WorldWideScience

Sample records for sophisticated lc resources

  1. Development Strategies for Tourism Destinations: Tourism Sophistication vs. Resource Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...

  2. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-01-23

    5G is the upcoming evolution for the current cellular networks that aims at satisfying the future demand for data services. Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRANs) are envisioned as a new trend of 5G that exploits the advantages of heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks to enhance spectral and energy efficiency. Remote radio heads (RRHs) are small cells utilized to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service (QoS) requirements, while high power macro base station (BS) is deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users service. Inter-tier interference between macro BSs and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRANs. Therefore, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme using online learning, which mitigates interference and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. The resource allocation includes resource blocks (RBs) and power. The proposed scheme is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster the performance of such sophisticated scheme with a model free learning, we consider users\\' priority in RB allocation and compact state representation learning methodology to improve the speed of convergence and account for the curse of dimensionality during the learning process. The proposed scheme including both approaches is implemented using software defined radios testbed. The obtained results and simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution in H-CRANs increases the energy efficiency significantly and maintains users\\' QoS.

  3. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster

  4. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  5. G2LC: Resources Autoscaling for Real Time Bioinformatics Applications in IaaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has started to change the way how bioinformatics research is being carried out. Researchers who have taken advantage of this technology can process larger amounts of data and speed up scientific discovery. The variability in data volume results in variable computing requirements. Therefore, bioinformatics researchers are pursuing more reliable and efficient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes an automated resource provisioning method, G2LC, for bioinformatics applications in IaaS. It enables application to output the results in a real time manner. Its main purpose is to guarantee applications performance, while improving resource utilization. Real sequence searching data of BLAST is used to evaluate the effectiveness of G2LC. Experimental results show that G2LC guarantees the application performance, while resource is saved up to 20.14%.

  6. Using OSG Computing Resources with (iLC)Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Petric, Marko

    2017-01-01

    CPU cycles for small experiments and projects can be scarce, thus making use of all available resources, whether dedicated or opportunistic, is mandatory. While enabling uniform access to the LCG computing elements (ARC, CREAM), the DIRAC grid interware was not able to use OSG computing elements (GlobusCE, HTCondor-CE) without dedicated support at the grid site through so called 'SiteDirectors', which directly submit to the local batch system. This in turn requires additional dedicated effort for small experiments on the grid site. Adding interfaces to the OSG CEs through the respective grid middleware is therefore allowing accessing them within the DIRAC software without additional sitespecific infrastructure. This enables greater use of opportunistic resources for experiments and projects without dedicated clusters or an established computing infrastructure with the DIRAC software. To allow sending jobs to HTCondor-CE and legacy Globus computing elements inside DIRAC the required wrapper classes were develo...

  7. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  8. In Praise of the Sophists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walker

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the thinking of the Greek Sophist philosophers, particularly Gorgias and Protagoras, and their importance and relevance for contemporary English instructors. Considers the problem of language as signs of reality in the context of Sophist philosophy. (HB)

  9. Cumulative Dominance and Probabilistic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Machina & Schmeidler (Econometrica, 60, 1992) gave preference conditions for probabilistic sophistication, i.e. decision making where uncertainty can be expressed in terms of (subjective) probabilities without commitment to expected utility maximization. This note shows that simpler and more general

  10. A Cultural Resources Evaluation of the Pammel Creek Site (47Lc61): An Oneota Occupation at La Crosse, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Physiography ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Soils ..................... ...... . 7 Vegetation and Fauna ............ .... .. . 7 Climate...47Lc6l ...... ... 64 7. Distribution of Mammal and Bird Elements at 47Lc6l . . . . .. 73 8. Distribution of Eggshell Fragments in Feature 2(47Lc6l... soils of the present floodplain typically are fine silts and sands, deposited over Pleistocene outwash within the Holocene Epoch. Soils 0 As noted

  11. Sophisticating a naive Liapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The art of the direct method of Liapunov to determine system stability is to construct a suitable Liapunov or V function where V is to be positive definite (PD), to shrink to a center, which may be conveniently chosen as the origin, and where V is the negative definite (ND). One aid to the art is to solve an approximation to the system equations in order to provide a candidate V function. It can happen, however, that the V function is not strictly ND but vanishes at a finite number of isolated points. Naively, one anticipates that stability has been demonstrated since the trajectory of the system at such points is only momentarily tangential and immediately enters a region of inward directed trajectories. To demonstrate stability rigorously requires the construction of a sophisticated Liapunov function from what can be called the naive original choice. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the method of perturbing the naive function in the context of the well-known second-order oscillator and then apply the method to a more complicated problem based on a prompt jump model for a nuclear fission reactor

  12. Pension fund sophistication and investment policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364537906; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    This paper assesses the sophistication of pension funds’ investment policies using data on 748 Dutch pension funds during the 1999–2006 period. We develop three indicators of sophistication: gross rounding of investment choices, investments in alternative sophisticated asset classes and ‘home bias’.

  13. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012, three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011, and four Vocabprofile indices (Cobb, 2000 were selected to measure different dimensions of LC. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA indicated an improvement with regard to only lexical sophistication. Positive and significant relationships were found between time and mean values in Academic Word List and Beyond-2000 as indicators of lexical sophistication. The remaining seven indices of LC, falling short of significance, tended to flatten over the course of this writing program. Correlation analyses among LC indices indicated that lexical density enjoyed positive correlations with lexical sophistication. However, lexical diversity revealed no significant correlations with both lexical density and lexical sophistication. This study suggests that DST perspective specifies a viable foundation for analyzing lexical complexity

  14. The value of multivariate model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ in their spec....... In addition to investigating the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses directly, we also use the model confidence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performances.......We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ...

  15. Does underground storage still require sophisticated studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1997-01-01

    Most countries agree to the necessity of burying high or medium-level wastes in geological layers situated at a few hundred meters below the ground level. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of rock such as salt, clay, granite and volcanic material are examined. Sophisticated studies are lead to determine the best geological confinement but questions arise about the time for which safety must be ensured. France has chosen 3 possible sites. These sites are geologically described in the article. The final place will be proposed after a testing phase of about 5 years in an underground facility. (A.C.)

  16. Does Investors' Sophistication Affect Persistence and Pricing of Discretionary Accruals?

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfeng Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether the sophistication of market investors influences management's strategy on discretionary accounting choice, and thus changes the persistence of discretionary accruals. The results show that the persistence of discretionary accruals for firms face with naive investors is lower than that for firms face with sophisticated investors. The results also demonstrate that sophisticated investors indeed incorporate the implications of current earnings components into future ...

  17. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  18. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  19. The role of sophisticated accounting system in strategy management

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Gil, David

    2004-01-01

    Organizations are designing more sophisticated accounting information systems to meet the strategic goals and enhance their performance. This study examines the effect of accounting information system design on the performance of organizations pursuing different strategic priorities. The alignment between sophisticated accounting information systems and organizational strategy is analyzed. The enabling effect of the accounting information system on performance is also examined. Relationships ...

  20. Probabilistic Sophistication, Second Order Stochastic Dominance, and Uncertainty Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cerreia-Vioglio; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinacci; Luigi Montrucchio

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of probabilistic sophistication, second order stochastic dominance, and uncertainty aversion, three fundamental notions in choice under uncertainty. In particular, our main result, Theorem 2, characterizes uncertainty averse preferences that satisfy second order stochastic dominance, as well as uncertainty averse preferences that are probabilistically sophisticated.

  1. The First Sophists and the Uses of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Susan C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of intellectual views on the Greek sophists in three phases: (1) their disparagement by Plato and Aristotle as the morally disgraceful "other"; (2) nineteenth century British positivists' reappraisal of these relativists as ethically and scientifically superior; and (3) twentieth century versions of the sophists as…

  2. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of modern rhetorical theories but analyses the letter in terms of the clas- ..... If a critical reader would have had the traditional anti-sophistic arsenal ..... pressions and that 'rhetoric' is mainly a matter of communicating these thoughts.

  3. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  4. Obfuscation, Learning, and the Evolution of Investor Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Ian Carlin; Gustavo Manso

    2011-01-01

    Investor sophistication has lagged behind the growing complexity of retail financial markets. To explore this, we develop a dynamic model to study the interaction between obfuscation and investor sophistication in mutual fund markets. Taking into account different learning mechanisms within the investor population, we characterize the optimal timing of obfuscation for financial institutions who offer retail products. We show that educational initiatives that are directed to facilitate learnin...

  5. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Curto, Vilsa

    2017-01-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications. PMID:28553191

  6. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive health sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Collins, William B; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, Lashara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a conceptualization and measure of cognitive health sophistication--the complexity of an individual's conceptual knowledge about health. Study 1 provides initial validity evidence for the measure--the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument--by showing its association with other cognitive health constructs indicative of higher health sophistication. Study 2 presents data from a sample of low-income adults to provide evidence that the measure does not depend heavily on health-related vocabulary or ethnicity. Results from both studies suggest that the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument can be used to capture variability in the sophistication or complexity of an individual's health-related schematic structures on the basis of responses to two simple open-ended questions. Methodological advantages of the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the discussion.

  7. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S; Curto, Vilsa

    2014-10-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications.

  8. Finding the Fabulous Few: Why Your Program Needs Sophisticated Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfizenmaier, Emily

    1981-01-01

    Fund raising, it is argued, needs sophisticated prospect research. Professional prospect researchers play an important role in helping to identify prospective donors and also in helping to stimulate interest in gift giving. A sample of an individual work-up on a donor and a bibliography are provided. (MLW)

  9. Procles the Carthaginian: A North African Sophist in Pausanias’ Periegesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Sánchez Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Procles, cited by Pausanias (in the imperfect tense about a display in Rome and for an opinion about Pyrrhus of Epirus, probably was not a historian of Hellenistic date, but a contemporary sophist whom Pausanias encountered in person in Rome.

  10. SMEs and new ventures need business model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    , and Spreadshirt, this article develops a framework that introduces five business model sophistication strategies: (1) uncover additional functions of your product, (2) identify strategic benefits for third parties, (3) take advantage of economies of scope, (4) utilize cross-selling opportunities, and (5) involve...

  11. The New Toxicology of Sophisticated Materials: Nanotoxicology and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Warheit, David B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the physical form of materials can mediate their toxicity—the health impacts of asbestiform materials, industrial aerosols, and ambient particulate matter are prime examples. Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the nanoscale and biological interactions. With the rapid rise of the field of nanotechnology and the design and production of increasingly complex nanoscale materials, it has become ever more important to understand how the physical form and chemical composition of these materials interact synergistically to determine toxicity. As a result, a new field of research has emerged—nanotoxicology. Research within this field is highlighting the importance of material physicochemical properties in how dose is understood, how materials are characterized in a manner that enables quantitative data interpretation and comparison, and how materials move within, interact with, and are transformed by biological systems. Yet many of the substances that are the focus of current nanotoxicology studies are relatively simple materials that are at the vanguard of a new era of complex materials. Over the next 50 years, there will be a need to understand the toxicology of increasingly sophisticated materials that exhibit novel, dynamic and multifaceted functionality. If the toxicology community is to meet the challenge of ensuring the safe use of this new generation of substances, it will need to move beyond “nano” toxicology and toward a new toxicology of sophisticated materials. Here, we present a brief overview of the current state of the science on the toxicology of nanoscale materials and focus on three emerging toxicology-based challenges presented by sophisticated materials that will become increasingly important over the next 50 years: identifying relevant materials for study, physicochemical characterization, and

  12. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  13. Few remarks on chiral theories with sophisticated topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golo, V.L.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two classes of the two-dimensional Euclidean chiral field theoreties are singled out: 1) the field phi(x) takes the values in the compact Hermitiam symmetric space 2) the field phi(x) takes the values in an orbit of the adjoint representation of the comcompact Lie group. The theories have sophisticated topological and rich analytical structures. They are considered with the help of topological invariants (topological charges). Explicit formulae for the topological charges are indicated, and the lower bound extimate for the action is given

  14. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  15. Can LC and LC-MS ever replace immunoassays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Cross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays have been the technology of choice for the analysis of biomolecules for many decades across a wide range of applications in research, diagnostics and infectious disease monitoring. There are good reasons for the wide adoption of immunoassays but even such a well established and characterised technique has limitations and as such investigators are looking at alternative technologies. One such alternative is liquid chromatography (LC and, more specifically, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS. This article will review both immunoassay and LC and LC-MS technologies and methodologies and discuss the advantages and limitations of both approaches. In addition, the next developments that will need to occur before there is widespread adoption of LC and LC-MS technology preferentially over immunoassays will be examined.

  16. The sophisticated control of the tram bogie on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan DOLECEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of routing control algorithms of new conception of tram vehicle bogie. The main goal of these research activities is wear reduction of rail wheels and tracks, wear reduction of traction energy losses and increasing of running comfort. The testing experimental tram vehicle with special bogie construction powered by traction battery is utilized for these purposes. This vehicle has a rotary bogie with independent rotating wheels driven by permanent magnets synchronous motors and a solid axle. The wheel forces in bogie are measured by large amounts of the various sensors placed on the testing experimental tram vehicle. Nowadays the designed control algorithms are implemented to the vehicle superset control system. The traction requirements and track characteristics have an effect to these control algorithms. This control including sophisticated routing brings other improvements which is verified and corrected according to individual traction and driving characteristics, and opens new possibilities.

  17. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  18. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  19. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P de Sá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids, we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  20. Library of sophisticated functions for analysis of nuclear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morháč, Miroslav; Matoušek, Vladislav

    2009-10-01

    In the paper we present compact library for analysis of nuclear spectra. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. The functions can process one- and two-dimensional spectra. The software described in the paper comprises a number of conventional as well as newly developed methods needed to analyze experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: SpecAnalysLib 1.1 Catalogue identifier: AEDZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 154 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 379 437 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Pentium 3 PC 2.4 GHz or higher, Borland C++ Builder v. 6. A precompiled Windows version is included in the distribution package Operating system: Windows 32 bit versions RAM: 10 MB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 17.6 Nature of problem: The demand for advanced highly effective experimental data analysis functions is enormous. The library package represents one approach to give the physicists the possibility to use the advanced routines simply by calling them from their own programs. SpecAnalysLib is a collection of functions for analysis of one- and two-parameter γ-ray spectra, but they can be used for other types of data as well. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. Solution method: The algorithms of background estimation are based on Sensitive Non-linear Iterative Peak (SNIP) clipping algorithm. The smoothing algorithms are based on the convolution of the original data with several types of filters and algorithms based on discrete

  1. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  2. Sophisticated Search Capabilities in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The ADS provides access to over 940,000 references from astronomy and planetary sciences publications and 1.5 million records from physics publications. It is funded by NASA and provides free access to these references, as well as to 2.4 million scanned pages from the astronomical literature. These include most of the major astronomy and several planetary sciences journals, as well as many historical observatory publications. The references now include the abstracts from all volumes of the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) since the beginning of 2002. We get these abstracts on a regular basis. The Kluwer journal Solar Physics has been scanned back to volume 1 and is available through the ADS. We have extracted the reference lists from this and many other journals and included them in the reference and citation database of the ADS. We have recently scanning Earth, Moon and Planets, another Kluwer journal, and will scan other Kluwer journals in the future as well. We plan on extracting references from these journals as well in the near future. The ADS has many sophisticated query features. These allow the user to formulate complex queries. Using results lists to get further information about the selected articles provide the means to quickly find important and relevant articles from the database. Three advanced feedback queries are available from the bottom of the ADS results list (in addition to regular feedback queries already available from the abstract page and from the bottom of the results list): 1. Get reference list for selected articles: This query returns all known references for the selected articles (or for all articles in the first list). The resulting list will be ranked according to how often each article is referred to and will show the most referenced articles in the field of study that created the first list. It presumably shows the most important articles in that field. 2. Get citation list for selected articles: This returns all known articles

  3. Lexical Sophistication as a Multidimensional Phenomenon: Relations to Second Language Lexical Proficiency, Development, and Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2018-01-01

    This study conceptualizes lexical sophistication as a multidimensional phenomenon by reducing numerous lexical features of lexical sophistication into 12 aggregated components (i.e., dimensions) via a principal component analysis approach. These components were then used to predict second language (L2) writing proficiency levels, holistic lexical…

  4. The predictors of economic sophistication: media, interpersonal communication and negative economic experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeropoulos, A.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.; van Dalen, A.

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to political sophistication, it is imperative that citizens have a certain level of economic sophistication, especially in times of heated debates about the economy. This study examines the impact of different influences (media, interpersonal communication and personal experiences) on

  5. Isocratean Discourse Theory and Neo-Sophistic Pedagogy: Implications for the Composition Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristine L.

    With the recent interest in the fifth century B.C. theories of Protagoras and Gorgias come assumptions about the philosophical affinity of the Greek educator Isocrates to this pair of older sophists. Isocratean education in discourse, with its emphasis on collaborative political discourse, falls within recent definitions of a sophist curriculum.…

  6. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  7. Multi-disciplinary communication networks for skin risk assessment in nursing homes with high IT sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Steege, Linsey M; Strecker, E Bradley; Carley, Kathleen M

    2014-08-01

    The role of nursing home (NH) information technology (IT) in quality improvement has not been clearly established, and its impacts on communication between care givers and patient outcomes in these settings deserve further attention. In this research, we describe a mixed method approach to explore communication strategies used by healthcare providers for resident skin risk in NH with high IT sophistication (ITS). Sample included NH participating in the statewide survey of ITS. We incorporated rigorous observation of 8- and 12-h shifts, and focus groups to identify how NH IT and a range of synchronous and asynchronous tools are used. Social network analysis tools and qualitative analysis were used to analyze data and identify relationships between ITS dimensions and communication interactions between care providers. Two of the nine ITS dimensions (resident care-technological and administrative activities-technological) and total ITS were significantly negatively correlated with number of unique interactions. As more processes in resident care and administrative activities are supported by technology, the lower the number of observed unique interactions. Additionally, four thematic areas emerged from staff focus groups that demonstrate how important IT is to resident care in these facilities including providing resident-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, maintaining safety and quality, and using standardized information resources. Our findings in this study confirm prior research that as technology support (resident care and administrative activities) and overall ITS increases, observed interactions between staff members decrease. Conversations during staff interviews focused on how technology facilitated resident centered care through enhanced information sharing, greater virtual collaboration between team members, and improved care delivery. These results provide evidence for improving the design and implementation of IT in long term care systems to support

  8. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  9. Moral foundations and political attitudes: The moderating role of political sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Political attitudes can be associated with moral concerns. This research investigated whether people's level of political sophistication moderates this association. Based on the Moral Foundations Theory, this article examined whether political sophistication moderates the extent to which reliance on moral foundations, as categories of moral concerns, predicts judgements about policy positions. With this aim, two studies examined four policy positions shown by previous research to be best predicted by the endorsement of Sanctity, that is, the category of moral concerns focused on the preservation of physical and spiritual purity. The results showed that reliance on Sanctity predicted political sophisticates' judgements, as opposed to those of unsophisticates, on policy positions dealing with equal rights for same-sex and unmarried couples and with euthanasia. Political sophistication also interacted with Fairness endorsement, which includes moral concerns for equal treatment of everybody and reciprocity, in predicting judgements about equal rights for unmarried couples, and interacted with reliance on Authority, which includes moral concerns for obedience and respect for traditional authorities, in predicting opposition to stem cell research. Those findings suggest that, at least for these particular issues, endorsement of moral foundations can be associated with political attitudes more strongly among sophisticates than unsophisticates. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  11. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  12. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as

  13. The Value of Multivariate Model Sophistication: An Application to pricing Dow Jones Industrial Average options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    innovation for a Laplace innovation assumption improves the pricing in a smaller way. Apart from investigating directly the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses, we also use the model condence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performance.......We assess the predictive accuracy of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set 248 multivariate models that differer...

  14. Cognitive ability rivals the effect of political sophistication on ideological voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...... are consistent with the effect of cognitive ability being partly mediated by political sophistication. Much of the effect of cognitive ability remains however and is not explained by differences in education or Openness to experience either. The implications of these results for democratic theory are discussed....

  15. Characterization of stress degradation products of benazepril by using sophisticated hyphenated techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanam, Mallikarjun; Sahu, Archana; Singh, Saranjit

    2013-01-04

    Benazepril, an anti-hypertensive drug, was subjected to forced degradation studies. The drug was unstable under hydrolytic conditions, yielding benazeprilat, which is a known major degradation product (DP) and an active metabolite. It also underwent photochemical degradation in acid and neutral pH conditions, resulting in multiple minor DPs. The products were separated on a reversed phase (C18) column in a gradient mode, and subjected to LC-MS and LC-NMR studies. Initially, comprehensive mass fragmentation pathway of the drug was established through support of high resolution mass spectrometric (HR-MS) and multi stage tandem mass spectrometric (MS(n)) data. The DPs were also subjected to LC-MS/TOF studies to obtain their accurate masses. Along with, on-line H/D exchange data were obtained to ascertain the number of exchangeable hydrogens in each molecule. LC-(1)H NMR and LC-2DNMR data were additionally acquired in a fraction loop mode. The whole information was successfully employed for the characterization of all the DPs. A complete degradation pathway of the drug was also established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ferro-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS an LC/EC/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiwert, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Within this thesis, the development and application of ferrocene-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS and LC/EC/MS is presented. The advantages of derivatization by ferrocenes are the similtaneous introduction of a mass tag and an electroactive group, which make them ideally suited for LC/MS and

  17. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  18. The Relationship between Logistics Sophistication and Drivers of the Outsourcing of Logistics Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A strong link has been established between operational excellence and the degree of sophistication of logistics organization, a function of factors such as performance monitoring, investment in Information Technology [IT] and the formalization of logistics organization, as proposed in the Bowersox, Daugherty, Dröge, Germain and Rogers (1992 Leading Edge model. At the same time, shippers have been increasingly outsourcing their logistics activities to third party providers. This paper, based on a survey with large Brazilian shippers, addresses a gap in the literature by investigating the relationship between dimensions of logistics organization sophistication and drivers of logistics outsourcing. To this end, the dimensions behind the logistics sophistication construct were first investigated. Results from factor analysis led to the identification of six dimensions of logistics sophistication. By means of multivariate logistical regression analyses it was possible to relate some of these dimensions, such as the formalization of the logistics organization, to certain drivers of the outsourcing of logistics activities of Brazilian shippers, such as cost savings. These results indicate the possibility of segmenting shippers according to characteristics of their logistics organization, which may be particularly useful to logistics service providers.

  19. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?: Political Sophistication Moderates the Effect of Exposure to Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  20. Sophistic Ethics in the Technical Writing Classroom: Teaching "Nomos," Deliberation, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    1995-01-01

    Claims that teaching ethics is particularly important to technical writing. Outlines a classical, sophistic approach to ethics based on the theories and pedagogies of Protagoras, Gorgias, and Isocrates, which emphasizes the Greek concept of "nomos," internal and external deliberation, and responsible action. Discusses problems and…

  1. Close to the Clothes : Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  2. Close to the Clothes: Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  3. Does a more sophisticated storm erosion model improve probabilistic erosion estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Callaghan, D.; Roelvink, D.

    2013-01-01

    The dependency between the accuracy/uncertainty of storm erosion exceedance estimates obtained via a probabilistic model and the level of sophistication of the structural function (storm erosion model) embedded in the probabilistic model is assessed via the application of Callaghan et al.'s (2008)

  4. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  5. Sophisticated Fowl: The Complex Behaviour and Cognitive Skills of Chickens and Red Junglefowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garnham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

  6. The relation between maturity and sophistication shall be properly dealt with in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjiang

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies mainly developed in China in terms of safety and economy. The paper also discusses the maturity of the second generation improved technologies and the sophistication of the third generation technologies respectively. Meanwhile, the paper proposes that the advantage and disadvantage of second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies should be carefully taken into consideration and the relationship between the maturity and sophistication should be properly dealt with in the current stage. A two-step strategy shall be taken as a solution to solve the problem of insufficient capacity of nuclear power, trace and develop the third generation technologies, so as to ensure the sound and fast development of nuclear power. (authors)

  7. Financial Sophistication and the Distribution of the Welfare Cost of Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Boel; Gabriele Camera

    2009-01-01

    The welfare cost of anticipated inflation is quantified in a calibrated model of the U.S. economy that exhibits tractable equilibrium dispersion in wealth and earnings. Inflation does not generate large losses in societal welfare, yet its impact varies noticeably across segments of society depending also on the financial sophistication of the economy. If money is the only asset, then inflation hurts mostly the wealthier and more productive agents, while those poorer and less productive may ev...

  8. Putin’s Russia: Russian Mentality and Sophisticated Imperialism in Military Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Szénási, Lieutenant-Colonel Endre

    2016-01-01

    According to my experiences, the Western world hopelessly fails to understand Russian mentality, or misinterprets it. During my analysis of the Russian way of thinking I devoted special attention to the examination of military mentality. I have connected the issue of the Russian way of thinking to the contemporary imperial policies of Putin’s Russia.  I have also attempted to prove the level of sophistication of both. I hope that a better understanding of both the Russian mentality and imperi...

  9. LC Quadrature Generation in Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    Today quadrature signals for IQ demodulation are provided through RC polyphase networks, quadrature oscillators or double frequency VCOs. This paper presents a new method for generating quadrature signals in integrated circuits using only inductors and capacitors. This LC quadrature generation...

  10. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  11. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  12. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kalantari; Javad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC) through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST). Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012), three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011...

  13. Do organizations adopt sophisticated capital budgeting practices to deal with uncertainty in the investment decision? : A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H M

    This study examines the impact of uncertainty on the sophistication of capital budgeting practices. While the theoretical applications of sophisticated capital budgeting practices (defined as the use of real option reasoning and/or game theory decision rules) have been well documented, empirical

  14. "SOCRATICS" AS ADDRESSES OF ISOCRATES’ EPIDEICTIC SPEECHES (Against the Sophists, Encomium of Helen, Busiris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Usacheva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the three epideictic orations of Isocrates which are in themselves a precious testimony of the quality of intellectual life at the close of the fourth century before Christ. To this period belong also the Socratics who are generally seen as an important link between Socrates and Plato. The author of this article proposes a more productive approach to the study of Antisthenes, Euclid of Megara and other so-called Socratics, revealing them not as independent thinkers but rather as adherents of the sophistic school and also as teachers, thereby, including them among those who took part in the educative activity of their time

  15. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  16. Systematization and sophistication of a comprehensive sensitivity analysis program. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Takao

    2004-02-01

    This study developed minute estimation by adopting comprehensive sensitivity analytical program for reliability of TRU waste repository concepts in a crystalline rock condition. We examined each components and groundwater scenario of geological repository and prepared systematic bases to examine the reliability from the point of comprehensiveness. Models and data are sophisticated to examine the reliability. Based on an existing TRU waste repository concepts, effects of parameters to nuclide migration were quantitatively classified. Those parameters, that will be decided quantitatively, are such as site character of natural barrier and design specification of engineered barriers. Considering the feasibility of those figures of specifications, reliability is re-examined on combinations of those parameters within a practical range. Future issues are; Comprehensive representation of hybrid geosphere model including the fractured medium and permeable matrix medium. Sophistication of tools to develop the reliable combinations of parameters. It is significant to continue this study because the disposal concepts and specification of TRU nuclides containing waste on various sites shall be determined rationally and safely through these studies. (author)

  17. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  18. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  19. xSyn: A Software Tool for Identifying Sophisticated 3-Way Interactions From Cancer Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishali Bandyopadhyay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constructing gene co-expression networks from cancer expression data is important for investigating the genetic mechanisms underlying cancer. However, correlation coefficients or linear regression models are not able to model sophisticated relationships among gene expression profiles. Here, we address the 3-way interaction that 2 genes’ expression levels are clustered in different space locations under the control of a third gene’s expression levels. Results: We present xSyn, a software tool for identifying such 3-way interactions from cancer gene expression data based on an optimization procedure involving the usage of UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and synergy. The effectiveness is demonstrated by application to 2 real gene expression data sets. Conclusions: xSyn is a useful tool for decoding the complex relationships among gene expression profiles. xSyn is available at http://www.bdxconsult.com/xSyn.html .

  20. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  1. RSYST: From nuclear reactor calculations towards a highly sophisticated scientific software integration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, M.; Seybold, J.; Ruehle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The software environment RSYST was originally used to solve problems of reactor physics. The consideration of advanced scientific simulation requirements and the strict application of modern software design principles led to a system which is perfectly suitable to solve problems in various complex scientific problem domains. Starting with a review of the early days of RSYST, we describe the straight evolution driven by the need of software environment which combines the advantages of a high-performance database system with the capability to integrate sophisticated scientific technical applications. The RSYST architecture is presented and the data modelling capabilities are described. To demonstrate the powerful possibilities and flexibility of the RSYST environment, we describe a wide range of RSYST applications, e.g., mechanical simulations of multibody systems, which are used in biomechanical research, civil engineering and robotics. In addition, a hypermedia system which is used for scientific technical training and documentation is presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Koukourakis

    Full Text Available LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli, where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies.

  3. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

  4. Exploring the predictive power of interaction terms in a sophisticated risk equalization model using regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S H C M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M; van Vliet, R C J A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores the predictive power of interaction terms between the risk adjusters in the Dutch risk equalization (RE) model of 2014. Due to the sophistication of this RE-model and the complexity of the associations in the dataset (N = ~16.7 million), there are theoretically more than a million interaction terms. We used regression tree modelling, which has been applied rarely within the field of RE, to identify interaction terms that statistically significantly explain variation in observed expenses that is not already explained by the risk adjusters in this RE-model. The interaction terms identified were used as additional risk adjusters in the RE-model. We found evidence that interaction terms can improve the prediction of expenses overall and for specific groups in the population. However, the prediction of expenses for some other selective groups may deteriorate. Thus, interactions can reduce financial incentives for risk selection for some groups but may increase them for others. Furthermore, because regression trees are not robust, additional criteria are needed to decide which interaction terms should be used in practice. These criteria could be the right incentive structure for risk selection and efficiency or the opinion of medical experts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The tool for the automatic analysis of lexical sophistication (TAALES): version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott; Berger, Cynthia

    2017-07-11

    This study introduces the second release of the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES 2.0), a freely available and easy-to-use text analysis tool. TAALES 2.0 is housed on a user's hard drive (allowing for secure data processing) and is available on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux). TAALES 2.0 adds 316 indices to the original tool. These indices are related to word frequency, word range, n-gram frequency, n-gram range, n-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors. In this study, we validated TAALES 2.0 by investigating whether its indices could be used to model both holistic scores of lexical proficiency in free writes and word choice scores in narrative essays. The results indicated that the TAALES 2.0 indices could be used to explain 58% of the variance in lexical proficiency scores and 32% of the variance in word-choice scores. Newly added TAALES 2.0 indices, including those related to n-gram association strength, word neighborhood, and word recognition norms, featured heavily in these predictor models, suggesting that TAALES 2.0 represents a substantial upgrade.

  6. The State of Nursing Home Information Technology Sophistication in Rural and Nonrural US Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Madsen, Richard W; Miller, Erin L; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wise, Keely K; Alexander, Rachel L

    2017-06-01

    To test for significant differences in information technology sophistication (ITS) in US nursing homes (NH) based on location. We administered a primary survey January 2014 to July 2015 to NH in each US state. The survey was cross-sectional and examined 3 dimensions (IT capabilities, extent of IT use, degree of IT integration) among 3 domains (resident care, clinical support, administrative activities) of ITS. ITS was broken down by NH location. Mean responses were compared across 4 NH categories (Metropolitan, Micropolitan, Small Town, and Rural) for all 9 ITS dimensions and domains. Least square means and Tukey's method were used for multiple comparisons. Methods yielded 815/1,799 surveys (45% response rate). In every health care domain (resident care, clinical support, and administrative activities) statistical differences in facility ITS occurred in larger (metropolitan or micropolitan) and smaller (small town or rural) populated areas. This study represents the most current national assessment of NH IT since 2004. Historically, NH IT has been used solely for administrative activities and much less for resident care and clinical support. However, results are encouraging as ITS in other domains appears to be greater than previously imagined. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  8. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed ‘two-step’ behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects’ investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues. PMID:26657806

  9. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Akam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  10. A sophisticated simulation for the fracture behavior of concrete material using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Changhai; Wang, Xiaomin; Kong, Jingchang; Li, Shuang; Xie, Lili

    2017-10-01

    The development of a powerful numerical model to simulate the fracture behavior of concrete material has long been one of the dominant research areas in earthquake engineering. A reliable model should be able to adequately represent the discontinuous characteristics of cracks and simulate various failure behaviors under complicated loading conditions. In this paper, a numerical formulation, which incorporates a sophisticated rigid-plastic interface constitutive model coupling cohesion softening, contact, friction and shear dilatation into the XFEM, is proposed to describe various crack behaviors of concrete material. An effective numerical integration scheme for accurately assembling the contribution to the weak form on both sides of the discontinuity is introduced. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been assessed by simulating several well-known experimental tests. It is concluded that the numerical method can successfully capture the crack paths and accurately predict the fracture behavior of concrete structures. The influence of mode-II parameters on the mixed-mode fracture behavior is further investigated to better determine these parameters.

  11. Nurturing Opportunity Identification for Business Sophistication in a Cross-disciplinary Study Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oganisjana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity identification is the key element of the entrepreneurial process; therefore the issue of developing this skill in students is a crucial task in contemporary European education which has recognized entrepreneurship as one of the lifelong learning key competences. The earlier opportunity identification becomes a habitual way of thinking and behavior across a broad range of contexts, the more likely that entrepreneurial disposition will steadily reside in students. In order to nurture opportunity identification in students for making them able to organize sophisticated businesses in the future, certain demands ought to be put forward as well to the teacher – the person who is to promote these qualities in their students. The paper reflects some findings of a research conducted within the frameworks of a workplace learning project for the teachers of one of Riga secondary schools (Latvia. The main goal of the project was to teach the teachers to identify hidden inner links between apparently unrelated things, phenomena and events within 10th grade study curriculum and connect them together and create new opportunities. The creation and solution of cross-disciplinary tasks were the means for achieving this goal.

  12. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; McAssey, Michael P; Beisner, Brianne; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-03-15

    We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  13. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  14. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Miyamoto

    Full Text Available CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  15. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  16. Accurate LC peak boundary detection for ¹⁶O/¹⁸O labeled LC-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Petritis, Konstantinos; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Brianne; Ma, Xuepo; Jin, Yufang; Gao, Shou-Jiang S J; Zhang, Jianqiu Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), parts of LC peaks are often corrupted by their co-eluting peptides, which results in increased quantification variance. In this paper, we propose to apply accurate LC peak boundary detection to remove the corrupted part of LC peaks. Accurate LC peak boundary detection is achieved by checking the consistency of intensity patterns within peptide elution time ranges. In addition, we remove peptides with erroneous mass assignment through model fitness check, which compares observed intensity patterns to theoretically constructed ones. The proposed algorithm can significantly improve the accuracy and precision of peptide ratio measurements.

  17. Identification of Forced Degradation Products of Itopride by LC-PDA and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Payal; Bhoir, Suvarna; Bhagwat, A. M.; Vishwanath, K.; Jadhav, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation products of itopride formed under different forced conditions have been identified using LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques. Itopride was subjected to forced degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, dry and wet heat, in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization. The stress solutions were chromatographed on reversed phase C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase methanol:water (55:45, v/v) at a detection wavelength of 215 nm. Itop...

  18. Reactive polymer coatings: A robust platform towards sophisticated surface engineering for biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    Functionalized poly(p-xylylenes) or so-called reactive polymers can be synthesized via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization. The resulting ultra-thin coatings are pinhole-free and can be conformally deposited to a wide range of substrates and materials. More importantly, the equipped functional groups can served as anchoring sites for tailoring the surface properties, making these reactive coatings a robust platform that can deal with sophisticated challenges faced in biointerfaces. In this work presented herein, surface coatings presenting various functional groups were prepared by CVD process. Such surfaces include aldehyde-functionalized coating to precisely immobilize saccharide molecules onto well-defined areas and alkyne-functionalized coating to click azide-modified molecules via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Moreover, CVD copolymerization has been conducted to prepare multifunctional coatings and their specific functions were demonstrated by the immobilization of biotin and NHS-ester molecules. By using a photodefinable coating, polyethylene oxides were immobilized onto a wide range of substrates through photo-immobilization. Spatially controlled protein resistant properties were characterized by selective adsorption of fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin as model systems. Alternatively, surface initiator coatings were used for polymer graftings of polyethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, and the resultant protein- and cell- resistant properties were characterized by adsorption of kinesin motor proteins, fibrinogen, and murine fibroblasts (NIH3T3). Accessibility of reactive coatings within confined microgeometries was systematically studied, and the preparation of homogeneous polymer thin films within the inner surface of microchannels was demonstrated. Moreover, these advanced coatings were applied to develop a dry adhesion process for microfluidic devices. This process provides (i) excellent bonding strength, (ii) extended

  19. Sophisticated Approval Voting, Ignorance Priors, and Plurality Heuristics: A Behavioral Social Choice Analysis in a Thurstonian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-01-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two…

  20. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  1. LC-MS-MS aboard ship: tandem mass spectrometry in the search for phycotoxins and novel toxigenic plankton from the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; John, Uwe; Cembella, Allan

    2008-11-01

    Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of these compounds, particularly in plankton and shellfish. Most such chemical analyses are conducted in land-based laboratories on stored samples, and thus much information on the near real-time biogeographical distribution and dynamics of phycotoxins in the plankton is unavailable. To resolve this problem, we conducted ship-board analysis of a broad spectrum of phycotoxins collected directly from the water column on an oceanographic cruise along the North Sea coast of Scotland, Norway, and Denmark. We equipped the ship with a triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap hybrid LC-MS-MS system for detection and quantitative analysis of toxins, such as domoic acid, gymnodimine, spirolides, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, and azaspiracids (AZAs). We focused particular attention on the detection of AZAs, a group of potent nitrogenous polyether toxins, because the culprit species associated with the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish has been controversial. Marine toxins were analyzed directly from size-fractionated plankton net tows (20 microm mesh size) and Niskin bottle samples from discrete depths, after rapid methanolic extraction but without any further clean-up. Almost all expected phycotoxins were detected in North Sea plankton samples, with domoic acid and 20-methylspirolide G being most abundant. Although AZA was the least abundant of these toxins, the high sensitivity of the LC-MS-MS enabled detailed quantification, indicating that the highest amounts of AZA-1 were present in the southern Skagerrak in the 3-20 microm size-fraction. The direct on-board toxin measurements enabled isolation

  2. Entangled Coherent States Generation in two Superconducting LC Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meiyu; Zhang Weimin

    2008-01-01

    We proposed a novel pure electronic (solid state) device consisting of two superconducting LC circuits coupled to a superconducting flux qubit. The entangled coherent states of the two LC modes is generated through the measurement of the flux qubit states. The interaction of the flux qubit and two LC circuits is controlled by the external microwave control lines. The geometrical structure of the LC circuits is adjustable and makes a strong coupling between them achievable. This entangled coherent state generator can be realized by using the conventional microelectronic fabrication techniques which increases the feasibility of the experiment.

  3. Solution Structure of LC4 Transmembrane Segment of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescdence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 ...

  4. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  5. Identification of Forced Degradation Products of Itopride by LC-PDA and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Payal; Bhoir, Suvarna; Bhagwat, A M; Vishwanath, K; Jadhav, R K

    2011-05-01

    Degradation products of itopride formed under different forced conditions have been identified using LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques. Itopride was subjected to forced degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, dry and wet heat, in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization. The stress solutions were chromatographed on reversed phase C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase methanol:water (55:45, v/v) at a detection wavelength of 215 nm. Itopride degraded in acid, alkali and oxidative stress conditions. The stability indicating method was developed and validated. The degradation pathway of the drug to products II-VIII is proposed.

  6. A Case Study on E - Banking Security – When Security Becomes Too Sophisticated for the User to Access Their Information

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron M. French

    2012-01-01

    While eBanking security continues to increase in sophistication to protect against threats, the usability of the eBanking decreases resulting in poor security behaviors by the users. The current research evaluates se curity risks and measures taken for eBanking solutions. A case study is presented describing how increased complexity decreases vulnerabilities online but increases vulnerabilities from internal threats and eBanking users

  7. On-line coupled LC-LC-GC for irradiation detection in complex lipid matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Since sample preparation with HPLC coupled on-line to the GC has been performed for only a few weeks in our laboratory, the results presented give a first look at what can be done by means of this technique. Even difficult samples as the described fish species, where an unequivocal identification regarding an irradiation treatment seemed to become a hopeless enterprise, could be managed. Because of the greater variety of fatty acids in fish ''new'' radiation-induced hydrocarbons were available. According to the theory of Nawar in addition to 16:2 and 17:2 hydrocarbons we have looked for in irradiated meat, further alkadienes appeared in irradiated fish, which were 14:2, 18:2 and 20:2. Analysis of the alkadiene-fraction, transferred to the GC after a two step LC clean up, resulted in an unequivocal identification of all fish samples as well as the fruits and sponge cake. For fruits and sponge cake the detection limit seems to be clearly below 0.5 kGy. It can further be lowered by increasing the amount of lipid whereas the upper limit for a certain LC column has to be determined. In contrast to these samples only qualitative results were obtained for fish. In the case of sponge cake for the first time irradiation of a component of a heat treated food was detected. Further investigations regarding reproducibility, dose dependence and detection limit have to be done. On-line coupled (LC-)LC-GC was proved to be a highly efficient method for analysis of complex samples. In contrast to off-line Florisil column chromatography only a small part of the initial lipid material is needed because the complete hydrocarbon fraction is transferred on-line to the GC. This offers the possibility to analyze even foods with a low fat content like various seafoods. Classification of the hydrocarbon fraction by a two step LC may facilitate the identification of the radiolytic products also if no mass spectrometric detection system is available. (orig./vhe)

  8. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  9. Isotope ratio monitoring LC/MS (IRM-LC/MS): new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchelka, D; Hilkert, A.; Krummen, M.

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of compound specific isotope analysis by isotope ratio monitoring GC/ MS (IRM-GC/MS) the immediate demand for similar applications using HPLC was created. Many compounds of biological, medical, pharmaceutical and environmental interest are not volatile or too polar. Consequently, they cannot be directly analyzed by gas chromatography. In IRM-GC/MS the carrier is helium, which does not interfere with the essential combust ion step prior to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In opposite the LC mobile phase has inhibited a similar direct conversion up to now. All earlier IRM-LC/MS approaches were based on the removal of the liquid phase prior to combustion risking fractionation of the isotope ratios of the eluted compounds. To avoid such restrictions we developed a new continuous flow concept for the coupling of an HPLC system to the isotope ratio MS for 13 C/ 12C isotope ratio analysis. In the Finnigan LC IsoLink, the liquid phase is not removed from the sample prior to oxidation. The sample is oxidized still in the mobile phase followed by on-line separation of the CO 2 from the liquid phase and transfer into the isotope ratio MS. Therefore, this strategy is based on water and inorganic buffers as mobile phase. The new approach opens up a whole new world in the application of gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The 13 C/ 12 C ratio s of organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleotides can now be measured. These components typically within a complex matrix are separated by liquid chromatography followed by on-line determination of the isotope ratios. The draw backs of using derivatization and off-line preparation procedures can now be over come. This new technique allow s studying biochemical cycles, running tracer experiments and determining the origin of components. Applications from different scientific areas such as biogeochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacy as well as authenticity control o f foods will be presented

  10. Parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin correlation analysis using LC-MS and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinyue; St Ange, Kalib; Wang, Xiaohua; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming

    2017-01-01

    Heparin is a structurally complex, polysaccharide anticoagulant derived from livestock, primarily porcine intestinal tissues. Low molecular weight (LMW) heparins are derived through the controlled partial depolymerization of heparin. Increased manufacturing and regulatory concerns have provided the motivation for the development of more sophisticated analytical methods for determining both their structure and pedigree. A strategy, for the comprehensive comparison of parent heparins and their LMW heparin daughters, is described that relies on the analysis of monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, and oligosaccharide composition. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is rapid, robust, and amenable to automated processing and interpretation of both top-down and bottom-up analyses. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides complementary top-down information on the chirality of the uronic acid residues and glucosamine substitution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the normalized abundance of oligosaccharides, calculated in the bottom-up analysis, to show parent and daughter correlation in oligosaccharide composition. Using these approaches, six pairs of parent heparins and their daughter generic enoxaparins from two different manufacturers were comprehensively analyzed. Enoxaparin is the most widely used LMW heparin and is prepared through controlled chemical β-eliminative cleavage of porcine intestinal heparin. Lovenox"®, the innovator version of enoxaparin marketed in the US, was analyzed as a reference for the daughter LMW heparins. The results, show similarities between LMW heparins from two different manufacturers with Lovenox"®, excellent lot-to-lot consistency of products from each manufacturer, and detects a correlation between each parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight heparins prepared from different heparin parents were analyzed. • An integrated analytical approach relied

  11. Parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin correlation analysis using LC-MS and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinyue, E-mail: liux22@rpi.edu [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); St Ange, Kalib, E-mail: stangk2@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: wangx35@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); School of Computer and Information, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China); Lin, Lei, E-mail: Linl5@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); Zhang, Fuming, E-mail: zhangf2@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); and others

    2017-04-08

    Heparin is a structurally complex, polysaccharide anticoagulant derived from livestock, primarily porcine intestinal tissues. Low molecular weight (LMW) heparins are derived through the controlled partial depolymerization of heparin. Increased manufacturing and regulatory concerns have provided the motivation for the development of more sophisticated analytical methods for determining both their structure and pedigree. A strategy, for the comprehensive comparison of parent heparins and their LMW heparin daughters, is described that relies on the analysis of monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, and oligosaccharide composition. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is rapid, robust, and amenable to automated processing and interpretation of both top-down and bottom-up analyses. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides complementary top-down information on the chirality of the uronic acid residues and glucosamine substitution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the normalized abundance of oligosaccharides, calculated in the bottom-up analysis, to show parent and daughter correlation in oligosaccharide composition. Using these approaches, six pairs of parent heparins and their daughter generic enoxaparins from two different manufacturers were comprehensively analyzed. Enoxaparin is the most widely used LMW heparin and is prepared through controlled chemical β-eliminative cleavage of porcine intestinal heparin. Lovenox{sup ®}, the innovator version of enoxaparin marketed in the US, was analyzed as a reference for the daughter LMW heparins. The results, show similarities between LMW heparins from two different manufacturers with Lovenox{sup ®}, excellent lot-to-lot consistency of products from each manufacturer, and detects a correlation between each parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight heparins prepared from different heparin parents were analyzed. • An integrated analytical

  12. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  13. Matrix effects break the LC behavior rule for analytes in LC-MS/MS analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nianbai; Yu, Shanggong; Ronis, Martin Jj; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-peak with reliable retention time (Rt.). However, in the current study, we have found that under the same LC-MS conditions, the Rt. and shape of LC-peaks of bile acids in urine samples from animals fed dissimilar diets differed significantly among each other. To verify this matrix effect, 17 authentic bile acid standards were dissolved in pure methanol or in methanol containing extracts of urine from pigs consuming either breast milk or infant formula and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The matrix components in urine from piglets fed formula significantly reduced the LC-peak Rt. and areas of bile acids. This is the first characterization of this matrix effect on Rt. in the literature. Moreover, the matrix effect resulted in an unexpected LC behavior: one single compound yielded two LC-peaks, which broke the rule of one LC-peak for one compound. The three bile acid standards which exhibited this unconventional LC behavior were chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and glycocholic acid. One possible explanation for this effect is that some matrix components may have loosely bonded to analytes, which changed the time analytes were retained on a chromatography column and interfered with the ionization of analytes in the MS ion source to alter the peak area. This study indicates that a comprehensive understanding of matrix effects is needed towards improving the use of HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of analytes in pharmacokinetics, proteomics/metabolomics, drug development, and sports drug testing, especially when LC-MS/MS data are analyzed by automation software where identification of an analyte is based on its exact molecular weight and Rt

  14. Regulation of the autophagy protein LC3 by phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherra, Salvatore J.; Kulich, Scott M.; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Mountzouris, John; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a major catabolic pathway that impacts cell survival, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration. Although bulk degradation sustains carbon sources during starvation, autophagy contributes to shrinkage of differentiated neuronal processes. Identification of autophagy-related genes has spurred rapid advances in understanding the recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in autophagy induction, although braking mechanisms remain less understood. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a direct protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site on LC3 that regulates its participation in autophagy. Both metabolic (rapamycin) and pathological (MPP+) inducers of autophagy caused dephosphorylation of endogenous LC3. The pseudophosphorylated LC3 mutant showed reduced recruitment to autophagosomes, whereas the nonphosphorylatable mutant exhibited enhanced puncta formation. Finally, autophagy-dependent neurite shortening induced by expression of a Parkinson disease–associated G2019S mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 was inhibited by dibutyryl–cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cytoplasmic expression of the PKA catalytic subunit, or the LC3 phosphorylation mimic. These data demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in regulating LC3 activity. PMID:20713600

  15. Learning Strategic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Maier, M.

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally investigate coordination games in which cognition plays an important role, i.e. where outcomes are affected by the agents level of understanding of the game and the beliefs they form about each others understanding.We ask whether and when repeated exposure permits agents to learn

  16. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2011-06-01

    Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2″-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug.

  17. Sophisticated Calculation of the 1oo4-architecture for Safety-related Systems Conforming to IEC61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayek, A; Al Bokhaiti, M; Schwarz, M H; Boercsoek, J

    2012-01-01

    With the publication and enforcement of the standard IEC 61508 of safety related systems, recent system architectures have been presented and evaluated. Among a number of techniques and measures to the evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) for safety-related systems, several measures such as reliability block diagrams and Markov models are used to analyze the probability of failure on demand (PFD) and mean time to failure (MTTF) which conform to IEC 61508. The current paper deals with the quantitative analysis of the novel 1oo4-architecture (one out of four) presented in recent work. Therefore sophisticated calculations for the required parameters are introduced. The provided 1oo4-architecture represents an advanced safety architecture based on on-chip redundancy, which is 3-failure safe. This means that at least one of the four channels have to work correctly in order to trigger the safety function.

  18. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  19. Marginal Words--Sophisticated Attitudinal Meaning Making Resources in the Vietnamese Language: Implications for the Shaping of Vietnamese Teaching in the Australian Curriculum: Languages (Vietnamese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thu Thi Bich

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation is an important aspect in communication in any language as it not only functions to express language users' evaluative stance but also to construct and maintain relations between interactants. In the teaching of languages in addition to English, paying attention to evaluative language contributes to an understanding of the…

  20. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current state and future challenges. ... These studies illustrate how the exponential growth in computer power and the concomitant development of highly sophisticated tools have changed the manner in which our water resources have been appraised, allowing us to ...

  1. LC-MS (/MS) in clinical toxicology screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viette, Véronique; Hochstrasser, Denis; Fathi, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Toxicological screening is the analysis of biological samples to detect and identify unknown compounds. The high selectivity and sensitivity of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technology provide an attractive alternative to the current methods (LC-UV, GC/MS, etc.). For these reasons, an increasing number of applications are being published. This paper is a brief overview of LC-MS(/MS) screening methods developed for clinical toxicology in recent years. Various sample treatments, chromatographic separations and detection by mass spectrometry can be combined to obtain screening methods adapted to the constraints and needs of clinical toxicology laboratories. Currently the techniques are in the hands of specialists, mainly in academic institutions. However, the evolution in technology should allow application of these techniques as a tool in toxicology laboratories, thus allowing a more widespread exploitation of their potential.

  2. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Casson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG analysis.

  3. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  4. Mutual couling reduction using a lumped LC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency.......A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency....

  5. LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS identification and LC-DAD quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera peltata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Fischer, Sonja; Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The herb of Drosera peltata, commonly named the shield sundew, is used as an antitussive in phytotherapy, although the plants' composition has not been determined in detail so far. Hence, in this study, we present a validated, sensitive, reliable, and cheap narrow-bore LC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in this herbal drug. In addition, the structures of 13 compounds have been elucidated by LC-MS, LC-NMR, and offline NMR experiments after isolation: herbacetin-3-O-glucoside (1), gossypitrin (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin-7-O-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-glucoside (6), herbacetin-7-O-glucoside (7), astragalin (8), gossypetin (9), herbacetin (10), quercetin (11), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (12), and kaempferol (13). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 have been identified in D. peltata for the first time, and compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 have not been detected in any Drosera species before. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sophisticated approval voting, ignorance priors, and plurality heuristics: a behavioral social choice analysis in a Thurstonian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-10-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two types of plurality heuristics to model approval voting behavior. When using a sincere plurality heuristic, voters simplify their decision process by voting for their single favorite candidate. When using a strategic plurality heuristic, voters strategically focus their attention on the 2 front-runners and vote for their preferred candidate among these 2. Using a hierarchy of Thurstonian random utility models, the authors implemented these different decision rules and tested them statistically on 7 real world approval voting elections. They cross-validated their key findings via a psychological Internet experiment. Although a substantial number of voters used the plurality heuristic in the real elections, they did so sincerely, not strategically. Moreover, even though Thurstonian models do not force such agreement, the results show, in contrast to common wisdom about social choice rules, that the sincere social orders by Condorcet, Borda, plurality, and approval voting are identical in all 7 elections and in the Internet experiment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  8. Exploring Practical Responses of M3LC for Learning Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah; Baharman

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the responses of participants toward Mathematics-Language Literacy Learning Courseware (M3LC) for learning literacy. There are five practical aspects concerned by involving 30 participants in the focus group discussion. In the beginning, participants were given some response sheet and introduced to M3LC by watching learning video of M3LC. At the end, they were asked to concern about response sheet and give comments related what they saw during the introduction session. The results show that the responses of users’ agree and strongly agree are still higher than those of users’ disagree or strongly disagree, with below 30% of responses are in the fair category. It means that the participants tend to give a positive opinion that M3LC is a useful courseware since it is qualified to satisfy 5 practical aspects, including knowledge use, knowledge construction, evaluation practice, social programming, and valuing to support literacy learning. In future, the implementation of using this courseware can be enhanced to further recognition of literacy level so that students can be well-prepared before starting learning activities in the classroom.

  9. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  10. Comparative LC-MS: A landscape of Peaks and Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    America, A.H.P.; Cordewener, J.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics approaches using stable isotopes are well-known and used in many labs nowadays. More recently, high resolution quantitative approaches are reported that rely on LC-MS quantitation of peptide concentrations by comparing peak intensities between multiple runs obtained by

  11. Relating Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms of LC Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Lagrangian formalism earlier defined for (switching) electrical circuits, is adapted to the Lagrangian formalism defined on Lie algebroids. This allows us to define regular Lagrangians and consequently, well-defined Hamiltonian descriptions of arbitrary LC networks. The relation with other

  12. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Building Models in the Classroom: Taking Advantage of Sophisticated Geomorphic Numerical Tools Using a Simple Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Koons, P. O.; Gerbi, C. C.; Capps, D. K.; Tucker, G. E.; Rogers, Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sophisticated numerical tools exist for modeling geomorphic processes and linking them to tectonic and climatic systems, but they are often seen as inaccessible for users with an exploratory level of interest. We have improved the accessibility of landscape evolution models by producing a simple graphics user interface (GUI) that takes advantage of the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model. Model access is flexible: the user can edit values for basic geomorphic, tectonic, and climate parameters, or obtain greater control by defining the spatiotemporal distributions of those parameters. Users can make educated predictions by choosing their own parametric values for the governing equations and interpreting the results immediately through model graphics. This method of modeling allows users to iteratively build their understanding through experimentation. Use of this GUI is intended for inquiry and discovery-based learning activities. We discuss a number of examples of how the GUI can be used at the upper high school, introductory university, and advanced university level. Effective teaching modules initially focus on an inquiry-based example guided by the instructor. As students become familiar with the GUI and the CHILD model, the class can shift to more student-centered exploration and experimentation. To make model interpretations more robust, digital elevation models can be imported and direct comparisons can be made between CHILD model results and natural topography. The GUI is available online through the University of Maine's Earth and Climate Sciences website, through the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) model repository, or by contacting the corresponding author.

  14. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the interaction of the morphological structure and the LC behaviour of LC side chain block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Poser, S.; Arnold, M.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between morphological structure and phase behaviour of a LC side group block copolymer has been investigated using DSC, TEM and small angle X-ray diffraction. All samples of Polystyrene-block-2-(3-cholesteryloxycarbonyloxy)ethyl methacrylate (PS-b-PChEMA) show a phase separation

  16. On the interaction of the morphological structure and the LC behaviour of LC side chain block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Arnold, M.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between morphological structure and phase behaviour of a group of LC side group block copolymers have been investigated using DSC, TEM and small angle X-ray diffraction. Generally, phase separation between the two blocks was observed. It was found that in the case of those samples,

  17. Role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Frøsig, Christian; Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    During induction of the autophagosomal degradation process, LC3-I is lipidated to LC3-II and associates to the cargo isolation membrane allowing for autophagosome formation. Lipidation of LC3 results in an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and this ratio is an often used marker for autophagy in vario...

  18. LC-MS at core of university-industry link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune

    2013-01-01

    , and the Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid system is designed for precisely this type of visionary research.’’ DTU is establishing the state-of-the-art laboratory to develop new experiments to dig deeper into the core machinery of the cell. The new laboratory will use four TFS Q Exactive LC-MS/MS systems, and nano-LC 1000.......’’ ‘‘We are immensely pleased to be working with this talented and motivated team of scientists,’’ said Iain Mylchreest, vice president, research and development, life science mass spectrometry, TFS. ‘‘We share with them the objective of pushing the limits of science to make the world a better place...

  19. Sophisticated Epistemologies of Physics versus High-Stakes Tests: How Do Elite High School Students Respond to Competing Influences about How to Learn Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how elite Turkish high school physics students claim to approach learning physics when they are simultaneously (i) engaged in a curriculum that led to significant gains in their epistemological sophistication and (ii) subject to a high-stakes college entrance exam. Students reported taking surface (rote) approaches to…

  20. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-05-22

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator-prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase.

  1. LC-MS-BASED METABOLOMICS OF XENOBIOTIC-INDUCED TOXICITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic exposure, especially high-dose or repeated exposure of xenobiotics, can elicit detrimental effects on biological systems through diverse mechanisms. Changes in metabolic systems, including formation of reactive metabolites and disruption of endogenous metabolism, are not only the common consequences of toxic xenobiotic exposure, but in many cases are the major causes behind development of xenobiotic-induced toxicities (XIT. Therefore, examining the metabolic events associated with XIT generates mechanistic insights into the initiation and progression of XIT, and provides guidance for prevention and treatment. Traditional bioanalytical platforms that target only a few suspected metabolites are capable of validating the expected outcomes of xenobiotic exposure. However, these approaches lack the capacity to define global changes and to identify unexpected events in the metabolic system. Recent developments in high-throughput metabolomics have dramatically expanded the scope and potential of metabolite analysis. Among all analytical techniques adopted for metabolomics, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS has been most widely used for metabolomic investigations of XIT due to its versatility and sensitivity in metabolite analysis. In this review, technical platform of LC-MS-based metabolomics, including experimental model, sample preparation, instrumentation, and data analysis, are discussed. Applications of LC-MS-based metabolomics in exploratory and hypothesis-driven investigations of XIT are illustrated by case studies of xenobiotic metabolism and endogenous metabolism associated with xenobiotic exposure.

  2. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX1074910,SRX1...074907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX1074910,SRX1...074907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX1074910,SRX1...074907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.10.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Unclassified Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX1074910,SRX1...074907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX823839,SRX5...5,SRX823838,SRX823831,SRX823826,SRX590324 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  8. Structural Feature Ions for Distinguishing N- and O-Linked Glycan Isomers by LC-ESI-IT MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest-Dass, Arun V.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H.; Campbell, Matthew P.

    2013-06-01

    Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycan expression in an organism, cell, or tissue that relies on effective analytical technologies to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Owing to the macro- and micro-heterogeneity of oligosaccharides, detailed structure characterization has required an orthogonal approach, such as a combination of specific exoglycosidase digestions, LC-MS/MS, and the development of bioinformatic resources to comprehensively profile a complex biological sample. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has emerged as a key tool in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides because of its high sensitivity, resolution, and robustness. Here, we present a strategy that uses LC-ESI-MS/MS to characterize over 200 N- and O-glycans from human saliva glycoproteins, complemented by sequential exoglycosidase treatment, to further verify the annotated glycan structures. Fragment-specific substructure diagnostic ions were collated from an extensive screen of the literature available on the detailed structural characterization of oligosaccharides and, together with other specific glycan structure feature ions derived from cross-ring and glycosidic-linkage fragmentation, were used to characterize the glycans and differentiate isomers. The availability of such annotated mass spectrometric fragmentation spectral libraries of glycan structures, together with such substructure diagnostic ions, will be key inputs for the future development of the automated elucidation of oligosaccharide structures from MS/MS data.

  9. LC-MS/MS signal suppression effects in the analysis of pesticides in complex environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B K; Hercules, D M; Gusev, A I

    2001-02-01

    The application of LC separation and mobile phase additives in addressing LC-MS/MS matrix signal suppression effects for the analysis of pesticides in a complex environmental matrix was investigated. It was shown that signal suppression is most significant for analytes eluting early in the LC-MS analysis. Introduction of different buffers (e.g. ammonium formate, ammonium hydroxide, formic acid) into the LC mobile phase was effective in improving signal correlation between the matrix and standard samples. The signal improvement is dependent on buffer concentration as well as LC separation of the matrix components. The application of LC separation alone was not effective in addressing suppression effects when characterizing complex matrix samples. Overloading of the LC column by matrix components was found to significantly contribute to analyte-matrix co-elution and suppression of signal. This signal suppression effect can be efficiently compensated by 2D LC (LC-LC) separation techniques. The effectiveness of buffers and LC separation in improving signal correlation between standard and matrix samples is discussed.

  10. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples. An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis.

  11. Improved profiling of estrogen metabolites by orbitrap LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Franke, Adrian A.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen metabolites are important biomarkers to evaluate cancer risks and metabolic diseases. Due to their low physiological levels, a sensitive and accurate method is required, especially for the quantitation of unconjugated forms of endogenous steroids and their metabolites in humans. Here, we evaluated various derivatives of estrogens for improved analysis by orbitrap LC/MS in human serum samples. A new chemical derivatization reagent was applied modifying phenolic steroids to form 1-methylimidazole-2-sulfonyl adducts. The method significantly improves the sensitivity 2–100 fold by full scan MS and targeted selected ion monitoring MS over other derivatization methods including, dansyl, picolinoyl, and pyridine-3-sulfonyl products. PMID:25543003

  12. High-throughput fragment screening by affinity LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten

    2013-02-01

    Fragment screening, an emerging approach for hit finding in drug discovery, has recently been proven effective by its first approved drug, vemurafenib, for cancer treatment. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and isothemal titration calorimetry, with their own pros and cons, have been employed for screening fragment libraries. As an alternative approach, screening based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation has been developed. In this work, we present weak affinity LC/MS as a method to screen fragments under high-throughput conditions. Affinity-based capillary columns with immobilized thrombin were used to screen a collection of 590 compounds from a fragment library. The collection was divided into 11 mixtures (each containing 35 to 65 fragments) and screened by MS detection. The primary screening was performed in 3500 fragments per day). Thirty hits were defined, which subsequently entered a secondary screening using an active site-blocked thrombin column for confirmation of specificity. One hit showed selective binding to thrombin with an estimated dissociation constant (K (D)) in the 0.1 mM range. This study shows that affinity LC/MS is characterized by high throughput, ease of operation, and low consumption of target and fragments, and therefore it promises to be a valuable method for fragment screening.

  13. Precipitate microstructure evolution in exposed IN738LC superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, Pavel, E-mail: strunz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Petrenec, Martin [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Gasser, Urs [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tobiáš, Jiří; Polák, Jaroslav [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Šaroun, Jan [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Evolution of γ′-phase morphology in IN738LC Ni-base superalloy was examined by SANS. • In situ tests at high temperatures revealed trimodal precipitate distribution. • Formation, dissolution and (slow) kinetics of small γ′ precipitates was determined. • Equilibrium volume fraction of γ′ phase is significantly higher than 45%. • The small γ′ precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. -- Abstract: Nickel base superalloy IN738LC has been studied after low-cycle fatigue by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Samples subjected to high-temperature low-cycle fatigue were annealed at various temperatures to change the size and the distribution of precipitates. Ex and in situ SANS and TEM studies were performed. It was found that additional precipitates are formed either during slow cooling from high temperatures or after reheating above 570 °C. Their size and distribution were evaluated. The precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. Nevertheless, these small precipitates influence low-cycle fatigue resistance. From the SANS data, it can be also deduced that the equilibrium volume fraction of γ′-precipitates at temperatures from room temperature to 825 °C is significantly higher than 45%. The kinetics of formation of small and medium-size γ′ precipitates at 700 and 800 °C was determined as well.

  14. L-C Measurement Acquisition Method for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement acquisition method for aerospace systems that eliminates the need for sensors to have physical connection to a power source (i.e., no lead wires) or to data acquisition equipment. Furthermore, the method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The sensors consist of a capacitor, C(p), whose capacitance changes with changes to a physical property, p, electrically connected to an inductor, L. The method uses an antenna to broadcast electromagnetic energy that electrically excites one or more inductive-capacitive sensors via Faraday induction. This method facilitates measurements that were not previously possible because there was no practical means of providing power and data acquisition electrical connections to a sensor. Unlike traditional sensors, which measure only a single physical property, the manner in which the sensing element is interrogated simultaneously allows measurement of at least two unrelated physical properties (e.g., displacement rate and fluid level) by using each constituent of the L-C element. The key to using the method for aerospace applications is to increase the distance between the L-C elements and interrogating antenna; develop all key components to be non-obtrusive and to develop sensing elements that can easily be implemented. Techniques that have resulted in increased distance between antenna and sensor will be presented. Fluid-level measurements and pressure measurements using the acquisition method are demonstrated in the paper.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography- A Hybrid of GC and LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal K Chandrul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    High performance specifications and unique functionality of chromatographic techniques is a demand of pharmaceutical industry and research. This leads to the origin of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC. It is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. The main feature that differentiates SFC from other chromatographic techniques is the replacement of either the liquid or gas mobile phase with a supercritical fluid mobile phase. It is considered a hybrid of GC and LC technique. High diffusion coefficient and low viscosity of supercritical fluids is responsible for high speed analysis, high efficiency and high sensitivity. Low mobile-phase flow rate, density programming and compatability with GC and LC detectors make SFC a versatile chromatographic technique in analytical research and development. It has a unique characteristic of analyzing thermo labile or non-volatile substances. This review highlights the role of supercritical fluid chromatography in the separation of polymers, thermally labile pesticides, fatty acids, metal chelates and organometallic compounds, chiral and achiral molecules, identification and analysis of polar samples, explosives, drugs of abuse and application of SFC in forensic science (fingerprinting. 

  16. Supercritical fluid chromatography-A Hybrid of GC and LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sethi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance specifications and unique functionality of chromatographic techniques is a demand of pharmaceutical industry and research. This leads to the origin of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC. It is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. The main feature that differentiates SFC from other chromatographic techniques is the replacement of either the liquid or gas mobile phase with a supercritical fluid mobile phase. It is considered a hybrid of GC and LC technique. High diffusion coefficient and low viscosity of supercritical fluids is responsible for high speed analysis, high efficiency and high sensitivity. Low mobile-phase flow rate, density programming and compatability with GC and LC detectors make SFC a versatile chromatographic technique in analytical re-search and development. It has a unique characteristic of analyzing thermo labile or non-volatile substances. This review highlights the role of supercritical fluid chromatography in the separation of polymers, thermally labile pesticides, fatty acids, metal chelates and organometallic compounds, chiral and achiral molecules, identification and analysis of polar samples, explosives, drugs of abuse and application of SFC in forensic science (fingerprint-ing.

  17. New 2LC-Y DC-DC converter topologies for high-voltage/low-current renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2017-01-01

    (2LC-LVD, 2LC-2LVD, 2LC-2LCVD and 2LC-2LCmVD) converters are presented in this treatise which offer an effective solution for renewable applications requiring a very high voltage conversion ratio such as a Photovoltaic Multilevel Inverter (PV-MLI) system, hybrid electrical drives and automotive...

  18. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  19. Influence of modulation method on using LC-traps with single-phase voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Min, Huang; Bai, Haofeng

    2015-01-01

    The switching-frequency LC-trap filter has recently been employed with high-order passive filters for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs). This paper investigates the influence of modulation method on using the LC-traps with single-phase VSIs. Two-level (bipolar) and three-level (unipolar) modulations...... that include phase distortion and alternative phase opposition distortion methods are analyzed. Harmonic filtering performances of four LC-trap-based filters with different locations of LC-traps are compared. It is shown that the use of parallel-LC-traps in series with filter inductors, either grid...... or converter side, has a worse harmonic filtering performance than using series-LC-trap in the shunt branch. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifications....

  20. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Kathie; Lapierre, Pascal; Marceau, Gabriel; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-03-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported in patients chronically infected by hepatitis C virus. 2% to 10% of theses patients have anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) autoantibodies. In type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, anti-LKM1 autoantibodies are frequently associated with anti-liver-cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. To determine the prevalence of anti-LC1 autoantibodies in a hepatitis C-positive population and characterize their reactivity. 146 patients suffering from liver diseases, of which 99 were chronically infected by hepatitis C virus, were tested by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation to detect and characterize anti-LC1 autoantibodies. 12% of this hepatitis C population had anti-LC1 autoantibodies. LC1 positivity by Western blotting was 30% of LC1+ sera. Epitopes were found throughout the protein but linear epitopes were situated in the 395-541 amino acid region of formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase. Three putative conformational epitopes were identified by phage display. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies are as prevalent as anti-LKM1 autoantibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus and their production is not dependent of anti-LKM1 autoantibodies formation. Autoantibody reactivity against the anti-LC1 antigen is different in hepatitis C than in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Anti-LC1 autoantibodies can now be regarded as a serological marker of autoimmunity in chronic hepatitis C infection.

  1. Overexpression of maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc affects rice fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Shen, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Yu; Li, Jian-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen independent transgenic rice plants with the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the CaMV 35S promoter were obtained and verified by molecular identification. Ten plants showed red spikelets during early development of florets, and the degenerate florets were still red after heading. Additionally, these plants exhibited intense pigmentation on the surface of the anther and the bottom of the ovary. They were unable to properly bloom and were completely sterile. Following pollination with normal pollen, these plants yielded red caryopses but did not mature normally. QRT-PCR analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of the CHS-like gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein was increased significantly in the sterile plant. This is the first report to suggest that upregulation of the CHS gene expression may result in rice sterility and affect the normal development of rice seeds.

  2. Dereplication of Microbial Natural Products by LC-DAD-TOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Månsson, Maria; Rank, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Dereplication, the rapid identification of known compounds present in a mixture, is crucial to the fast discovery of novel natural products. Determining the elemental composition of compounds in mixtures and tentatively identifying natural products using MS/MS and UV/vis spectra is becoming easier...... with advances in analytical equipment and better compound databases. Here we demonstrate the use of LC-UV/vis-MS-based dereplication using data from UV/vis diode array detection and ESI+/ESI– time-of-flight MS for assignment of 719 microbial natural product and mycotoxin reference standards. ESI+ was the most...... unambiguously using multiple adduct ions, while a further 41% of the compounds were detected only as [M – H]−. The most reliable interpretations of conflicting ESI+ and ESI– data on a chromatographic peak were from the ionization polarity with the most intense ionization. Poor ionization was most common...

  3. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  4. EU-Korea FTA and Its Impact on V4 Economies. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Sophistication and Intra-Industry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9 strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade. The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.

  5. 利用SPSS软件计算杀虫剂的LC50%Calculatiang the LC50 of insecticides with software SPSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春生

    2006-01-01

    利用实例和SPSS 130软件上的Probit过程,介绍如何进行LC50计算,并对主要输出结果进行了解释.并通过与其它软件比较,表明应用SPSS软件进行LC50等计算简便、快速、准确.

  6. Silver ion chromatography for peak resolution enhancement: Application to the preparative separation of two sesquiterpenes using online heart-cutting LC-LC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yongmin; Wei, Chong; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji

    2018-09-01

    Silver ion chromatography, utilizing columns packed with silver ions bonded to silica gel, has proved to be an invaluable technique for the analysis of some positional isomers. In this work, silver ion chromatography by combination with online heart-cutting LC-LC technique for the preparative separation of two sesquiterpenes positional isomers from a natural product was investigated. On the basis of the evaluation that silver ion content impacts on the separation, the laboratory-made silver ion columns, utilizing silica gel impregnated with 15% silver nitrate as column packing materials, were used for peak resolution improvement of these two isomers and the preparative separation of them in heart-cutting LC-LC. The relationship among the maximal sample load, flow rate and peak resolution in the silver ion column were optimized, and the performance of the silver ion column was compared with conventional C 18 column and silica gel column. Based on the developed chromatographic conditions, online heart-cutting LC-LC chromatographic separation system in combination with a silica gel column and a silver ion column that was applied to preparative separation of these two isomers from a traditional Chinese medicine, Inula racemosa Hook.f., was established. The results showed that the online heart-cutting LC-LC technique by combination of a silica gel column and a silver ion column for the preparative separation of these two positional isomers from this natural plant was superior to the preparative separation performed on a single-column system with C 18 column or silica gel column. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Insecticidal Effect (LC50 and LC90) of Organic Fatty Acids Mixture (C8910+Silicone) Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, James C; Falconer, Aneika; Leite, Laura N; Wirtz, Robert A; Brogdon, William G

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue and associated Aedes vectors are expanding their historical ranges; thus, there is a need for the development of novel insecticides for use in vector control programs. The mosquito toxicity of a novel insecticide and repellent consisting of medium-chain carbon fatty acids (C8910) was examined. Determination of LC 50 and LC 90 was made against colony-reared Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) using probit analysis on mortality data generated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays. Six different concentrations of C8910 + silicone oil yielded an LC 50 of 160.3 µg a.i/bottle (147.6-182.7) and LC 90 of 282.8 (233.2-394.2) in Ae. aegypti; five concentrations yielded an LC 50 of 125.4 (116.1-137.6) and LC 90 of 192.5 (165.0-278.9) in Ae. albopictus. Further development of C8910 and similar compounds could provide vector control specialists novel insecticides for controlling insect disease vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. LC-NMR coupling technology: recent advancements and applications in natural products analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Krucker, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Gerothanassis, I.P.; Albert, K.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) coupled with separation technologies and their application in natural product analysis is given and discussed. The different modes of LC-NMR operation are described, as well as how technical improvements assist in establishing LC-NMR

  9. Passive Reactor Compensated Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel LC-StatCom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Townsend, Christopher David; Hredzak, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    The cascaded H-bridge (CHB) low-capacitance StatCom (LC-StatCom) has a limited operating area in the inductive region compared to a conventional StatCom's V–I characteristic. This limitation for operation in the inductive region is considered to be the biggest disadvantage of CHB LC-StatCom. In t...

  10. Keefektifan Model Pembelajaran LC 5E Dan TSTS Berbantuan LKPD Terhadap Hasil Belajar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Asmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah hasil belajar pada pembelajaran Learning Cycle 5E (LC 5E dan kooperatif Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS berbantuan LKPD dapat mencapai KKM yang ditetapkan sekolah; untuk mengetahui apakah rata-rata hasil belajar pada pembelajaran LC 5E dan TSTS berbantuan LKPD lebih tinggi daripada pem-belajaran ekspositori, serta apakah rata-rata hasil belajar pada pembelajaran LC 5E berban-tuan LKPD lebih baik daripada pembelajaran TSTS berbantuan LKPD. Data penelitian diperoleh dengan metode tes dan observasi. Analisis data hasil belajar meliputi uji nor-malitas, uji homogenitas, uji perbedaan rata-rata, uji scheffe, dan uji proporsi. Hasil pene-litian menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar pada pembelajaran LC 5E berbantuan LKPD telah mencapai KKM, sedangkan hasil belajar pada pembelajaran TSTS berbantuan LKPD dan pembelajaran ekspositori belum mencapai KKM. Selain itu, rata-rata hasil belajar pada pembelajaran LC 5E dan TSTS berbantuan LKPD lebih tinggi daripada pembelajaran eks-positori, sedangkan rata-rata hasil belajar pada pembelajaran LC 5E berbantuan LKPD le-bih baik daripada pembelajaran TSTS berbantuan LKPD. Kata kunci:       hasil belajar; LC 5E; TSTS  AbstractThe purposes of this research are to find out whether the learning outcomes in the Learning Cycle 5E (LC 5E and the cooperative Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS assisted LKPD may attain the KKM settled by the school; to find out whether the average of the learning outcome in the LC 5E and TSTS assisted LKPD is higher than the expository learning, and whether the average of the learning outcome in the LC 5E assisted LKPD is better than TSTS assisted LKPD. The data of the research were obtained by testing and observation methods. The data analysis of learning outcomes included normality test, homogeneity test, mean difference test, Scheffe test, and proportions test. The research outcome indicated that the learning outcome in the implementation of

  11. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  12. LC-lens array with light field algorithm for 3D biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Hsieh, Po-Yuan; Hassanfiroozi, Amir; Martinez, Manuel; Javidi, Bahram; Chu, Chao-Yu; Hsuan, Yun; Chu, Wen-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, liquid crystal lens (LC-lens) array was utilized in 3D bio-medical applications including 3D endoscope and light field microscope. Comparing with conventional plastic lens array, which was usually placed in 3D endoscope or light field microscope system to record image disparity, our LC-lens array has higher flexibility of electrically changing its focal length. By using LC-lens array, the working distance and image quality of 3D endoscope and microscope could be enhanced. Furthermore, the 2D/3D switching ability could be achieved if we turn off/on the electrical power on LClens array. In 3D endoscope case, a hexagonal micro LC-lens array with 350um diameter was placed at the front end of a 1mm diameter endoscope. With applying electric field on LC-lens array, the 3D specimen would be recorded as from seven micro-cameras with different disparity. We could calculate 3D construction of specimen with those micro images. In the other hand, if we turn off the electric field on LC-lens array, the conventional high resolution 2D endoscope image would be recorded. In light field microscope case, the LC-lens array was placed in front of the CMOS sensor. The main purpose of LC-lens array is to extend the refocusing distance of light field microscope, which is usually very narrow in focused light field microscope system, by montaging many light field images sequentially focusing on different depth. With adjusting focal length of LC-lens array from 2.4mm to 2.9mm, the refocusing distance was extended from 1mm to 11.3mm. Moreover, we could use a LC wedge to electrically shift the optics axis and increase the resolution of light field.

  13. Plato's patricide in the sophist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to elucidate validity of Plato's criticism of Parmenides' simplified monistic ontology, as well as his concept of non-being. In contrast to Parmenides, Plato introduces a more complex ontology of the megista gene and redefines Parmenides' concept of non-being as something absolutely different from being. According to Plato, not all things are in the same sense, i. e. they have the different ontological status. Additionally, he redefines Parmenides' concept of absolute non-being as 'difference' or 'otherness.' .

  14. Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

  15. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  16. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  17. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  18. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  19. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  20. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  1. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  2. LC-MS-based quantification method for Achyranthes root saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuki; Hoshino, Tatsuro; Morimoto, Hidetaka; Shinizu, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Yuji; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of Achyranthes root saponins: chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2), achyranthosides B (3), C (4), D (5), E (6), and G (7), sulfachyranthosides B (8) and D (9), and betavulgarosides II (10) and IV (11). Satisfactory separation of the saponins was achieved with the use of a volatile ion-pair reagent (dihexyl ammonium acetate) on a phenyl-hexylated silica gel column, and the amounts of saponins extracted under three different conditions were determined. When Achyranthes root was extracted with water at room temperature, achyranthosides B (3) and D (5) were the major saponins, and smaller amounts of other saponins (4, 6-11) were present. However, the amounts of chikusetsusaponins (1 and 2) were negligible. Under the condition to make a standard decoction of a Kampo formula, the major saponins were achyranthosides B (3), C (4), and D (5), and small amounts of chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2) appeared, whereas prolonged heating largely increased the amounts of chikusetsusaponins. This method can be used for quality control of Achyranthes root.

  3. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  4. Analysis of Water Resources in Horqin Sandy Land Using Multisource Data from 2003 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades, land use/land cover (LU/LC change, coupled with persistent drought, has resulted in the decline of groundwater levels in Horqin Sandy Land. Accordingly, this study quantifies changes in LU/LC and groundwater storage (GWS. Furthermore, it investigates the effects of LU/LC changes on GWS. GWS changes are estimated using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data and ground-based measurements obtained from July 2003 to December 2010. Soil moisture and snow water equivalent data derived from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS are used to isolate GWS changes from GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage changes. The result shows that the groundwater depletion rate in Horqin Sandy Land is 13.5 ± 1.9 mm·year−1 in 2003–2010, which is consistent with the results of monitoring well stations. LU/LC changes are detected using bitemporal imageries (2003 and 2010 from Landsat Thematic Mapper through the post-classification comparison method. The result shows that LU/LC significantly changed during the aforementioned period. Bare soil and built-up land have increased by 76.6% and 82.2%, respectively, while cropland, vegetation, and water bodies have decreased by 14.1%, 74.5%, and 82.6%, respectively. The analysis of GWS and LU/LC changes shows that LU/LC changes and persistent drought are the main factors that affect groundwater resources.

  5. The transcription factor Lc-Maf participates in Col27a1 regulation during chondrocyte maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jaime L.; Holden, Devin N. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, 591 WIDB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Barrow, Jeffery R. [Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Bridgewater, Laura C., E-mail: laura_bridgewater@byu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, 591 WIDB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The transcription factor Lc-Maf, which is a splice variant of c-Maf, is expressed in cartilage undergoing endochondral ossification and participates in the regulation of type II collagen through a cartilage-specific Col2a1 enhancer element. Type XXVII and type XI collagens are also expressed in cartilage during endochondral ossification, and so enhancer/reporter assays were used to determine whether Lc-Maf could regulate cartilage-specific enhancers from the Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. The Col27a1 enhancer was upregulated over 4-fold by Lc-Maf, while the Col11a2 enhancer was downregulated slightly. To confirm the results of these reporter assays, rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells were transiently transfected with an Lc-Maf expression plasmid, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of endogenous Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. Endogenous Col27a1 was upregulated 6-fold by Lc-Maf overexpression, while endogenous Col11a2 was unchanged. Finally, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed in the radius and ulna of embryonic day 17 mouse forelimbs undergoing endochondral ossification. Results demonstrated that Lc-Maf and Col27a1 mRNAs are coexpressed in proliferating and prehypertrophic regions, as would be predicted if Lc-Maf regulates Col27a1 expression. Type XXVII collagen protein was also most abundant in prehypertrophic and proliferating chondrocytes. Others have shown that mice that are null for Lc-Maf and c-Maf have expanded hypertrophic regions with reduced ossification and delayed vascularization. Separate studies have indicated that Col27a1 may serve as a scaffold for ossification and vascularization. The work presented here suggests that Lc-Maf may affect the process of endochondral ossification by participating in the regulation of Col27a1 expression.

  6. Glycomic profiling of tissue sections by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunli; Zhou, Shiyue; Khalil, Sarah I; Renteria, Calvin L; Mechref, Yehia

    2013-04-16

    Because routine preparation of glycan samples involves multiple reaction and cleaning steps at which sample loss occurs, glycan analysis is typically performed using large tissue samples. This type of analysis yields no detailed molecular spatial information and requires special care to maintain proper storage and shipping conditions. We describe here a new glycan sample preparation protocol using minimized sample preparation steps and optimized procedures. Tissue sections and spotted samples first undergo on-surface enzymatic digestion to release N-glycans. The released glycans are then reduced and permethylated prior to online purification and LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS analysis. The efficiency of this protocol was initially evaluated using model glycoproteins and human blood serum (HBS) spotted on glass or Teflon slides. The new protocol permitted the detection of permethylated N-glycans derived from 10 ng RNase B. On the other hand, 66 N-glycans were identified when injecting the equivalent of permethylated glycans derived from a 0.1-μL aliquot of HBS. On-tissue enzymatic digestion of nude mouse brain tissue permitted the detection of 43 N-glycans. The relative peak areas of these 43 glycans were comparable to those from a C57BL/6 mouse reported by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG). However, the sample size analyzed in the protocol described here was substantially smaller than for the routine method (submicrogram vs mg). The on-tissue N-glycan profiling method permits high sensitivity and reproducibility and can be widely applied to assess the spatial distribution of glycans associated with tissue sections, and may be correlated with immunoflourescence imaging when adjacent tissue sections are analyzed.

  7. Direct coupling of a flow-flow electromembrane extraction probe to LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, David; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    the fully automated EME-LC-MS system offers a significant time saving and in addition demonstrates increased sensitivity as the analytes were automatically enriched during the extraction process. The experiment revealed 6 to 16 times higher S/N ratios of the EME-LC-MS method compared to protein...... precipitation followed by LC-MS and thus concomitantly lower LOD and LOQ. The setup integrates a complete analytical workflow of rapid extraction, enrichment, separation and detection of analytes in a fully automated manner. These attributes make the developed system a powerful alternative approach for a wide...

  8. Polymerization speed and diffractive experiments in polymer network LC test cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Larissa; Gong, Zhen; Habibpourmoghadam, Atefeh; Schafforz, Samuel L.; Wolfram, Lukas; Lorenz, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Polymer-network liquid crystals (LCs), where the response properties of a LC can be enhanced by the presence of a porous polymer network, are investigated. In the reported experiments, liquid crystals were doped with a small amount (situ generated polymer network, the electro-optic response properties of photo cured samples were enhanced. For example, their continuous phase modulation properties led to more localized responses in samples with interdigitated electrodes, which caused suppression of selected diffraction orders in the diffraction patterns recorded in polymer network LC samples. Moreover, capacitance changes were investigated during photopolymerization of a blue phase LC.

  9. Strategic Uncertainty in Markets for Nonrenewable Resources: A Level-k Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Vierhaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing models of nonrenewable resources assume that sophisticated agents compete with other sophisticated agents. This study instead uses a level-k approach to examine cases where the focal agent is uncertain about the strategy of his opponent or predicts that the opponent will act in a nonsophisticated manner. Level-0 players are randomized uniformly across all possible actions, and level-k players best respond to the action of player k-1. We study a dynamic nonrenewable resource game with a large number of actions. We are able to solve for the level-1 strategy by reducing the averaging problem to an optimization problem against a single action. We show that lower levels of strategic reasoning are close to the Walras and collusive benchmark, whereas higher level strategies converge to the Nash-Hotelling equilibrium. These results are then fitted to experimental data, suggesting that the level of sophistication of participants increased over the course of the experiment.

  10. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  11. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  12. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  13. LC-NMR: profiling and dereplication of natural product extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    mixtures can also be achieved by the application of sophisticated hyphenated spectroscopic techniques. Hyphenated techniques offer an efficient scheme for the chemical screening of extracts required to detect new leads, which potentially can be interesting from a chemical viewpoint. The direct hyphenation of an efficient separation technique with powerful spectroscopic methods has great potential to speed up the dereplication process

  14. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...

  15. Ontwikkeling van een FAST-LC methode voor een aantal nitrofuranen in vlees en melk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1985-01-01

    Door toepassing van het zogenaamde "FAST-LC systeem" kunnen monsters zonder veel manuele handelingen automatisch worden geanalyseerd op nitrofuranen, medicinale stoffen met een breed werkingsspectrum, toegepast tegen infectieziekten bij runderen, varkens en pluimvee. In de Verenigde Staten mogen

  16. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. METHODS: 825 patients with ischaemic heart...... and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394....... disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, provides 90-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data used in the...

  18. Magnetic motion capture system using LC resonant magnetic marker composed of Ni-Zn ferrite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashi, S.; Toyoda, M.; Ohya, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Yabukami, S.; Ishiyama, K.; Arai, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a magnetic motion capture system using an LC resonant magnetic marker. The proposed system is composed of an exciting coil, an LC marker, and a 5x5-matrix search coil array (25 search coils). The LC marker is small and has a minimal circuit with no battery and can be driven wirelessly by the action of electromagnetic induction. It consists of a Ni-Zn ferrite core (3 mmφx10 mm) with a wound coil and a chip capacitor, forming an LC series circuit with a resonant frequency of 186 kHz. The relative position accuracy of the system is less than 1 mm within the area of 100 mm 3 up to 150 mm from the search coil array. Compared with dc magnetic systems, the proposed system is applicable for precision motion capture in optically isolated spaces without magnetic shielding because the system is not greatly influenced by earth field noise

  19. Exploring on the Sensitivity Changes of the LC Resonance Magnetic Sensors Affected by Superposed Ringing Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kun; Yu, Sijia; Wang, Pengfei; Wan, Ling; Zhao, Jing

    2018-04-25

    LC resonance magnetic sensors are widely used in low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) due to their high sensitivity, low cost and simple design. In magnetically shielded rooms, LC resonance magnetic sensors can exhibit sensitivities at the fT/√Hz level in the kHz range. However, since the equivalent magnetic field noise of this type of sensor is greatly affected by the environment, weak signals are often submerged in practical applications, resulting in relatively low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). To determine why noise increases in unshielded environments, we analysed the noise levels of an LC resonance magnetic sensor ( L ≠ 0) and a Hall sensor ( L ≈ 0) in different environments. The experiments and simulations indicated that the superposed ringing of the LC resonance magnetic sensors led to the observed increase in white noise level caused by environmental interference. Nevertheless, ringing is an inherent characteristic of LC resonance magnetic sensors. It cannot be eliminated when environmental interference exists. In response to this problem, we proposed a method that uses matching resistors with various values to adjust the quality factor Q of the LC resonance magnetic sensor in different measurement environments to obtain the best sensitivity. The LF-NMR experiment in the laboratory showed that the SNR is improved significantly when the LC resonance magnetic sensor with the best sensitivity is selected for signal acquisition in the light of the test environment. (When the matching resistance is 10 kΩ, the SNR is 3.46 times that of 510 Ω). This study improves LC resonance magnetic sensors for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection in a variety of environments.

  20. Acute effects of Cu on oxygen consumption and 96 hr-LC 50 values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median lethal copper (Cu) concentration (96 hr-LC50) values for acute Cu toxicity for Tilapia sparrmanii (live mass: 30 ± 8g) in Mooi River hard water of dolomitic origin at 20° C, pH 7.9, was 68.1 µmol l–1. At this 96 hr-LC50 value the specific oxygen consumption rate (∉ O2) decreased by 44.2 (± 2.1) % from a ...

  1. Studi Perbedaan Keefektifan Pembelajaran LC-5E dan CIRC Terhadap Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulastri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available membandingkan keefektifan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe LC-5E (Learning Cycle 5E dan tipe CIRC(Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika peserta didik. Populasi penelitian adalah peserta didik kelas X SMA Negeri 2 Ungaran. Sampel diambil secara cluster random sampling. Data akhir mengenai kemampuan pemecahan masalah diambil menggunakan metode tes. Teknik analisis data menggunakan uji proporsi, uji Anava dan uji lanjut LSD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kelas yang dikenai perlakuan pembelajaran LC-5Edan CIRCmencapai ketuntasan belajar. Dari uji Anava diketahui bahwa ada perbedaan rata-rata yang signifikan. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji lanjut LSDmenunjukkan Kelompok Eksperimen 1 paling baik. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah model pembelajaran LC-5Elebih efektif dibandingkan tipe CIRC terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik. Saran yang dapat direkomendasikan adalah pembelajaran LC-5E dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam mengembangkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik. The purpose of this research was tocomparethe effectiveness of cooperative learning models type LC-5E (Learning Cycle 5E and type CIRC (Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition toward students’ mathematic problem solving ability. The population of this research was students grade X of SMA Negeri 2 Ungaran.The samples were taken by cluster random sampling. The final data about students’ problem solving ability were taken used test method. Data were analysed used propotion test, ANOVA test, and LSD test. The result shown that classes that given LC-5E and CIRC learning models achieved mastery learning. From ANOVA test known that the averages are different significantly.From LSD test is known that the experiment group was the best. The conclusions from this research are LC-5E is more effective than CIRC learning model toward students’ problem solving ability. The suggestion is LC-5E model can be

  2. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  3. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  4. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  5. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  6. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  8. Analysis of membrane proteome by data-dependent LC-MS/MS combined with data-independent LC-MSE technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics work resembles the search for a needle in a haystack. The identification of protein biomarker requires the removal of the false protein data from the whole protein mixture. For high quality proteomic data, even a strict filtration step using the false discovery rate (FDR is insufficient for obtaining perfect protein information from the biological samples. In this study, the cyanobacterial whole membrane fraction was applied to the data-dependent analysis (DDA mode of LC-MS/MS, which was used along with the data-independent LC-MSE technique in order to evaluate the membrane proteomic data. Furthermore, the identified MSE-information (MSE-i data based on the peptide mass and the retention time were validated by the other database search, i.e., the probability-based MASCOT and de novo search engine PEAKS. In this present study, 208 cyanobacterial proteins with FDR of 5% were identified using the data-independent nano-UPLC/MSE acquisition with the Protein Lynx Global Server (PLGS, and 56 of these proteins were the predicted membrane proteins. When a total of 208 MSE-i proteomic data were applied to the DDA mode of LC-MS/MS, the number of identified membrane proteins was 26 and 33 from MASCOT and PEAKS with a FDR of 5%, respectively. The number of totally overlapped membrane proteins was 25. Therefore, the data-independent LC-MSE identified more proteins with a high confidence.

  9. Separation and identification of selenotrisulfides in epithelial cell homogenates by LC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-MS after incubation with selenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Gammelgaard, Bente; Bendahl, Lars

    2006-01-01

    . The presence of Cys-Se-SG and GS-Se-SG was verified by LC-ESI-MS. Selenotrisulfides were synthesized by reaction of L-cysteine and L-glutathione with sodium selenite. The reaction mixture contained three main products: selenodicysteine (Cys-Se-Cys), selenocysteine glutathione (Cys...

  10. Complete genome sequence of the Lactococcus lactis temperate phage phiLC3: comparative analysis of phiLC3 and its relatives in lactococci and streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatny, Janet Martha; Godager, Linda; Lunde, Merete; Nes, Ingolf Figved

    2004-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of the P335 temperate Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage phiLC3 (32, 172 bp) revealed fifty-one open reading frames (ORFs). Four ORFs did not show any homology to other proteins in the database and twenty-one ORFs were assigned a putative biological function. phiLC3 contained a unique replication module and orf201 was identified as the putative replication initiator protein-encoding gene. phiLC3 was closely related to the L. lactis r1t phage (73% DNA identity). Similarity was also shared with other lactococcal P335 phages and the Streptococcus pyogenes prophages 370.3, 8232.4 and 315.5 over the non-structural genes and the genes involved in DNA packaging/phage morphogenesis, respectively. phiLC3 contained small homologous regions distributed among lactococcal phages suggesting that these regions might be involved in mediating genetic exchange. Two regions of 30 and 32 bp were conserved among the streptococcal and lactococcal r1t-like phages. These two regions, as well as other homologous regions, were located at mosaic borders and close to putative transcriptional terminators indicating that such regions together might attract recombination. The conserved regions found among lactococcal and streptococcal phages might be used for identification of phages/prophages/prophage remnants in their hosts

  11. A study on the influence of eWOM using content analysis: how do comments on value for money, product sophistication and experiential feeling affect our choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Vincent; Chan, Alpha

    2017-07-01

    The influence of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been heavily investigated in relation to online ratings. However, only a few studies examined the content of eWOM. From the perspective of the consideration sets model, consumers formulate an awareness set, a consideration set and a choice set before making a purchase. We argue that the formulation of these sets is influenced by eWOM based on its volume, valance and content relating to product attributes such as value for money, product sophistication and experiential feeling. In this study, the content of posts relating to Shure professional earphones in the online forum Mingo (www.mingo-hmw.com/forum) was captured and annotated. During the data collection period, Mingo was the sole online forum relating to professional earphones. Without much interference from other online forums, the circumstances of this study closely approximate a laboratory setting. In addition, we collected the actual sales, marketing costs, fault rates and number of retail stores selling the Shure professional earphones for 126 weeks. Our findings show that the weekly volume of posts, their relative number of positive (negative) comments, especially regarding value for money and sound quality, and those posts from the earlier week impinged strongly on weekly sales of Shure products. From the regression models, the explained variance in sales jumps from 0.236 to 0.732 due to the influence of eWOM.

  12. Critical confrontation of standard and more sophisticated methods for modelling the dispersion in air of heavy gas clouds; evaluation and illustration of the intrinsic limitations of both categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riethmuller, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical models of gas dispersion have evolved drastically since the 1930's. For a long time, the most widely used approach was the so-called Gaussian model as described in practical terms by Turner or box models which have shown relative merits. In the field of heavy gas dispersion, the use of such approaches appeared somewhat limited and therefore new models have been proposed. Some of these new generation models were making use of the latest progress in turbulence modelling as derived from laboratory work as well as numerical advances. The advent of faster and larger computers made possible the development of three dimensional codes that were computing both flow field and gas dispersion taking into account details of the ground obstacles, heat exchange and possibly phase changes as well. The description of these new types of models makes them appear as a considerable improvement over the simpler approaches. However, recent comparisons between many of these have led to the conclusion that the scatter between predictions attained with sophisticated models was just as large as with other ones. It seems therefore, that current researchers might have fallen into the trap of confusing mathematical precision with accuracy. It is therefore felt necessary to enlighten this question by an investigation which, rather than comparing individual models, would analyse the key features of both approaches and put in evidence their relative merits and degree of realism when being really applied

  13. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  14. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  15. Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blumenthal, D.; Mitchell, C. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 19 (2009), s. 7899-7904 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * enemy release * resource availability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.432, year: 2009

  16. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  17. Undergraduate Students’Evaluation Criteria When Using Web Resources for Class Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Youn Hung

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in popularity of the World Wide Web has dramatically changed the way undergraduate students conduct information searches. The purpose of this study is to investigate what core quality criteria undergraduate students use to evaluate Web resources for their class papers and to what extent they evaluate the Web resources. This study reports on five Web page evaluations and a questionnaire survey of thirty five undergraduate students in the Information Technology and Informatics Program at Rutgers University. Results show that undergraduate students have become increasingly sophisticated about using Web resources, but not yet sophisticated about searching them. Undergraduate students only used one or two surface quality criteria to evaluate Web resources. They made immediate judgments about the surface features of Web pages and ignored the content of the documents themselves. This research suggests that undergraduate instructors should take the responsibility for instructing students on basic Web use knowledge or work with librarians to develop undergraduate students information literacy skills.

  18. LC3B is indispensable for selective autophagy of p62 but not basal autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yoko; Sou, Yu-Shin; Kageyama, Shun; Takahashi, Takao; Ueno, Takashi; Tanaka, Keiji; Komatsu, Masaaki; Ichimura, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Knockdown of LC3 or GABARAP families did not affect the basal autophagy. • LC3B has a higher affinity for the autophagy-specific substrate, p62, than GABARAPs. • siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3B, but not that of GABARAPs, resulted in significant accumulation of p62. - Abstract: Autophagy is a unique intracellular protein degradation system accompanied by autophagosome formation. Besides its important role through bulk degradation in supplying nutrients, this system has an ability to degrade certain proteins, organelles, and invading bacteria selectively to maintain cellular homeostasis. In yeasts, Atg8p plays key roles in both autophagosome formation and selective autophagy based on its membrane fusion property and interaction with autophagy adaptors/specific substrates. In contrast to the single Atg8p in yeast, mammals have 6 homologs of Atg8p comprising LC3 and GABARAP families. However, it is not clear these two families have different or similar functions. The aim of this study was to determine the separate roles of LC3 and GABARAP families in basal/constitutive and/or selective autophagy. While the combined knockdown of LC3 and GABARAP families caused a defect in long-lived protein degradation through lysosomes, knockdown of each had no effect on the degradation. Meanwhile, knockdown of LC3B but not GABARAPs resulted in significant accumulation of p62/Sqstm1, one of the selective substrate for autophagy. Our results suggest that while mammalian Atg8 homologs are functionally redundant with regard to autophagosome formation, selective autophagy is regulated by specific Atg8 homologs

  19. LC3B is indispensable for selective autophagy of p62 but not basal autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoko [Protein Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Sou, Yu-Shin; Kageyama, Shun [Protein Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Takahashi, Takao [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ueno, Takashi [Division of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, Center for Biomedical Research Resources, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Tanaka, Keiji [Laboratory of Protein Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Komatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: komatsu-ms@igakuken.or.jp [Protein Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510 (Japan); Ichimura, Yoshinobu, E-mail: ichimura-ys@igakuken.or.jp [Protein Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Knockdown of LC3 or GABARAP families did not affect the basal autophagy. • LC3B has a higher affinity for the autophagy-specific substrate, p62, than GABARAPs. • siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3B, but not that of GABARAPs, resulted in significant accumulation of p62. - Abstract: Autophagy is a unique intracellular protein degradation system accompanied by autophagosome formation. Besides its important role through bulk degradation in supplying nutrients, this system has an ability to degrade certain proteins, organelles, and invading bacteria selectively to maintain cellular homeostasis. In yeasts, Atg8p plays key roles in both autophagosome formation and selective autophagy based on its membrane fusion property and interaction with autophagy adaptors/specific substrates. In contrast to the single Atg8p in yeast, mammals have 6 homologs of Atg8p comprising LC3 and GABARAP families. However, it is not clear these two families have different or similar functions. The aim of this study was to determine the separate roles of LC3 and GABARAP families in basal/constitutive and/or selective autophagy. While the combined knockdown of LC3 and GABARAP families caused a defect in long-lived protein degradation through lysosomes, knockdown of each had no effect on the degradation. Meanwhile, knockdown of LC3B but not GABARAPs resulted in significant accumulation of p62/Sqstm1, one of the selective substrate for autophagy. Our results suggest that while mammalian Atg8 homologs are functionally redundant with regard to autophagosome formation, selective autophagy is regulated by specific Atg8 homologs.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements by HPLC and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H; Kim, J W; Han, K M; Lee, J H; Hwang, I S; Lee, J H; Kim, J; Kweon, S J; Cho, S; Chae, K R; Han, S Y; Kim, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to test health foods for illegally added diuretics for weight loss, we developed simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods using HPLC and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements. HPLC conditions were set with a Capcell-pak C18, using a mobile phase consisting of gradient conditions, UV detection at 254 nm and validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.999), precision (CV ≤ 3%), recoveries (90.4-102.8%) and reproducibility. Identification and quantification of 17 diuretics were accomplished by ion-spray LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The chromatographic separation was carried out under the reversed-phase mechanism on an HSS-T3 column. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.99) and precision (CV Diuretics were not detected in all samples. Extraction recovery was also investigated and the extraction recoveries in different formulations were from 88% to 110% and from 81% to 116% using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, respectively. There was no significant difference in recoveries in the type of dietary supplements. Based on this result, the developed methods to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using HPLC and LC-MS/MS are simple, fast and reliable. Therefore, it is applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.

  1. Design and characteristics of L-C thin films filter at microwave frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Min, Bok-Ki; Song, Jae-Sung

    2005-12-01

    Multifunction corresponding to multimedia age has furthermore required high integration to the devices at microwave band, so more evolution for multi-layer integration like system on chip(SoC) becomes to be necessary. In wireless mobile communication, portable mobile phones grew up to a huge market. Microwave devices have played an important role in the wireless communication systems. One challenge in the implementation of circuit integration is in the design of micro wave band pass filter with thin film MOM capacitor and spiral inductor. In this paper, Cu and TaO thin film with RF sputtering was deposited for inductor and capacitor on the SiO II/Si(100) substrate. MIM capacitor and spiral inductor was fabricated for L-C band pass filter by sputtering and lift-off. We are analyzed and designed thin films L-C passive components for band pass filter at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, an important devices for mobile communication. Based on the high-Q values of passive components, MIM capacitor and spiral inductors for L-C band pass filter, a low insertion loss of L-C passive components can be realized with a minimized chip area. The insertion loss was 3 dB for a 1.8 GHz filter, and was 5 dB for a 900 MHz filter. This paper also discusses a theoretical analysis and practical design to L-C band pass filter.

  2. Could LC-NE-Dependent Adjustment of Neural Gain Drive Functional Brain Network Reorganization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Guedj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system. We propose that these two mechanisms are interdependent such that the LC-NE-dependent adjustment of the neural gain inferred from the clustering coefficient could drive functional brain network reorganizations through coherence in the gamma rhythm. Via the temporal dynamic of gamma-range band-limited power, the release of NE could adjust the neural gain, promoting interactions only within the neuronal populations whose amplitude envelopes are correlated, thus making it possible to reorganize neuronal ensembles, functional networks, and ultimately, behavioral responses. Thus, our proposal offers a unified framework integrating the putative influence of the LC-NE system on both local- and long-range adjustments of brain dynamics underlying behavioral flexibility.

  3. LC-MSMS assays of urinary cortisol, a comparison between four in-house assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossaud, Julie; Leban, Monique; Corcuff, Jean-Benoit; Boux de Casson, Florence; Leloupp, Anne-Gaëlle; Masson, Damien; Moal, Valérie; Bach-Ngohou, Kalyane

    2018-06-27

    Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) determination can be used for screening and follow-up of Cushing syndrome (CS). As immunoassay methods lack specificity for UFC measurement, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (LC-MSMS) is recommended. The aim of our study was to compare UFC results using four LC-MSMS methods performed in four independent laboratories in order to evaluate interlaboratory agreement. Frozen aliquots of 24-h urine samples (78 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with CS) were sent to four different laboratories for analysis. Following liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, UFC were determined using four different LC-MSMS assay. UFC intra- and interassays variation coefficients were lower than 10% for each centre. External quality control results were not significantly different. UFC normal ranges (established from healthy volunteers) were 17-126, 15-134, 12-118 and 27-157 nmol/day, respectively. Classification of UFC from healthy volunteers and patients with CS using a 95th percentile threshold was similar. However, for extreme UFC values (270 nmol/day), negative or positive bias was noted. Even for highly specific methods such as LC-MSMS, variations of results can be found depending on analytical process. Validation of LC-MSMS methods including determination of the reference range is essential.

  4. ICPD-a new peak detection algorithm for LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Haskins, William

    2010-12-01

    The identification and quantification of proteins using label-free Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) play crucial roles in biological and biomedical research. Increasing evidence has shown that biomarkers are often low abundance proteins. However, LC/MS systems are subject to considerable noise and sample variability, whose statistical characteristics are still elusive, making computational identification of low abundance proteins extremely challenging. As a result, the inability of identifying low abundance proteins in a proteomic study is the main bottleneck in protein biomarker discovery. In this paper, we propose a new peak detection method called Information Combining Peak Detection (ICPD ) for high resolution LC/MS. In LC/MS, peptides elute during a certain time period and as a result, peptide isotope patterns are registered in multiple MS scans. The key feature of the new algorithm is that the observed isotope patterns registered in multiple scans are combined together for estimating the likelihood of the peptide existence. An isotope pattern matching score based on the likelihood probability is provided and utilized for peak detection. The performance of the new algorithm is evaluated based on protein standards with 48 known proteins. The evaluation shows better peak detection accuracy for low abundance proteins than other LC/MS peak detection methods.

  5. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  6. Metabolic profiling of Vitex agnus castus leaves, fruits and sprouts: analysis by LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS and (HR) LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)/MS n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Montoro, Paola; D'Urso, Gilda; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Food supplements based on Vitex agnus castus L. (Verbenaceae) fruits, also known as chasteberry, are routinely used by women against somatic and psychic premenstrual symptoms such as depression, sadness or irritability. With the aim of highlighting the differences in the chemical profiles of cultivated fruits and different parts of wild plants (fruits, leaves and sprouts) of V. agnus castus, a method concerning with the quali-quantitative study of the derived hydroalcoholic extracts was carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization Orbitrap multicollisional high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(Orbitrap)MS(n)) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/(QqQ)MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Profiling of Primary and Secondary Biosynthetic Pathways in Angiosperms: Comparative Metabonomics and Applications of Hyphenated LC-NMR and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Kayla Anne

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to advance plant metabolomics through optimization of biological experimental design, sampling and sample preparation, data acquisition and pre-processing, and multivariable data analysis. The analytical platform most employed for comparative metabonomics was nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) extended metabolic profile coverage from primary into secondary metabolic pathways. Comparative p...

  8. The clinical impact of recent advances in LC-MS for cancer biomarker discovery and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Tao; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2015-12-04

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an indispensable tool in biomedical research with broad applications ranging from fundamental biology, systems biology, and biomarker discovery. Recent advances in LC-MS have made it become a major technology in clinical applications, especially in cancer biomarker discovery and verification. To overcome the challenges associated with the analysis of clinical samples, such as extremely wide dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids and the need to perform high throughput and accurate quantification, significant efforts have been devoted to improve the overall performance of LC-MS bases clinical proteomics. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in LC-MS in the aspect of cancer biomarker discovery and quantification, and discuss its potentials, limitations, and future perspectives.

  9. TEM microstructural analysis of creep deformed CM186LC single crystal Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Blackler, M. [Howmet Ltd., Exeter (United Kingdom); Barnard, P.M. [ALSTOM Power Turbo-Systems Technology Centre, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The nickel based single crystal superalloy CM186LC was extensively investigated as a potential low cost material for industrial gas turbine vanes within the COST522 programme. The alloy exhibits inhomogeneous structure consisting of dendritic regions and eutectic colonies. In the present work attention is focused on microstructural changes observed in single crystal CM186LC following creep deformation at 750 C. Creep tests were conducted at 750 C with an applied stress of 560 or 675 MPa for up to 11440 hours. The microstructure o ruptured and terminated specimens was investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. TEM analysis revealed the microstructural changes in the CM186LC at primary and secondary creep as well as after creep rupture. (orig.)

  10. LC-MS analysis of the plasma metabolome–a novel sample preparation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kasper; Hadrup, Niels; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma is a well-known body fluid often analyzed in studies on the effects of toxic compounds as physiological or chemical induced changes in the mammalian body are reflected in the plasma metabolome. Sample preparation prior to LC-MS based analysis of the plasma metabolome is a challenge...... as plasma contains compounds with very different properties. Besides, proteins, which usually are precipitated with organic solvent, phospholipids, are known to cause ion suppression in electrospray mass spectrometry. We have compared two different sample preparation techniques prior to LC-qTOF analysis...... of plasma samples: The first is protein precipitation; the second is protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction with sub-fractionation into three sub-samples; a phospholipid, a lipid and a polar sub-fraction. Molecular feature extraction of the data files from LC-qTOF analysis of the samples...

  11. Cold flow study of liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) through radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rupesh; Upadhyay, Rajesh K.; Pant, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    As the world's demand for energy continues to increase burning of coal, oil and natural gases continue to increase which will eventually cause build-up in emission of greenhouse gasses. To overcome this challenge worldwide effort is in progress to develop an economical, more efficient and safer nuclear power. Higher thermal efficiency and enhances safety feature of Generation IV liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) makes it viable option to replace existing nuclear reactor. However, this reactor is still in research stage and need detailed study before commercialization. In current work, hydrodynamics of LC-PBR is studied by using radioisotope based techniques, radioactive particle tracking and gamma-ray densitometry. Pebble flow profile and distribution are measured for different operating conditions. Optimal operating parameters are identified for operating LC-PBR based on hydrodynamics. (author)

  12. Propagation of ELF Radiation from RS-LC System and Red Sprites in Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Paras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different mechanisms return stroke-lateral corona (RS-LC system and red sprites which excite Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been discussed. The electric and magnetic fields from RS-LC system and red spites in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been calculated. It has been found that red sprites contribute to the Schumann resonances (SR greatly as compared to the RS-LC system.

  13. Contaminant screening of wastewater with HPLC-IM-qTOF-MS and LC+LC-IM-qTOF-MS using a CCS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Susanne; Hippler, Joerg; Köhler, Timo; Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Non-target analysis has become an important tool in the field of water analysis since a broad variety of pollutants from different sources are released to the water cycle. For identification of compounds in such complex samples, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are often used. The introduction of ion mobility spectrometry provides an additional separation dimension and allows determining collision cross sections (CCS) of the analytes as a further physicochemical constant supporting the identification. A CCS database with more than 500 standard substances including drug-like compounds and pesticides was used for CCS data base search in this work. A non-target analysis of a wastewater sample was initially performed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an ion mobility-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (IM-qTOF-MS). A database search including exact mass (±5 ppm) and CCS (±1 %) delivered 22 different compounds. Furthermore, the same sample was analyzed with a two-dimensional LC method, called LC+LC, developed in our group for the coupling to IM-qTOF-MS. This four dimensional separation platform revealed 53 different compounds, identified over exact mass and CCS, in the examined wastewater sample. It is demonstrated that the CCS database can also help to distinguish between isobaric structures exemplified for cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Graphical Abstract Scheme of sample analysis and database screening.

  14. Maize Lc transcription factor enhances biosynthesis of anthocyanins, distinct proanthocyanidins and phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Flachowsky, Henryk; Fischer, Thilo C; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter; Schwab, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Thomas; Szankowski, Iris

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds with manifold functions in plants. Present in a wide range of vegetables and fruits, flavonoids form an integral part of the human diet and confer multiple health benefits. Here, we report on metabolic engineering of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by overexpression of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf colour (Lc) regulatory gene. The Lc gene was transferred into the M. domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation which resulted in enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in regenerated shoots. Five independent Lc lines were investigated for integration of Lc into the plant genome by Southern blot and PCR analyses. The Lc-transgenic lines contained one or two Lc gene copies and showed increased mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase (FHT), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductases (LAR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR). HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analyses revealed higher levels of the anthocyanin idaein (12-fold), the flavan 3-ol epicatechin (14-fold), and especially the isomeric catechin (41-fold), and some distinct dimeric proanthocyanidins (7 to 134-fold) in leaf tissues of Lc-transgenic lines. The levels of phenylpropanoids and their derivatives were only slightly increased. Thus, Lc overexpression in Malus domestica resulted in enhanced biosynthesis of specific flavonoid classes, which play important roles in both phytopathology and human health.

  15. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  16. LC-MS-MS identification of drug metabolites obtained by metalloporphyrin mediated oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurin Andrea J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS to the identification of the products formed by oxidation of albendazole and disopyramide with metalloporphyrins in dichloroethane, using iodosylbenzene as an oxygen donor. Our results show that LC-MS-MS is a powerful tool to study the in vitro metabolism of drugs, allowing the identification of known and unknown metabolites. In addition, it was observed that the catalyst system used resulted in the formation of the same metabolites as obtained in vivo, although for disopyramide other products were also observed.

  17. LC clean-up and GC/MS analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondek, L.; Kuzilek, M.; Krupicka, S.

    1993-01-01

    An LC clean-up procedure based upon a complexation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica with chemically bonded 2,4-dinitroaniline has been combined with GC/MS. The LC pre-separation makes it possible to obtain a relatively clean fraction of PAHs free from alkanes, alkylbenzenes and naphthalenes, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and many other interfering compounds. This fraction has been analyzed using capillary GC and mass selective detector (MSD). Substantial improvement of the MS spectra of PAHs with three or more fused benzene rings is achieved. (orig.)

  18. Laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a LC electrical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. M.; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Marcus, Charles Masamed

    2011-01-01

    We explore a method for laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a room temperature LC electrical circuit. Our approach uses a nanomechanical oscillator as a transducer between optical and electronic excitations. An experimentally feasible system with the oscillator capacitively...... coupled to the LC and at the same time interacting with light via an optomechanical force is shown to provide strong electromechanical coupling. Conditions for improved sensitivity and quantum limited readout of electrical signals with such an “optical loud speaker” are outlined....

  19. Dependence between LD50 for Rodents and LC50 for Adult Fish and Fish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, K V; Belyaeva, N F; Mikhailov, A N; Mikhailova, M V

    2017-02-01

    We revealed empirical dependences between common logarithm of a ratio of rat oral LD 50 to LC a 50 for adult fish and lgP for 50 different chemicals; and common logarithm of a ratio of the oral LD 50 in rodents to LC e 50 for fish embryos and lgP for 30 different chemicals. The dependences were obtained by constructing a trend line between experimental points and calculation of Pearson's R correlation coefficient as a measure of regression significance. These dependences can show the influence of substance lipophilicity on its toxicity for aquatic organisms comparing to mammals.

  20. Electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams--the new concept, benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Boaz; Alon, Tal; Tsizin, Svetlana; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2015-11-01

    A new type of electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (EI-LC-MS with SMB) is described. This system and its operational methods are based on pneumatic spray formation of the LC liquid flow in a heated spray vaporization chamber, full sample thermal vaporization and subsequent electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams. The vaporized sample compounds are transferred into a supersonic nozzle via a flow restrictor capillary. Consequently, while the pneumatic spray is formed and vaporized at above atmospheric pressure the supersonic nozzle backing pressure is about 0.15 Bar for the formation of supersonic molecular beams with vibrationally cold sample molecules without cluster formation with the solvent vapor. The sample compounds are ionized in a fly-though EI ion source as vibrationally cold molecules in the SMB, resulting in 'Cold EI' (EI of vibrationally cold molecules) mass spectra that exhibit the standard EI fragments combined with enhanced molecular ions. We evaluated the EI-LC-MS with SMB system and demonstrated its effectiveness in NIST library sample identification which is complemented with the availability of enhanced molecular ions. The EI-LC-MS with SMB system is characterized by linear response of five orders of magnitude and uniform compound independent response including for non-polar compounds. This feature improves sample quantitation that can be approximated without compound specific calibration. Cold EI, like EI, is free from ion suppression and/or enhancement effects (that plague ESI and/or APCI) which facilitate faster LC separation because full separation is not essential. The absence of ion suppression effects enables the exploration of fast flow injection MS-MS as an alternative to lengthy LC-MS analysis. These features are demonstrated in a few examples, and the analysis of the main ingredients of Cannabis on a few Cannabis flower extracts is demonstrated. Finally, the advantages of

  1. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    two LC impedance networks and two isolated dc sources, which can significantly increase the overall system cost and require a more complex modulator for balancing the network inductive voltage boosting. Offering a number of less costly alternatives, this letter presents the design and control of two...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...

  2. La crescita di Gesù nello Spirito Santo alla luce di Lc 4, 1. 14

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Florencjan Szymański

    2006-01-01

    L’autore analizza i due versetti di Lc (4, 1. 14) in cui appare in modo evidente il legame fra Gesù e lo Spirito Santo nel contesto della tentazione del Signore da parte del diavolo. L’indagine di Lc 4, 1 mostra che Gesù, come in Mt e Mc, fu condotto nel deserto dallo Spirito che Egli ha ricevuto al battesimo. Grazie alla forza dello Spirito, Gesù è capace di affrontare il diavolo nella lotta iniziale decisiva e poi compiere fedelmente la sua missione. Realizzandola il Sig...

  3. Resource allocation in IT projects: using schedule optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chilton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is the process of assigning resources to tasks throughout the life of a project. Despite sophisticated software packages devoted to keeping track of tasks, resources and resource assignments, it is often the case that project managers find some resources over-allocated and therefore unable to complete the assigned work in the allotted amount of time. Most scheduling software has provisions for leveling resources, but the techniques for doing so simply add time to the schedule and may cause delays in tasks that are critical to the project in meeting deadlines. This paper presents a software application that ensures that resources are properly balanced at the beginning of the project and eliminates the situation in which resources become over-allocated. It can be used in a multi-project environment and reused throughout the project as tasks, resource assignments and availability, and the project scope change. The application utilizes the bounded enumeration technique to formulate an optimal schedule for which both the task sequence and resource availability are taken into account. It is run on a database server to reduce the running time and make it a viable application for practitioners.

  4. Tools for Analyzing Computing Resource Management Strategies and Algorithms for SDR Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marojevic, Vuk; Gomez-Miguelez, Ismael; Gelonch, Antoni

    2012-09-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) clouds centralize the computing resources of base stations. The computing resource pool is shared between radio operators and dynamically loads and unloads digital signal processing chains for providing wireless communications services on demand. Each new user session request particularly requires the allocation of computing resources for executing the corresponding SDR transceivers. The huge amount of computing resources of SDR cloud data centers and the numerous session requests at certain hours of a day require an efficient computing resource management. We propose a hierarchical approach, where the data center is divided in clusters that are managed in a distributed way. This paper presents a set of computing resource management tools for analyzing computing resource management strategies and algorithms for SDR clouds. We use the tools for evaluating a different strategies and algorithms. The results show that more sophisticated algorithms can achieve higher resource occupations and that a tradeoff exists between cluster size and algorithm complexity.

  5. Acyl and silyl group effects in reactivity-based one-pot glycosylation: synthesis of embryonic stem cell surface carbohydrates Lc4 and IV(2)Fuc-Lc4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun; Lu, Xin-An; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I; Hung, Shang-Cheng; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2012-03-14

    Relative reactivity evaluations showed the graded arming of toluenyl thioglucosides by variously positioned silyl groups but not by their acyl counterparts. These findings were applied in reactivity-based one-pot assembly of linker-attached Lc(4) and IV(2)Fuc-Lc(4), which are components of human embryonic stem cell surface. The sugar-galectin-1 binding was also examined.

  6. A Guideline to Univariate Statistical Analysis for LC/MS-Based Untargeted Metabolomics-Derived Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vinaixa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several metabolomic software programs provide methods for peak picking, retention time alignment and quantification of metabolite features in LC/MS-based metabolomics. Statistical analysis, however, is needed in order to discover those features significantly altered between samples. By comparing the retention time and MS/MS data of a model compound to that from the altered feature of interest in the research sample, metabolites can be then unequivocally identified. This paper reports on a comprehensive overview of a workflow for statistical analysis to rank relevant metabolite features that will be selected for further MS/MS experiments. We focus on univariate data analysis applied in parallel on all detected features. Characteristics and challenges of this analysis are discussed and illustrated using four different real LC/MS untargeted metabolomic datasets. We demonstrate the influence of considering or violating mathematical assumptions on which univariate statistical test rely, using high-dimensional LC/MS datasets. Issues in data analysis such as determination of sample size, analytical variation, assumption of normality and homocedasticity, or correction for multiple testing are discussed and illustrated in the context of our four untargeted LC/MS working examples.

  7. Development of Immunocapture-LC/MS Assay for Simultaneous ADA Isotyping and Semiquantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have potential to elicit immune responses resulting in anti-drug antibodies that can pose problems for both patient safety and product efficacy. During drug development immunogenicity is usually examined by risk-based approach along with specific strategies for developing “fit-for-purpose” bioanalytical approaches. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection due to their high sensitivity and throughput. During the past decade, LC/MS has emerged as a promising technology for quantitation of biotherapeutics and protein biomarkers in biological matrices, mainly owing to its high specificity, selectivity, multiplexing, and wide dynamic range. In fully taking these advantages, we describe here an immunocapture-LC/MS methodology for simultaneous isotyping and semiquantitation of ADA in human plasma. Briefly, ADA and/or drug-ADA complex is captured by biotinylated drug or anti-drug Ab, immobilized on streptavidin magnetic beads, and separated from human plasma by a magnet. ADA is then released from the beads and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by LC/MS detection of specific universal peptides for each ADA isotype. The LC/MS data are analyzed using cut-point and calibration curve. The proof-of-concept of this methodology is demonstrated by detecting preexisting ADA in human plasma. PMID:27034966

  8. Induction heating of liquids with an L-LC resonant tank

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Jacobo, Francisco Javier; Martín Segura, Guillermo; Heredero Peris, Daniel; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Induction heating (IH) systems are used in many applications because they present many advantages compared other heating methods like quicker heating or faster start-up. This paper studies the application of IH systems for liquid heating using an L-LC resonant tank.

  9. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  10. Nanoscale Affinity Chip Interface for Coupling Inhibition SPR Immunosensor Screening with Nano-LC TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Buijs, J.; Haasnoot, W.; Hooijerink, H.; Jansson, O.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    The on-line nanoscale coupling of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition biosensor immunoassay (iBIA) for the screening of low molecular weight molecules with nano-liquid-chromatography electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano-LC ESI TOF MS) for identification is

  11. Myosins and DYNLL1/LC8 in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calábria, Luciana Karen; Peixoto, Pablo Marco Veras; Passos Lima, Andreia Barcelos; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; de Moraes, Viviane Rodrigues Alves; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Dos Santos, Claudia Tavares; E Silva, Letícia Oliveira; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Rodrigues; dos Santos, Ana Alice Diniz; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Martins, Antônio Roberto; Espreafico, Enilza Maria; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2011-09-01

    Honey bees have brain structures with specialized and developed systems of communication that account for memory, learning capacity and behavioral organization with a set of genes homologous to vertebrate genes. Many microtubule- and actin-based molecular motors are involved in axonal/dendritic transport. Myosin-Va is present in the honey bee Apis mellifera nervous system of the larvae and adult castes and subcastes. DYNLL1/LC8 and myosin-IIb, -VI and -IXb have also been detected in the adult brain. SNARE proteins, such as CaMKII, clathrin, syntaxin, SNAP25, munc18, synaptophysin and synaptotagmin, are also expressed in the honey bee brain. Honey bee myosin-Va displayed ATP-dependent solubility and was associated with DYNLL1/LC8 and SNARE proteins in the membrane vesicle-enriched fraction. Myosin-Va expression was also decreased after the intracerebral injection of melittin and NMDA. The immunolocalization of myosin-Va and -IV, DYNLL1/LC8, and synaptophysin in mushroom bodies, and optical and antennal lobes was compared with the brain morphology based on Neo-Timm histochemistry and revealed a distinct and punctate distribution. This result suggested that the pattern of localization is associated with neuron function. Therefore, our data indicated that the roles of myosins, DYNLL1/LC8, and SNARE proteins in the nervous and visual systems of honey bees should be further studied under different developmental, caste and behavioral conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  13. Video-microscopy of NCAP films: the observation of LC droplets in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Robert H.; Montoya, Wayne; Wong, Abraham

    1992-06-01

    We have used video-microscopy to observe the behavior of liquid crystal (LC) droplets within nematic droplet-polymer films (NCAP) as the droplets respond to an applied electric field. The textures observed at intermediate fields yielded information about the process of liquid crystal orientation dynamics within droplets. The nematic droplet-polymer films had low LC content (less than 1 percent) to allow the observation of individual droplets in a 2 - 6 micrometers size range. The aqueous emulsification technique was used to prepare the films as it allows the straightforward preparation of low LC content films with a controlled droplet size range. Standard electro-optical (E-O) tests were also performed on the films, allowing us to correlate single droplet behavior with that of the film as a whole. Hysteresis measured in E-O tests was visually confirmed by droplet orientation dynamics; a film which had high hysteresis in E-O tests exhibited distinctly different LC orientations within the droplet when ramped up in voltage than when ramped down in voltage. Ramping the applied voltage to well above saturation resulted in some droplets becoming `stuck'' in a new droplet structure which can be made to revert back to bipolar with high voltage pulses or with heat.

  14. Expression and Clinical Significance of the Autophagy Proteins BECLIN 1 and LC3 in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is dysregulated in cancer and might be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. BECLIN-1, a protein that interacts with either BCL-2 or PI3k class III, plays a critical role in the regulation of both autophagy and cell death. Induction of autophagy is associated with the presence of vacuoles characteristically labelled with the protein LC3. We have studied the biological and clinical significance of BECLIN 1 and LC3 in ovary tumours of different histological types. The positive expression of BECLIN 1 was well correlated with the presence of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles and was inversely correlated with the expression of BCL-2. The latter inhibits the autophagy function of BECLIN 1. We found that type I tumours, which are less aggressive than type II, were more frequently expressing high level of BECLIN 1. Of note, tumours of histologic grade III expressed low level of BECLIN 1. Consistently, high level of expression of BECLIN 1 and LC3 in tumours is well correlated with the overall survival of the patients. The present data are compatible with the hypotheses that a low level of autophagy favours cancer progression and that ovary cancer with upregulated autophagy has a less aggressive behaviour and is more responsive to chemotherapy.

  15. Dried blood spot analysis of creatinine with LC-MS/MS in addition to immunosuppressants analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Greijdanus, Ben; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Touw, Daan J.

    In order to monitor creatinine levels or to adjust the dosage of renally excreted or nephrotoxic drugs, the analysis of creatinine in dried blood spots (DBS) could be a useful addition to DBS analysis. We developed a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of creatinine in the same DBS extract that was

  16. A new high-throughput LC-MS method for the analysis of complex fructan mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hansen, Anders Holmgaard; Dornez, Emmie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of complex fructan mixtures is presented. In this method, columns with a trifunctional C18 alkyl stationary phase (T3) were used and their performance compared with that of a porous graphitized carbon (PGC...

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A7LC-1URSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A7LC-1URSA 1A7L 1URS C A EGKLVIWIN-GDKGYNGLAEVGKKFEKDTGIKVTVEHP-...ntryChain> 1URS A 1URSA PDVVFGMPH...dbID>1URS A 1URSA DMVSKYHWMTP... 1URSA PWPTLPNGKHA A 1URSA ANAHG---FMYDQ

  18. Transitioning Students out of College: The Senior LC in Psychology at Wagner College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Laurence J.; Jenkins, Steve M.

    2012-01-01

    At Wagner College, students are required to participate in a series of three curriculum-based learning communities (C-BLCs) as the core of the undergraduate curriculum known as the Wagner Plan for the Practical Liberal Arts. This article describes the senior learning community (LC) in psychology at Wagner College, which is an example of a…

  19. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact...

  20. Quantification of free and total sialic acid excretion by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, Maria; Prinsen, Berthil H. C. M. T.; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Abeling, Nicolaas G. G. M.; Dorland, Bert; Berger, Ruud; de Koning, Tom J.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose for measuring urinary free sialic acid (FSA) is to diagnose sialic acid (SA) storage diseases. Elevated amounts of conjugated sialic acid (CSA) are observed in several diseases indicating the need to quantify CSA as well. A LC-MS/MS method for quantification of FSA and total sialic

  1. Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F.; Garthoff, Jossie A.; Helvoort, van Ardy; Calder, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the

  2. Identification of Radical Scavenging Compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides by Means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR setup in combination with on-line radical scavenging detection has been applied for the identification of radical scavenging compounds in extracts of Rhaponticum carthamoides. After NMR measurements, the pure compounds were infused into a mass spectrometer. The technique

  3. LC Filter Design for Wide Band Gap Device Based Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    the LC filter with a higher cut off frequency and without damping resistors. The selection of inductance and capacitance is chosen based on capacitor voltage ripple and current ripple. The filter adds a base load to the inverter, which increases the inverter losses. It is shown how the modulation index...

  4. Comparison of MALDI-MSI and LC-MS for pharmacokinetic study of metformin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Štěpán; Sýkora, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Maletínská, Lenka; Pirník, Z.; Majerčíková, Zuzana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vrkoslav, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 35 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /17./. 30.05.2017-01.06.2017, Milovy] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : metformin * MALDI-MSI * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carroll, Raymond J; Dabney, Alan R

    2012-08-01

    Protein abundance in quantitative proteomics is often based on observed spectral features derived from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS experiments. Peak intensities are largely non-normal in distribution. Furthermore, LC-MS-based proteomics data frequently have large proportions of missing peak intensities due to censoring mechanisms on low-abundance spectral features. Recognizing that the observed peak intensities detected with the LC-MS method are all positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests, and the parametric survival model and accelerated failure time-model with log-normal, log-logistic and Weibull distributions were used to detect any differentially expressed proteins. The statistical operating characteristics of each method are explored using both real and simulated datasets. Survival methods generally have greater statistical power than standard differential expression methods when the proportion of missing protein level data is 5% or more. In particular, the AFT models we consider consistently achieve greater statistical power than standard testing procedures, with the discrepancy widening with increasing missingness in the proportions. The testing procedures discussed in this article can all be performed using readily available software such as R. The R codes are provided as supplemental materials. ctekwe@stat.tamu.edu.

  6. Design of the LC+trap filter for a current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Huang; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates an LC + trap filter for current source converters to improve the switching harmonic attenuation. The resonant frequency characteristics of the filter of current source rectifier are analyzed. A filter design procedure is proposed based on the input power factor, filter...

  7. LC-filter Resonance Cancellation with DPWM Inverters in Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuous PWM methods cannot easily be used in LC-filtered inverters for adjustable speed drives, as it causes resonances in the filter. This paper present a new method to cancel the resonance and compares this method to previously proposed methods. Wide band gap devices are entering the market...

  8. LC-MS3 quantification of O-glycopeptides in human serum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanda, M.; Pompach, Petr; Benicky, J.; Goldman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 16 (2013), s. 2342-2349 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13051 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : LC-MS3 * O-glycosylation * Quantification of glycopeptides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  9. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Sørensen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    reproduction. Validation of the method was based on recovery tests at three spiking levels, determined as double determinations and repeated at least four times. Samples were extracted with methanol-water-acetic acid, centrifuged, filtrated and determined by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries were in the range 80...

  10. Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data

    KAUST Repository

    Tekwe, C. D.

    2012-05-24

    MOTIVATION: Protein abundance in quantitative proteomics is often based on observed spectral features derived from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS experiments. Peak intensities are largely non-normal in distribution. Furthermore, LC-MS-based proteomics data frequently have large proportions of missing peak intensities due to censoring mechanisms on low-abundance spectral features. Recognizing that the observed peak intensities detected with the LC-MS method are all positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests, and the parametric survival model and accelerated failure time-model with log-normal, log-logistic and Weibull distributions were used to detect any differentially expressed proteins. The statistical operating characteristics of each method are explored using both real and simulated datasets. RESULTS: Survival methods generally have greater statistical power than standard differential expression methods when the proportion of missing protein level data is 5% or more. In particular, the AFT models we consider consistently achieve greater statistical power than standard testing procedures, with the discrepancy widening with increasing missingness in the proportions. AVAILABILITY: The testing procedures discussed in this article can all be performed using readily available software such as R. The R codes are provided as supplemental materials. CONTACT: ctekwe@stat.tamu.edu.

  11. Determination of selected bisphenols, parabens and estrogens in human plasma using LC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolatorova Sosvorova, L.; Chlupacova, T.; Vitku, J.; Vlk, Martin; Heráček, J.; Stárka, L.; Šaman, David; Šimková, M.; Hampl, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, NOV 1 (2017), s. 21-28 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alternative bisphenol * Bisphenol A * Bisphenol F * Endocrine disruptor * lc-ms/ms * Paraben Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Organic chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  12. MassCascade: Visual Programming for LC-MS Data Processing in Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Portwood, David; Seymour, Mark; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is commonly applied to investigate the small molecule complement of organisms. Several software tools are typically joined in custom pipelines to semi-automatically process and analyse the resulting data. General workflow environments like the Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) offer the potential of an all-in-one solution to process LC-MS data by allowing easy integration of different tools and scripts. We describe MassCascade and its workflow plug-in for processing LC-MS data. The Java library integrates frequently used algorithms in a modular fashion, thus enabling it to serve as back-end for graphical front-ends. The functions available in MassCascade have been encapsulated in a plug-in for the workflow environment KNIME, allowing combined use with e.g. statistical workflow nodes from other providers and making the tool intuitive to use without knowledge of programming. The design of the software guarantees a high level of modularity where processing functions can be quickly replaced or concatenated. MassCascade is an open-source library for LC-MS data processing in metabolomics. It embraces the concept of visual programming through its KNIME plug-in, simplifying the process of building complex workflows. The library was validated using open data.

  13. LC-MS n Analysis of Isomeric Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using a Chemical Derivatization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongrong; Pomin, Vitor H.; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2011-09-01

    Improved methods for structural analyses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are required to understand their functional roles in various biological processes. Major challenges in structural characterization of complex GAG oligosaccharides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) include the accurate determination of the patterns of sulfation due to gas-phase losses of the sulfate groups upon collisional activation and inefficient on-line separation of positional sulfation isomers prior to MS/MS analyses. Here, a sequential chemical derivatization procedure including permethylation, desulfation, and acetylation was demonstrated to enable both on-line LC separation of isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides and accurate determination of sites of sulfation by MS n . The derivatized oligosaccharides have sulfate groups replaced with acetyl groups, which are sufficiently stable to survive MS n fragmentation and reflect the original sulfation patterns. A standard reversed-phase LC-MS system with a capillary C18 column was used for separation, and MS n experiments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed. Our results indicate that the combination of this derivatization strategy and MS n methodology enables accurate identification of the sulfation isomers of CS hexasaccharides with either saturated or unsaturated nonreducing ends. Moreover, derivatized CS hexasaccharide isomer mixtures become separable by LC-MS method due to different positions of acetyl modifications.

  14. Improvenments in environmental trace analysis by GC-IR and LC-IR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.; Jong, A.P.J.M.; Somsen, G.W.; Hankemeier, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the potential of infrared (IR) spectrometry as a detector in gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC). The study has been directed to applications in environmental analysis. Examples of recently obtained results are presented. The analyte detectability of

  15. Probabilistic model for untargeted peak detection in LC-MS using Bayesian statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.; Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel Bayesian probabilistic peak detection algorithm for liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The final probabilistic result allows the user to make a final decision about which points in a 2 chromatogram are affected by a chromatographic peak and which ones are only

  16. Development of Immunocapture-LC/MS Assay for Simultaneous ADA Isotyping and Semiquantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Zhi; Roos, David; Philip, Elsy

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have potential to elicit immune responses resulting in anti-drug antibodies that can pose problems for both patient safety and product efficacy. During drug development immunogenicity is usually examined by risk-based approach along with specific strategies for developing "fit-for-purpose" bioanalytical approaches. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection due to their high sensitivity and throughput. During the past decade, LC/MS has emerged as a promising technology for quantitation of biotherapeutics and protein biomarkers in biological matrices, mainly owing to its high specificity, selectivity, multiplexing, and wide dynamic range. In fully taking these advantages, we describe here an immunocapture-LC/MS methodology for simultaneous isotyping and semiquantitation of ADA in human plasma. Briefly, ADA and/or drug-ADA complex is captured by biotinylated drug or anti-drug Ab, immobilized on streptavidin magnetic beads, and separated from human plasma by a magnet. ADA is then released from the beads and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by LC/MS detection of specific universal peptides for each ADA isotype. The LC/MS data are analyzed using cut-point and calibration curve. The proof-of-concept of this methodology is demonstrated by detecting preexisting ADA in human plasma.

  17. Automated 2D peptide separation on a 1D nano-LC-MS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Paul; Nielsen, Peter A; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2009-01-01

    the on-line separation of highly complex peptide mixtures directly coupled with mass spectrometry-based identification. Here, we present a variation of the traditional MudPIT protocol, combining highly sensitive chromatography using a nanoflow liquid chromatography system (nano-LC) with a two...

  18. Integration of two-dimensional LC-MS with multivariate statistics for comparative analysis of proteomic samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspari, M.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Verheij, E.R.; Greef, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    LC-MS-based proteomics requires methods with high peak capacity and a high degree of automation, integrated with data-handling tools able to cope with the massive data produced and able to quantitatively compare them. This paper describes an off-line two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS method and its

  19. Diet-induced perturbation of the rat liver mitochondrial acetylome studied by quantitative (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Ileana R.; Schwämmle, Veit; Williamson, James

    described3. Quantitation by MS/MS was achieved by using iTRAQ 8-Plex reagents (Life Technologies). LC-MS/MS analyses were performed using an Easy-nLC (Proxeon/ThermoFisher) fitted with an in-house made 17 cm C18 column that was interfaced to an LTQ-OrbiTrap XL instrument (ThermoFisher). Data analysis...

  20. Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5α–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17β-glucuronide, DHT-17β-sulfate, and tibolone-17β-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kinetic constants to these reactions. We also developed a stable-isotope dilution LC-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the quantitative analysis of estrone (E1) and its metabolites as pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives in human plasma in the attomole range. The limit of detection for E1-PFB was 740 attomole on column. Separations can be performed using normal-phase LC because ionization takes place in the gas phase rather than in solution. This permits efficient separation of the regioisomeric 2- and 4-methoxy-E1. The method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of plasma E2 and its metabolites: 2-methoxy-E2, 4-methoxy-E2, 16α-hydroxy-E2, estrone (E1), 2-methoxy-E1, 4-methoxy-EI, and 16α-hydroxy-E1 from 5 pg/mL to 2,000 pg/mL. Our LC-MS methods have sufficient sensitivity to detect steroid hormone levels in prostate and breast tumors and should aid their molecular diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20083198

  1. Integrated Solid-Phase Extraction-Capillary Liquid Chromatography (speLC) Interfaced to ESI-MS/MS for Fast Characterization and Quantification of Protein and Proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenby, Lasse Gaarde; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    min speLC-MS/MS experiment. Analysis by selected reaction monitoring by speLC-SRM-MS/MS of distinct peptides derived from the blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, and IBP3 demonstrated protein quantification with CV values below 10% across 96 replicates. The speLC-MS/MS system is ideally suited for fast......The high peptide sequencing speed provided by modern hybrid tandem mass spectrometers enables the utilization of fast liquid chromatographic (LC) separation techniques. We present a robust solid-phase extraction/capillary LC system (speLC) for 5-10 min separation of semicomplex peptide mixtures...

  2. Identification of alkyl dimethylbenzylammonium surfactants in water samples by solid-phase extraction followed by ion trap LC/MS and LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2001-01-01

    A novel methodology was developed for the determination of alkyl (C12, C14, and C16) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride or BAC, Chemical Abstract Service number: 8001-54-5) in water samples. This method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric cartridges, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS) detection, equipped with an electrospray interface in positive ion mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved for three BAC homologues by using a C18 column and a gradient of acetonitrile/10 millimolar aqueous ammonium formate. Total method recoveries were higher than 71% in different water matrices. The main ions observed by LC/MS were at mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 304, 332, and 360, which correspond to the molecular ions of the C12, C14, and C16 alkyl BAC, respectively. The unequivocal structural identification of these compounds in water samples was performed by LC/MS/MS after isolation and subsequent fragmentation of each molecular ion. The main fragmentation observed for the three different homologues corresponded to the loss of the toluyl group in the chemical structure, which leads to the fragment ions at m/z 212, 240, and 268 and a tropylium ion, characteristic of all homologues, at m/z 91. Detection limits for the methodology developed in this work were in the low nanogram-per-liter range. Concentration levels of BAC - ranging from 1.2 to 36.6 micrograms per liter - were found in surface-water samples collected downstream from different wastewater-treatment discharges, thus indicating its input and persistence through the wastewater-treatment process.

  3. Analysis of U-47700, a Novel Synthetic Opioid, in Human Urine by LC-MS-MS and LC-QToF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Steven W; Cooley, Justin C; Johnson, Leonard; Frazee, C Clinton; Domanski, Kristina; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Garg, Uttam

    2017-04-01

    The illicit drug market has rapidly evolved from synthetic cannabinoids to cathinone derivatives and now a new emerging threat of synthetic opioids. These compounds were mostly developed by pharmaceutical companies during drug discovery. The new psychoactive substances are not routinely covered in drug screening and may go undetected. Recently fentanyl analogous, AH-7921, MT-45 and now U-47700 have been encountered in clinical and forensic casework. U-47700 is gaining popularity on drug user forms as a legal alternative to heroin. It is a µ-receptor agonist that is part of the trans-1-2-diamine opioid analgesic drug class developed by The Upjohn Company in an attempt to develop a non-addicting analgesic. A LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated to detect and quantify U-47700. Additional analysis was conducted with an LC-QToF to identify the presence of the parent drug and metabolites. A total of four cases have been evaluated by the LC-MS-MS methodology which has an analytical range of 1-1,250 ng/mL and limit of detection of 1 ng/mL. The concentration of U-47700 in urine specimens ranged from below the limit of quantification to 224 ng/mL. The ToF analysis detected the presence of suspected phase I demethylated metabolites that may assist future analysis of this compound. The prevalence of designer opioids in casework highlights the importance of analysis for new psychoactive substances. Traditional opiates/opioids were not detected in the presented cases, but the available case histories revealed an opioid toxidrome. These findings suggest that U-47700 drug may cause significant morbidity and mortality within the United States as an emerging drug threat. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang

    2015-11-10

    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  5. mRNA and protein dataset of autophagy markers (LC3 and p62) in several cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M.S.; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Martínez-Chacón, Guadalupe; Uribe-Carretero, Elisabet; Pinheiro de Castro, Diana C.J.; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa A.

    2016-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of autophagy in vitro using four different cell systems and analyzing markers widely used in this field, i.e. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; protein recruited from the cytosol (LC3-I) to the autophagosomal membrane where it is lipidated (LC3-II)) and p62/SQSTM1 (adaptor protein that serves as a link between LC3 and ubiquitinated substrates), (Klionsky et al., 2016) [1]. Data provided include analyses of protein levels of LC3 and p62 by Western-blotting and endogenous immunofluorescence experiments, but also p62 mRNA levels obtained by quantitative PCR (qPCR). To monitor the turnover of these autophagy markers and, thus, measure the flux of this pathway, cells were under starvation conditions and/or treated with bafilomycin A1 (Baf. A1) to block fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. PMID:27054171

  6. An approach for recreation suitability analysis to recreation planning in Gölcük Nature Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Atila; Orücü, M Kamil; Karaca, Oznur

    2006-05-01

    lcük Nature Park (GNP) is an area protected by law in Turkey. It is an important nature park with rich flora, fauna, geomorphologic forms, landscape features, and recreational potential in the region. However, GNP does not have a recreation management plan. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual natural, cultural, and visual resources of GNP, determine the most suitable recreational sites with multiple factors, evaluate the demands and tendencies of visitors, and suggest recreational activities and facilities for the most suitable sites of GNP. However, it was also conceived as leading to a recreational plan and design of GNP in the future and identifying the entire appropriate and current data of GNP with the creation of various maps. This study used multifactor analysis to determine the most suitable recreation sites of GNP. Used recreation factors were established including degree of slope, proximity to water resources, accessibility, elevation, vegetation, soil, climate, aspect, current cultural facilities, visual values, and some limiting factors in accordance with the characteristics of GNP. Weighting and suitability values of factors were determined by 30 local expert surveys. All obtained data were evaluated and integrated in the Geographical Information Systems base. Obtained maps were overlapped. Thus, recreational suitability zones map were created manually. However, the demands and behaviours from visitor surveys in GNP were focused on the most suitable recreation sites of the park. Finally, 10% of GNP was identified as the most suitable sites for recreational use. Various recreational facilities and activities (including picnicking, sports facilities and playgrounds, camping sites, walking paths, food and local outlets, etc.) were recommended for nine of the most suitable areas on the proposed recreational map.

  7. Reduction of Solvent Effect in Reverse Phase Gradient Elution LC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-12-17

    Quantification in liquid chromatography (LC) is becoming very important as more researchers are using LC, not as an analytical tool itself, but as a sample introduction system for other analytical instruments. The ability of LC instrumentation to quickly separate a wide variety of compounds makes it ideal for analysis of complex mixtures. For elemental speciation, LC is joined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to separate and detect metal-containing, organic compounds in complex mixtures, such as biological samples. Often, the solvent gradients required to perform complex separations will cause matrix effects within the plasma. This limits the sensitivity of the ICP-MS and the quantification methods available for use in such analyses. Traditionally, isotope dilution has been the method of choice for LC-ICP-MS quantification. The use of naturally abundant isotopes of a single element in quantification corrects for most of the effects that LC solvent gradients produce within the plasma. However, not all elements of interest in speciation studies have multiple naturally occurring isotopes; and polyatomic interferences for a given isotope can develop within the plasma, depending on the solvent matrix. This is the case for reverse phase LC separations, where increasing amounts of organic solvent are required. For such separations, an alternative to isotope dilution for quantification would be is needed. To this end, a new method was developed using the Apex-Q desolvation system (ESI, Omaha, NE) to couple LC instrumentation with an ICP-MS device. The desolvation power of the system allowed greater concentrations of methanol to be introduced to the plasma prior to destabilization than with direct methanol injection into the plasma. Studies were performed, using simulated and actual linear methanol gradients, to find analyte-internal standard (AIS) pairs whose ratio remains consistent (deviations {+-} 10%) over methanol concentration ranges of 5

  8. Estudo teórico das transições eletrônicas usando métodos simples e sofisticados Theoretical study of electronic transitions using simple and sophisticated methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H. Morgon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of both simple and sophisticated models in the study of electronic transitions was explored for a set of molecular systems: C2H4, C4H4, C4H6, C6H6, C6H8, "C8", C60, and [H2NCHCH(CHCHkCHNH2]+, where k = 0 to 4. The simple model of the free particle (1D, 2D, and 3D boxes, rings or spherical surfaces, considering the boundary conditions, was found to yield similar results to the sophisticated theoretical methods such as EOM-CCSD/6-311++G** or TD(NStates=5,Root=1-M06-2X/6-311++G**.

  9. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  10. Rapid extraction combined with LC-tandem mass spectrometry (CREM-LC/MS/MS) for the determination of ciguatoxins in ciguateric fish flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Yang, Aijun; Jones, Alun

    2009-07-01

    Ciguatera is a significant food borne disease caused by potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins, which accumulate in the flesh of ciguateric fish at risk levels above 0.1 ppb. The management of ciguatera has been hindered by the lack of analytical methods to detect and quantify clinically relevant levels of ciguatoxin in easily prepared crude extracts of fish. Here we report a ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) that allows the rapid preparation of fish flesh extracts for the detection and quantification of ciguatoxin by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CREM-LC/MS/MS delivers a linear response to P-CTX-1 spiked into fish prior to extraction. A similar response was obtained for P-CTX-1 spiked after extraction, indicating >95% extraction efficiency was achieved overall and 85% at the limit of quantification (0.1 ppb). Using this approach, levels >or=0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 could be detected and quantified from an extract of 2g fish flesh, making it suitable as a confirmatory assay for suspect ciguateric carnivorous fish in the Pacific Ocean. The approach is designed to simplify the extraction and analysis of multiple samples per day.

  11. A Sophisticated Architecture Is Indeed Necessary for the Implementation of Health in All Policies but not Enough Comment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Eric

    2016-02-29

    In this commentary, I argue that beyond a sophisticated supportive architecture to facilitate implementation of actions on the social determinants of health (SDOH) and health inequities, the Health in All Policies (HiAP) project faces two main barriers: lack of awareness within policy networks on the social determinants of population health, and a tendency of health actors to neglect investing in other sectors' complex problems. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  13. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  14. Authentication of Trappist beers by LC-MS fingerprints and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarucchi, Elia; Stocchero, Matteo; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Giordano, Giuseppe; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude

    2010-12-08

    The aim of this study was to asses the applicability of LC-MS profiling to authenticate a selected Trappist beer as part of a program on traceability funded by the European Commission. A total of 232 beers were fingerprinted and classified through multivariate data analysis. The selected beer was clearly distinguished from beers of different brands, while only 3 samples (3.5% of the test set) were wrongly classified when compared with other types of beer of the same Trappist brewery. The fingerprints were further analyzed to extract the most discriminating variables, which proved to be sufficient for classification, even using a simplified unsupervised model. This reduced fingerprint allowed us to study the influence of batch-to-batch variability on the classification model. Our results can easily be applied to different matrices and they confirmed the effectiveness of LC-MS profiling in combination with multivariate data analysis for the characterization of food products.

  15. LC-MS data processing with MAVEN: a metabolomic analysis and visualization engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasquin, Michelle F; Melamud, Eugene; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2012-03-01

    MAVEN is an open-source software program for interactive processing of LC-MS-based metabolomics data. MAVEN enables rapid and reliable metabolite quantitation from multiple reaction monitoring data or high-resolution full-scan mass spectrometry data. It automatically detects and reports peak intensities for isotope-labeled metabolites. Menu-driven, click-based navigation allows visualization of raw and analyzed data. Here we provide a User Guide for MAVEN. Step-by-step instructions are provided for data import, peak alignment across samples, identification of metabolites that differ strongly between biological conditions, quantitation and visualization of isotope-labeling patterns, and export of tables of metabolite-specific peak intensities. Together, these instructions describe a workflow that allows efficient processing of raw LC-MS data into a form ready for biological analysis.

  16. Automated DBS microsampling, microscale automation and microflow LC-MS for therapeutic protein PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Tomazela, Daniela; Vasicek, Lisa A; Spellman, Daniel S; Beaumont, Maribel; Shyong, BaoJen; Kenny, Jacqueline; Fauty, Scott; Fillgrove, Kerry; Harrelson, Jane; Bateman, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Reduce animal usage for discovery-stage PK studies for biologics programs using microsampling-based approaches and microscale LC-MS. We report the development of an automated DBS-based serial microsampling approach for studying the PK of therapeutic proteins in mice. Automated sample preparation and microflow LC-MS were used to enable assay miniaturization and improve overall assay throughput. Serial sampling of mice was possible over the full 21-day study period with the first six time points over 24 h being collected using automated DBS sample collection. Overall, this approach demonstrated comparable data to a previous study using single mice per time point liquid samples while reducing animal and compound requirements by 14-fold. Reduction in animals and drug material is enabled by the use of automated serial DBS microsampling for mice studies in discovery-stage studies of protein therapeutics.

  17. Rapid Determination of Isomeric Benzoylpaeoniflorin and Benzoylalbiflorin in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzoylpaeoniflorin (BP is a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress related Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a more rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine BP in rat plasma distinguishing with a monoterpene isomer, benzoylalbiflorin (BA. The method showed a linear response from 1 to 1000 ng/mL (r>0.9950. The precision of the interday and intraday ranged from 2.03 to 12.48% and the accuracy values ranged from −8.00 to 10.33%. Each running of the method could be finished in 4 minutes. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability and was found to be acceptable for bioanalytical application. Finally, this fully validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration.

  18. DBS-LC-MS/MS assay for caffeine: validation and neonatal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschettini, Matteo; Barco, Sebastiano; Romantsik, Olga; Risso, Francesco; Gennai, Iulian; Chinea, Benito; Ramenghi, Luca A; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-09-01

    DBS might be an appropriate microsampling technique for therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine in infants. Nevertheless, its application presents several issues that still limit its use. This paper describes a validated DBS-LC-MS/MS method for caffeine. The results of the method validation showed an hematocrit dependence. In the analysis of 96 paired plasma and DBS clinical samples, caffeine levels measured in DBS were statistically significantly lower than in plasma but the observed differences were independent from hematocrit. These results clearly showed the need for extensive validation with real-life samples for DBS-based methods. DBS-LC-MS/MS can be considered to be a good alternative to traditional methods for therapeutic drug monitoring or PK studies in preterm infants.

  19. A 500-600 MHz GaN power amplifier with RC-LC stability network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Duan, Baoxing; Yang, Yintang

    2017-08-01

    A 500-600 MHz high-efficiency, high-power GaN power amplifier is designed and realized on the basis of the push-pull structure. The RC-LC stability network is proposed and applied to the power amplifier circuit for the first time. The RC-LC stability network can significantly reduce the high gain out the band, which eliminates the instability of the power amplifier circuit. The developed power amplifier exhibits 58.5 dBm (700 W) output power with a 17 dB gain and 85% PAE at 500-600 MHz, 300 μs, 20% duty cycle. It has the highest PAE in P-band among the products at home and abroad. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB339901).

  20. LC Data QUEST: A Technical Architecture for Community Federated Clinical Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A; Lin, Ching-Ping; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Echo-Hawk, Abigail; Keppel, Gina A; Buchwald, Dedra; Whitener, Ron J; Korngiebel, Diane M; Berg, Alfred O; Black, Robert A; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Institute of Translational Health Sciences is engaged in a project, LC Data QUEST, building data sharing capacity in primary care practices serving rural and tribal populations in the Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, Idaho region to build research infrastructure. We report on the iterative process of developing the technical architecture for semantically aligning electronic health data in primary care settings across our pilot sites and tools that will facilitate linkages between the research and practice communities. Our architecture emphasizes sustainable technical solutions for addressing data extraction, alignment, quality, and metadata management. The architecture provides immediate benefits to participating partners via a clinical decision support tool and data querying functionality to support local quality improvement efforts. The FInDiT tool catalogues type, quantity, and quality of the data that are available across the LC Data QUEST data sharing architecture. These tools facilitate the bi-directional process of translational research.

  1. How much separation for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Fanaras, John C

    2018-05-01

    LC-MS/MS has been the dominant analytical technology for quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites for more than two decades. Despite this, a very fundamental question like how much separation is required for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites has not been adequately addressed. Some think that no or only very limited separation is necessary thanks to the unparalleled selectivity offered by tandem mass spectrometry. Others think that the more separation, the better, because of the potential detrimental impact of matrix effect (ion suppression or enhancement). Still others just use a rule-of-thumb approach by keeping the adjusted retention/capacity factor always between 2 and 5. The purpose of this article is to address this fundamental question through rational thinking together with various real case examples drawn from regulated bioanalytical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating the Agent of Temperature into Acute Toxicity (LC50 96h of Edifenphos in Rutilus Frisii Kutum (Kamensky, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edifenphos, a kind of organophosphate toxins, is used as agricultural fungicides in rice fields. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on lethal concentration of exposure to edifenphos on Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static condition and based on instructions of OECD within 10 d under controlled water physicochemical factors. Dissolved oxygen was fixed on 7-7.5 ppm, pH: 7 to 7.5 and hardness: 200 ppm. Fish were acclimatized in 70*40*30 cm aquarium for 10 d before the test. Treated aquariums with concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of edifenphos with one control group (no toxic concentration, were performed. In order to test the effect of temperature on acute toxicity, three ranges of 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC were treated and LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out in Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Tehran in 2016. Results: LC50 value in 25 ºC was lower than 20 and 15 ºC. LC50 96h edifenphos for Caspian kutum in 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC was 3.70, 3.61 and 3.26, respectively. Conclusion: Higher temperature increase toxicity rate of edifenphos and the toxin had a positive temperature coefficient on Caspian kutum.

  3. Specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitulovic, G.

    2001-02-01

    This thesis of this dissertation is the specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS. Nicotine was determined in serum after application of nicotine plaster and nicotine nasal spray with HPLC-ESI-MS. Cotinine was determined direct in urine with HPLC-ESI-MS. Short time anesthetics were determined in blood and cytostatics were determined in liquor with HPLC-ESI-MS. (botek)

  4. STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, at KSC Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, sits atop the mobile launcher platform at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B. Profile of OV-104 mounted on external tank and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs) is obscured by a flock of seagulls in the foreground. The fixed service structure (FSS) with rotating service structure (RSS) retracted appears in the background. Water resevoir is visible at the base of the launch pad concrete structure.

  5. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-UV Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ketotifen and Cetirizine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms. ... 5 μm) using an isocratic mobile phase that consisted of acetonitrile and 10 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) in a ratio of 45:55 % v/v at a flow ...

  6. Initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in cast IN713LC superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Konečná, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 11 (2010), s. 2008-2015 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/023; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : IN 713LC * high temperature fatigue * crystallographic fatigue crack initiation * mean stress effect Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.571, year: 2010

  7. High-cycle fatigue of Ni-base superalloy Inconel 713LC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Konečná, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2010), s. 908-913 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/023; GA MŠk MEB080812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : IN 713LC * High-cycle fatigue * Effect of mean stress * Fractography * Casting defetcts * Extreme value statistics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.799, year: 2010

  8. Study of Surface Relief Evolution in Cyclically Strained Superalloy IN738LC Using Advanced Experimental Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juliš, M.; Kusmič, D.; Pospíšilová, S.; Průša, S.; Obrtlík, Karel; Dluhoš, J.; Podrábský, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, S (2011), s. 814-815 ISSN 0009-2770. [Lokálne mechanické vlastnosti 2010. Smolenice, 10.11.2010-12.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Inconel 738LC * low cycle fatigue * surface relief Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  9. An improved method for fast and selective separation of carotenoids by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Slovin, Janet P; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Carotenoids are a large class of compounds that are biosynthesized by condensation of isoprene units in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some animals. They are characteristically highly conjugated through double bonds, which lead to many isomers as well susceptibility to oxidation and other chemical modifications. Carotenoids are important because of their potent antioxidant activity and are the pigments responsible for color in a wide variety of foods. Human consumption is correlated to many health benefits including prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related disease. Extreme hydrophobicity, poor stability, and low concentration in biological samples make these compounds difficult to analyze and difficult to develop analytical methods for aimed towards identification and quantification. Examples in the literature frequently report the use of exotic stationary phases, solvents, and additives, such as ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and methyl tert-butyl ether that are incompatible with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In order to address these issues, we implemented the use of LC-MS friendly conditions using a low-hydrophobicity cyano-propyl column (Agilent Zorbax SB-CN). We successfully differentiated between isomeric carotenoids by optimizing two gradient methods and using a mixture of 11 standards and LC-MS in positive ionization mode. Three complex biological samples from strawberry leaf, chicken feed supplement, and the photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus were analyzed and several carotenoids were resolved in these diverse backgrounds. Our results show this methodology is a significant improvement over other alternatives for analyzing carotenoids because of its ease of use, rapid analysis time, high selectivity, and, most importantly, its compatibility with typical LC-MS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. QCScreen: a software tool for data quality control in LC-HRMS based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simader, Alexandra Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Neumann, Nora Katharina Nicole; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Lirk, Gerald; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-10-24

    Metabolomics experiments often comprise large numbers of biological samples resulting in huge amounts of data. This data needs to be inspected for plausibility before data evaluation to detect putative sources of error e.g. retention time or mass accuracy shifts. Especially in liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) based metabolomics research, proper quality control checks (e.g. for precision, signal drifts or offsets) are crucial prerequisites to achieve reliable and comparable results within and across experimental measurement sequences. Software tools can support this process. The software tool QCScreen was developed to offer a quick and easy data quality check of LC-HRMS derived data. It allows a flexible investigation and comparison of basic quality-related parameters within user-defined target features and the possibility to automatically evaluate multiple sample types within or across different measurement sequences in a short time. It offers a user-friendly interface that allows an easy selection of processing steps and parameter settings. The generated results include a coloured overview plot of data quality across all analysed samples and targets and, in addition, detailed illustrations of the stability and precision of the chromatographic separation, the mass accuracy and the detector sensitivity. The use of QCScreen is demonstrated with experimental data from metabolomics experiments using selected standard compounds in pure solvent. The application of the software identified problematic features, samples and analytical parameters and suggested which data files or compounds required closer manual inspection. QCScreen is an open source software tool which provides a useful basis for assessing the suitability of LC-HRMS data prior to time consuming, detailed data processing and subsequent statistical analysis. It accepts the generic mzXML format and thus can be used with many different LC-HRMS platforms to process both multiple

  11. Casting defects and high temperature fatigue life of IN 713LC superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Konečná, R.; Fintová, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, AUG (2012), s. 47-51 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/055; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : IN 713LC * High-cycle fatigue * casting defects * hot isostatic pressing * extreme value statistics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2012

  12. LC-NMR Technique in the Analysis of Phytosterols in Natural Extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horník, Štěpán; Sajfrtová, Marie; Karban, Jindřich; Sýkora, Jan; Březinová, Anna; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 2013 (2013), ID 526818 ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : LC-NMR technique * phytosterols * analyses Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2013

  13. Absolute configuration of a tetrahydrophenanthrene from Heliotropium ovalifolium by LC-NMR of its Mosher esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilet, David; Guntern, Alain; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Queiroz, Emerson F; Ndjoko, Karine; Foggin, Chris M; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    A new tetrahydrophenanthrene (1, (1R,2R)-1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6,9-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrophenanthren-4(1H)-one (heliophenanthrone)) has been isolated from the aerial parts of Heliotropium ovalifolium. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of the asymmetric centers was determined from LC-NMR data of the Mosher ester derivatives.

  14. Improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of hepcidin-25 in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ioana M; Hoffmann, Holger; Montes-Bayón, María; Weller, Michael G

    2018-06-01

    Mass spectrometry-based methods play a crucial role in the quantification of the main iron metabolism regulator hepcidin by singling out the bioactive 25-residue peptide from the other naturally occurring N-truncated isoforms (hepcidin-20, -22, -24), which seem to be inactive in iron homeostasis. However, several difficulties arise in the MS analysis of hepcidin due to the "sticky" character of the peptide and the lack of suitable standards. Here, we propose the use of amino- and fluoro-silanized autosampler vials to reduce hepcidin interaction to laboratory glassware surfaces after testing several types of vials for the preparation of stock solutions and serum samples for isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, we have investigated two sample preparation strategies and two chromatographic separation conditions with the aim of developing a LC-MS/MS method for the sensitive and reliable quantification of hepcidin-25 in serum samples. A chromatographic separation based on usual acidic mobile phases was compared with a novel approach involving the separation of hepcidin-25 with solvents at high pH containing 0.1% of ammonia. Both methods were applied to clinical samples in an intra-laboratory comparison of two LC-MS/MS methods using the same hepcidin-25 calibrators with good correlation of the results. Finally, we recommend a LC-MS/MS-based quantification method with a dynamic range of 0.5-40 μg/L for the assessment of hepcidin-25 in human serum that uses TFA-based mobile phases and silanized glass vials. Graphical abstract Structure of hepcidin-25 (Protein Data Bank, PDB ID 2KEF).

  15. Rapid analysis of fungal cultures and dried figs for secondary metabolites by LC/TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z. [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)], E-mail: hamide.senyuva@tubitak.gov.tr; Gilbert, John [Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Oztuerkoglu, Sebnem [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)

    2008-06-09

    A liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) method has been developed for profiling fungal metabolites. The performance of the procedure in terms of mass accuracy, selectivity (specificity) and repeatability was established by spiking aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and other metabolites into blank growth media. After extracting, and carrying out LC/TOF-MS analysis, the standards were correctly identified by searching a specially constructed database of 465 secondary metabolites. To demonstrate the viability of this approach 11 toxigenic and four non-toxigenic fungi from reference collections were grown on various media, for 7-14 days. The method was also applied to two toxigenic fungi, A. flavus (200-138) and A. parasiticus (2999-465) grown on gamma radiation sterilised dried figs, for 7-14 days. The fungal hyphae plus a portion of growth media or portions of dried figs were solvent extracted and analysed by LC/TOF-MS using a rapid resolution microbore LC column. Data processing based on cluster analysis, showed that electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF-MS could be used to unequivocally identify metabolites in crude extracts. Using the elemental metabolite database, it was demonstrated that from culture collection isolates, anticipated metabolites. The speed and simplicity of the method has meant that levels of these metabolites could be monitored daily in sterilised figs. Over a 14-day period, levels of aflatoxins and kojic acid maximised at 5-6 days, whilst levels of 5-methoxysterigmatocystin remained relatively constant. In addition to the known metabolites expected to be produced by these fungi, roquefortine A, fumagillin, fumigaclavine B, malformins (peptides), aspergillic acid, nigragillin, terrein, terrestric acid and penicillic acid were also identified.

  16. FAST DETECTION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY(LC-MSMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abusoglu, Sedat; Unlu, Ali; Sivrikaya, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    ObjectivesAcetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is themost widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drug, andalso used to inhibit cyclooxygenase dependent platelet aggregation.   The aimof this study was to develop a simple, fast and accurate tandem mass method fordetermination and quantification of ASA.  MethodsChromatographic seperation was performedusing an Shimadzu LC-20-AD (Kyoto, Japan) coupledwith a ABSCIEX API 3200 triple quadrupole massspectromete...

  17. Screening of veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS/MS. Background and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).

  18. Partial Purification of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Mycelia of Tropical Lentinus cladopus LC4

    OpenAIRE

    SUDIRMAN, LISDAR IDWAN

    2010-01-01

    Lentinus cladopus LC4 produced at least eight antimicrobial compounds (ACs) which are active against plant and human pathogens. Three ACs in its crude mycelial were extracted with methanol and partial purification was carried out with silicic acid column chromatography and by thin layer chromatography (PTLC). The antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc method and antibiographic method. The chromatography purification eluted with dichloromethane containing 5% methanol gave one active f...

  19. Processing methods for differential analysis of LC/MS profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orešič Matej

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS has been widely used in proteomics and metabolomics research. In this context, the technology has been increasingly used for differential profiling, i.e. broad screening of biomolecular components across multiple samples in order to elucidate the observed phenotypes and discover biomarkers. One of the major challenges in this domain remains development of better solutions for processing of LC/MS data. Results We present a software package MZmine that enables differential LC/MS analysis of metabolomics data. This software is a toolbox containing methods for all data processing stages preceding differential analysis: spectral filtering, peak detection, alignment and normalization. Specifically, we developed and implemented a new recursive peak search algorithm and a secondary peak picking method for improving already aligned results, as well as a normalization tool that uses multiple internal standards. Visualization tools enable comparative viewing of data across multiple samples. Peak lists can be exported into other data analysis programs. The toolbox has already been utilized in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate its utility on an example of metabolic profiling of Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Conclusion The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License and it can be obtained from the project web page at: http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/.

  20. Determination of benzoylurea insecticides in food by pressurized liquid extraction and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutti, Monia; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    A method based on pressurized liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS has been developed for determining nine benzoylureas (BUs) in fruit, vegetable, cereals, and animal products. Samples (5 g) were homogenized with diatomaceous earth and extracted in a 22 mL cell with 22 mL of ethyl acetate at 80 degrees C and 1500 psi. After solvent concentration and exchange to methanol, BUs were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using an IT mass analyzer, which achieved several transitions of precursor ions that increase selectivity providing identification. LOQs were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg/kg, which are equal or lower than maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. Excellent linearity was achieved over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg with correlation coefficients 0.995-0.999 (n=7). Validation of the total method was performed by analyzing in quintuplicate seven different commodities (milk, eggs, meat, rice, lettuce, avocado, and lemon) at three concentration levels (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg). The recoveries ranged from 58 to 97% and the RSDs from 5 to 19% depending on the compound and the commodity. The combination of pressurized liquid extraction with LC-MS/MS provides a sensitive and selective method for the determination of BUs in food.

  1. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-01-01

    Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

  2. Investigation of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues using ELISA and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique N; Aguiar, Waldemir S; Gouvêa, Raquel; de Oliveira, Andréa M G; Barreto, Fabiano; Pereira, Virgínia L A; Aquino, Maria Helena C

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of an enrofloxacin ELISA test kit to detect the presence of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues compared with LC-MS/MS. Broiler tissues from 72 samples consisting of 60 breast muscle, six pools of livers (500 g each) and six pools of kidneys (500 g each) were obtained from six different slaughterhouses. Breast muscle from 10 carcasses and pools of livers and kidneys from approximately 200 carcasses of the same flock were collected from each slaughterhouse. ELISA and HPLC were used to identify and quantify the contamination of the samples with enrofloxacin. A total of 72% of the analysed samples contained enrofloxacin residues detected by the ELISA and 22.2% were detected by LC-MS/MS. The mean values of enrofloxacin contamination found in chicken breast by ELISA and HPLC were 8.63 and 12.25 μg kg(-1), respectively. None of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 100 μg kg(-1) by both methods set by the European Union as well as the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. All positive samples for enrofloxacin residues detected by LC-MS/MS were also positive by ELISA. These data confirm the efficiency of the ELISA test, and suggest its use as a screening method for enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues due to its quick results, low price and ease of applicability.

  3. Photogalvanic self-pulsing of electro-wetting of LC droplet on LN-crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukhtarev, N; Kukhtareva, T; Geng, J; Zhang, XZ; Xu, JJ

    2017-01-01

    Photogalvanic current photoinduced by CW laser illumination of Fe-doped LN reveals quasi-periodic pulsing due to microplasmas discharges. This transformation of constant external influence into periodic response is interesting as example of self-excited systems, resembling pulsations of biological systems (including heart beats). Microplasmas is also interesting for potential applications in various fields, such as surface treatment, sterilization, water splitting, light sources, micro jets. Self-pulsing regime of microplasmas discharges in microhollow cathode discharges was observed and modeled in plasmas physics. In this paper, we analyze self-pulsing of photogalvanic current visualized by dynamic electrowetting in a simple LC-cell, formed by a nematic LC droplet placed on Fe-doped LN crystal. We have developed model of self-pulsing regime based on nonlinear discharge resistance. Experimental phase-space plot may be used to find parameters of the nonlinear discharge resistance. In the dynamic modeling contributions from both photogalvanic and pyroelectric effect are included. The analysis of dynamic regime reveals that a current pulse (in microsecond range) have asymmetric shape with extremely sharp rise with longer decay time. These self-pulsations are visualized by reflection of laser light from a LC droplet placed on LN-crystal. Reflected interference patterned was modulated by the dynamic electro-wetting effect. (paper)

  4. Improvement of exopolysaccharide production in Lactobacillus casei LC2W by overexpression of NADH oxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Zhenmin; Guo, Benheng; Ren, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacillus casei LC2W is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with probiotic effects. To investigate the regulation mechanism of EPS biosynthesis and to improve EPS production through cofactor engineering, a H₂O-forming NADH oxidase gene was cloned from Streptococcus mutans and overexpressed in L. casei LC2W under the control of constitutive promoter P₂₃. The recombinant strain LC-nox exhibited 0.854 U/mL of NADH oxidase activity, which was elevated by almost 20-fold in comparison with that of wild-type strain. As a result, overexpression of NADH oxidase resulted in a reduction in growth rate. In addition, lactate production was decreased by 22% in recombinant strain. It was proposed that more carbon source was saved and used for the biosynthesis of EPS, the production of which was reached at 219.4 mg/L, increased by 46% compared to that of wild-type strain. This work provided a novel and convenient genetic approach to manipulate metabolic flux and to increase EPS production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which correlates cofactor engineering with EPS production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between plasma and salivary melatonin and cortisol investigated by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Faassen, Martijn; Bischoff, Rainer; Kema, Ido P

    2017-08-28

    Disturbance of the circadian rhythm has been associated with disease states, such as metabolic disorders, depression and cancer. Quantification of the circadian markers such as melatonin and cortisol critically depend on reliable and reproducible analytical methods. Previously, melatonin and cortisol were primarily analyzed separately, mainly using immunoassays. Here we describe the validation and application of a high-throughput liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the combined analysis of melatonin and cortisol in plasma and saliva. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to international validation guidelines. We used this method to analyze total plasma, free plasma (as obtained by equilibrium dialysis) and saliva melatonin and cortisol in healthy adults. Validation results for plasma and saliva melatonin and cortisol were well within the international validation criteria. We observed no difference between saliva collected by passive drooling or Salivette. Moreover, we noted a significant difference in saliva vs. free plasma melatonin. We observed on average 36% (95% CI: 4%-60%) higher salivary melatonin levels in comparison to free plasma melatonin, suggestive of local production of melatonin in the salivary glands. The novel outcome of this study is probably due to the high precision of our LC-MS/MS assay. These outcomes illustrate the added value of accurate and sensitive mass spectrometry based methods for the quantification of neuroendocrine biomarkers.

  6. Larix decidua Bark as a Source of Phytoconstituents: An LC-MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Baldan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Larix decidua bark is a waste of the timber industry and is widely diffused in Northern Italy. This material can be considered a good source of antioxidants and phytoconstituents with possible use in cosmetic or nutraceutical products. In this study, simple extraction of larch bark was performed using mixtures of ethanol/water. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition of larch bark extract was studied using LC-MSn methods and the main constituents were identified as flavonoids, spiro-polyphenols, and procyanidins. To confirm the identification by LC-MS semi-preparative HPLC was performed in order to isolate the main constituents and verify the structures by 1H-NMR. Antioxidant properties were studied using an in vitro approach combining DPPH assay and LC-MS in order to establish different roles of the various classes of phytochemicasl of the extract. DPPH activity of some of the isolated compounds was also assessed. The overall results indicate this waste material as a good source of antioxidant compounds, mainly procyanidins, whichresulted the most active constituents in the DPPH assay.

  7. Analysis of catecholamines in urine by unique LC/MS suitable ion-pairing chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marianne L; Sadjadi, Seyed; Schmedes, Anne

    2017-07-01

    The catecholamines, epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) are small polar, hydrophilic molecules, posing significant challenges to liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method development. Specifically, these compounds show little retention on conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns. This work presents development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determining catecholamines in urine, based on a new approach to ion-pairing chromatography (IPC), in which the ion-pairing reagent (IPR), 1-Heptane Sulfonic Acid (HSA), is added to the extracted samples instead of the mobile phases. A Hamilton STARlet workstation carried out the solid phase extraction of urine samples. The extracted samples were diluted with 60mmol/L HSA and injected on a Kinetex core-shell biphenyl column with conventional LC-MS/MS suitable mobile phases. Chromatographic separation of E and NE was achieved successfully with very stable retention times (RT). In 484 injections, the RTs were steady with a CV of less than ±4%. Furthermore, HSA was separated from E and NE, allowing HSA to be diverted to waste instead of entering the mass spectrometer ion chamber. The method was validated with good analytical performance, and even though the analysis for urinary catecholamines is increasingly being replaced by plasma free metanephrines in diagnosing pheochromocytomas, this work represents the application of a new analytical technique that can be transferred to other small polar molecules, that are difficult to chromatograph on traditional reversed phase columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards comprehensive hydrocarbons analysis of middle distillates by LC-GCxGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Thiébaut, Didier; Esnault, Sébastien; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, M C

    2007-01-01

    The detailed characterization of middle distillates is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining processes. Owing to a higher resolution power and an enhanced sensitivity, but especially to a group-type ordering in the chromatographic plane, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) offers unsurpassed characterization possibilities for petroleum samples. However, GCxGC fails to totally discriminate naphthenes from unsaturates occurring in hydrotreated diesel samples. This article aims at promoting the implementation of LC-GCxGC for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon distribution in middle distillates, including naphthenes. In this configuration, liquid chromatography (LC) enables the separation of hydrocarbons into two fractions (viz., saturated and unsaturated) before the subsequent analysis of each fraction by GCxGC. In this paper, the choice of GCxGC conditions in order to achieve the separation and identification of hydrocarbons by chemical class is discussed; under these conditions, naphthenes are separated according to the number of saturated rings. For the first time, the presence of di-, tri-, and tetra-naphthenes resulting from the hydroconversion of aromatics can clearly be evidenced. A quantitative procedure for the determination of the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the distribution of naphthenes according to the number of saturated rings, is also proposed and discussed in detail. LC-GCxGC is found to provide an unequalled degree of information that will widely contribute to a better understanding of hydroconversion processes.

  9. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL LC MS/MS COMPATIBLE DETERGENTS WITH SODIUM DEOXYCHOLATE FOR SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb J. Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the performance of sodium deoxycholate (SDC with several commercially available LC MS/MS compatible detergents for digestion of complex proteomic mixtures. First, the parameters affecting in-solution digestion using SDC were investigated with a full factorial experimental design. Metrics explored were trypsin ratio, digestion time, and concentration of SDC. These parameters were not found to be statistically associated with total peptide identifications in the experimental space investigated. However, in terms of digestion efficiency, digestion time was highly significant (p = 0.0095 as determined by the percent of peptides identified with missed cleavages. The optimized protocol for peptide identification and throughput was used to compare the performance of SDC with various commercially available LC MS/MS compatible surfactants namely Invitrosol, RapiGest, and PPS Silent Surfactant. The detergents were found to be similar through comparisons of the total identified peptides and the hydrophobicity of recovered peptides. We found suitable recovery across a large range of SDC concentrations determined from a bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay. In a spike down experiment, no distinct differences in total number of peptide identifications were discovered when comparing PPS (Silent Surfactant and SDC for preparation of peptide samples derived from low protein amounts (< 20 µg. Combined, these results indicate that SDC is a cost effective alternative to other commonly used LC MS/MS compatible surfactants

  10. Organic characterisation of cave drip water by LC-OCD and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, Helen; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Chinu, Khorshed J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jex, Catherine N.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Markowska, Monika; Rau, Gabriel C.

    2015-10-01

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia, is a natural laboratory for studying water movement and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone by using artificial irrigation to activate drip sites within the cave. Water sampled from two drip sites activated by irrigations carried out in summer 2014 was analysed for dissolved inorganic ions and fluorescent organic matter. The analysis allowed the development of a conceptual flow path model for each drip site. DOM analysis was further complemented by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), applied for the first time to karst drip waters, allowing the characterisation of six organic matter fractions. The differences in organic matter fractions at each drip site are interpreted as a signature of the proposed flow paths. LC-OCD was also compared with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescence and good correlations were observed for high molecular weight organic matter. Strong positive correlations were also observed for high molecular weight matter and Cu and Ni. This is suggestive of colloidal transport of Cu and Ni by organic matter with high molecular weight, while small molecular weight colloids were not efficient transporters. LC-OCD uniquely provides information on non-fluorescent organic matter and can be used to further quantify drip water organic matter composition.

  11. Verification of propofol sulfate as a further human propofol metabolite using LC-ESI-QQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Alexandra; Maier, Christoph; Michel-Lauter, Beate; Broecker, Sebastian; Madea, Burkhard; Hess, Cornelius

    2017-03-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a water-insoluble, intravenous anesthetic that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia as well as for endoscopic and pediatric sedation. After admission, propofol undergoes extensive hepatic and extrahepatic metabolism, including direct conjugation to propofol glucuronide and hydroxylation to 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol. The latter substance subsequently undergoes phase II metabolism, resulting in the formation of further metabolites (1quinolglucuronide, 4quinolglucuronide and 4quinol-sulfate). Further minor phase I propofol metabolites (2-(ω-propanol)-6-isopropylphenol and 2-(ω-propanol)-6-isopropyl-1,4-quinol)) are also described. Due to its chemical structure with the phenolic hydroxyl group, propofol is also an appropriate substrate for sulfation by sulfotransferases. The existence of propofol sulfate was investigated by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LCESIQQQ-MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCESI-QTOF-MS). A propofol sulfate reference standard was used for identification and method development, yielding a precursor at m/z 257 (deprotonated propofol sulfate) and product ions at m/z 177 (deprotonated propofol) and m/z 80 ([SO3]-). Propofol sulfate - a further phase II metabolite of propofol - was verified in urine samples by LC-ESI-QQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Analyses of urine samples from five volunteers collected before and after propofol-induced sedation verified the presence of propofol sulfate in urine following propofol administration, whereas ascertained concentrations of this metabolite were significantly lower compared with detected propofol glucuronide concentrations. The existence of propofol sulfate as a further phase II propofol metabolite in humans could be verified by two different detection techniques (LCESIQQQ-MS and LC-ESI-QTOFMS) on the basis of a propofol sulfate

  12. Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-02-20

    Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollution caused by peoples' use for socio-economic purposes (agricultural, recreation and tourism) in the Gölcük Plain Settlement at Bozdağ Plateau (Ödemiş-İzmir/Turkey): a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtaslan, Banu Ozturk; Demirel, Öner

    2011-04-01

    Mountainous areas, which form the largest geography of our country and are called reserves of resources owing to their difficulty of accessibility, have been increasingly under threat of exploitation and overuse in recent years. The area in question from among the mountainous areas, which are sensitive ecosystems with their environmental components, is the Bozdağ mass located in Gölcük Plateau Settlement, which has been subject to intensive construction and use. This study is intended to reveal the current uses of Gölcük Plateau (agricultural, recreation, and tourism) and determine the sources and effects of pollution as a result of these uses and aims at revealing how the permanent residents of Gölcük Plateau Settlement on Bozdağ Plateau, which is a center of attraction with respect of recreation and tourism activities, and those who go there only in certain periods, use the environment for tourism and recreational purposes, and determine their positive and negative impacts on environment through SWOT analysis.

  14. Qualified measurement setup of polarization extinction ratio for Panda PMF with LC/UPC connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongdaeng, Rutsuda; Worasucheep, Duang-rudee; Ngiwprom, Adisak

    2018-03-01

    Polarization Extinction Ratio (PER) is one of the key parameters for Polarization Maintaining Fiber (PMF) connector. Based on our previous studies, the bending radius of fiber greater than 1.5 cm will not affect the insertion loss of PMF [1]. Moreover, the measured PER of Panda PMF with LC/UPC connectors is more stable when that PMF is coiled around a hot rod with a minimum of 3-cm in diameter at 75°C temperature [2]. Hence, the hot rod with less constrained 6-cm in diameter at constant 75°C was selected for this PER measurement. Two PER setups were verified and compared for measuring LC/UPC PMF connectors. The Polarized Laser Source (PLS) at 1550 nm wavelength and PER meter from OZ Optics were used in both setups, in which the measured connector was connected to PLS at 0° angle while the other end was connected to PER meter. In order to qualify our setups, the percentage of Repeatability and Reproducibility (%R&R) were tested and calculated. In each setup, the PER measurement was repeated 3 trials by 3 appraisers using 10 LC/UPC PMF connectors (5 LC/UPC PMF patchcords with 3.5+/-0.5 meters in length) in random order. The 1st setup, PMF was coiled at a larger 20-cm diameter for 3 to 5 loops and left in room temperature during the test. The 2nd setup, PMF was coiled around a hot rod at constant 75°C with 6-cm diameter for 8 to 10 loops for at least 5 minutes before testing. There are 3 ranges of %R&R acceptation guide line: <10% is acceptable, between 10% - 30% is marginal, and <30% is unacceptable. According to our results, the %R&R of the 1st PER test setup was 16.2% as marginality, and the 2nd PER test setup was 8.9% as acceptance. Thus, providing the better repeatability and reproducibility, this 2nd PER test setup having PMF coiled around a hot rod at constant 75°C with 6-cm diameter was selected for our next study of the impact of hot temperature on PER in LC/UPC PMF connector.

  15. Characterisation of the ester-substituted products of the reaction of p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate using LC-UV-MS and LC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gillian; Wall, Rachel; Nolan, Kieran; Diamond, Dermot

    2002-07-19

    A series of derivatisation reactions between p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate were carried out in order to prepare 1,3 diester substituted calix[4]arene. Mass spectral data, obtained from direct injection of samples, indicated that the reactions were rich in the desired product. Since the ultra violet (UV) spectra of the desired product and possible impurities are very similar, liquid chromatography (LC) chromatographic data seemed to corroborate these results. However, when on-line LC-UV-MS was carried out and each LC peak subjected to MS analysis as it eluted, a very different picture emerged. It was found that many of these reactions actually contained high levels of the monoester product which, having less affinity for sodium in the MS, is therefore seriously underestimated in any direct injection assay. LC-diode array detection (DAD) methods were also used to help successfully identify and characterise the compounds being formed in these complex reactions. The overall results obtained in this paper allowed the optimal reaction conditions to be determined for this reaction. LC-MS analysis of the chromatographic peaks also identified the presence of two isomers of the diester substituted calix[4]arene (1,3 and 1,2 diesters). The combination of LC and UV/MS detection is required for accurate analysis of the products of such reactions.

  16. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  17. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  18. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  19. Comparison of LC-ESI-MS and GC-MS for the Analysis of a Synthetic Tabun Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Packed capillary LC-ESI-MS and capillary column GC-MS were compared for the analysis of a synthetic tabun sample as each method has advantages for the analysis of samples containing chemical warfare...

  20. Analysis of Disperse Dyes Using Liquid Chromatography/Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LC/LIT-MSn) and Database Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takao; Ikeue, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Handa, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/LIT-MS(n)) was used to construct a database of disperse dyes. Fifty-three standard dyes were subjected to LC/LIT-MS(n) and characterized based on their mass spectra (MS, MS(2), and MS(3)), values of λmax (maximum absorption wavelength in the UV-visible spectrum), and retention times. The results demonstrate that it is possible to reliably identify coexisting dyes that cannot be separated by LC or detected by diode array detection due to their low molecular absorption coefficients. In addition, the by-products included in the standard dyes were found to provide important information for the identification and discrimination of dyestuffs synthesized using different processes. The confirmation of the effectiveness of LC/LIT-MS(n) analysis in detecting small amounts of disperse dyes in this study shows its potential for use in the discrimination of dyed fibers obtained at crime scenes.

  1. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esperza, X.; Moyano, E.; de Boer, J.; Galceran, M.T.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases.

  2. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  3. On-line LC-GC and comprehensive two-dimensional LCxGC-ToF MS for the analysis of complex samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Central Analytical Science, Unilever Research and Development, P.O. Box 114, 3130 AC, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Koning, Sjaak de [Separation Science Group, LECO Instrumente GmbH, Marie-Bernays-Ring 31, 41199, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Brinkman, Udo A.Th. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Free University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    LC x GC is a logical extension of LC-GC. Unlike LC-GC, which only allows detailed analysis of one group of analytes from a complex sample, LC x GC enables detailed mapping of the entire sample. Due to the high degree of orthogonality and the complementary nature of the two dimensions, the method has a very high resolving power. Comprehensive LC x GC chromatograms often show ordered structures which allow group-wise integration as well as detailed target compound analysis. Hyphenation with mass spectrometry is straightforward, which further widens the application range of the technique. (orig.)

  4. Cloning and analysis of peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC and immune deficiency from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Yue; Yang, Pei-Jin; Rao, Xiang-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. PxPGRP-LC gene consists of six exons encoding a polypeptide of 308 amino acid residues with a transmembrane region and a PGRP domain. PxIMD cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 251 amino acid residues with a death domain. Sequence comparisons indicate that they are characteristic of Drosophila PGRP-LC and IMD homologs. PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD were expressed in various tissues and developmental stages. Their mRNA levels were affected by bacterial challenges. The PGRP domain of PxPGRP-LC lacks key residues for the amidase activity, but it can recognize two types of PGNs. Overexpression of full-length and deletion mutants in Drosophila S2 cells induced expression of some antimicrobial peptide genes. These results indicate that PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD may be involved in the immune signaling of P. xylostella. This study provides a foundation for further studies of the immune system of P. xylostella. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An impulse-driven liquid-droplet deposition interface for combining LC with MALDI MS and MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J Bryce; Li, Liang

    2006-03-01

    A simple and robust impulse-driven droplet deposition system was developed for off-line liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI MS). The system uses a solenoid operated with a pulsed voltage power supply to generate impulses that dislodge the hanging droplets from the LC outlet directly to a MALDI plate via a momentum transfer process. There is no contact between the LC outlet and the collection surface. The system is compatible with solvents of varying polarity and viscosity, and accommodates the use of hydrophobic and hydrophilic MALDI matrices. MALDI spots are produced on-line with the separation, and do not require further processing before MS analysis. It is shown that high quality MALDI spectra from 5 fmol of pyro-Glu-fibrinopeptide deposition after LC separation could be obtained using the device, indicating that there was no sample loss in the interface. To demonstrate the analytical performance of the system as a proteome analysis tool, a range of BSA digest concentrations covering about 3 orders of magnitude, from 5 fmol to 1 pmol, were analyzed by LC-MALDI quadrupole time-of-flight MS, yielding 6 and 57% amino acid sequence coverage, respectively. In addition, a complex protein mixture of an E. coli cell extract was tryptically digested and analyzed by LC-MALDI MS, resulting in the detection of a total of 409 unique peptides from 100 fractions of 15-s intervals.

  6. Evaluation of Normalization Methods to Pave the Way Towards Large-Scale LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Profiling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborg, Dirk; Baggerman, Geert; Vanaerschot, Manu; Witters, Erwin; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Berg, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Combining liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics experiments that were collected over a long period of time remains problematic due to systematic variability between LC-MS measurements. Until now, most normalization methods for LC-MS data are model-driven, based on internal standards or intermediate quality control runs, where an external model is extrapolated to the dataset of interest. In the first part of this article, we evaluate several existing data-driven normalization approaches on LC-MS metabolomics experiments, which do not require the use of internal standards. According to variability measures, each normalization method performs relatively well, showing that the use of any normalization method will greatly improve data-analysis originating from multiple experimental runs. In the second part, we apply cyclic-Loess normalization to a Leishmania sample. This normalization method allows the removal of systematic variability between two measurement blocks over time and maintains the differential metabolites. In conclusion, normalization allows for pooling datasets from different measurement blocks over time and increases the statistical power of the analysis, hence paving the way to increase the scale of LC-MS metabolomics experiments. From our investigation, we recommend data-driven normalization methods over model-driven normalization methods, if only a few internal standards were used. Moreover, data-driven normalization methods are the best option to normalize datasets from untargeted LC-MS experiments. PMID:23808607

  7. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Lai

    Full Text Available The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  8. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  9. Beyond knockouts: cre resources for conditional mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stephen A.; Eppig, Janan T.; Smedley, Damian; Simpson, Elizabeth M.; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    With the effort of the International Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) to produce thousands of strains with conditional potential gathering steam, there is growing recognition that it must be supported by a rich toolbox of cre driver strains. The approaches to build cre strains have evolved in both sophistication and reliability, replacing first generation strains with tools that can target individual cell populations with incredible precision and specificity. The modest set of cre drivers generated by individual labs over the past 15+ years is now growing rapidly, thanks to a number of large-scale projects to produce new cre strains for the community. The power of this growing resource, however, depends upon the proper deep characterization of strain function, as even the best designed strain can display a variety of undesirable features that must be considered in experimental design. This must be coupled with the parallel development of informatics tools to provide functional data to the user, and facilitated access to the strains through public repositories. We will discuss the current progress on all of these fronts and the challenges that remain to ensure the scientific community can capitalize on the tremendous number of mouse resources at their disposal. PMID:22926223

  10. Analysis of benzodiazepines and their metabolites using DBS cards and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesang; Park, Yujin; Jo, Jiyeong; In, Sangwhan; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Choe, Sanggil

    2015-10-01

    Dried Blood Spot (DBS) has been used a blood extraction method for inherited metabolic disorder screening since 1960s. With introduction of LC-MS/MS, not only DBS could be used to analysis drugs in small blood volume, but in various fields, such as toxicology, drug therapeutic monitoring, drug diagnostic screening, and illicit drugs. In toxicology field, many drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines, acetaminophen, small molecule drugs) have been tested with DBS. Compared with earlier blood extraction methods (SPE and LLE), DBS has lots of advantages; lower blood volume (less than 50μL), shorter analysis time caused by a more concise analysis procedure and lower cost. We optimized the DBS procedure and LC-MS/MS conditions for 18 benzodiazepines, seven benzodiazepine metabolites, and one z-drug (zolpidem) analysis in blood. 30μL of whole blood was spotted on FTA DMPK card C and dried for 2h in a desiccator. A 6-mm disk was punched and vortexed for 1min in a centrifuge tube with 300μL methanol/acetonitrile mixture (1:1, v/v). After evaporation, redissolved in 100μL mobile phase of LC-MS/MS and 5μL was injected. In the analysis for 26 target compounds in blood, all of the method validation parameters - LLOD, LLOQ, accuracy (intra- and inter-assay), and precision (intra- and inter-assay) - were satisfied with method validation criteria, within 15%. The results of matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency were good. We developed a fast and reliable sample preparation method using DBS for 26 benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine metabolites, and z-drug (zolpidem). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poly A tail length analysis of in vitro transcribed mRNA by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Michael; Hagen, Caitlin; Slack, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The 3'-polyadenosine (poly A) tail of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA was studied using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Poly A tails were cleaved from the mRNA using ribonuclease T1 followed by isolation with dT magnetic beads. Extracted tails were then analyzed by LC-MS which provided tail length information at single-nucleotide resolution. A 2100-nt mRNA with plasmid-encoded poly A tail lengths of either 27, 64, 100, or 117 nucleotides was used for these studies as enzymatically added poly A tails showed significant length heterogeneity. The number of As observed in the tails closely matched Sanger sequencing results of the DNA template, and even minor plasmid populations with sequence variations were detected. When the plasmid sequence contained a discreet number of poly As in the tail, analysis revealed a distribution that included tails longer than the encoded tail lengths. These observations were consistent with transcriptional slippage of T7 RNAP taking place within a poly A sequence. The type of RNAP did not alter the observed tail distribution, and comparison of T3, T7, and SP6 showed all three RNAPs produced equivalent tail length distributions. The addition of a sequence at the 3' end of the poly A tail did, however, produce narrower tail length distributions which supports a previously described model of slippage where the 3' end can be locked in place by having a G or C after the poly nucleotide region. Graphical abstract Determination of mRNA poly A tail length using magnetic beads and LC-MS.

  12. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  14. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN LC 5E UNTUK MENGURANGI KESALAHAN KONSEP MATERI REDOKS DAN RETENSINYA PADA SISWA KELAS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noni Asmarisa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 identify students’ misconceptions in redox (2 determine the effectiveness of LC 5E learning model in correcting student’ misconceptions in redox; and (3 determine its retention after correction of student’ misconceptions in redox with LC 5E learning model. This research is descriptive and pre-experimental. Descriptive study was used to identify and describe the misconceptions students on redox material, while pre-experimental was used to  study on the effectiveness of LC 5E learning model in correcting misconceptions and determine its retention. Subject in this study is a science class (X IPA 1 SMA of Al Muhafidzoh Blitar which consists of 20 students who have learned redox. The misconceptions were observed using a diagnostic test, 15 items of multiple-choice questions with reasoned. The test has validity of 97% and reliability value of 0.934..  The results showed that (1 students has following 14 misconceptions in redox; (2 The LC 5E learning model is effective in improving students' misconceptions in redox reaction with an average reduction of 78.78%; (3 retention of students' understanding of the concept after two weeks of repairs using LC 5E learning model is 95.6%, which is classified in the category very well. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 mengidentifikasi kesalahan konsep siswa pada materi redoks; (2 mengetahui keefektifan model pembelajaran LC 5E dalam memperbaiki kesalahan konsep redoks; dan (3 mengetahui retensinya setelah dilakukan perbaikan dengan model pembelajaran LC 5E. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dan pra-eksperimental. Penelitian deskriptif digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi dan mendeskripsikan kesalahan konsep siswa pada materi redoks. Penelitian pra-eksperimental digunakan untuk melihat keefektifan model pembelajaran LC 5E dalam memperbaiki kesalahan konsep dan mengetahui retensinya. Subjek penelitian dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X IPA 1 SMA Al Muhafidzoh Blitar yang berjumlah

  15. Direct identification of amyloids by label-free quantitative LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Danielsen, Heidi Nolsøe; Hansen, Susan Hove

    adhesive and therefore bind to pipette tips and other consumables. Pure cultures, large sample volumes and high productivity of amyloids are therefore required for successful purification. We here present a quantitative proteomics technique that allow direct identification of functional amyloid candidates......Direct identification of amyloids by label-free quantitative LC-MS H. N. Danielsen, S. H. Hansen, F.-A. Herbst, P. H. Nielsen, M. S. Dueholm Amyloids are highly ordered fibrillar protein polymers used by organisms from all domains of life due to their exceptional properties. We have previously...... in complex samples based on their structural stability in the presence of increasing concentrations of formic acid....

  16. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  17. Extracting hidden-photon dark matter from an LC-circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Doebrich, Babette

    2015-01-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space. (orig.)

  18. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  19. Passivity enhancement by series LC filtered active damper with zero current reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    can be improved by enhancing the passivity of the total admittance seen by the grid, which allows for a zero current reference and a much simpler current controller for the active damper. To show the performance of the active damper with zero reference, this paper first carries out the impedance based...... stability analysis of grid converters in the weak grid. Based on the impedance model of the series LC filtered active damper, the real part of its output admittance is investigated and shown to be able to enhance the passivity of the admittance of the converters seen by the grid. Finally, simulation...

  20. A grid-voltage-sensorless resistive active power filter with series LC-filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...

  1. A Grid-Voltage-Sensorless Resistive Active Power Filter with Series LC-Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...

  2. The persistent current and energy spectrum on a driven mesoscopic LC-circuit with Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanias, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit including a Josephson junction with charge discreteness is studied. By considering coupling energy of the mesoscopic capacitor in Josephson junction device, a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness is introduced. We first calculate the persistent current on a quantum driven ring including Josephson junction. Then we obtain the persistent current and energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electrical circuit which includes capacitor, inductor, time-dependent external source and Josephson junction.

  3. LC3B globular structures correlate with survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Mashed, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence of any solid tumor in the Western world. Prognosis remains poor with overall five-year survival rates under 25 %. Only a limited number of patients benefit from chemotherapy and there are no biomarkers that can predict outcome. Previous studies have indicated that induction of autophagy can influence various aspects of tumor cell biology, including chemosensitivity. The objective of this study was to assess whether expression of the autophagy marker (LC3B) correlated with patient outcome.

  4. Optical readout of coupling between a nanomembrane and an LC circuit at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, T.; Simonsen, A.; Zeuthen, E.

    2013-01-01

    to optical excitations in a high finesse cavity.In this work, we have experimentally realized both optical and electrical detection of coupling in a roomtemperature electromechanical system composed of an LC circuit and a 100-nm thick SiN nanomembrane coated by 50 nm Aluminum. We follow an approach similar....... A DC bias voltage applied to the capacitor amplifies the coupling. We confirm two-way coupling by observing broadening in the membrane vibrations via optical readout (Doppler vibrometry, Fig. 1b) and an MIT (Mechanically Induced Transparency) dip in the electrical probe (Fig. 1c). The two different...

  5. Inhomogeneous dislocation structure in fatigued INCONEL 713 LC superalloy at room and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenec, Martin; Obrtlik, Karel; Polak, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    The dislocations arrangement was studied using transmission electron microscopy in specimens of polycrystalline INCONEL 713 LC superalloy cyclically strained up to failure with constant total strain amplitudes at temperatures 300, 773, 973 and 1073 K. Planar dislocation arrangements in the form of bands parallel to the {1 1 1} planes were observed in specimens cycled at all the temperatures. The bands showed up as thin slabs of high dislocation density cutting both the γ channels and γ' precipitates. Ladder-like bands were observed at room temperature

  6. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pzdemir, Z.O.; Bulut, E.K.; Mustafeva, Z.; Karahan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  7. Shotgun proteomics of plant plasma membrane and microdomain proteins using nano-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Nakayama, Takato; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics allows the comprehensive analysis of proteins extracted from plant cells, subcellular organelles, and membranes. Previously, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was used for mass spectrometric analysis of plasma membrane proteins. In order to get comprehensive proteome profiles of the plasma membrane including highly hydrophobic proteins with a number of transmembrane domains, a mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics method using nano-LC-MS/MS for proteins from the plasma membrane proteins and plasma membrane microdomain fraction is described. The results obtained are easily applicable to label-free protein semiquantification.

  8. Extracting hidden-photon dark matter from an LC-circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden-photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space.

  9. Effectiveness of Emittance Bumps in the NLC and US Cold LC Main Linear Accelerators (LCC-0138)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of studies on the effectiveness of closed orbit bumps in the linacs of the NLC and the USColdLC. In the first study, emittance dilutions of a pure-wakefield or pure-dispersion character are introduced in each linac, and a set of emittance bumps is tested to determine the most effective bump location in the linac, and the net effectiveness. In the second study, a more realistic set of dilutions are introduced and the wakefield bumps used in the first study are applied

  10. Extracting Hidden-Photon Dark Matter From an LC-Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Döbrich, Babette; Gamboa, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden- photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space.

  11. ESI-MSn and LC-ESI-MS studies to characterize forced degradation products of bosentan and a validated stability-indicating LC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Singh, Ranjit; Saini, Balraj; Bansal, Yogita

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the characterization of forced degradation products of bosentan and a validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the stability testing of bosentan tablets. The forced degradation was carried out under the conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolysis. The drug was found unstable in acid, alkali and oxidative media whereas stable to the hydrolysis in water, to dry heat and to photolysis. In total, six degradation products were formed in all conditions which were resolved in a single run on a C-18 column with gradient elution using ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5, 5.0mM), methanol and acetonitrile. Structures of all the degradation products were characterized through +ESI-MS(n) and LC-ESI-MS spectral data of bosentan as well as LC-ESI-MS spectral data of the products. The products II-VI were characterized as 6-amino-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4,5-diol, 6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-ol, 2-[6-amino-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yloxy]-ethanol, 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-(1-methoxyethoxy)-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']-bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide and 4-tert-butyl-N-[6-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-[2,2']bipyrimidinyl-4-yl]-benzenesulfonamide, respectively. The peak of the product I was found to be due to two secondary degradation products which co-eluted and were characterized as β-hydroxyethyl p-tert-butylphenylsulfonate (Ia) and 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-phenoxy]-ethanol (Ib). These products were formed due to hydrolysis of sulfonamide and alkylaryl ether and the diaryl ether linkages as well as dehydration of the primary alcohol group. The most probable degradation mechanisms were proposed. The HPLC method was found to be stability-indicating, linear (2-100 μg ml(-1)), accurate, precise, sensitive, specific, rugged and robust for quantitation of the drug. The method was applied to the stability testing of the commercially available bosentan tablets successfully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  14. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  15. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  16. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  17. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB): A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S; May, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. 825 patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as co-educators, situational, reflective and inductive teaching. The control arm received structured deductive teaching. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to at least 75% of the exercise training or education sessions. We tested for subgroup effects on the primary outcomes using interaction terms. The primary outcomes were compared across arms using logistic regression. More patients in the LC arm adhered to at least 75% of the exercise training sessions than control (80% versus 73%, adjusted odds ratio (OR):1.48; 95% CI:1.07 to 2.05, P=0.018) and 75% of education sessions (79% versus 70%, adjusted OR:1.61, 1.17 to 2.22, P=0.003). Some evidence of larger effects of LC on adherence was seen for patients with heart failure, low education and household income. Addition of LC strategies improved adherence in rehabilitation both in terms of exercise training and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  19. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety

  20. Identification, characterization and quantification of new impurities by LC-ESI/MS/MS and LC-UV methods in rivastigmine tartrate active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Shandilya, Sanjeev; Bharati, Amber; Paul, Saroj Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-05

    Six impurities were detected at trace level in rivastigmine tartrate drug substance by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography method. Three impurities were characterized rapidly and three impurities were found to be unknown. The unknown impurities were enriched and identified with a combination of semi-preparative HPLC and LC/MS/MS techniques. Proposed structures were further confirmed by characterization using NMR, FT-IR, and EA techniques of impurity standards. Based on the spectroscopic, spectrometric and elemental analysis data unknown impurities were characterized as 3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenyl N-ethyl-N-methyl carbamate N-oxide, ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 4-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester and ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 2-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester. A plausible mechanism for the formation of these impurities is also proposed. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines for fourteen impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for rivastigmine tartrate and its impurities. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.41 and 113.33% for all impurities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  2. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  3. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  4. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  5. Analysis of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in processed Japanese foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Chuda, Y; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Yada, H; Ishizaka, M; Kobayashi, H; Yoshida, M

    2003-03-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods (63 samples covering 31 product types) from Japan were analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of acrylamide were 0.2 ng x ml(-1) (6 fmol) and 0.8 ng x ml(-1) (22 fmol), respectively, by LC-MS/MS, and those of 2,3-dibromopropionamide derived from acrylamide were 12 ng x ml(-1) (52 fmol) and 40 ng x ml(-1) (170 fmol), respectively, by GC-MS. Repeatability given as RSD was 1000 microg x kg(-1). The concentrations in non-whole potato-based snacks, rice crackers processed by grilling or frying, and candied sweet potatoes were lower compared with those in the potato crisps and the whole potato-based fried snacks. One of the whole potato-based fried snacks, however, showed low acrylamide concentration (instant precooked noodles and won-tons were <100 microg x kg(-1) with only one exception. Roasted barley grains for 'Mugi-cha' tea contained 200-600 microg x kg(-1) acrylamide.

  6. Establishment of a method for determination of arsenic species in seafood by LC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmozinski, Ariane V; Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; López-Sánchez, José F; da Silva, Márcia M

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method for determination of arsenic species (inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and arsenocholine (AC)) in Brazilian and Spanish seafood samples is reported. This study was focused on extraction and quantification of inorganic arsenic (iAs), the most toxic form. Arsenic speciation was carried out via LC with both anionic and cationic exchange with ICP-MS detection (LC-ICP-MS). The detection limits (LODs), quantification limits (LOQs), precision and accuracy for arsenic species were established. The proposed method was evaluated using eight reference materials (RMs). Arsenobetaine was the main species found in all samples. The total and iAs concentration in 22 seafood samples and RMs ranged between 0.27-35.2 and 0.02-0.71 mg As kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranging from 100% to 106% for iAs, based on spikes, were achieved. The proposed method provides reliable iAs data for future risk assessment analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The reaction environment in a filter-press laboratory reactor: the FM01-LC flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Fernando F.; León, Carlos Ponce de; Walsh, Frank C.; Nava, José L.

    2015-01-01

    A parallel plate cell facilitating controlled flow in a rectangular channel and capable of incorporating a wide range of electrode materials is important in studies of electrode reactions prior to process development and scale-up. The FM01-LC, a versatile laboratory-scale, plane parallel filter-press type electrochemical cell (having a projected electrode area of 64 cm 2 ) which is based on the larger FM21-SP electrolyser (2100 cm 2 area). Many laboratories have used this type of reactor to quantify the importance of reaction environment in fundamental studies and to prepare for industrial applications. A number of papers have concerned the experimental characterization and computational modelling of its reaction environment but the experimental and computational data has become dispersed. The cell has been used in a diverse range of synthesis and processing applications which require controlled flow and known reaction environment. In a previous review, the cell construction and reaction environment was summarised followed by the illustration of its use for a range of applications that include organic and inorganic electrosynthesis, metal ion removal, energy storage, environmental remediation (e.g., metal recycling or anodic destruction of organics) and drinking water treatment. This complementary review considers the characteristics of the FM01-LC electrolyser as an example of a well-engineered flow cell facilitating cell scale-up and provides a rigorous analysis of its reaction environment. Particular aspects include the influence of electrolyte velocity on mass transport rates, flow dispersion and current distribution

  8. GeLC-MS: A Sample Preparation Method for Proteomics Analysis of Minimal Amount of Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makridakis, Manousos; Vlahou, Antonia

    2017-10-10

    Application of various proteomics methodologies have been implemented for the global and targeted proteome analysis of many different types of biological samples such as tissue, urine, plasma, serum, blood, and cell lines. Among the aforementioned biological samples, tissue has an exceptional role into clinical research and practice. Disease initiation and progression is usually located at the tissue level of different organs, making the analysis of this material very important for the understanding of the disease pathophysiology. Despite the significant advances in the mass spectrometry instrumentation, tissue proteomics still faces several challenges mainly due to increased sample complexity and heterogeneity. However, the most prominent challenge is attributed to the invasive procedure of tissue sampling which restricts the availability of fresh frozen tissue to minimal amounts and limited number of samples. Application of GeLC-MS sample preparation protocol for tissue proteomics analysis can greatly facilitate making up for these difficulties. In this chapter, a step by step guide for the proteomics analysis of minute amounts of tissue samples using the GeLC-MS sample preparation protocol, as applied by our group in the analysis of multiple different types of tissues (vessels, kidney, bladder, prostate, heart) is provided.

  9. Thermal analysis of wirelessly powered thermo-pneumatic micropump based on planar LC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Pei Song; Nafea, Marwan; Leow, Pei Ling; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal behavior of a wireless powered micropump operated using thermo-pneumatic actuation. Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the temporal conduction of the planar inductor-capacitor (LC) wireless heater and the heating chamber. The result shows that the temperature at the heating chamber reaches steady state temperature of 46.7.deg.C within 40 seconds. The finding was further verified with experimental works through the fabrication of the planar LC heater (RF sensitive actuator) and micropump device using MEMS fabrication technique. The fabricated device delivers a minimum volume of 0.096 μL at the temperature of 29.deg.C after being thermally activated for 10 s. The volume dispensed from the micropump device can precisely controlled by an increase of the electrical heating power within the cut-off input power of 0.22 W. Beyond the power, the heat transfer to the heating chamber exhibits non-linear behavior. In addition, wireless operation of the fabricated device shows successful release of color dye when the micropump is immersed in DI-water containing dish and excited by tuning the RF power.

  10. Lung Cancer Serum Biomarker Discovery Using Label Free LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xuemei; Hood, Brian L.; Zhao, Ting; Conrads, Thomas P.; Sun, Mai; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Grover, Himanshu; Day, Roger S.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Wilson, David O.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Bigbee, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death with poor survival due to the late stage at which lung cancer is typically diagnosed. Given the clinical burden from lung cancer, and the relatively favorable survival associated with early stage lung cancer, biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer are of important potential clinical benefit. Methods We performed a global lung cancer serum biomarker discovery study using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a set of pooled non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) case sera and matched controls. Immunoaffinity subtraction was used to deplete the top most abundant serum proteins; the remaining serum proteins were subjected to trypsin digestion and analyzed in triplicate by LC-MS/MS. The tandem mass spectrum data were searched against the human proteome database and the resultant spectral counting data were used to estimate the relative abundance of proteins across the case/control serum pools. The spectral counting derived abundances of some candidate biomarker proteins were confirmed with multiple reaction monitoring MS assays. Results A list of 49 differentially abundant candidate proteins was compiled by applying a negative binomial regression model to the spectral counting data (pbiomarkers with statistically significant differential abundance across the lung cancer case/control pools which, when validated, could improve lung cancer early detection. PMID:21304412

  11. Identification of acoustic emission sources in early stages of fatigue process of Inconel 713LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkova, Denisa; Vlasic, Frantisek; Mazal, Pavel [Brno Univ. of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-11-01

    Inconel 713LC is low carbon variant of Inconel 713 nickel-based cast alloy. The biggest advantage of these alloys is their ability to resist a wide variety of operating conditions (corrosive environment, high temperature, high stresses). Main area of applications is aircraft, energetic, chemical and petrochemical industry etc. In many applications, components undergo cyclic stresses. This study presents results of acoustic emission response of Inconel 713LC during high-cycle fatigue testing. In comparison with low-cycle fatigue, stage of initiation of micro cracks is in high-cycle region much more significant and can take several tens of percent of whole fatigue life. This work is focused on comparison of selected parameters of acoustic emission signal in pre-initiation and initiation stage of fatigue crack creation. Signal data were specified by linear location technique, hence only signal from shallow notch was analysed. Acoustic emission signal was correlated with frequency of load reversals which is a function of specimen's rigidity (modulus). Acoustic emission hits with higher stress were detected in pre-initiation stage whereas initiation stage hits exhibited low stress. Acoustic emission signal measurements are supplemented by fractographic and metallographic analysis.

  12. Increasing reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements displayed with LC SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-03-01

    Phase liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). Due to high periodicity of fluctuations it should be possible to use knowledge of these fluctuations during DOE synthesis to minimize negative effect. We synthesized DOE using accurately measured phase fluctuations of phase LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" to minimize its negative impact on displayed DOE reconstruction. Synthesis was conducted with versatile direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) method in the following way. Before DOE synthesis begun, two-dimensional dependency of SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was obtained. Then synthesis begins. First, initial phase distribution is created. Second, random trajectory of consecutive processing of all DOE elements is generated. Then iterative process begins. Each DOE element sequentially has its value changed to one that provides better value of objective criterion, e.g. lower deviation of reconstructed image from original one. If current element value provides best objective criterion value then it left unchanged. After all elements are processed, iteration repeats until stagnation is reached. It is demonstrated that application of SLM phase fluctuations knowledge in DOE synthesis with DSRT method leads to noticeable increase of DOE reconstruction quality.

  13. Thermal analysis of wirelessly powered thermo-pneumatic micropump based on planar LC circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Pei Song; Nafea, Marwan; Leow, Pei Ling; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    This paper studies the thermal behavior of a wireless powered micropump operated using thermo-pneumatic actuation. Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the temporal conduction of the planar inductor-capacitor (LC) wireless heater and the heating chamber. The result shows that the temperature at the heating chamber reaches steady state temperature of 46.7.deg.C within 40 seconds. The finding was further verified with experimental works through the fabrication of the planar LC heater (RF sensitive actuator) and micropump device using MEMS fabrication technique. The fabricated device delivers a minimum volume of 0.096 μL at the temperature of 29.deg.C after being thermally activated for 10 s. The volume dispensed from the micropump device can precisely controlled by an increase of the electrical heating power within the cut-off input power of 0.22 W. Beyond the power, the heat transfer to the heating chamber exhibits non-linear behavior. In addition, wireless operation of the fabricated device shows successful release of color dye when the micropump is immersed in DI-water containing dish and excited by tuning the RF power.

  14. Licenciamento ambiental municipal e a LC n°. 140/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires Muniz de Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a Constituição de 1988, a proteção ambiental é compartilhada por todos os entes da Federação brasileira e, por conta disto, requer uma atuação conjunta. Para tanto, o parágrafo único do art. 23 CF/88 estabeleceu que a tarefa de organizar o sistema federativo ficaria a cargo de lei complementar, a qual fixaria normas de cooperação. Dessa forma, foi promulgada em 2011 a Lei Complementar n°. 140, que, dentre outras matérias, define as competências de União, Estados, Distrito Federal e Municípios perante o licenciamento ambiental. Diante desse quadro, o texto propõe uma análise específica sobre o papel dos entes municipais e, para tanto, mostrou-se fundamental discorrer sobre a constitucionalidade das tipologias municipais submetidas aos Conselhos Estaduais previstas no art. art. 9º, XIV, a LC nº. 140/2011. Ultrapassadas as premissas referidas, busca-se apresentar o licenciamento ambiental municipal como importante foco de políticas públicas, visando buscar de um meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado. Palavras chaves: Federalismo de Cooperação. Licenciamento Ambiental Municipal. LC n°. 140/2011. Gestão Pública Ambiental Municipal.

  15. Trailing (L5) Neptune Trojans: 2004 KV18 and 2008 LC18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Pu; Zhou Liyong; Li Jian

    2012-01-01

    The population of Neptune Trojans is believed to be bigger than that of Jupiter Trojans and that of asteroids in the main belt, although only eight members of this distant asteroid swarm have been observed up to now. Six leading Neptune Trojans around the Lagrange point L 4 discovered earlier have been studied in detail, but two trailing ones found recently around the L 5 point, 2004 KV18 and 2008 LC18, have not yet been investigated. We report our investigations on the dynamical behaviors of these two new Neptune Trojans. Our calculations show that the asteroid 2004 KV18 is a temporary Neptune Trojan. Most probably, it was captured into the trailing Trojan cloud no earlier than 2.03 × 10 5 yr ago, and it will not maintain this position later than 1.65 × 10 5 yr in the future. Based on the statistics from our orbital simulations, we argue that this object is more like a scattered Kuiper belt object. By contrast, the orbit of 2008 LC18 is much more stable. Among the clone orbits spreading within the orbital uncertainties, a considerable portion of clones may survive on the L 5 tadpole orbits for 4 Gyr. The strong dependence of the stability on the semimajor axis and resonant angle suggests that further observations are badly required to constrain the orbit in the stable region. We also discuss the implications of the existence and dynamics of these two trailing Trojans over the history of the solar system.

  16. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  17. Expedient data mining for nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatyshyn, Serhiy; Shipkova, Petia; Sanders, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The application of high-resolution LC-MS metabolomics for drug candidate toxicity screening reflects phenotypic changes of an organism caused by induced chemical interferences. Its success depends not only on the ability to translate the acquired analytical information into biological knowledge, but also on the timely delivery of the results to aid the decision making process in drug discovery and development. Recent improvements in analytical instrumentation have resulted in the ability to acquire extremely information-rich datasets. These new data collection abilities have shifted the bottleneck in the timeline of metabolomic studies to the data analysis step. This paper describes our approach to expedient data analysis of nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples. The workflow is illustrated with the example of metabolomics study of time-dependent fasting in male rats. The results from measurement of 220 endogenous metabolites in urine samples illustrate significant biochemical changes induced by fasting. The developed software enables the reporting of relative quantities of annotated components while maintaining practical turnaround times. Each component annotation in the report is validated using both calculated isotopic peaks patterns and experimentally determined retention time data on standards.

  18. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented.

  19. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  20. Microstructure evolution in polycrystalline IN738LC in the range 1120 to 1250 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balikci, E.; Raman, A.; Mirshams, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of different microstructural features in the superalloy IN738LC, held in the temperature range 1120 to 1250 C and water quenched, is investigated in this study. The γ' precipitate formed in IN738LC grows continuously in cuboidal shape at temperatures up to 1130 C, but a distinct duplex-size (very fine + coarse) precipitate morphology develops when the alloy is water quenched from the range 1140 to 1150 C. Quenching from 1160 to 1225 C produces a single fine-size precipitate microstructure, while analogous quenching from 1235 C and 1250 C produces no precipitate at all. Very fine precipitates (∝40 nm size) are formed after a short time dwell in the duplex-size range and they grow to the size of the normal fine precipitates (∝70 nm) obtained upon quenching from the range 1160 to 1225 C. The fine ones do not grow beyond about 70 nm size in the duplex-size microstructure or in the single fine-size precipitate microstructure, even after very long time holding at the respective temperature range. Two different heat treatments were used to study the mechanism of precipitation leading to the duplex-size and the single fine-size precipitates. In treatment I, fine γ' precipitates (∝70 nm in size) obtained after 1200 C/4 h/WQ (water quenching to room temperature) solution treatment were subsequently allowed to coarsen in the temperature range 1140 to 1160 C

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies of bergapten in dog plasma by using a LC-MS/MS method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Liu, Y Z; Zhang, X-M; Zhou, Y; Zhang, X; Dong, C-Y

    2013-07-01

    A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of bergapten in dog plasma. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil ODS column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water. The plasma sample was precipitated with methanol and prepare for injecting onto the LC-MS/MS system. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by MRM via electro spray ionization source. The standard curve for bergapten was linear over the concentration range of 0.5-500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The inter-day and intra-day precision (R.S.D.%) for bergapten varied between 3.4 and 11.5. The corresponding inter-day and intra-day accuracy (Bias%) ranged between -3.8 and 6.9. For the pharmacokinetic analysis of serum, the mean (SD) values obtained for the bergapten were as follows: Cmax, 228.5 (14.3) ng/ml; Tmax, 4.2 (0.4) h; t1/2, 6.9 (2.3) h; AUC0-t h, 2507.2 (168.5) ng · h/mL and AUC0-∞, 3 219.2 (211.4) ng · h/mL, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Proanthocyanidin screening by LC-ESI-MS of Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Natércia; Azevedo, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with ion trap provided additional information about the structures of these compounds through the fragmentation patterns of the pseudomolecular ions. A LC-ESI-MS method was optimized and 41 different compounds were found. Among them are included 8 PD dimers and 13 PD trimers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides in human plasma by LC-ICP-MS sulfur detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Macherius, André; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    2016-01-01

    A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-DRC-MS inst......A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP......-DRC-MS instrument and subsequent quantification by post-column isotope dilution (IDA). Plasma proteins were precipitated prior to analysis. Analytical figures of merit including linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and accuracy were considered satisfactory for analysis of plasma samples. The selectivity of the developed...... method was demonstrated for five pharmaceutically relevant peptides: desmopressin, penetratin, substance P, PTH (1-34) and insulin. Preliminary experiments on an ICP-MS/MS system using oxygen to reduce the effect of organic solvents were also performed to compare sensitivity. The results of the study...

  4. Effect of Genotype and Environment on Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots Using LC/MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza Bunge is broadly used as herbal medicine for the clinical treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Despite its commercial and medicinal values, few systematic studies on the metabolome of S. miltiorrhiza roots have been carried out so far. We systematically described the metabolic profiles of S. miltiorrhiza using high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS in conjunction with multivariate statistical analyses, aimed at monitoring their biological variations of secondary metabolites related to three locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes. A total of 40 bioactive constituents were putatively annotated in S. miltiorrhiza root samples. This study found that both the same S. miltiorrhiza genotype growing at three different locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes growing at the same location had significant metabonomic differences identified by the principal component analysis (PCA approach. By using orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, 16 and 14 secondary metabolites can be used as potential location-specific and genotype-specific markers in S. miltiorrhiza, respectively. The specificity of LC/MS profiles offered a powerful tool to discriminate S. miltiorrhiza samples according to genotypes or locations.

  5. An efficient synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 LC-biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Lars; Bernardi, Dan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years the apparent impact of vitamin D deficiency on human health has gained increased awareness. Consequently, the development of appropriate assays to measure the status of medicinally most relevant vitamin D metabolites in human blood, serum or relevant tissue is continuously being improved. Particularly, assaying of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , in turn considered as the most active metabolite, is mainly indicated in disorders leading to calcaemia or those resulting from an impaired 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Thus, in some competitive protein binding and ELISA assays, biotin-linked 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 LC-biotin) is employed for measurement of actual calicitriol concentration. A new efficient synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 LC-biotin is described, starting with readily available vitamin D 2 , and combining a classical approach to access 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , appropriate OH-protective group transformations, and a C-3-O-alkylation, suitable to connect the biotin-linker in a reliable, selective and high yielding strategy. The developed methodology is applicable to the synthesis of a wide variety of C-3-OH-linked vitamin D 3 and D 2 derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M E; Christensen, H B; Sørensen, M T; Leffers, H; Andersen, J H

    2007-11-01

    Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility. A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of chlormequat in milk and serum was developed and validated in connection with an investigation on the effect of chlormequat on pig reproduction. Validation of the method was based on recovery tests at three spiking levels, determined as double determinations and repeated at least four times. Samples were extracted with methanol-water-acetic acid, centrifuged, filtrated and determined by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries were in the range 80-110%, and the LOD was 0.2 ng/g for serum and 0.3 ng/g for milk. The values for repeatability and reproducibility were within 2/3 of the limits given by the Horwitz equation. Samples of pig serum (59) and sow milk (27) were analyzed using the method. Chlormequat was determined in four milk samples in the range of 0.4 ng/g to 1.2 ng/g and in all serum samples in the range of 0.2 ng/g-4.0 ng/g.

  7. Probabilistic Model for Untargeted Peak Detection in LC-MS Using Bayesian Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegebriel, Michael; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2015-07-21

    We introduce a novel Bayesian probabilistic peak detection algorithm for liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The final probabilistic result allows the user to make a final decision about which points in a chromatogram are affected by a chromatographic peak and which ones are only affected by noise. The use of probabilities contrasts with the traditional method in which a binary answer is given, relying on a threshold. By contrast, with the Bayesian peak detection presented here, the values of probability can be further propagated into other preprocessing steps, which will increase (or decrease) the importance of chromatographic regions into the final results. The present work is based on the use of the statistical overlap theory of component overlap from Davis and Giddings (Davis, J. M.; Giddings, J. Anal. Chem. 1983, 55, 418-424) as prior probability in the Bayesian formulation. The algorithm was tested on LC-MS Orbitrap data and was able to successfully distinguish chemical noise from actual peaks without any data preprocessing.

  8. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  9. Determination of linsidomine in human plasma by tandem LC-MS with ESI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, F C; de Jager, A D; Swart, K J; Hundt, H K; Scanes, T; Hundt, A F

    2000-04-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of linsidomine in plasma was developed, using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Linsidomine was derivatised with propyl chloroformate and extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether/1,2-dichloroethane (55:45, v/v), back-extracted into HCl (0.01 M) followed by alkalinisation and back-extraction into ether; the final ether extract evaporated, reconstituted in mobile phase and then separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) 5 micron 2.1 x 150 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol water formic acid (98/100%) (400:600:0.05, v/v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml min(-1). Detection was achieved by a Finnigan MAT mass spectrometer (LCQ) at unit resolution in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ion m/z 257.0 to the product ion m/z 86.0. The mean recovery for linsidomine was 51% with a lower limit of quantification of 0.70 ng/ml using 1 ml plasma for extraction. This LC-MS/MS method for the determination of linsidomine in human plasma allows for better specificity and a higher sample throughput than the traditional LC-UV methods. It also demonstrates the profound effect that the composition of acidic modifiers and matrix constituents can have on the electrospray ionisation (ESI) of the analyte.

  10. An isolated bridgeless AC-DC PFC converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-woo; Do, Hyun-Lark

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposed an isolated bridgeless AC-DC power factor correction (PFC) converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier. The proposed converter is based on isolated conventional single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) PFC converter. The conduction loss of rectification is reduced than a conventional one because the proposed converter is designed to eliminate a full-bridge rectifier at an input stage. Moreover, for zero-current switching (ZCS) operation and low voltage stresses of output diodes, the secondary of the proposed converter is designed as voltage doubler with a LC resonant tank. Additionally, an input-output electrical isolation is provided for safety standard. In conclusion, high power factor is achieved and efficiency is improved. The operational principles, steady-state analysis and design equations of the proposed converter are described in detail. Experimental results from a 60 W prototype at a constant switching frequency 100 kHz are presented to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  11. BatMass: a Java Software Platform for LC-MS Data Visualization in Proteomics and Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomov, Dmitry M; Raskind, Alexander; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2016-08-05

    Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) is a commonly used technique in metabolomic and proteomic research. As the size and complexity of LC-MS-based experiments grow, it becomes increasingly more difficult to perform quality control of both raw data and processing results. In a practical setting, quality control steps for raw LC-MS data are often overlooked, and assessment of an experiment's success is based on some derived metrics such as "the number of identified compounds". The human brain interprets visual data much better than plain text, hence the saying "a picture is worth a thousand words". Here, we present the BatMass software package, which allows for performing quick quality control of raw LC-MS data through its fast visualization capabilities. It also serves as a testbed for developers of LC-MS data processing algorithms by providing a data access library for open mass spectrometry file formats and a means of visually mapping processing results back to the original data. We illustrate the utility of BatMass with several use cases of quality control and data exploration.

  12. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder: detecting multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility and mass spectrometry features in complex datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Kevin L; Slysz, Gordon W; Baker, Erin S; LaMarche, Brian L; Monroe, Matthew E; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Payne, Samuel H; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    The addition of ion mobility spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments requires new, or updated, software tools to facilitate data processing. We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is available as a command-line tool for download at http://omics.pnl.gov/software/LC-IMS-MS_Feature_Finder.php. The Microsoft.NET Framework 4.0 is required to run the software. All other dependencies are included with the software package. Usage of this software is limited to non-profit research to use (see README). rds@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Lacticin LC14, a new bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis BMG6.14: isolation, purification and partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasta, Samar; Ouzari, Hadda; Andreotti, Nicolas; Fajloun, Ziad; Mansuelle, Pascal; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Sampieri, Francois; Sabatier, Jean Marc

    2012-08-01

    A new bacteriocin, lacticin LC14, produced by Lactococcus lactis BMG6.14, was isolated and characterized. It was purified to homogeneity from overnight broth culture by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sep-Pak chromatography, and two steps of reversed-phase HPLC. Lacticin LC14 showed bactericidal-type antimicrobial activity against several lactic acid bacteria and pathogenic strains including Listeria monocytogenes. It was inactivated by proteinase K and pronase E, but was resistant to papain, lysozyme, lipase and catalase. Lacticin LC14 was heat resistant, stable over a wide range of pH (2-10) and after treatment by solvents and detergents. Its N-terminal end was found unreactive towards Edman sequencing. Based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, its molecular mass was 3333.7 Da. LC14 amino acid composition revealed a high proportion of hydrophobic residues, but no modified ones. LC14 may be able to challenge other well known other bacteriocins in probiotic and therapeutic applications.

  14. Linear feedback control, adaptive feedback control and their combination for chaos (lag) synchronization of LC chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya; Yu Pei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study chaos (lag) synchronization of a new LC chaotic system, which can exhibit not only a two-scroll attractor but also two double-scroll attractors for different parameter values, via three types of state feedback controls: (i) linear feedback control; (ii) adaptive feedback control; and (iii) a combination of linear feedback and adaptive feedback controls. As a consequence, ten families of new feedback control laws are designed to obtain global chaos lag synchronization for τ < 0 and global chaos synchronization for τ = 0 of the LC system. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these theoretical results. Each family of these obtained feedback control laws, including two linear (adaptive) functions or one linear function and one adaptive function, is added to two equations of the LC system. This is simpler than the known synchronization controllers, which apply controllers to all equations of the LC system. Moreover, based on the obtained results of the LC system, we also derive the control laws for chaos (lag) synchronization of another new type of chaotic system

  15. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  16. STAF: A Powerful and Sophisticated CAI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, Ken

    1982-01-01

    Describes the STAF (Science Teacher's Authoring Facility) computer-assisted instruction system developed at Leeds University (England), focusing on STAF language and major program features. Although programs for the system emphasize physical chemistry and organic spectroscopy, the system and language are general purpose and can be used in any…

  17. Butler's sophisticated constructivism: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasterling, V.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether and in what respects the conceptions of the body and of agency that Judith Butler develops in Bodies That Matter are useful contributions to feminist theory. The discussion focuses on the clarification and critical assessment of the arguments Butler presents to

  18. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stux, DuQu, Nitro, Luckycat, Exploit Kits, FLAME. ADSL/SoHo Router Compromise. Botnets of compromised ADSL/SoHo Routers; User Redirection via malicious DNS entry. Web Application attacks. SQL Injection, RFI etc. More and more Webshells. More utility to hackers; Increasing complexity and evading mechanisms.

  19. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  20. Endothelial microparticles: Sophisticated vesicles modulating vascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anne M; Edelberg, Jay; Jonas, Rebecca; Rogers, Wade T; Moore, Jonni S; Syed, Wajihuddin; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) belong to a family of extracellular vesicles that are dynamic, mobile, biological effectors capable of mediating vascular physiology and function. The release of EMPs can impart autocrine and paracrine effects on target cells through surface interaction, cellular fusion, and, possibly, the delivery of intra-vesicular cargo. A greater understanding of the formation, composition, and function of EMPs will broaden our understanding of endothelial communication and may expose new pathways amenable for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:23892447

  1. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Increased frequency and intensity of DoS/DDoS. Few Gbps is now normal; Anonymous VPNs being used; Botnets being used as a vehicle for launching DDoS attacks. Large scale booking of domain names. Hundred thousands of domains registered in short duration via few registrars; Single registrant; Most of the domains ...

  2. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, Jingqi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-02-05

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs; amlodipine, indapamide and valsartan, which were not declared on the label. Compounds were rapidly identified using LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR, quantified by HPLC, and the in vivo activity of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification of such adulterants is highlighted in this case study.

  3. Self managing experiment resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, F; Ubeda, M; Charpentier, P; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Romanovskiy, V; Roiser, S; Graciani, R

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of porcine MAP1LC3A in the granulosa cells of normal and miniature pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The members of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (MAP1LC family, especially those of the LC3 family (MAP1LC3A, B, C, are known to induce autophagy upon localization onto the autophagosomal membrane. In this regard, LC3 can be utilized as a marker for the formation of autophagosomes during the process of autophagy. The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE were used to obtain the 5′ and 3′ ends of the porcine MAP1LC3A full length cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine MAP1LC3A. The localization of MAP1LC3A in the ovary was determined by In situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical staining. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine MAP1LC3A and identified an open reading frame of 980 bp encoding 121 amino acids. Based on its homology to known mammalian proteins (98% this novel cDNA was designated as porcine MAP1LC3A and registered to the GenBank (Accession No. GU272221. We compared the expression of MAP1LC3A in the Graafian follicles of normal and miniature pigs by in situ hybridization at day 15 of the estrus cycle. While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. In addition, the expressions of MAP1LC3A and ATG5 were higher in normal pigs than in miniature pigs both in the presence and absence of rapamycin. Conclusions The newly cloned porcine

  5. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  6. Matrix interference evaluation employing GC and LC coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, S; Lozano, A; Sosa, A; Parrilla Vázquez, P; Valverde, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2017-11-01

    Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry are currently the most powerful tools employed for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in food control laboratories. However, whatever the multiresidue extraction method, there will be a residual matrix effect making it difficult to identify/quantify some specific compounds in certain cases. Two main effects stand out: (i) co-elution with isobaric matrix interferents, which can be a major drawback for unequivocal identification, and therefore false negative detections, and (ii) signal suppression/enhancement, commonly called the "matrix effect", which may cause serious problems including inaccurate quantitation, low analyte detectability and increased method uncertainty. The aim of this analytical study is to provide a framework for evaluating the maximum expected errors associated with the matrix effects. The worst-case study contrived to give an estimation of the extreme errors caused by matrix effects when extraction/determination protocols are applied in routine multiresidue analysis. Twenty-five different blank matrices extracted with the four most common extraction methods used in routine analysis (citrate QuEChERS with/without PSA clean-up, ethyl acetate and the Dutch mini-Luke "NL" methods) were evaluated by both GC-QqQ-MS/MS and LC-QqQ-MS/MS. The results showed that the presence of matrix compounds with isobaric transitions to target pesticides was higher in GC than under LC in the experimental conditions tested. In a second study, the number of "potential" false negatives was evaluated. For that, ten matrices with higher percentages of natural interfering components were checked. Additionally, the results showed that for more than 90% of the cases, pesticide quantification was not affected by matrix-matched standard calibration when an interferent was kept constant along the calibration curve. The error in quantification depended on the concentration level. In a

  7. Short Communication: Testosterone Measured with an Automatic Immunoassay Compares Reasonbly Well to Results Obtained by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Søndersø; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported problems measuring testosterone with immunological assays. Here we explore an automatic second generation immunoassay compared to a LC-MS/MS method. Methods: We collected blood samples from 76 women and measured testosterone, progesterone, gender...... hormonebinding globulin (SHBG), and albumin employing Cobas e601/c501. Testosterone, androstenedione (andro), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations were measured employing LC-MS/MS. We evaluated the difference between testosterone measured by the two methods...... and examined the potential interference from the selected steroids and bindings proteins. Results: Testosterone concentrations measured by the two methods yielded: Cobas e601 = 1.240 x (LC-MS/MS) - 0.197, r = 0.84, for testosterone concentrations between 0.22 - 4.9 nmol/L. A positive correlation was observed...

  8. Determination of Bupivacaine in Rat Myocardium by LC-MS/MS%大鼠心肌组织中布比卡因的LC-MS/MS测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤亲; 刘乐; 陈莺; 陈丽梅; 林丹

    2009-01-01

    A LC-MS/MS method was established for the determination of bupivacaine in rat myocardium. A C18colunm was used with the mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic acid solution (55 : 45) and lidocaine as the internal standard. Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was operated in positive ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The detected ions were m/z 289→140 for bupivacaine and m/z 285→86 for the internal standard. The calibration curve for bupivacaine was linear in the range of 0.01-20.0μg/g in myocardium. The recovery was 66.45%-74.47 % with the intra- and inter-day RSDs less than 7 %.%建立了液相色谱-串联质谱法测定大鼠心肌组织中的布比卡因.采用C18色谱柱,甲醇-0.1%甲酸溶液(55:45)为流动相,利多卡因为内标.采用正离子电喷雾离子源,多离子反应监测(MRM)方式,监测质核比m/z 289 →140(布比卡因)和m/z 285→86(内标).布比卡因在0.01~20μg/g浓度范围内线性关系良好,萃取回收率为66.4%~74.57%,日内和日间RSD均小于7%.

  9. Pragmatic setup for bioparticle responses by dielectrophoresis for resource limited environment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Anuar Md; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Kayani, Aminuddin Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Various dielectrophoretic responses of bioparticles, including cell-chain, spinning, rotation and clustering, are of high interest in the field due to their benefit into application for biomedical and clinical implementation potential. Numerous attempts using sophisticated equipment setup have been studied to perform those dielectrophoretic responses, however, for development into resource limited environment application, such as portable, sustainable and environmental friendly diagnostic tools, establishment of pragmatic setup using standard, non-sophisticated and low-cost equipment is of important task. Here we show the advantages in the judicious design optimization of tip microelectrode, also with selection of suspending medium and optimization of electric signal configuration in establishing setup that can promote the aforementioned dielectrophoretic responses within standard equipments, i.e. pragmatic setup.

  10. THE DIFFERENCE OF MAP1LC3 LEVEL AS MACROPHAGE AUTOPHAGY MARKER BETWEEN RESISTANT AND SENSITIVE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS ON RIFAMPICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian novita W

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is an intracelular bacteria that live in the host macrophage cells. Several organs can be affected by tuberculosis but most major illnesses are lung diseases. Immediately after infection, MTB will be phagocytosed by the alveolar macrophage cells and can survive in the phagosome. The macrophage plays a role in innate immunity towards an infection using autophagy by removing the microbe directly via phagocytosis. When bacteria phagocytosized, vacuole membrane formed double membranes called autophagosome, and followed by degradation by lysosome, which known as autolysosome. Induction of autophagy can be observed on the formation of microtubule-associated proteins 1B lightchain 3B (MAP1LC3B/LC3. MAP1LC3B is protein that have role at autophagic way for selection autophagy substrate and biogenesis. In this study we are used serum from patients TB with rifampicin resistant and rifampicin sensitive as control. Samples were divided using gene expert to differentiate between resistant and sensitive rifampicin.This research aims to compare MAP1LC3B levels in resistant and sensitive rifampicin to study macrophages respond in autophagic way in tuberculosis patients, and give information for define therapy plan to improve therapy for MDR-TB patients. Type of this research is a case control study design with cross sectional research with each groups sample is 19 from age 18-65 years old. Result, MAP1LC3B serum levels on the rifampicin resistant group are lower compared to rifampicin sensitive group. This occur because MTB is able to hide and evade innate immune defense mechanisms. MTB can maintain intracellular growth inside the phagosome by inhibiting phagolysosome formation in autophagy process especially inhibit MAP1LC3B formation by PDIM.

  11. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  12. Clinicopathological Profiling of LC3B, an Autophagy Marker, and ESRRA (Estrogen-related Receptor-alpha) in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sup; Lee, Adam Jaehyeok; Yeo, Min-Kyung; Na, Yong Gil; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Moon-June; Kim, Jun-Sang; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Jin-Man

    2018-04-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagy marker, has been used as a promising marker in various cancer types. However, the expression of LC3B in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and its prognostic significance have not been investigated. Recent studies pointed to the involvement of ESRRA in regulating autophagy via both transcriptional and post-translational control. In the current study, prognostic importance of LC3B and ESRRA in MIBC was investigated. We immunohistochemically studied the expression of LC3B and ESRRA in 56 MIBC samples. LC3B was stained high in 16 patients (28.6%) and low or negative in 40 patients (71.4%). ESRRA expression was high for 20 patients (35.7%) and low for 36 patients (64.3%). Both LC3B (p=0.003) and ESRRA (p=0.026) expression correlated significantly with disease-free survival rates. Double-positive LC3B and ESRRA correlated with poor overall survival (p=0.007) and disease-free survival (p=0.001) in MIBC patients. LC3B and ESRRA might be a useful prognostic factor in patients with MIBC. The co-expression of LC3B and ESRRA might be a prognostic and therapeutic target for patients with bladder cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Label-free LC-MS analysis of HER2+ breast cancer cell line response to HER2 inhibitor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Alessio; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; O'Connor, Robert

    2015-08-04

    Human epidermal growth-factor receptor (HER)-2 is overexpressed in 25 % of breast-cancers and is associated with an aggressive form of the disease with significantly shortened disease free and overall survival. In recent years, the use of HER2-targeted therapies, monoclonal-antibodies and small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors has significantly improved the clinical outcome for HER2-positive breast-cancer patients. However, only a fraction of HER2-amplified patients will respond to therapy and the use of these treatments is often limited by tumour drug insensitivity or resistance and drug toxicities. Currently there is no way to identify likely responders or rational combinations with the potential to improve HER2-focussed treatment outcome. In order to further understand the molecular mechanisms of treatment-response with HER2-inhibitors, we used a highly-optimised and reproducible quantitative label-free LC-MS strategy to characterize the proteomes of HER2-overexpressing breast-cancer cell-lines (SKBR3, BT474 and HCC1954) in response to drug-treatment with HER2-inhibitors (lapatinib, neratinib or afatinib). Following 12 ours treatment with different HER2-inhibitors in the BT474 cell-line; compared to the untreated cells, 16 proteins changed significantly in abundance following lapatinib treatment (1 μM), 21 proteins changed significantly following neratinib treatment (150 nM) and 38 proteins changed significantly following afatinib treatment (150 nM). Whereas following 24 hours treatment with neratinib (200 nM) 46 proteins changed significantly in abundance in the HCC1954 cell-line and 23 proteins in the SKBR3 cell-line compared to the untreated cells. Analysing the data we found that, proteins like trifunctional-enzyme subunit-alpha, mitochondrial; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-R and lamina-associated polypeptide 2, isoform alpha were up-regulated whereas heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein was down-regulated in 3 or more comparisons. This proteomic

  14. Development of high-performance chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for profiling the human fecal metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Deying; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Lu, Yingfeng; Su, Xiaoling; Xie, Qing; Li, Liang; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-20

    Human fecal samples contain endogenous human metabolites, gut microbiota metabolites, and other compounds. Profiling the fecal metabolome can produce metabolic information that may be used not only for disease biomarker discovery, but also for providing an insight about the relationship of the gut microbiome and human health. In this work, we report a chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the amine- and phenol-containing metabolites in fecal samples. Differential (13)C2/(12)C2-dansyl labeling of the amines and phenols was used to improve LC separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. Water, methanol, and acetonitrile were examined as an extraction solvent, and a sequential water-acetonitrile extraction method was found to be optimal. A step-gradient LC-UV setup and a fast LC-MS method were evaluated for measuring the total concentration of dansyl labeled metabolites that could be used for normalizing the sample amounts of individual samples for quantitative metabolomics. Knowing the total concentration was also useful for optimizing the sample injection amount into LC-MS to maximize the number of metabolites detectable while avoiding sample overloading. For the first time, dansylation isotope labeling LC-MS was performed in a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer, instead of high-end equipment, demonstrating the feasibility of using a low-cost instrument for chemical isotope labeling metabolomics. The developed method was applied for profiling the amine/phenol submetabolome of fecal samples collected from three families. An average of 1785 peak pairs or putative metabolites were found from a 30 min LC-MS run. From 243 LC-MS runs of all the fecal samples, a total of 6200 peak pairs were detected. Among them, 67 could be positively identified based on the mass and retention time match to a dansyl standard library, while 581 and 3197 peak pairs could be putatively

  15. Eksperimentasi Model Pembelajaran Lc 5e Disertai Afl Pada Materi Prisma Dan Limas Ditinjau Dari Adversity Quotient

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Guritno Ari; Kusmayadi, Tri Atmojo; Riyadi, Riyadi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of using Learning Cycle 5E model using AfL in Mathematics course achievement viewed from Adversity Quotient. The quasi experimental research design was employed on this research. The technique analysis data used two-way analysis of variance with unbalanced cell frequencies at 0,05 level of significance. The results show as follows 1) LC 5E with AfL model gave better Mathematics course achievement than the one without AfL and conventional model, and LC 5E ...

  16. General oscillation damping analysis of the L-C filter circuit in the high-power rectifying power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua; Chen Yonghao; Wu Junshuan; Kuang Guangli

    1998-06-01

    Rectifier circuit is the most popular converter. For the ripple demand of high-power load, the L-C filter with invert 'L' type has been used universally. Due to the influence of the second-order link, damped oscillation will occur with proper condition while the circuit state is changed. The ideal cascade damping condition and the parallel one can be obtained easily. Generally, the damping condition of the step response of the L-C filter circuit is induced, and the discussion is given

  17. Nonlinear analysis of a family of LC tuned inverters. [dc to square wave circuits for power conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A family of four dc-to-square-wave LC tuned inverters are analyzed using singular point. Limit cycles and waveshape characteristics are given for three modes of oscillation: quasi-harmonic, relaxation, and discontinuous. An inverter in which the avalanche breakdown of the transistor emitter-to-base junction occurs is discussed and the starting characteristics of this family of inverters are presented. The LC tuned inverters are shown to belong to a family of inverters with a common equivalent circuit consisting of only three 'series' elements: a five-segment piecewise-linear current-controlled resistor, linear inductor, and linear capacitor.

  18. LC HCAL Absorber And Active Media Comparisons Using a Particle-Flow Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, Steve; Kuhlmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    We compared Stainless Steel (SS) to Tungsten (W) as absorber for the HCAL in simulation using single particles (pions) and a Particle-Flow Algorithm applied to e + e - -> Z -> qqbar events. We then used the PFA to evaluate the performance characteristics of a LC HCAL using W absorber and comparing scintillator and RPC as active media. The W/Scintillator HCAL performs better than the SS/Scintillator version due to finer λ I sampling and narrower showers in the dense absorber. The W/Scintillator HCAL performs better than the W/RPC HCAL except in the number of unused hits in the PFA. Since this represents the confusion term in the PFA response, additional tuning and optimization of a W/RPC HCAL might significantly improve this HCAL configuration

  19. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  20. LC-MS/MS Identification of Species-Specific Muscle Peptides in Processed Animal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Daniela; Altomare, Alessandra; Gili, Marilena; Ostorero, Federica; Khadjavi, Amina; Corona, Cristiano; Ru, Giuseppe; Cappelletti, Benedetta; Gianelli, Silvia; Amadeo, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Casalone, Cristina

    2017-12-06

    An innovative analytical strategy has been applied to identify signature peptides able to distinguish among processed animal proteins (PAPs) derived from bovine, pig, fish, and milk products. Proteomics was first used to elucidate the proteome of each source. Starting from the identified proteins and using a funnel based approach, a set of abundant and well characterized peptides with suitable physical-chemical properties (signature peptides) and specific for each source was selected. An on-target LC-ESI-MS/MS method (MRM mode) was set up using standard peptides and was then applied to selectively identify the PAP source and also to distinguish proteins from bovine carcass and milk proteins. We believe that the method described meets the request of the European Commission which has developed a strategy for gradually lifting the "total ban" toward "species to species ban", therefore requiring official methods for species-specific discrimination in feed.

  1. The mechanical properties of the polycrystalline investment casting superalloy IN738LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, H.J.; Banerji, A.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the polycrystaline investment casting superalloys, IN738LC in the present case, require an optimization of the microstructure. This is generally achieved by suitable founding measures as well as through the subsequent heat-treatment. Thereby, however, it is necessary to control the casting and solidification parameters. In the present study, additional measures have been adopted to inoculate the melt with a suitable chemical additive with the aim of obtaining a uniformly distributed fine equiaxial cast microstructure throughout the test-specimen. The addition of a suitable refiner substance increases the nucleation sites within the melt, which results into a fine equiaxial solidification. This imparts better casting properties thereby improving most of the mechanical properties significantly. The present report deals with refinement of cast microstructure through melt-treatment with chemical additions under varying casting and solidification parameters, wherein the grain size and dendrite arm spacing (DAS) have been quantified. (orig.) [de

  2. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

    2009-06-01

    The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates.

  3. Design and Manufacturing of a Passive Pressure Sensor Based on LC Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The LC resonator-based passive pressure sensor attracts much attention because it does not need a power source or lead wires between the sensing element and the readout system. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of a passive pressure sensor that contains a variable capacitor and a copper-electroplated planar inductor. The sensor is fabricated using silicon bulk micro-machining, electroplating, and anodic bonding technology. The finite element method is used to model the deflection of the silicon diaphragm and extract the capacitance change corresponding to the applied pressure. Within the measurement range from 5 to 100 kPa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.052 MHz/kPa, the linearity is 2.79%, and the hysteresis error is 0.2%. Compared with the sensitivity at 27 °C, the drop of output performance is 3.53% at 140 °C.

  4. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Passive trap filters are widely used in high power Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) for the switching harmonic attenuation. The usage of the passive trap filters requires clustered and fixed switching harmonic spectrum, which is not the case for low pulse-ratio or Variable Switching Frequency (VSF...... current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...

  5. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of nine vitamin D compounds in human blood using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Kassim, Nur Sofiah; Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that each member of the family of vitamin D compounds may have different function(s). Therefore, selective quantification of each compound is important in clinical research. Development and validation attempts of a simultaneous determination method of 12 vitamin D compounds in human blood using precolumn derivatization followed by LC-MS/MS is described. Internal standard calibration with 12 stable isotope labeled analogs was used to correct for matrix effects in MS detector. Nine vitamin D compounds were quantifiable in blood samples with detection limits within femtomole levels. Serum (compared with plasma) was found to be a more suitable sample type, and protein precipitation (compared with saponification) a more effective extraction method for vitamin D assay.

  6. Passivity Enhancement of Grid-Tied Converter by Series LC-Filtered Active Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    attention. Also, parasitic capacitance of the grid transmission line brings new challenge for the application of an active damper, which has not been discussed before. In order to fill these gaps, this paper first analyzes the stability of a grid-tied converter with the help of passivity. Based......Series LC-filtered active damper can be used to stabilize the grid-tied voltage source converter in a non-ideal grid. The operation principle of the active damper is to mimic a damping resistance at the resonance frequencies. However, the selection of the damping resistance has not received much...... on the passivity-based-stability analysis, a damping resistance selection method is proposed. Then, an admittance shaping method is developed to ensure the system stability in the presence of parasitic capacitance of the transmission line. Finally, experimental results are provided to show the validity...

  7. High temperature creep properties of directionally solidified CM-247LC Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Mau-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui, E-mail: srjian@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Yeh, An-Chou [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chen-Ming [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Juang, Jenh-Yih [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-08

    This study explores the effects of cooling rate after solution heat treatment on the high temperature/low stress (982 °C/200 MPa) creep properties of CM-247LC Nickel base superalloy. Cooling rate was controlled by blowing argon gas, air cooling, and furnace cooling, which, in turn, gave rise to corresponding cooling rates (from 1260 °C to 800 °C) of 18.7, 7.4, and 0.19 °C/s, respectively. The results indicated that higher cooling rate from the solution heat treatment temperature led to finer γ′ precipitates and much improved tertiary creep as well as rupture life time in high-temperature creep test. The microstructural analyses using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that finer γ′ precipitates and narrower γ channel width could result in denser rafting structure which might have hindered the climb of dislocations across the precipitates rafts.

  8. Melanin targets LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP): A novel pathogenetic mechanism in fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, Georgios; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Brakhage, Axel; Beauvais, Anne; Latge, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-03

    Intracellular swelling of conidia of the major human airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in surface exposure of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and triggers activation of a specialized autophagy pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) to promote fungal killing. We have recently discovered that, apart from PAMPs exposure, cell wall melanin removal during germination of A. fumigatus is a prerequisite for activation of LAP. Importantly, melanin promotes fungal pathogenicity via targeting LAP, as a melanin-deficient A. fumigatus mutant restores its virulence upon conditional inactivation of Atg5 in hematopoietic cells of mice. Mechanistically, fungal cell wall melanin selectively excludes the CYBA/p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase from the phagosome to inhibit LAP, without interfering with signaling regulating cytokine responses. Notably, inhibition of LAP is a general property of melanin pigments, a finding with broad physiological implications.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis of Pfaffia glomerata Inflorescences by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata contains high levels of β-ecdysone, which has shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study demonstrated that inflorescences of P. glomerata contain other important bioactive compounds in addition to β-ecdysone. The identification of compounds from inflorescences using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS was performed for the first time. The eight compounds identified were β-ecdysone, flavonoid glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl-glucoside, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins such as ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin IV, in addition to oleanonic acid and gluconic acid. This study provided information on the phytochemicals contained in P. glomerata inflorescences revealing the potential application of this plant part as raw material for the phytotherapeutic and cosmetic industries.

  10. A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; Katsouleas, Tom; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric

    2009-01-01

    Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R and D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.

  11. An Automatic Parameter Identification Method for a PMSM Drive with LC-Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Weber, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    of the PMSM fed through an LC-filter. Based on the measured current response, model parameters for both the filter (L, R, C) and the PMSM (L and R) are estimated: First, the frequency response of the system is estimated using Welch Modified Periodogram method and then an optimization algorithm is used to find...... the parameters in an analytical reference model that minimize the model error. To demonstrate the practical feasibility of the method, a fully functional drive including an embedded real-time controller has been built. In addition to modulation, data acquisition and control the whole parameter identification...... method is also implemented on the real-time controller. Based on laboratory experiments on a 22 kW drive, it is concluded that the embedded identification method can estimate the five parameters in less than ten seconds....

  12. Characterization of friction welding for IN713LC and AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, J.T.; Park, N.K.; Park, J.H.; Lee, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Friction welding of dissimilar materials, Ni-base superalloy IN713LC and oil-quench plus tempered AISI 4140 steel, was investigated. Friction welding was carried out with various process variables such as friction pressure and time. The quality of welded joints was tested by applying bending stresses in an appropriate jig. Microstructures of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) were investigated along with micro-hardness tests over the friction weld joints. DEFORM-2D FE code was used to simulate the effect of welding variables in friction welding process on the distributions of the state variables such as strain, strain rate and temperature. The formation of the metal burr during the friction welding process was successfully simulated, and the temperature distribution in the heat-affected zone indicated a good agreement with the variation of the microstructures in the HAZ. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of friction welding for IN713LC and AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, J.T.; Park, N.K. [Dept. of Materials Processing, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Kyungnam (Korea); Park, J.H.; Lee, J.W. [ENPACO Co., Changwon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    Friction welding of dissimilar materials, Ni-base superalloy IN713LC and oil-quench plus tempered AISI 4140 steel, was investigated. Friction welding was carried out with various process variables such as friction pressure and time. The quality of welded joints was tested by applying bending stresses in an appropriate jig. Microstructures of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) were investigated along with micro-hardness tests over the friction weld joints. DEFORM-2D FE code was used to simulate the effect of welding variables in friction welding process on the distributions of the state variables such as strain, strain rate and temperature. The formation of the metal burr during the friction welding process was successfully simulated, and the temperature distribution in the heat-affected zone indicated a good agreement with the variation of the microstructures in the HAZ. (orig.)

  14. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  15. The gram-negative sensing receptor PGRP-LC contributes to grooming induction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Aya; Neyen, Claudine; Lemaitre, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies. Microbes, which activate different pattern recognition systems upstream of immune pathways, were applied to see if there was any correlation between microbial perception and grooming reflex. To narrow down candidate elicitors, the grooming induction tests were conducted with highly purified bacterial components. Lastly, the role of DAP-type peptidoglycan in grooming induction was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that cleaning behavior can be triggered through recognition of DAP-type PGN by its receptor PGRP-LC.

  16. LC/ESI-MS method applied to characterization of flavonoids glycosides in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane da Silveira Farias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata is used in folk medicine for its hypoglycemiant effect. In the south of Brazil, the subspecies pruinosa is found in a region with the characteristic flora, pampa biome. This species has been consumed by the local population as a tea for diabetes treatment. We studied the chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts using LC/ESI-MS. The leaf extracts were prepared by percolation with 50% (v/v ethanol. The chromatographic analyses were performed using a reverse-phase system, gradient elution with acetonitrile:phosphoric acid 0.05%, and ESI-MS in the positive ion mode. The chemical profile of the flavonoids was suggested to involve four quercetin and kaempferol glycosides.

  17. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksizoglu, S; Kulaksizoglu, B; Ellidag, H Y; Eren, E; Yilmaz, N; Baykal, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV), the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10) containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6) µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1) µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  18. LC-HRMS for Characterizing Durum Wheat Pasta Production Variability and Consumer Overall Liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Francesca; Cavanna, Daniele; Catellani, Dante; Vigni, Mario Li; Durante, Caterina; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Suman, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Semolina pasta represents one of the most important dishes in Italian cuisine worldwide. Italy is the leader in its production and, recently, the worldwide diffusion of its production has begun to grow tremendously. The perceived quality of a food product, such as pasta, is a key feature that allows a company to increase and maintain the competitive advantage of a specific brand. The overall flavor perception of the consumer, therefore, has become as important as other key quality factors such as texture and color; thus, the food industry needs to meet consumer expectations and needs the tools to objectively "measure" the quality of food products. Untargeted fingerprinting by means of coupling LC with high-resolution MS (HRMS) has been well received within the analytical community, and different studies exploiting this approach for the characterization of high-value food products have recently been reported in the literature. In the present work, a tentative application of the sensomics approach to cluster analysis of semolina pasta obtained using different production conditions was developed to objectively define target molecules that correlate with consumer overall liking of an industrial standard product. Principal component analysis of chemical and physical testing, GC-MS, LC-HRMS, and sensory data were performed with the aim of identifying the main parameters to discern similarities and differences among samples and clustering them according to these features. The correlation between analytical data and compounds related to sensory data was further investigated, and lastly, a partial least-squares regression model for the prediction of consumer overall liking was reported.

  19. Determination of Dextromethorphan in Oral Fluid by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaratunga, Piyadarsha; Clothier, Morgan; Lorenz Lemberg, Bridget; Lemberg, Dave

    2016-06-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an antitussive drug found in commonly used nonprescription cold and cough medications. At low doses, DXM is a safe drug that does not produce adverse reactions. However, abuse of DXM has been reported among adolescents and young adults using the drug at higher doses. DXM is not a scheduled drug in the USA, and the primary reason for its abuse is the ease of availability. DXM is available to purchase in the form of over-the-counter cough medications, such as Robitussin(®) and Coricidin(®), or it can be purchased over the Internet in the form of a powder. In this research work, we developed an LC-MS-MS method that can quantify DXM and dextrorphan (DXO) in oral fluid in a high-throughput toxicology laboratory setting. The developed method was validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines. The linear dynamic range was 5-100 ng/mL with a lowest limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0 ng/mL for DXM and DXO. Overall, the results of the accuracy and the precision values were within the acceptance criteria for both drugs. In addition, selectivity, matrix effect and recovery were calculated for the LC-MS-MS method. Authentic samples (n = 59) were tested to evaluate the applicability of the method. Thirty samples were found to be positive for DXM and DXO and two samples were found to be positive for DXM only. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Software and Database Usage on Metabolomic Studies: Using XCMS on LC-MS Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Celebier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolome is the complete set of small-molecule metabolites to be found in a cell or a single organism. Metabolomics is the scientific study to determine and identify the chemicals in metabolome with advanced analytical techniques. Nowadays, the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of any disease with genome analysis and proteome analysis is not sufficient. Instead of these, a holistic assessment including metabolomic studies provides rational and accurate results. Metabolite levels in an organism are associated with the cellular functions. Thus, determination of the metabolite amounts identifies the phenotype of a cell or tissue related with the genetic and some other variations. Even though, the analysis of metabolites for medical diagnosis and therapy have been performed for a long time, the studies to improve the analysis methods for metabolite profiling are recently increased. The application of metabolomics includes the identification of biomarkers, enzyme-substract interactions, drug-activity studies, metabolic pathway analysis and some other studies related with the system biology. The preprocessing and computing of the data obtained from LC-MS, GC-MS, CE-MS and NMR for metabolite profiling are helpful for preventing from time consuming manual data analysis processes and possible random errors on profiling period. In addition, such preprocesses allow us to identify low amount of metabolites which are not possible to be analyzed by manual processing. Therefore, the usage of software and databases for this purpose could not be ignored. In this study, it is briefly presented the software and database used on metabolomics and it is evaluated the capability of these software on metabolite profiling. Particularly, the performance of one of the most popular software called XCMS on the evaluation of LC-MS results for metabolomics was overviewed. In the near future, metabolomics with software and database support is estimated to be a routine

  1. Information-dependent acquisition-mediated LC-MS/MS screening procedure with semiquantitative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaestecker, Tineke N; Vande Casteele, Sofie R; Wallemacq, Pierre E; Van Peteghem, Carlos H; Defore, Dieter L; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F

    2004-11-01

    The development of a LC-MS/MS general unknown screening procedure for toxicologically relevant substances in blood samples by means of information-dependent acquisition on a Q-TOF is reported. IDA is an artificial intelligence-based product ion scan mode providing automatic "on-the-fly" MS to MS/MS switching. By performing information-dependent scanning at two different fragmentation energies, two collision-induced dissociation product ion spectra for each of the detected compounds are generated. As such, information-rich MS/MS spectra are obtained from precursor ions not known beforehand. In addition, limitation of the MS/MS acquisition time to an acceptable minimum resulted in an almost instantaneous switch back to the MS mode. As such, this approach provided MS chromatograms that still could be of use for semiquantitative purposes. Since the switching intensity threshold, unequivocally related to the background noise, proved a critical parameter, the solid-phase extraction procedure, the liquid chromatographic conditions, and the mass spectrometric parameters all were optimized to the advantage of information-dependent acquisition. Finally, the screening procedure we developed was benchmarked, on one hand, qualitatively against the results obtained from traditional GUS approaches in a number of routine toxicological laboratories (20 samples) and, on the other hand, quantitatively with respect to its potential against established LC-MS/MS methods (7 samples). The procedure performed very well from a qualitative point of view; almost all of the drugs detected by the conventional techniques were identified, as well as additional drugs that were not previously reported. The procedure proved well-suited for an initial semiquantitative assessment, as is customary in, for example, forensic toxicology before accurate intoxication levels are determined using targeted analytical analyses.

  2. 3D molecular cartography using LC-MS facilitated by Optimus and 'ili software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Ivan; Melnik, Alexey V; Nothias, Louis-Felix; Rappez, Luca; Phapale, Prasad; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bouslimani, Amina; Ryazanov, Sergey; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Alexandrov, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    Our skin, our belongings, the world surrounding us, and the environment we live in are covered with molecular traces. Detecting and characterizing these molecular traces is necessary to understand the environmental impact on human health and disease, and to decipher complex molecular interactions between humans and other species, particularly microbiota. We recently introduced 3D molecular cartography for mapping small organic molecules (including metabolites, lipids, and environmental molecules) found on various surfaces, including the human body. Here, we provide a protocol and open-source software for 3D molecular cartography. The protocol includes step-by-step procedures for sample collection and processing, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics, quality control (QC), molecular identification using MS/MS, data processing, and visualization with 3D models of the sampled environment. The LC-MS method was optimized for a broad range of small organic molecules. We enable scientists to reproduce our previously obtained results, and illustrate the broad utility of our approach with molecular maps of a rosemary plant and an ATM keypad after a PIN code was entered. To promote reproducibility, we introduce cartographical snapshots: files that describe a particular map and visualization settings, and that can be shared and loaded to reproduce the visualization. The protocol enables molecular cartography to be performed in any mass spectrometry laboratory and, in principle, for any spatially mapped data. We anticipate applications, in particular, in medicine, ecology, agriculture, biotechnology, and forensics. The protocol takes 78 h for a molecular map of 100 spots, excluding the reagent setup.

  3. Simultaneous quantitation of multiple contraceptive hormones in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Steven W; Winchell, Andrea J; Kaucher, Amy V; Lieberman, Rachel A; Gilles, Christopher T; Pyra, Maria N; Heffron, Renee; Hou, Xuanlin; Coombs, Robert W; Nanda, Kavita; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Herbeck, Joshua T; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Erikson, David W

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to develop a method to simultaneously quantify five commonly used hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and two endogenous sex steroids by liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and apply this method to human serum samples. We developed a method to simultaneously analyze ethinyl estradiol (EE2), etonogestrel (ENG), levonorgestrel (LNG), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone (NET), along with estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in human serum for a Shimadzu Nexera-LCMS-8050 LC-MS/MS platform. We analyzed serum collected from women self-reporting use of oral contraceptives, contraceptive implants or injectable contraceptives (n=14) and normally cycling women using no HC (n=15) as well as pooled samples from women administered various HCs (ENG, n=6; LNG, n=14; MPA, n=7; NET, n=5). Limits of quantitation were 0.010ng/mL for E2, EE2 and P4; 0.020ng/mL for ENG, LNG and MPA; and 0.040ng/mL for NET. Precisions for all assays, as indicated by coefficient of variation, were less than or equal to 12.1%. Accuracies for all assays were in the range of 95%-108%. Endogenous hormone values obtained from analysis of human serum samples are in agreement with levels previously reported in the literature for normally cycling women as well as for women taking the appropriate HC. We have developed a robust, accurate and sensitive method for simultaneously analyzing commonly used contraceptive steroids and endogenous sex steroids in human serum. This analytical method can be used for quantitating contraceptive steroid levels in women for monitoring systemic exposure to determine drug interactions, nonadherence, misreporting and proper dosing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. LC-MS metabolomic analysis of environmental stressor impacts on the metabolite diversity in Nephthea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Indra Januar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The soft coral Nephthea spp. is a source of terpenoid class that potentially has pharmaceutical properties. However, metabolite diversity and cytotoxic activity of this species are varied among coral reefs from various sites. Aim: To analyze the water quality in Nephthea spp. environment as a possible factor causing a difference in its metabolite diversity. Settings and Design: Nephthea spp. from seven sites were taken in October 2010 at the Alor District of Marine Protected Area, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Water quality assessment was analyzed in situ and indexed by Canadian Council of Ministry Environment-Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI method. Meanwhile, metabolite diversity was analyzed by a LC-MS metabolomic method, using C18 reversed phase and gradient water-acetonitrile system. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman′s rho and regression analysis were applied to correlate the water quality index to ecological index (richness, diversity, and evenness from LC-MS results. Results: The water quality index had a significant positive correlation and strong linear regression determinant to the total metabolite (R 2 = 0.704, particularly to semipolar metabolite richness (R 2 = 0.809, the area of terpenoid class in the organism. Conclusion: It can be concluded that water quality may serve as a major factor that affects the amount of richness in Nephthea spp. metabolites. When the water quality is lower, as environment stresses increases, it may affect the metabolite richness within direct disrupt of metabolite biosynthesis or indirect ecological means. Terpenoids are known as a soft coral antipredator (coral fishes, the amount of which depends on the water quality.

  5. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  6. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  7. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  8. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  9. Assessing, monitoring and mapping forest resources in the Blue Nile Region of Sudan using an object-based image analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud El-Abbas Mustafa, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Following the hierarchical nature of forest resource management, the present work focuses on the natural forest cover at various abstraction levels of details, i.e. categorical land use/land cover (LU/LC) level and a continuous empirical estimation of local operational level. As no single sensor presently covers absolutely all the requirements of the entire levels of forest resource assessment, multisource imagery (i.e. RapidEye, TERRA ASTER and LANDSAT TM), in addition to other data and know...

  10. Rapid Screening of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors by Effect-Directed Analysis Using LC × LC Fractionation, a High Throughput in Vitro Assay, and Parallel Identification by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim E G; Tousova, Zuzana; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja H

    2016-02-16

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a useful tool to identify bioactive compounds in complex samples. However, identification in EDA is usually challenging, mainly due to limited separation power of the liquid chromatography based fractionation. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) based microfractionation combined with parallel high resolution time of flight (HR-ToF) mass spectrometric detection and a high throughput acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assay was developed. The LC × LC fractionation method was validated using analytical standards and a C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase combination was selected for the two-dimensional separation and fractionation in four 96-well plates. The method was successfully applied to identify AChE inhibitors in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Good orthogonality (>0.9) separation was achieved and three AChE inhibitors (tiapride, amisulpride, and lamotrigine), used as antipsychotic medicines, were identified and confirmed by two-dimensional retention alignment as well as their AChE inhibition activity.

  11. Preparative separation and structural identification of impurities of a new α{sub 2}-Adrenoceptor agonist using stacking injection, LC-MS{sup n} and LC-SPE-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Josiane O.; Thomasi, Sérgio S.; Venâncio, Tiago; Oliveira, Regina V., E-mail: oliveirarv@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Química; Pitta, Ivan R.; Lima, Maria do Carmo A. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (NUPIT/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Núcleo de Pesquisa em Inovação Tecnológica

    2017-07-01

    Identifying impurities in drug substances has become one of the most important issues in pharmaceutical analysis since it can have a significant impact on the efficacy of new pharmaceutical products. Due to the purity requirements, in this paper a new synthetic α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist, called LPSF-PT-31, was purified and its impurities were characterized by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS{sup n}) and liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-SPE-NMR). The purification step was conducted using a semi-preparative liquid chromatography and stacked injections as a new approach to drug purification. As a result, a total yield of 75% of the pure LPSF-PT-31 and 2.9 L day{sup -}'1 in solvent reduction was obtained. The combination of semi-preparative stacking injection, LC-MS{sup n}, and LC-SPE-NMR, demonstrated to be efficient to purify active drugs and unambiguously identify its impurities. In addition, isolation and identification of drug impurities in the early stages of development can improve the synthetic pathway, preventing the formation of impurities or minimizing this formation to minimum levels. (author)

  12. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  13. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  14. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  15. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  16. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  17. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  18. Resources for blueberry growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local extension agents and USDA-ARS research scientists are excellent resources for various aspects of blueberry production, but several print and web-based resources are also available to help commercial blueberry growers. Growers are encouraged to consider the source for all web-based information....

  19. Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  20. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  1. Resources in Technology 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  2. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  3. Metabolism of the new psychoactive substances N,N-diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-DALT and their detectability in urine by GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michely, Julian A; Helfer, Andreas G; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-10-01

    N,N-Diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-DALT (5-MeO-DALT) are synthetic tryptamine derivatives commonly referred to as so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS). They have psychoactive effects that may be similar to those of other tryptamine derivatives. The objectives of this work were to study the metabolic fate and detectability, in urine, of DALT and 5-MeO-DALT. For metabolism studies, rat urine obtained after high-dose administration was prepared by precipitation and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS-MS). On the basis of the metabolites identified, several aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylations, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation, and combinations thereof are proposed as the main metabolic pathways for both compounds. O-Demethylation of 5-MeO-DALT was also observed, in addition to extensive glucuronidation or sulfation of both compounds after phase I transformation. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes predominantly involved in DALT metabolism were CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4; those mainly involved in 5-MeO-DALT metabolism were CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. For detectability studies, rat urine was screened by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS-MS after administration of low doses. LC-MS(n) and LC-HR-MS-MS were deemed suitable for monitoring consumption of both compounds. The most abundant targets were a ring hydroxy metabolite of DALT, the N,O-bis-dealkyl metabolite of 5-MeO-DALT, and their glucuronides. GC-MS enabled screening of DALT by use of its main metabolites only.

  4. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  5. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices

  6. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  7. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  8. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The controversy about the extend of the uranium resources worldwide is still important, this article sheds some light on this topic. Every 2 years IAEA and NEA (nuclear energy agency) edit an inventory of uranium resources as reported by contributing countries. It appears that about 4.6 millions tons of uranium are available at a recovery cost less than 130 dollars per kg of uranium and a total of 14 millions tons of uranium can be assessed when including all existing or supposed resources. In fact there is enough uranium to sustain a moderate growth of the park of nuclear reactors during next decades and it is highly likely that the volume of uranium resources can allow a more aggressive development of nuclear energy. It is recalled that a broad use of the validated breeder technology can stretch the durability of uranium resources by a factor 50. (A.C.)

  9. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  10. LC-MS/MS Peptide Mapping with Automated Data Processing for Routine Profiling of N-Glycans in Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavana; Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Chen, Louise; Zhang, Zhongqi

    2014-06-01

    Protein N-Glycan analysis is traditionally performed by high pH anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) on fluorescence-labeled glycans enzymatically released from the glycoprotein. These methods require time-consuming sample preparations and do not provide site-specific glycosylation information. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) peptide mapping is frequently used for protein structural characterization and, as a bonus, can potentially provide glycan profile on each individual glycosylation site. In this work, a recently developed glycopeptide fragmentation model was used for automated identification, based on their MS/MS, of N-glycopeptides from proteolytic digestion of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Experimental conditions were optimized to achieve accurate profiling of glycoforms. Glycan profiles obtained from LC-MS/MS peptide mapping were compared with those obtained from HPAEC, RPLC, and HILIC analyses of released glycans for several mAb molecules. Accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity of the LC-MS/MS peptide mapping method for glycan profiling were evaluated. The LC-MS/MS peptide mapping method with fully automated data analysis requires less sample preparation, provides site-specific information, and may serve as an alternative method for routine profiling of N-glycans on immunoglobulins as well as other glycoproteins with simple N-glycans.

  11. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MEMBRANE PROTEIN EXPRESSION LEVELS BASED ON LC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, R.; Maršálová, L.; Kučková, Š.; Koník, P.; Šantrůček, J.; Martinec, Jan; Novotná, Z.; Kodíček, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2011), s. 1004-1013 ISSN 1082-6076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0036; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : expression levels * isoxaben * iTRAQ Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2011

  12. Selectivity in the sample preparation for the analysis of drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical in relation to analysis time, sample throughput and therefore analysis costs. Due to recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrumentation, the detection of many compounds within one run became possible, and methods for the simultaneous

  13. An overview of sample preparation procedures for LC-MS multiclass antibiotic determination in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Marazuela, María Dolores; Herranz, Sonia; Rodriguez, Erika

    2009-10-01

    Antibiotics are a class of pharmaceuticals that are of great interest due to the large volumes of these substances that are consumed in both human and veterinary medicine, and due to their status as the agents responsible for bacterial resistance. They can be present in foodstuffs and in environmental samples as multicomponent chemical mixtures that exhibit a wide range of mechanisms of action. Moreover, they can be transformed into different metabolites by the action of microorganisms, as well as by other physical or chemical means, resulting in mixtures with higher ecotoxicities and risks to human health than those of the individual compounds. Therefore, there is growing interest in the availability of multiclass methods for the analysis of antimicrobial mixtures in environmental and food samples at very low concentrations. Liquid chromatography (LC) has become the technique of choice for multiclass analysis, especially when coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem MS (LC-MS(2)). However, due to the complexity of the matrix, in most cases an extraction step for sample clean-up and preconcentration is required before analysis in order to achieve the required sensitivities. This paper reviews the most recent developments and applications of multiclass antimicrobial determination in environmental and food matrices, emphasizing the practical aspects of sample preparation for the simultaneous extraction of antimicrobials from the selected samples. Future trends in the application of LC-MS-based techniques to multiclass antibiotic analysis are also presented.

  14. Untargeted LC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry method for the detection of adulterations in skimmed-milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, J.H.G.; Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    A nontargeted protein identification method was developed to screen for adulterations in skimmed-milk powder (SMP). There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. To demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the developed comparative LC-MS method using a

  15. Value of preoperative serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH detection in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fei Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of preoperative serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH detection in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A total of 80 cases of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated in our hospital from March 2010 to March 2014 were analyzed, and serum TSH, MMP2/9, TIMP1/2 and LC3 levels of patients before operation were detected by ELISA. Healthy subjects and patients with benign neoplasm of thyroid during the same period were taken as control. Results: Serum TSH, MMP2, MMP9 and LC3 levels in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma significantly increased, TIMP1 and TIMP2 levels significantly decreased, and compared with healthy subjects and patients with benign neoplasm of thyroid, there were significant statistical differences; at the same time, above parameters in serum were not related to gender, but closely related to age, clinical stage and diameter of tumor as well as lymph node. Conclusion: Preoperative detection of serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH levels has important reference significance in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For

  17. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  18. Photochromic and fluorescent LC gels based on a bent-shaped azobenzene-containing gelator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobrovsky, A.; Shibaev, I.; Hamplová, Věra; Novotná, Vladimíra; Kašpar, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 70 (2015), 56891-56895 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * photochromic LC- gels Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  19. LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2014-09-01

    Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

  20. Comparison of 7 Published LC-MS/MS Methods for the Simultaneous Measurement of Testosterone, Androstenedione, and Dehydroepiandrosterone in Serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büttler, Rahel M; Martens, Frans; Fanelli, Flaminia

    2015-01-01

    , and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). METHODS: We used 7 published LC-MS/MS methods to analyze in duplicate 55 random samples from both men and women. We performed Passing-Bablok regression analysis and calculated Pearson correlation coefficients to assess the agreement of the methods investigated with the median concentration...