices, growth mediums, consumables of national production

  10. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  11. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofi, N.

    1991-03-01

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  12. An expert system for microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, C.E.; Licina, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a damage mechanism that can cause serious degradation of service water system components. MIC can be particularly insidious since damage can occur very quickly, even in environments otherwise resistant to corrosion. Plant operations or maintenance personnel or system engineers typically do not have sufficient expertise to predict when and where MIC may occur or what methods of treatment are effective. An expert system (MICPro) has been devised which provides a tool for utilities to predict where MIC will occur, which systems or components are most susceptible, how operating parameters may affect vulnerability, and how to implement corrective and preventative measures. The system is designed to be simple to use: required inputs are common system parameters and results are presented as numbers from 1 to 10 indicating the likelihood of damage due to the given input. In this paper the structure and operation of the system is described, and future refinements are discussed

  13. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  14. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical and force nanoscopy in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-10-26

    Microbial cells have developed sophisticated multicomponent structures and machineries to govern basic cellular processes, such as chromosome segregation, gene expression, cell division, mechanosensing, cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Because of the small cell sizes, subcellular structures have long been difficult to visualize using diffraction-limited light microscopy. During the last three decades, optical and force nanoscopy techniques have been developed to probe intracellular and extracellular structures with unprecedented resolutions, enabling researchers to study their organization, dynamics and interactions in individual cells, at the single-molecule level, from the inside out, and all the way up to cell-cell interactions in microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss the principles, advantages and limitations of the main optical and force nanoscopy techniques available in microbiology, and we highlight some outstanding questions that these new tools may help to answer.

  16. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  17. Microbiological and chemical transformations of argentatin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatooq, Galal T

    2003-01-01

    Argentatin B is a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa. It was microbiologically transformed to 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3alpha, 25-diol, (isoargentatin D), by Nocardia corallina var. taoka ATCC 31338, Mycobacterium species NRRL B3683 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737. The later microbe also produced 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3beta, 25-diol (argentatin D) and 1, 2-didehydroargentatin B, (isoargentatin D). Sodium hydroxide converted argentatin B to argentatin D and isoargentatin D. Hydrochloric acid treatment gave cycloartan-25-ol-3, 24-dione. Cerium sulfate/sulfuric acid/aqueous methanol induced scission of the isopropanol moiety and provided an isomeric mixture of 24-methoxy-25-27-trinorargentatin B. Oxidation of this isomeric mixture with pyridinium chlorochromate, selectively, attacked the isomer with the equatorial proton at position-24 to give the corresponding lactone, 24-oxo-25-27-trinorargentatin B. The produced compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods.

  18. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  19. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  20. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  1. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  2. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  4. Microbiological changes associated with dental prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Palys, Michael D; Carpino, Elizabeth; Regan, Elizabeth O; Sweeney, Michael; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-11-01

    Despite the common application of dental prophylaxis as part of patient therapy, there is little reported that describes the microbiological impact of this treatment. The authors gave 20 healthy college-aged subjects three dental prophylaxes with a fluoride-containing prophylaxis paste during a two-week period and instructed them in oral hygiene. They evaluated the microbiological composition of dental plaque samples collected before and after treatment using DNA probe analysis. They analyzed 40 representative bacterial species in seven bacterial complexes by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay techniques. After three dental prophylaxes, the patients' mean Gingival Index score decreased from 0.82 to 0.77, the mean Plaque Index score decreased from 0.72 to zero, and the total number of bacteria per tooth decreased to approximately one-third of the original number. The authors computed two different measures of bacterial presence. The reduction in bacterial numbers was statistically significant and occurred in many species. Bacterial proportion (DNA percentage or percentage of the bacteria per tooth) did not change significantly. Greater reductions in bacterial count occurred in species that showed high numbers before treatment. The total bacterial count decreased by approximately 72 percent of its original level before prophylaxis was initiated. Professional dental prophylaxis did not target any particular bacteria or bacterial groups but removed bacteria nonspecifically and in proportion to their initial numbers. Repeated dental prophylaxes effect a reduction in bacterial amount that is commensurate with the initial amount, but they do does not alter composition. This suggests that mild gingivitis may be a bacterially nonspecific effect of plaque accumulation and emphasizes the need for regular plaque removal to maintain optimal gingival health.

  5. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  8. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  9. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  10. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  11. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  12. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews

  13. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Journal Home > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  15. [Implementation of vanA and vanB genes by PCR technique research interest in system (Xpert vanA/vanB CepheidR) closed in a laboratory of microbiology in managing an outbreak to Enterococcus faecium resistant glycopeptide (EfRG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, S; Beclin, E; Descamps, D

    2011-04-01

    The closed system PCR for the rapid detection of vanA and vanB genes (Xpert vanA/vanB Cepheid(®)) was evaluated in our laboratory, to improve the rapidity of the response and thus the management of patients and isolation measures during two GRE outbreaks. From March to December2009, 565 samples were analysed by PCR associated to bacterial culture initially for all samples for 2months (n = 75), and thereafter for PCR-positive samples only. In this study, sensitivity and negative predictive values of the PCR were 100%. Specificity was evaluated in the presence and absence of outbreak: 69.3 and 76.8% respectively. The variability of false positive rates between units were lower in nonepidemic than during epidemic phase. The global false positive rate was 23.9%. This easy-to-use technology provides rapid results… four samples are tested in 1h versus 72h for culture. Despite its reagent cost, it represents an important hospital diagnostic tool: improvement of the management of cohorting areas and patient transfer between units, adaptation of isolation measures and treatments. However, culture remains necessary to confirm any positive result obtained by PCR and for epidemiological surveillance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  17. Changes in the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) during different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini, Maike Taís Maziero; Montanhini Neto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature and period of postharvest storage on the microbiological quality and shelf life of raw mangrove oysters, Crassostrea brasiliana. A total of 150 dozen oysters were collected directly from the points of extraction or cultivation in southern Brazil, and in the laboratory, they were stored raw at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 1, 4, 8, 11, and 15 days. On each of these days, the oysters were subjected to microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophilic count, total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. None of the tested samples under any storage condition showed contamination levels above those allowed by Brazilian legislation for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and there was no change (P > 0.05) in the counts of these microorganisms due to the temperature and/or period of oyster storage. Counts of enterococci and total coliforms showed a tendency to increase (P mangrove oysters remain in safe microbiological conditions for consumption up to 8 days after harvesting, regardless of temperature, and their shelf life may be extended to 15 days if they are stored at temperatures not exceeding 15°C.

  18. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VD max 25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given. - Highlights: ► The paper presents aspects and results within the sterilization validation process. ► Critical aspects that can lead to the failure of the process were emphasized. ► Limitation methods were discussed.

  19. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  20. A Decade of Development of Chromogenic Culture Media for Clinical Microbiology in an Era of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John D

    2017-04-01

    In the last 25 years, chromogenic culture media have found widespread application in diagnostic clinical microbiology. In the last decade, the range of media available to clinical laboratories has expanded greatly, allowing specific detection of additional pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group B streptococci, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. New media have also been developed to screen for pathogens with acquired antimicrobial resistance, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. This review seeks to explore the utility of chromogenic media in clinical microbiology, with particular attention given to media that have been commercialized in the last decade. The impact of laboratory automation and complementary technologies such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is also assessed. Finally, the review also seeks to demarcate the role of chromogenic media in an era of molecular diagnostics. © Crown copyright 2017.