WorldWideScience

Sample records for sophisticated computational framework

  1. Sophistication of computational science and fundamental physics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Seiji; Ito, Atsushi; Usami, Shunsuke; Ohtani, Hiroaki; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Toida, Mieko; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Miura, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Numerical experimental reactor research project is composed of the following studies: (1) nuclear fusion simulation research with a focus on specific physical phenomena of specific equipment, (2) research on advanced simulation method to increase predictability or expand its application range based on simulation, (3) visualization as the foundation of simulation research, (4) research for advanced computational science such as parallel computing technology, and (5) research aiming at elucidation of fundamental physical phenomena not limited to specific devices. Specifically, a wide range of researches with medium- to long-term perspectives are being developed: (1) virtual reality visualization, (2) upgrading of computational science such as multilayer simulation method, (3) kinetic behavior of plasma blob, (4) extended MHD theory and simulation, (5) basic plasma process such as particle acceleration due to interaction of wave and particle, and (6) research related to laser plasma fusion. This paper reviews the following items: (1) simultaneous visualization in virtual reality space, (2) multilayer simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection, (3) simulation of microscopic dynamics of plasma coherent structure, (4) Hall MHD simulation of LHD, (5) numerical analysis for extension of MHD equilibrium and stability theory, (6) extended MHD simulation of 2D RT instability, (7) simulation of laser plasma, (8) simulation of shock wave and particle acceleration, and (9) study on simulation of homogeneous isotropic MHD turbulent flow. (A.O.)

  2. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  3. Computer information systems framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabuddin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Management information systems (MIS) is a commonly used term in computer profession. The new information technology has caused management to expect more from computer. The process of supplying information follows a well defined procedure. MIS should be capable for providing usable information to the various areas and levels of organization. MIS is different from data processing. MIS and business hierarchy provides a good framework for many organization which are using computers. (A.B.)

  4. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  5. Sophisticated Approval Voting, Ignorance Priors, and Plurality Heuristics: A Behavioral Social Choice Analysis in a Thurstonian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-01-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two…

  6. Sophisticated approval voting, ignorance priors, and plurality heuristics: a behavioral social choice analysis in a Thurstonian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-10-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two types of plurality heuristics to model approval voting behavior. When using a sincere plurality heuristic, voters simplify their decision process by voting for their single favorite candidate. When using a strategic plurality heuristic, voters strategically focus their attention on the 2 front-runners and vote for their preferred candidate among these 2. Using a hierarchy of Thurstonian random utility models, the authors implemented these different decision rules and tested them statistically on 7 real world approval voting elections. They cross-validated their key findings via a psychological Internet experiment. Although a substantial number of voters used the plurality heuristic in the real elections, they did so sincerely, not strategically. Moreover, even though Thurstonian models do not force such agreement, the results show, in contrast to common wisdom about social choice rules, that the sincere social orders by Condorcet, Borda, plurality, and approval voting are identical in all 7 elections and in the Internet experiment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Computer-Aided Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Computer-aided methods and tools have the potential to reduce the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and there is a benefit of working...... development and application. The proposed work is a part of the project for development of methods and tools that will allow systematic generation, analysis and solution of models for various objectives. It will use the computer-aided modeling framework that is based on a modeling methodology, which combines....... In this contribution, the concept of template-based modeling is presented and application is highlighted for the specific case of catalytic membrane fixed bed models. The modeling template is integrated in a generic computer-aided modeling framework. Furthermore, modeling templates enable the idea of model reuse...

  8. A Software Rejuvenation Framework for Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio

    2009-01-01

    A performability-oriented conceptual framework for software rejuvenation has been constructed as a means of increasing levels of reliability and performance in distributed stateful computing. As used here, performability-oriented signifies that the construction of the framework is guided by the concept of analyzing the ability of a given computing system to deliver services with gracefully degradable performance. The framework is especially intended to support applications that involve stateful replicas of server computers.

  9. Framework for utilizing computational devices within simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mintál

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there exist several frameworks to utilize a computation power of graphics cards and other computational devices such as FPGA, ARM and multi-core processors. The best known are either low-level and need a lot of controlling code or are bounded only to special graphic cards. Furthermore there exist more specialized frameworks, mainly aimed to the mathematic field. Described framework is adjusted to use in a multi-agent simulations. Here it provides an option to accelerate computations when preparing simulation and mainly to accelerate a computation of simulation itself.

  10. Reusability Framework for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, Rishideep

    2012-01-01

    Cloud based development is a challenging task for several software engineering projects, especially for those which needs development with reusability. Present time of cloud computing is allowing new professional models for using the software development. The expected upcoming trend of computing is assumed to be this cloud computing because of speed of application deployment, shorter time to market, and lower cost of operation. Until Cloud Co mputing Reusability Model is considered a fundamen...

  11. Framework Resources Multiply Computing Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As an early proponent of grid computing, Ames Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to 3DGeo Development Inc., of Santa Clara, California, (now FusionGeo Inc., of The Woodlands, Texas) to demonstrate a virtual computer environment that linked geographically dispersed computer systems over the Internet to help solve large computational problems. By adding to an existing product, FusionGeo enabled access to resources for calculation- or data-intensive applications whenever and wherever they were needed. Commercially available as Accelerated Imaging and Modeling, the product is used by oil companies and seismic service companies, which require large processing and data storage capacities.

  12. JACOB: An Enterprise Framework for Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Mark P; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Yang, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present just a collection of beans (JACOB): an integrated batch-based framework designed for the rapid development of computational chemistry applications. The framework expedites developer productivity by handling the generic infrastructure tier, and can be easily extended by user-specific scientific code. Paradigms from enterprise software engineering were rigorously applied to create a scalable, testable, secure, and robust framework. A centralized web application is used to configure and control the operation of the framework. The application-programming interface provides a set of generic tools for processing large-scale noninteractive jobs (e.g., systematic studies), or for coordinating systems integration (e.g., complex workflows). The code for the JACOB framework is open sourced and is available at: http://www.wallerlab.org/jacob. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23553271

  13. JACOB: an enterprise framework for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Mark P; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Yang, Jack

    2013-06-15

    Here, we present just a collection of beans (JACOB): an integrated batch-based framework designed for the rapid development of computational chemistry applications. The framework expedites developer productivity by handling the generic infrastructure tier, and can be easily extended by user-specific scientific code. Paradigms from enterprise software engineering were rigorously applied to create a scalable, testable, secure, and robust framework. A centralized web application is used to configure and control the operation of the framework. The application-programming interface provides a set of generic tools for processing large-scale noninteractive jobs (e.g., systematic studies), or for coordinating systems integration (e.g., complex workflows). The code for the JACOB framework is open sourced and is available at: www.wallerlab.org/jacob. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Computational models in physics teaching: a framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to present a theoretical framework to promote and assist meaningful physics learning through computational models. Our proposal is based on the use of a tool, the AVM diagram, to design educational activities involving modeling and computer simulations. The idea is to provide a starting point for the construction and implementation of didactical approaches grounded in a coherent epistemological view about scientific modeling.

  15. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  16. In Praise of the Sophists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walker

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the thinking of the Greek Sophist philosophers, particularly Gorgias and Protagoras, and their importance and relevance for contemporary English instructors. Considers the problem of language as signs of reality in the context of Sophist philosophy. (HB)

  17. Framework for computer-aided systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced computer technology, analytical methods, graphics capabilities, and expert systems contribute to significant changes in the design process. Continued progress is expected. Achieving the ultimate benefits of these computer-based design tools depends on successful research and development on a number of key issues. A fundamental understanding of the design process is a prerequisite to developing these computer-based tools. In this paper a hierarchical systems design approach is described, and methods by which computers can assist the designer are examined. A framework is presented for developing computer-based design tools for power plant design. These tools include expert experience bases, tutorials, aids in decision making, and tools to develop the requirements, constraints, and interactions among subsystems and components. Early consideration of the functional tasks is encouraged. Methods of acquiring an expert's experience base is a fundamental research problem. Computer-based guidance should be provided in a manner that supports the creativity, heuristic approaches, decision making, and meticulousness of a good designer

  18. A Computational Framework for Bioimaging Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Masaki; Arjunan, Satya N. V.; Fukushima, Seiya; Iwamoto, Kazunari; Kozuka, Jun; Matsuoka, Satomi; Shindo, Yuki; Ueda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Using bioimaging technology, biologists have attempted to identify and document analytical interpretations that underlie biological phenomena in biological cells. Theoretical biology aims at distilling those interpretations into knowledge in the mathematical form of biochemical reaction networks and understanding how higher level functions emerge from the combined action of biomolecules. However, there still remain formidable challenges in bridging the gap between bioimaging and mathematical modeling. Generally, measurements using fluorescence microscopy systems are influenced by systematic effects that arise from stochastic nature of biological cells, the imaging apparatus, and optical physics. Such systematic effects are always present in all bioimaging systems and hinder quantitative comparison between the cell model and bioimages. Computational tools for such a comparison are still unavailable. Thus, in this work, we present a computational framework for handling the parameters of the cell models and the optical physics governing bioimaging systems. Simulation using this framework can generate digital images of cell simulation results after accounting for the systematic effects. We then demonstrate that such a framework enables comparison at the level of photon-counting units. PMID:26147508

  19. A Computational Framework for Bioimaging Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Masaki; Arjunan, Satya N V; Fukushima, Seiya; Iwamoto, Kazunari; Kozuka, Jun; Matsuoka, Satomi; Shindo, Yuki; Ueda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Using bioimaging technology, biologists have attempted to identify and document analytical interpretations that underlie biological phenomena in biological cells. Theoretical biology aims at distilling those interpretations into knowledge in the mathematical form of biochemical reaction networks and understanding how higher level functions emerge from the combined action of biomolecules. However, there still remain formidable challenges in bridging the gap between bioimaging and mathematical modeling. Generally, measurements using fluorescence microscopy systems are influenced by systematic effects that arise from stochastic nature of biological cells, the imaging apparatus, and optical physics. Such systematic effects are always present in all bioimaging systems and hinder quantitative comparison between the cell model and bioimages. Computational tools for such a comparison are still unavailable. Thus, in this work, we present a computational framework for handling the parameters of the cell models and the optical physics governing bioimaging systems. Simulation using this framework can generate digital images of cell simulation results after accounting for the systematic effects. We then demonstrate that such a framework enables comparison at the level of photon-counting units.

  20. A Computational Framework for Bioimaging Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Watabe

    Full Text Available Using bioimaging technology, biologists have attempted to identify and document analytical interpretations that underlie biological phenomena in biological cells. Theoretical biology aims at distilling those interpretations into knowledge in the mathematical form of biochemical reaction networks and understanding how higher level functions emerge from the combined action of biomolecules. However, there still remain formidable challenges in bridging the gap between bioimaging and mathematical modeling. Generally, measurements using fluorescence microscopy systems are influenced by systematic effects that arise from stochastic nature of biological cells, the imaging apparatus, and optical physics. Such systematic effects are always present in all bioimaging systems and hinder quantitative comparison between the cell model and bioimages. Computational tools for such a comparison are still unavailable. Thus, in this work, we present a computational framework for handling the parameters of the cell models and the optical physics governing bioimaging systems. Simulation using this framework can generate digital images of cell simulation results after accounting for the systematic effects. We then demonstrate that such a framework enables comparison at the level of photon-counting units.

  1. Framework of Resource Management for Intercloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aazam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a very rapid increase in digital media content, due to which media cloud is gaining importance. Cloud computing paradigm provides management of resources and helps create extended portfolio of services. Through cloud computing, not only are services managed more efficiently, but also service discovery is made possible. To handle rapid increase in the content, media cloud plays a very vital role. But it is not possible for standalone clouds to handle everything with the increasing user demands. For scalability and better service provisioning, at times, clouds have to communicate with other clouds and share their resources. This scenario is called Intercloud computing or cloud federation. The study on Intercloud computing is still in its start. Resource management is one of the key concerns to be addressed in Intercloud computing. Already done studies discuss this issue only in a trivial and simplistic way. In this study, we present a resource management model, keeping in view different types of services, different customer types, customer characteristic, pricing, and refunding. The presented framework was implemented using Java and NetBeans 8.0 and evaluated using CloudSim 3.0.3 toolkit. Presented results and their discussion validate our model and its efficiency.

  2. Cumulative Dominance and Probabilistic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Machina & Schmeidler (Econometrica, 60, 1992) gave preference conditions for probabilistic sophistication, i.e. decision making where uncertainty can be expressed in terms of (subjective) probabilities without commitment to expected utility maximization. This note shows that simpler and more general

  3. HCI^2 Framework: A software framework for multimodal human-computer interaction systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel software framework for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface (MHCI) systems. The proposed software framework, which is called the HCI∧2 Framework, is built upon publish/subscribe (P/S) architecture. It implements a

  4. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  5. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  6. Cuby: An Integrative Framework for Computational Chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 13 (2016), s. 1230-1237 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-01214P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : software framework * workflow automation * QM/MM * datasets * Ruby Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.229, year: 2016

  7. TRUSTED CLOUD COMPUTING FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mervat Adib Bamiah; Sarfraz Nawaz Brohi; Suriayati Chuprat; Jamalul-lail Ab Manan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly evolving due to its efficient characteristics such as cost-effectiveness, availability and elasticity. Healthcare organizations and consumers lose control when they outsource their sensitive data and computing resources to a third party Cloud Service Provider (CSP), which may raise security and privacy concerns related to data loss and misuse appealing threats. Lack of consumers’ knowledge about their data storage location may lead to violating rules and r...

  8. Computational modeling of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jeffrey Chuen-Fai

    In this work, the metal-organic frameworks MIL-53(Cr), DMOF-2,3-NH 2Cl, DMOF-2,5-NH2Cl, and HKUST-1 were modeled using molecular mechanics and electronic structure. The effect of electronic polarization on the adsorption of water in MIL-53(Cr) was studied using molecular dynamics simulations of water-loaded MIL-53 systems with both polarizable and non-polarizable force fields. Molecular dynamics simulations of the full systems and DFT calculations on representative framework clusters were utilized to study the difference in nitrogen adsorption between DMOF-2,3-NH2Cl and DMOF-2,5-NH 2Cl. Finally, the control of proton conduction in HKUST-1 by complexation of molecules to the Cu open metal site was investigated using the MS-EVB methodology.

  9. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  10. A lightweight distributed framework for computational offloading in mobile cloud computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shiraz

    Full Text Available The latest developments in mobile computing technology have enabled intensive applications on the modern Smartphones. However, such applications are still constrained by limitations in processing potentials, storage capacity and battery lifetime of the Smart Mobile Devices (SMDs. Therefore, Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC leverages the application processing services of computational clouds for mitigating resources limitations in SMDs. Currently, a number of computational offloading frameworks are proposed for MCC wherein the intensive components of the application are outsourced to computational clouds. Nevertheless, such frameworks focus on runtime partitioning of the application for computational offloading, which is time consuming and resources intensive. The resource constraint nature of SMDs require lightweight procedures for leveraging computational clouds. Therefore, this paper presents a lightweight framework which focuses on minimizing additional resources utilization in computational offloading for MCC. The framework employs features of centralized monitoring, high availability and on demand access services of computational clouds for computational offloading. As a result, the turnaround time and execution cost of the application are reduced. The framework is evaluated by testing prototype application in the real MCC environment. The lightweight nature of the proposed framework is validated by employing computational offloading for the proposed framework and the latest existing frameworks. Analysis shows that by employing the proposed framework for computational offloading, the size of data transmission is reduced by 91%, energy consumption cost is minimized by 81% and turnaround time of the application is decreased by 83.5% as compared to the existing offloading frameworks. Hence, the proposed framework minimizes additional resources utilization and therefore offers lightweight solution for computational offloading in MCC.

  11. A Lightweight Distributed Framework for Computational Offloading in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah; Ahmad, Raja Wasim; Adeel Ali Shah, Syed; Karim, Ahmad; Rahman, Zulkanain Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The latest developments in mobile computing technology have enabled intensive applications on the modern Smartphones. However, such applications are still constrained by limitations in processing potentials, storage capacity and battery lifetime of the Smart Mobile Devices (SMDs). Therefore, Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) leverages the application processing services of computational clouds for mitigating resources limitations in SMDs. Currently, a number of computational offloading frameworks are proposed for MCC wherein the intensive components of the application are outsourced to computational clouds. Nevertheless, such frameworks focus on runtime partitioning of the application for computational offloading, which is time consuming and resources intensive. The resource constraint nature of SMDs require lightweight procedures for leveraging computational clouds. Therefore, this paper presents a lightweight framework which focuses on minimizing additional resources utilization in computational offloading for MCC. The framework employs features of centralized monitoring, high availability and on demand access services of computational clouds for computational offloading. As a result, the turnaround time and execution cost of the application are reduced. The framework is evaluated by testing prototype application in the real MCC environment. The lightweight nature of the proposed framework is validated by employing computational offloading for the proposed framework and the latest existing frameworks. Analysis shows that by employing the proposed framework for computational offloading, the size of data transmission is reduced by 91%, energy consumption cost is minimized by 81% and turnaround time of the application is decreased by 83.5% as compared to the existing offloading frameworks. Hence, the proposed framework minimizes additional resources utilization and therefore offers lightweight solution for computational offloading in MCC. PMID:25127245

  12. Framework for Computation Offloading in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Kovachev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inherently limited processing power and battery lifetime of mobile phones hinder the possible execution of computationally intensive applications like content-based video analysis or 3D modeling. Offloading of computationally intensive application parts from the mobile platform into a remote cloud infrastructure or nearby idle computers addresses this problem. This paper presents our Mobile Augmentation Cloud Services (MACS middleware which enables adaptive extension of Android application execution from a mobile client into the cloud. Applications are developed by using the standard Android development pattern. The middleware does the heavy lifting of adaptive application partitioning, resource monitoring and computation offloading. These elastic mobile applications can run as usual mobile application, but they can also use remote computing resources transparently. Two prototype applications using the MACS middleware demonstrate the benefits of the approach. The evaluation shows that applications, which involve costly computations, can benefit from offloading with around 95% energy savings and significant performance gains compared to local execution only.

  13. Cloud computing and ROI a new framework for it strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This book develops an IT strategy for cloud computing that helps businesses evaluate their readiness for cloud services and calculate the ROI. The framework provided helps reduce risks involved in transitioning from traditional "on site" IT strategy to virtual "cloud computing." Since the advent of cloud computing, many organizations have made substantial gains implementing this innovation. Cloud computing allows companies to focus more on their core competencies, as IT enablement is taken care of through cloud services. Cloud Computing and ROI includes case studies covering retail, automobile and food processing industries. Each of these case studies have successfully implemented the cloud computing framework and their strategies are explained. As cloud computing may not be ideal for all businesses, criteria?are also offered to help determine if this strategy should be adopt.

  14. Towards a Formal Framework for Computational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2006-01-01

    We define a mathematical measure for the quantitative comparison of probabilistic computational trust systems, and use it to compare a well-known class of algorithms based on the so-called beta model. The main novelty is that our approach is formal, rather than based on experimental simulation....

  15. Social networks a framework of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides the audience with an updated, in-depth and highly coherent material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound information technology of Computational Intelligence applied to the analysis, synthesis and evaluation of social networks. The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of social networks including community structure detection in networks, online social networks, knowledge growth and evaluation, and diversity of collaboration mechanisms.  The book engages a wealth of methods of Computational Intelligence along with well-known techniques of linear programming, Formal Concept Analysis, machine learning, and agent modeling.  Human-centricity is of paramount relevance and this facet manifests in many ways including personalized semantics, trust metric, and personal knowledge management; just to highlight a few of these aspects. The contributors to this volume report on various essential applications including cyber attacks detection, building enterprise social network...

  16. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  17. Sophisticating a naive Liapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The art of the direct method of Liapunov to determine system stability is to construct a suitable Liapunov or V function where V is to be positive definite (PD), to shrink to a center, which may be conveniently chosen as the origin, and where V is the negative definite (ND). One aid to the art is to solve an approximation to the system equations in order to provide a candidate V function. It can happen, however, that the V function is not strictly ND but vanishes at a finite number of isolated points. Naively, one anticipates that stability has been demonstrated since the trajectory of the system at such points is only momentarily tangential and immediately enters a region of inward directed trajectories. To demonstrate stability rigorously requires the construction of a sophisticated Liapunov function from what can be called the naive original choice. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the method of perturbing the naive function in the context of the well-known second-order oscillator and then apply the method to a more complicated problem based on a prompt jump model for a nuclear fission reactor

  18. FAST: framework for heterogeneous medical image computing and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Erik; Bozorgi, Mohammadmehdi; Lindseth, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Computer systems are becoming increasingly heterogeneous in the sense that they consist of different processors, such as multi-core CPUs and graphic processing units. As the amount of medical image data increases, it is crucial to exploit the computational power of these processors. However, this is currently difficult due to several factors, such as driver errors, processor differences, and the need for low-level memory handling. This paper presents a novel FrAmework for heterogeneouS medical image compuTing and visualization (FAST). The framework aims to make it easier to simultaneously process and visualize medical images efficiently on heterogeneous systems. FAST uses common image processing programming paradigms and hides the details of memory handling from the user, while enabling the use of all processors and cores on a system. The framework is open-source, cross-platform and available online. Code examples and performance measurements are presented to show the simplicity and efficiency of FAST. The results are compared to the insight toolkit (ITK) and the visualization toolkit (VTK) and show that the presented framework is faster with up to 20 times speedup on several common medical imaging algorithms. FAST enables efficient medical image computing and visualization on heterogeneous systems. Code examples and performance evaluations have demonstrated that the toolkit is both easy to use and performs better than existing frameworks, such as ITK and VTK.

  19. Pension fund sophistication and investment policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364537906; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    This paper assesses the sophistication of pension funds’ investment policies using data on 748 Dutch pension funds during the 1999–2006 period. We develop three indicators of sophistication: gross rounding of investment choices, investments in alternative sophisticated asset classes and ‘home bias’.

  20. Cloud computing strategic framework (FY13 - FY15).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Lawrence R.; Arroyo, Steven C.; Giese, Gerald J.; Cox, Philip M.; Rogers, G. Kelly

    2012-11-01

    This document presents an architectural framework (plan) and roadmap for the implementation of a robust Cloud Computing capability at Sandia National Laboratories. It is intended to be a living document and serve as the basis for detailed implementation plans, project proposals and strategic investment requests.

  1. Amelie: A recombinant computing framework for ambient awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metaxas, G.; Markopoulos, P.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Tschlegi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Amelie, a service oriented framework that supports the implementation of awareness systems. Amelie adopts the tenets of Recombinant computing to address an important non-functional requirement for Ambient Intelligence software, namely the heterogeneous combination of services and

  2. FILTWAM - A Framework for Online Affective Computing in Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Westera, Wim; Nadolski, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Bahreini, K., Westera, W., & Nadolski, R. (2012, 29-31 October). FILTWAM - A Framework for Online Affective Computing in Serious Games. Presentation at the 4th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, VS-GAMES’12, Genoa, Italy.

  3. A Secure Framework for Location Verification in Pervasive Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Lee, Moon-Chuen; Wu, Dan

    The way people use computing devices has been changed in some way by the relatively new pervasive computing paradigm. For example, a person can use a mobile device to obtain its location information at anytime and anywhere. There are several security issues concerning whether this information is reliable in a pervasive environment. For example, a malicious user may disable the localization system by broadcasting a forged location, and it may impersonate other users by eavesdropping their locations. In this paper, we address the verification of location information in a secure manner. We first present the design challenges for location verification, and then propose a two-layer framework VerPer for secure location verification in a pervasive computing environment. Real world GPS-based wireless sensor network experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  4. SMEs and new ventures need business model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    , and Spreadshirt, this article develops a framework that introduces five business model sophistication strategies: (1) uncover additional functions of your product, (2) identify strategic benefits for third parties, (3) take advantage of economies of scope, (4) utilize cross-selling opportunities, and (5) involve...

  5. A Computational Framework for Flood Risk Assessment in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Markus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of dikes in The Netherlands, located in the delta of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt, has been the subject of debate for more than ten years. The safety (or flood risk of a particular area may depend on the safety of other areas. This is referred to as effects of river system behaviour on flood risk (quantified as the estimated number of casualties and economic damage. A computational framework was developed to assess these effects. It consists of several components that are loosely coupled via data files and Tcl scripts to manage the individual programs and keep track of the state of the computations. The computations involved are lengthy (days or even weeks on a Linux cluster, which makes the framework currently more suitable for planning and design than for real-time operation. While the framework was constructed ad hoc, it can also be viewed more formally as a tuplespace Realising this makes it possible to adopt the philosophy for other similar frameworks.

  6. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  7. Amelie: A Recombinant Computing Framework for Ambient Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos; Aarts, Emile

    This paper presents Amelie, a service oriented framework that supports the implementation of awareness systems. Amelie adopts the tenets of Recombinant computing to address an important non-functional requirement for Ambient Intelligence software, namely the heterogeneous combination of services and components. Amelie is founded upon FN-AAR an abstract model of Awareness Systems which enables the immediate expression and implementation of socially salient requirements, such as symmetry and social translucence. We discuss the framework and show how system behaviours can be specified using the Awareness Mark-up Language AML.

  8. A computational framework for automation of point defect calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Anuj; Gorai, Prashun; Peng, Haowei

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a complete and rigorously validated open-source Python framework to automate point defect calculations using density functional theory. Furthermore, the framework provides an effective and efficient method for defect structure generation, and creation of simple yet customizable workflows to analyze defect calculations. This package provides the capability to compute widely-accepted correction schemes to overcome finite-size effects, including (1) potential alignment, (2) image-charge correction, and (3) band filling correction to shallow defects. Using Si, ZnO and In2O3 as test examples, we demonstrate the package capabilities and validate the methodology.

  9. Polyphony: A Workflow Orchestration Framework for Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Tom M.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Rossi, Ryan; Soderstrom, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Cloud Computing has delivered unprecedented compute capacity to NASA missions at affordable rates. Missions like the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Science Lab (MSL) are enjoying the elasticity that enables them to leverage hundreds, if not thousands, or machines for short durations without making any hardware procurements. In this paper, we describe Polyphony, a resilient, scalable, and modular framework that efficiently leverages a large set of computing resources to perform parallel computations. Polyphony can employ resources on the cloud, excess capacity on local machines, as well as spare resources on the supercomputing center, and it enables these resources to work in concert to accomplish a common goal. Polyphony is resilient to node failures, even if they occur in the middle of a transaction. We will conclude with an evaluation of a production-ready application built on top of Polyphony to perform image-processing operations of images from around the solar system, including Mars, Saturn, and Titan.

  10. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  11. Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangado Lopez, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    . To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient......'s CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns......Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging...

  12. Benchmarking high performance computing architectures with CMS’ skeleton framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Gartung, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    In 2012 CMS evaluated which underlying concurrency technology would be the best to use for its multi-threaded framework. The available technologies were evaluated on the high throughput computing systems dominating the resources in use at that time. A skeleton framework benchmarking suite that emulates the tasks performed within a CMSSW application was used to select Intel’s Thread Building Block library, based on the measured overheads in both memory and CPU on the different technologies benchmarked. In 2016 CMS will get access to high performance computing resources that use new many core architectures; machines such as Cori Phase 1&2, Theta, Mira. Because of this we have revived the 2012 benchmark to test it’s performance and conclusions on these new architectures. This talk will discuss the results of this exercise.

  13. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  14. Arcade: A Web-Java Based Framework for Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhikai; Maly, Kurt; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, Mohammad; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Distributed heterogeneous environments are being increasingly used to execute a variety of large size simulations and computational problems. We are developing Arcade, a web-based environment to design, execute, monitor, and control distributed applications. These targeted applications consist of independent heterogeneous modules which can be executed on a distributed heterogeneous environment. In this paper we describe the overall design of the system and discuss the prototype implementation of the core functionalities required to support such a framework.

  15. A Computational Framework for Efficient Low Temperature Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of low temperature plasmas (LTP) applications which includes electronics, nanomaterial synthesis, metamaterials etc. To further explore the LTP behavior with greater fidelity, we present a computational toolbox developed to perform LTP simulations. This framework will allow us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon using high performance computing tools mainly based on OpenFOAM FVM distribution. Although aimed at microplasma simulations, the modular framework is able to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of physical systems comprises of LTP. Some salient introductory features are capability to perform parallel, 3D simulations of LTP applications on unstructured meshes. Performance of the solver is tested based on numerical results assessing accuracy and efficiency of benchmarks for problems in microdischarge devices. Numerical simulation of microplasma reactor at atmospheric pressure with hemispherical dielectric coated electrodes will be discussed and hence, provide an overview of applicability and future scope of this framework.

  16. BlueSky Cloud Framework: An E-Learning Framework Embracing Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Zheng, Qinghua; Qiao, Mu; Shu, Jian; Yang, Jie

    Currently, E-Learning has grown into a widely accepted way of learning. With the huge growth of users, services, education contents and resources, E-Learning systems are facing challenges of optimizing resource allocations, dealing with dynamic concurrency demands, handling rapid storage growth requirements and cost controlling. In this paper, an E-Learning framework based on cloud computing is presented, namely BlueSky cloud framework. Particularly, the architecture and core components of BlueSky cloud framework are introduced. In BlueSky cloud framework, physical machines are virtualized, and allocated on demand for E-Learning systems. Moreover, BlueSky cloud framework combines with traditional middleware functions (such as load balancing and data caching) to serve for E-Learning systems as a general architecture. It delivers reliable, scalable and cost-efficient services to E-Learning systems, and E-Learning organizations can establish systems through these services in a simple way. BlueSky cloud framework solves the challenges faced by E-Learning, and improves the performance, availability and scalability of E-Learning systems.

  17. Do Clouds Compute? A Framework for Estimating the Value of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klems, Markus; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    On-demand provisioning of scalable and reliable compute services, along with a cost model that charges consumers based on actual service usage, has been an objective in distributed computing research and industry for a while. Cloud Computing promises to deliver on this objective: consumers are able to rent infrastructure in the Cloud as needed, deploy applications and store data, and access them via Web protocols on a pay-per-use basis. The acceptance of Cloud Computing, however, depends on the ability for Cloud Computing providers and consumers to implement a model for business value co-creation. Therefore, a systematic approach to measure costs and benefits of Cloud Computing is needed. In this paper, we discuss the need for valuation of Cloud Computing, identify key components, and structure these components in a framework. The framework assists decision makers in estimating Cloud Computing costs and to compare these costs to conventional IT solutions. We demonstrate by means of representative use cases how our framework can be applied to real world scenarios.

  18. Hydra-Ring: a computational framework to combine failure probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Roscoe, Kathryn; IJmker, Janneke; Mens, Marjolein; Bouwer, Laurens

    2013-04-01

    This presentation discusses the development of a new computational framework for the safety assessment of flood defence systems: Hydra-Ring. Hydra-Ring computes the failure probability of a flood defence system, which is composed of a number of elements (e.g., dike segments, dune segments or hydraulic structures), taking all relevant uncertainties explicitly into account. This is a major step forward in comparison with the current Dutch practice in which the safety assessment is done separately per individual flood defence section. The main advantage of the new approach is that it will result in a more balanced prioratization of required mitigating measures ('more value for money'). Failure of the flood defence system occurs if any element within the system fails. Hydra-Ring thus computes and combines failure probabilities of the following elements: - Failure mechanisms: A flood defence system can fail due to different failure mechanisms. - Time periods: failure probabilities are first computed for relatively small time scales (assessment of flood defense systems, Hydra-Ring can also be used to derive fragility curves, to asses the efficiency of flood mitigating measures, and to quantify the impact of climate change and land subsidence on flood risk. Hydra-Ring is being developed in the context of the Dutch situation. However, the computational concept is generic and the model is set up in such a way that it can be applied to other areas as well. The presentation will focus on the model concept and probabilistic computation techniques.

  19. Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangado, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas; Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio; Dejea Velardo, Hector; Mistrik, Pavel; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Fagertun, Jens; Noailly, Jérôme; Piella, Gemma; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging. To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient's CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns constitutive parameters to all components of the finite element model. This model can then be used to study in silico the effects of the electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. Results are shown on a total of 25 models of patients. In all cases, a final mesh suitable for finite element simulations was obtained, in an average time of 94 s. The framework has proven to be fast and robust, and is promising for a detailed prognosis of the cochlear implantation surgery.

  20. NINJA: a noninvasive framework for internal computer security hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas G.; Thomson, Steve

    2004-07-01

    Vulnerabilities are a growing problem in both the commercial and government sector. The latest vulnerability information compiled by CERT/CC, for the year ending Dec. 31, 2002 reported 4129 vulnerabilities representing a 100% increase over the 2001 [1] (the 2003 report has not been published at the time of this writing). It doesn"t take long to realize that the growth rate of vulnerabilities greatly exceeds the rate at which the vulnerabilities can be fixed. It also doesn"t take long to realize that our nation"s networks are growing less secure at an accelerating rate. As organizations become aware of vulnerabilities they may initiate efforts to resolve them, but quickly realize that the size of the remediation project is greater than their current resources can handle. In addition, many IT tools that suggest solutions to the problems in reality only address "some" of the vulnerabilities leaving the organization unsecured and back to square one in searching for solutions. This paper proposes an auditing framework called NINJA (acronym for Network Investigation Notification Joint Architecture) for noninvasive daily scanning/auditing based on common security vulnerabilities that repeatedly occur in a network environment. This framework is used for performing regular audits in order to harden an organizations security infrastructure. The framework is based on the results obtained by the Network Security Assessment Team (NSAT) which emulates adversarial computer network operations for US Air Force organizations. Auditing is the most time consuming factor involved in securing an organization's network infrastructure. The framework discussed in this paper uses existing scripting technologies to maintain a security hardened system at a defined level of performance as specified by the computer security audit team. Mobile agents which were under development at the time of this writing are used at a minimum to improve the noninvasiveness of our scans. In general, noninvasive

  1. DEEP: a general computational framework for predicting enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2014-11-05

    Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the number of computationally predicted enhancers, performance inconsistency of computational models across different cell-lines, class imbalance within the learning sets and ad hoc rules for selecting enhancer candidates for supervised learning, are some key questions that require further examination. In this study we developed DEEP, a novel ensemble prediction framework. DEEP integrates three components with diverse characteristics that streamline the analysis of enhancer\\'s properties in a great variety of cellular conditions. In our method we train many individual classification models that we combine to classify DNA regions as enhancers or non-enhancers. DEEP uses features derived from histone modification marks or attributes coming from sequence characteristics. Experimental results indicate that DEEP performs better than four state-of-the-art methods on the ENCODE data. We report the first computational enhancer prediction results on FANTOM5 data where DEEP achieves 90.2% accuracy and 90% geometric mean (GM) of specificity and sensitivity across 36 different tissues. We further present results derived using in vivo-derived enhancer data from VISTA database. DEEP-VISTA, when tested on an independent test set, achieved GM of 80.1% and accuracy of 89.64%. DEEP framework is publicly available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deep/.

  2. DEEP: a general computational framework for predicting enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the number of computationally predicted enhancers, performance inconsistency of computational models across different cell-lines, class imbalance within the learning sets and ad hoc rules for selecting enhancer candidates for supervised learning, are some key questions that require further examination. In this study we developed DEEP, a novel ensemble prediction framework. DEEP integrates three components with diverse characteristics that streamline the analysis of enhancer's properties in a great variety of cellular conditions. In our method we train many individual classification models that we combine to classify DNA regions as enhancers or non-enhancers. DEEP uses features derived from histone modification marks or attributes coming from sequence characteristics. Experimental results indicate that DEEP performs better than four state-of-the-art methods on the ENCODE data. We report the first computational enhancer prediction results on FANTOM5 data where DEEP achieves 90.2% accuracy and 90% geometric mean (GM) of specificity and sensitivity across 36 different tissues. We further present results derived using in vivo-derived enhancer data from VISTA database. DEEP-VISTA, when tested on an independent test set, achieved GM of 80.1% and accuracy of 89.64%. DEEP framework is publicly available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deep/.

  3. MMA-EoS: A Computational Framework for Mineralogical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, T. C.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Dolejš, D.; Schuberth, B. S. A.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a newly developed software framework, MMA-EoS, that evaluates phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems by Gibbs energy minimization, with application to mantle petrology. The code is versatile in terms of the equation-of-state and mixing properties and allows for the computation of properties of single phases, solution phases, and multiphase aggregates. Currently, the open program distribution contains equation-of-state formulations widely used, that is, Caloric-Murnaghan, Caloric-Modified-Tait, and Birch-Murnaghan-Mie-Grüneisen-Debye models, with published databases included. Through its modular design and easily scripted database, MMA-EoS can readily be extended with new formulations of equations-of-state and changes or extensions to thermodynamic data sets. We demonstrate the application of the program by reproducing and comparing physical properties of mantle phases and assemblages with previously published work and experimental data, successively increasing complexity, up to computing phase equilibria of six-component compositions. Chemically complex systems allow us to trace the budget of minor chemical components in order to explore whether they lead to the formation of new phases or extend stability fields of existing ones. Self-consistently computed thermophysical properties for a homogeneous mantle and a mechanical mixture of slab lithologies show no discernible differences that require a heterogeneous mantle structure as has been suggested previously. Such examples illustrate how thermodynamics of mantle mineralogy can advance the study of Earth's interior.

  4. Maximum likelihood as a common computational framework in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, G.H.; Shepard, D.M.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Ruchala, K.; Zachman, J.; Fitchard, E.E.; Mackie, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Tomotherapy is a dose delivery technique using helical or axial intensity modulated beams. One of the strengths of the tomotherapy concept is that it can incorporate a number of processes into a single piece of equipment. These processes include treatment optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage/megavoltage image reconstruction. A common computational technique that could be used for all of these processes would be very appealing. The maximum likelihood estimator, originally developed for emission tomography, can serve as a useful tool in imaging and radiotherapy. We believe that this approach can play an important role in the processes of optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage and/or megavoltage image reconstruction. These processes involve computations that require comparable physical methods. They are also based on equivalent assumptions, and they have similar mathematical solutions. As a result, the maximum likelihood approach is able to provide a common framework for all three of these computational problems. We will demonstrate how maximum likelihood methods can be applied to optimization planning, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction in tomotherapy. Results for planning optimization, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction will be presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are analysed. Future directions for this work are also suggested. (author)

  5. The value of multivariate model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ in their spec....... In addition to investigating the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses directly, we also use the model confidence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performances.......We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ...

  6. A probabilistic computational framework for bridge network optimal maintenance scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchini, Paolo; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic computational framework for the Pareto optimization of the preventive maintenance applications to bridges of a highway transportation network. The bridge characteristics are represented by their uncertain reliability index profiles. The in/out of service states of the bridges are simulated taking into account their correlation structure. Multi-objective Genetic Algorithms have been chosen as numerical tool for the solution of the optimization problem. The design variables of the optimization are the preventive maintenance schedules of all the bridges of the network. The two conflicting objectives are the minimization of the total present maintenance cost and the maximization of the network performance indicator. The final result is the Pareto front of optimal solutions among which the managers should chose, depending on engineering and economical factors. A numerical example illustrates the application of the proposed approach.

  7. A Survey of Software Infrastructures and Frameworks for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Endres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, we discuss 29 software infrastructures and frameworks which support the construction of distributed interactive systems. They range from small projects with one implemented prototype to large scale research efforts, and they come from the fields of Augmented Reality (AR, Intelligent Environments, and Distributed Mobile Systems. In their own way, they can all be used to implement various aspects of the ubiquitous computing vision as described by Mark Weiser [60]. This survey is meant as a starting point for new projects, in order to choose an existing infrastructure for reuse, or to get an overview before designing a new one. It tries to provide a systematic, relatively broad (and necessarily not very deep overview, while pointing to relevant literature for in-depth study of the systems discussed.

  8. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eKosse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  9. A Framework for Security Transparency in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Mukhtar Ismail

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and corporate users are persistently considering cloud adoption due to its significant benefits compared to traditional computing environments. The data and applications in the cloud are stored in an environment that is separated, managed and maintained externally to the organisation. Therefore, it is essential for cloud providers to demonstrate and implement adequate security practices to protect the data and processes put under their stewardship. Security transparency in the cloud is likely to become the core theme that underpins the systematic disclosure of security designs and practices that enhance customer confidence in using cloud service and deployment models. In this paper, we present a framework that enables a detailed analysis of security transparency for cloud based systems. In particular, we consider security transparency from three different levels of abstraction, i.e., conceptual, organisation and technical levels, and identify the relevant concepts within these levels. This allows us to provide an elaboration of the essential concepts at the core of transparency and analyse the means for implementing them from a technical perspective. Finally, an example from a real world migration context is given to provide a solid discussion on the applicability of the proposed framework.

  10. The BioIntelligence Framework: a new computational platform for biomedical knowledge computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Toni; Kiefer, Jeff; Lee, Preston; Von Hoff, Daniel; Trent, Jeffrey M; Colbourn, Charles; Mousses, Spyro

    2013-01-01

    Breakthroughs in molecular profiling technologies are enabling a new data-intensive approach to biomedical research, with the potential to revolutionize how we study, manage, and treat complex diseases. The next great challenge for clinical applications of these innovations will be to create scalable computational solutions for intelligently linking complex biomedical patient data to clinically actionable knowledge. Traditional database management systems (DBMS) are not well suited to representing complex syntactic and semantic relationships in unstructured biomedical information, introducing barriers to realizing such solutions. We propose a scalable computational framework for addressing this need, which leverages a hypergraph-based data model and query language that may be better suited for representing complex multi-lateral, multi-scalar, and multi-dimensional relationships. We also discuss how this framework can be used to create rapid learning knowledge base systems to intelligently capture and relate complex patient data to biomedical knowledge in order to automate the recovery of clinically actionable information.

  11. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-01-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words-or, rather, descriptors-capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i) biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii) sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii) able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization) and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation, and so on), and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization). Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model's behavior and its limitations.

  12. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words – or, rather, descriptors – capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation and so on, and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization. Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model’s behavior and its limitations.

  13. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2014-01-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words—or, rather, descriptors—capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i) biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii) sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii) able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization) and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation, and so on), and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization). Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model's behavior and its limitations. PMID:25566044

  14. Framework for emotional mobile computation for creating entertainment experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur R.

    2007-02-01

    Ambient media are media, which are manifesting in the natural environment of the consumer. The perceivable borders between the media and the context, where the media is used are getting more and more blurred. The consumer is moving through a digital space of services throughout his daily life. As we are developing towards an experience society, the central point in the development of services is the creation of a consumer experience. This paper reviews possibilities and potentials of the creation of entertainment experiences with mobile phone platforms. It reviews sensor network capable of acquiring consumer behavior data, interactivity strategies, psychological models for emotional computation on mobile phones, and lays the foundations of a nomadic experience society. The paper rounds up with a presentation of several different possible service scenarios in the field of entertainment and leisure computation on mobiles. The goal of this paper is to present a framework and evaluation of possibilities of applying sensor technology on mobile platforms to create an increasing consumer entertainment experience.

  15. ProFUSO: Business process and ontology-based framework to develop ubiquitous computing support systems for chronic patients' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Molina, Angel; Gaete-Villegas, Jorge; Fuentes, Javier

    2018-06-01

    New advances in telemedicine, ubiquitous computing, and artificial intelligence have supported the emergence of more advanced applications and support systems for chronic patients. This trend addresses the important problem of chronic illnesses, highlighted by multiple international organizations as a core issue in future healthcare. Despite the myriad of exciting new developments, each application and system is designed and implemented for specific purposes and lacks the flexibility to support different healthcare concerns. Some of the known problems of such developments are the integration issues between applications and existing healthcare systems, the reusability of technical knowledge in the creation of new and more sophisticated systems and the usage of data gathered from multiple sources in the generation of new knowledge. This paper proposes a framework for the development of chronic disease support systems and applications as an answer to these shortcomings. Through this framework our pursuit is to create a common ground methodology upon which new developments can be created and easily integrated to provide better support to chronic patients, medical staff and other relevant participants. General requirements are inferred for any support system from the primary attention process of chronic patients by the Business Process Management Notation. Numerous technical approaches are proposed to design a general architecture that considers the medical organizational requirements in the treatment of a patient. A framework is presented for any application in support of chronic patients and evaluated by a case study to test the applicability and pertinence of the solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does underground storage still require sophisticated studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1997-01-01

    Most countries agree to the necessity of burying high or medium-level wastes in geological layers situated at a few hundred meters below the ground level. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of rock such as salt, clay, granite and volcanic material are examined. Sophisticated studies are lead to determine the best geological confinement but questions arise about the time for which safety must be ensured. France has chosen 3 possible sites. These sites are geologically described in the article. The final place will be proposed after a testing phase of about 5 years in an underground facility. (A.C.)

  17. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical based products. The framework is a systematic approach to convert a Computer-aided Molecular, Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) formulation, based on needs and target properties, into a mixed integer non...

  18. Phoneme-based speech segmentation using hybrid soft computing framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Mousmita

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses intelligent system design using soft computing and similar systems and their interdisciplinary applications. It also focuses on the recent trends to use soft computing as a versatile tool for designing a host of decision support systems.

  19. Designing Educational Games for Computer Programming: A Holistic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliarakis, Christos; Satratzemi, Maya; Xinogalos, Stelios

    2014-01-01

    Computer science is continuously evolving during the past decades. This has also brought forth new knowledge that should be incorporated and new learning strategies must be adopted for the successful teaching of all sub-domains. For example, computer programming is a vital knowledge area within computer science with constantly changing curriculum…

  20. Towards Information Security Metrics Framework for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as new computing paradigm which basically aims to provide customized, reliable, dynamic services over the internet.  Cost and security are influential issues to deploy cloud computing in large enterprise.  Privacy and security are very important issues in terms of user trust and legal compliance. Information Security (IS) metrics are best tool used to measure the efficiency, performance, effectiveness and impact of the security constraints. It is very hard...

  1. Commentary on: "Toward Computer-Based Support of Metacognitive Skills: A Computational Framework to Coach Self Explanation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conati, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on "Toward Computer-Based Support of Meta-Cognitive Skills: a Computational Framework to Coach Self-Explanation", by Cristina Conati and Kurt Vanlehn, published in the "IJAED" in 2000 (Conati and VanLehn 2010). This work was one of the first examples of Intelligent Learning Environments (ILE) that…

  2. Reliable, Memory Speed Storage for Cluster Computing Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    data, the data needs to be written to a storage system. Nectar [24] also uses lineage for a specific framework (DryadLINQ) with the goal of saving space... Nectar [24] also uses the concept of lineage, but it does so only for a specific pro- gramming framework (DryadLINQ [44]), and in the con- text of a...traditional, replicated file system. Nectar is a data reuse system for DryadLINQ queries whose goals are to save space and to avoid redundant

  3. A Semantic Based Policy Management Framework for Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing paradigm has gained tremendous momentum and generated intensive interest. Although security issues are delaying its fast adoption, cloud computing is an unstoppable force and we need to provide security mechanisms to ensure its secure adoption. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on issues related to policy management and access…

  4. A General Cross-Layer Cloud Scheduling Framework for Multiple IoT Computer Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guanlin; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiongtao

    2018-05-23

    The diversity of IoT services and applications brings enormous challenges to improving the performance of multiple computer tasks' scheduling in cross-layer cloud computing systems. Unfortunately, the commonly-employed frameworks fail to adapt to the new patterns on the cross-layer cloud. To solve this issue, we design a new computer task scheduling framework for multiple IoT services in cross-layer cloud computing systems. Specifically, we first analyze the features of the cross-layer cloud and computer tasks. Then, we design the scheduling framework based on the analysis and present detailed models to illustrate the procedures of using the framework. With the proposed framework, the IoT services deployed in cross-layer cloud computing systems can dynamically select suitable algorithms and use resources more effectively to finish computer tasks with different objectives. Finally, the algorithms are given based on the framework, and extensive experiments are also given to validate its effectiveness, as well as its superiority.

  5. Data mining in soft computing framework: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S; Pal, S K; Mitra, P

    2002-01-01

    The present article provides a survey of the available literature on data mining using soft computing. A categorization has been provided based on the different soft computing tools and their hybridizations used, the data mining function implemented, and the preference criterion selected by the model. The utility of the different soft computing methodologies is highlighted. Generally fuzzy sets are suitable for handling the issues related to understandability of patterns, incomplete/noisy data, mixed media information and human interaction, and can provide approximate solutions faster. Neural networks are nonparametric, robust, and exhibit good learning and generalization capabilities in data-rich environments. Genetic algorithms provide efficient search algorithms to select a model, from mixed media data, based on some preference criterion/objective function. Rough sets are suitable for handling different types of uncertainty in data. Some challenges to data mining and the application of soft computing methodologies are indicated. An extensive bibliography is also included.

  6. A Secure Authenticate Framework for Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Nagar; Pradeep k. Jatav

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has an important aspect for the companies to build and deploy their infrastructure and application. Data Storage service in the cloud computing is easy as compare to the other data storage services. At the same time, cloud security in the cloud environment is challenging task. Security issues ranging from missing system configuration, lack of proper updates, or unwise user actions from remote data storage. It can expose user’s private data and information to unwanted access. i...

  7. Cloud computing. Legal framework and enterprises facing a controversial phenomenon.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vivo, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Il contributo analizza il tema del cloud computing dal punto di vista giuridico con specifica attenzione per la legislazione europea e nazionale. Gli aspetti affrontati riguardano la privacy, la sicurezza dei dati, il nodo delle responsabilità nel trattamento dei dati e nelle attività di archiviazione. Tratta anche il problema complesso degli accordi di servizio. In this paper the author analyzes the cloud computing and related juridical issues with specific reference to the European and n...

  8. GLOFRIM v1.0-A globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoch, Jannis M.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Baart, Fedor; Van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Bates, Paul D.; Bierkens, Marc F.P.

    2017-01-01

    We here present GLOFRIM, a globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling. GLOFRIM facilitates spatially explicit coupling of hydrodynamic and hydrologic models and caters for an ensemble of models to be coupled. It currently encompasses the global

  9. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  10. A computer-aided framework for development, identification andmanagement of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Linninger, Andreas; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a generic computer-aided modelling framework to support the development of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models thereby increasing the efficiency and quality of the modelling process. In particular, the framework systematizes the modelling...

  11. Framework for Computer-Aided Evolution of Object-Oriented Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a framework for the computer aided evolution of the designs of object-oriented software systems. Evolution mechanisms are software structures that prepare software for certain type of evolutions. The framework uses a database which holds the evolution mechanisms, modeled

  12. A Synthesized Framework for Formal Verification of Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bogunovic

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Design process of computing systems gradually evolved to a level that encompasses formal verification techniques. However, the integration of formal verification techniques into a methodical design procedure has many inherent miscomprehensions and problems. The paper explicates the discrepancy between the real system implementation and the abstracted model that is actually used in the formal verification procedure. Particular attention is paid to the seamless integration of all phases of the verification procedure that encompasses definition of the specification language and denotation and execution of conformance relation between the abstracted model and its intended behavior. The concealed obstacles are exposed, computationally expensive steps identified and possible improvements proposed.

  13. A computational framework for modeling targets as complex adaptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Santos, Eunice E.; Korah, John; Murugappan, Vairavan; Subramanian, Suresh

    2017-05-01

    Modeling large military targets is a challenge as they can be complex systems encompassing myriad combinations of human, technological, and social elements that interact, leading to complex behaviors. Moreover, such targets have multiple components and structures, extending across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and are in a state of change, either in response to events in the environment or changes within the system. Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory can help in capturing the dynamism, interactions, and more importantly various emergent behaviors, displayed by the targets. However, a key stumbling block is incorporating information from various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sources, while dealing with the inherent uncertainty, incompleteness and time criticality of real world information. To overcome these challenges, we present a probabilistic reasoning network based framework called complex adaptive Bayesian Knowledge Base (caBKB). caBKB is a rigorous, overarching and axiomatic framework that models two key processes, namely information aggregation and information composition. While information aggregation deals with the union, merger and concatenation of information and takes into account issues such as source reliability and information inconsistencies, information composition focuses on combining information components where such components may have well defined operations. Since caBKBs can explicitly model the relationships between information pieces at various scales, it provides unique capabilities such as the ability to de-aggregate and de-compose information for detailed analysis. Using a scenario from the Network Centric Operations (NCO) domain, we will describe how our framework can be used for modeling targets with a focus on methodologies for quantifying NCO performance metrics.

  14. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  15. Brain-Computer Interface Games: Towards a Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkök, Hayrettin; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Rauterberg, Matthias; Ciancarini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The brain-computer interface (BCI) community has started to consider games as potential applications, while the game community has started to consider BCI as a game controller. However, there is a discrepancy between the BCI games developed by the two communities. This not only adds to the workload

  16. Brain-Computer Interface Games: Towards a Framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkök, Hayrettin; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    The brain-computer interface (BCI) community started to consider games as potential applications while the games community started to consider BCI as a game controller. However, there is a discrepancy between the BCI games developed by the two communities. In this paper, we propose a preliminary BCI

  17. Model Uncertainty and Robustness: A Computational Framework for Multimodel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cristobal; Holsteen, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Model uncertainty is pervasive in social science. A key question is how robust empirical results are to sensible changes in model specification. We present a new approach and applied statistical software for computational multimodel analysis. Our approach proceeds in two steps: First, we estimate the modeling distribution of estimates across all…

  18. Security Framework for Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venkateshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agent can play a key role in bringing suitable cloud services to the customer based on their requirements. In agent based cloud computing, agent does negotiation, coordination, cooperation and collaboration on behalf of the customer to make the decisions in efficient manner. However the agent based cloud computing have some security issues like (a. addition of malicious agent in the cloud environment which could demolish the process by attacking other agents, (b. denial of service by creating flooding attacks on other involved agents. (c. Some of the exceptions in the agent interaction protocol such as Not-Understood and Cancel_Meta protocol can be misused and may lead to terminating the connection of all the other agents participating in the negotiating services. Also, this paper proposes algorithms to solve these issues to ensure that there will be no intervention of any malicious activities during the agent interaction.

  19. THE PIXHAWK OPEN-SOURCE COMPUTER VISION FRAMEWORK FOR MAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and micro air vehicles (MAV are already intensively used in geodetic applications. State of the art autonomous systems are however geared towards the application area in safe and obstacle-free altitudes greater than 30 meters. Applications at lower altitudes still require a human pilot. A new application field will be the reconstruction of structures and buildings, including the facades and roofs, with semi-autonomous MAVs. Ongoing research in the MAV robotics field is focusing on enabling this system class to operate at lower altitudes in proximity to nearby obstacles and humans. PIXHAWK is an open source and open hardware toolkit for this purpose. The quadrotor design is optimized for onboard computer vision and can connect up to four cameras to its onboard computer. The validity of the system design is shown with a fully autonomous capture flight along a building.

  20. Investigation into Mobile Learning Framework in Cloud Computing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Guo; Joan, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract—Cloud computing infrastructure is increasingly\\ud used for distributed applications. Mobile learning\\ud applications deployed in the cloud are a new research\\ud direction. The applications require specific development\\ud approaches for effective and reliable communication. This\\ud paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach for design and\\ud development of mobile applications in the cloud. The\\ud approach includes front service toolkit and backend service\\ud toolkit. The front servi...

  1. A computational framework for ultrastructural mapping of neural circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Anderson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network requires synaptic resolution, canonical region coverage, and robust neuronal classification. Though transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains the optimal tool for network mapping, the process of building large serial section TEM (ssTEM image volumes is rendered difficult by the need to precisely mosaic distorted image tiles and register distorted mosaics. Moreover, most molecular neuronal class markers are poorly compatible with optimal TEM imaging. Our objective was to build a complete framework for ultrastructural circuitry mapping. This framework combines strong TEM-compliant small molecule profiling with automated image tile mosaicking, automated slice-to-slice image registration, and gigabyte-scale image browsing for volume annotation. Specifically we show how ultrathin molecular profiling datasets and their resultant classification maps can be embedded into ssTEM datasets and how scripted acquisition tools (SerialEM, mosaicking and registration (ir-tools, and large slice viewers (MosaicBuilder, Viking can be used to manage terabyte-scale volumes. These methods enable large-scale connectivity analyses of new and legacy data. In well-posed tasks (e.g., complete network mapping in retina, terabyte-scale image volumes that previously would require decades of assembly can now be completed in months. Perhaps more importantly, the fusion of molecular profiling, image acquisition by SerialEM, ir-tools volume assembly, and data viewers/annotators also allow ssTEM to be used as a prospective tool for discovery in nonneural systems and a practical screening methodology for neurogenetics. Finally

  2. [Computer aided design for fixed partial denture framework based on reverse engineering technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-chun; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2006-03-01

    To explore a computer aided design (CAD) route for the framework of domestic fixed partial denture (FPD) and confirm the suitable method of 3-D CAD. The working area of a dentition model was scanned with a 3-D mechanical scanner. Using the reverse engineering (RE) software, margin and border curves were extracted and several reference curves were created to ensure the dimension and location of pontic framework that was taken from the standard database. The shoulder parts of the retainers were created after axial surfaces constructed. The connecting areas, axial line and curving surface of the framework connector were finally created. The framework of a three-unit FPD was designed with RE technology, which showed smooth surfaces and continuous contours. The design route is practical. The result of this study is significant in theory and practice, which will provide a reference for establishing the computer aided design/computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system of domestic FPD.

  3. A K-6 Computational Thinking Curriculum Framework : Implications for Teacher Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeli, C.; Voogt, J.; Fluck, A.; Webb, M.; Cox, M.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Zagami, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adding computer science as a separate school subject to the core K-6 curriculum is a complex issue with educational challenges. The authors herein address two of these challenges: (1) the design of the curriculum based on a generic computational thinking framework, and (2) the knowledge teachers

  4. STAF: A Powerful and Sophisticated CAI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, Ken

    1982-01-01

    Describes the STAF (Science Teacher's Authoring Facility) computer-assisted instruction system developed at Leeds University (England), focusing on STAF language and major program features. Although programs for the system emphasize physical chemistry and organic spectroscopy, the system and language are general purpose and can be used in any…

  5. A Tractable Disequilbrium Framework for Integrating Computational Thermodynamics and Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Tweed, L. E. L.; Evans, O.; Kelemen, P. B.; Wilson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The consistent integration of computational thermodynamics and geodynamics is essential for exploring and understanding a wide range of processes from high-PT magma dynamics in the convecting mantle to low-PT reactive alteration of the brittle crust. Nevertheless, considerable challenges remain for coupling thermodynamics and fluid-solid mechanics within computationally tractable and insightful models. Here we report on a new effort, part of the ENKI project, that provides a roadmap for developing flexible geodynamic models of varying complexity that are thermodynamically consistent with established thermodynamic models. The basic theory is derived from the disequilibrium thermodynamics of De Groot and Mazur (1984), similar to Rudge et. al (2011, GJI), but extends that theory to include more general rheologies, multiple solid (and liquid) phases and explicit chemical reactions to describe interphase exchange. Specifying stoichiometric reactions clearly defines the compositions of reactants and products and allows the affinity of each reaction (A = -Δ/Gr) to be used as a scalar measure of disequilibrium. This approach only requires thermodynamic models to return chemical potentials of all components and phases (as well as thermodynamic quantities for each phase e.g. densities, heat capacity, entropies), but is not constrained to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. Allowing meta-stable phases mitigates some of the computational issues involved with the introduction and exhaustion of phases. Nevertheless, for closed systems, these problems are guaranteed to evolve to the same equilibria predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics. Here we illustrate the behavior of this theory for a range of simple problems (constructed with our open-source model builder TerraFERMA) that model poro-viscous behavior in the well understood Fo-Fa binary phase loop. Other contributions in this session will explore a range of models with more petrologically interesting phase diagrams as well as

  6. A framework to establish credibility of computational models in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice P

    2017-10-01

    Computational models in biology and biomedical science are often constructed to aid people's understanding of phenomena or to inform decisions with socioeconomic consequences. Model credibility is the willingness of people to trust a model's predictions and is often difficult to establish for computational biology models. A 3 × 3 matrix has been proposed to allow such models to be categorised with respect to their testability and epistemic foundation in order to guide the selection of an appropriate process of validation to supply evidence to establish credibility. Three approaches to validation are identified that can be deployed depending on whether a model is deemed untestable, testable or lies somewhere in between. In the latter two cases, the validation process involves the quantification of uncertainty which is a key output. The issues arising due to the complexity and inherent variability of biological systems are discussed and the creation of 'digital twins' proposed as a means to alleviate the issues and provide a more robust, transparent and traceable route to model credibility and acceptance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A framework for cognitive monitoring using computer game interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimison, Holly B; Pavel, Misha; Bissell, Payton; McKanna, James

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are faced with a rapidly increasing economic and social challenge of caring for their elderly population. Cognitive issues are at the forefront of the list of concerns. People over the age of 75 are at risk for medically related cognitive decline and confusion, and the early detection of cognitive problems would allow for more effective clinical intervention. However, standard cognitive assessments are not diagnostically sensitive and are performed infrequently. To address these issues, we have developed a set of adaptive computer games to monitor cognitive performance in a home environment. Assessment algorithms for various aspects of cognition are embedded in the games. The monitoring of these metrics allows us to detect within subject trends over time, providing a method for the early detection of cognitive decline. In addition, the real-time information on cognitive state is used to adapt the user interface to the needs of the individual user. In this paper we describe the software architecture and methodology for monitoring cognitive performance using data from natural computer interactions in a home setting.

  8. PAPIRUS, a parallel computing framework for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, and estimation of parameter distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jaeseok; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an interface between an engineering simulation code and statistical analysis software. • Multiple packages of the sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation algorithms are implemented in the framework. • Parallel computing algorithms are also implemented in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously. - Abstract: This paper introduces a statistical data analysis toolkit, PAPIRUS, designed to perform the model calibration, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis for both linear and nonlinear problems. The PAPIRUS was developed by implementing multiple packages of methodologies, and building an interface between an engineering simulation code and the statistical analysis algorithms. A parallel computing framework is implemented in the PAPIRUS with multiple computing resources and proper communications between the server and the clients of each processor. It was shown that even though a large amount of data is considered for the engineering calculation, the distributions of the model parameters and the calculation results can be quantified accurately with significant reductions in computational effort. A general description about the PAPIRUS with a graphical user interface is presented in Section 2. Sections 2.1–2.5 present the methodologies of data assimilation, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis implemented in the toolkit with some results obtained by each module of the software. Parallel computing algorithms adopted in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously are also summarized in the paper

  9. PAPIRUS, a parallel computing framework for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, and estimation of parameter distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jaeseok, E-mail: jheo@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Kyung Doo, E-mail: kdkim@kaeri.re.kr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed an interface between an engineering simulation code and statistical analysis software. • Multiple packages of the sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation algorithms are implemented in the framework. • Parallel computing algorithms are also implemented in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously. - Abstract: This paper introduces a statistical data analysis toolkit, PAPIRUS, designed to perform the model calibration, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis for both linear and nonlinear problems. The PAPIRUS was developed by implementing multiple packages of methodologies, and building an interface between an engineering simulation code and the statistical analysis algorithms. A parallel computing framework is implemented in the PAPIRUS with multiple computing resources and proper communications between the server and the clients of each processor. It was shown that even though a large amount of data is considered for the engineering calculation, the distributions of the model parameters and the calculation results can be quantified accurately with significant reductions in computational effort. A general description about the PAPIRUS with a graphical user interface is presented in Section 2. Sections 2.1–2.5 present the methodologies of data assimilation, uncertainty propagation, Chi-square linearity test, and sensitivity analysis implemented in the toolkit with some results obtained by each module of the software. Parallel computing algorithms adopted in the framework to solve multiple computational problems simultaneously are also summarized in the paper.

  10. STICK: Spike Time Interval Computational Kernel, a Framework for General Purpose Computation Using Neurons, Precise Timing, Delays, and Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce, Xavier; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-11-01

    There has been significant research over the past two decades in developing new platforms for spiking neural computation. Current neural computers are primarily developed to mimic biology. They use neural networks, which can be trained to perform specific tasks to mainly solve pattern recognition problems. These machines can do more than simulate biology; they allow us to rethink our current paradigm of computation. The ultimate goal is to develop brain-inspired general purpose computation architectures that can breach the current bottleneck introduced by the von Neumann architecture. This work proposes a new framework for such a machine. We show that the use of neuron-like units with precise timing representation, synaptic diversity, and temporal delays allows us to set a complete, scalable compact computation framework. The framework provides both linear and nonlinear operations, allowing us to represent and solve any function. We show usability in solving real use cases from simple differential equations to sets of nonlinear differential equations leading to chaotic attractors.

  11. Interfacing the Paramesh Computational Libraries to the Cactus Computational Framework, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and implement an interface between the Paramesh computational libraries, developed and used by groups at NASA GSFC, and the Cactus computational...

  12. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  13. ProjectQ: An Open Source Software Framework for Quantum Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Damian S.; Häner, Thomas; Troyer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We introduce ProjectQ, an open source software effort for quantum computing. The first release features a compiler framework capable of targeting various types of hardware, a high-performance simulator with emulation capabilities, and compiler plug-ins for circuit drawing and resource estimation. We introduce our Python-embedded domain-specific language, present the features, and provide example implementations for quantum algorithms. The framework allows testing of quantum algorithms through...

  14. Recent Improvements to CHEF, a Framework for Accelerator Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostiguy, J.-F.; Michelotti, L.P.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    CHEF is body of software dedicated to accelerator related computations. It consists of a hierarchical set of libraries and a stand-alone application based on the latter. The implementation language is C++; the code makes extensive use of templates and modern idioms such as iterators, smart pointers and generalized function objects. CHEF has been described in a few contributions at previous conferences. In this paper, we provide an overview and discuss recent improvements. Formally, CHEF refers to two distinct but related things: (1) a set of class libraries; and (2) a stand-alone application based on these libraries. The application makes use of and exposes a subset of the capabilities provided by the libraries. CHEF has its ancestry in efforts started in the early nineties. At that time, A. Dragt, E. Forest [2] and others showed that ring dynamics can be formulated in a way that puts maps rather than Hamiltonians, into a central role. Automatic differentiation (AD) techniques, which were just coming of age, were a natural fit in a context where maps are represented by their Taylor approximations. The initial vision, which CHEF carried over, was to develop a code that (1) concurrently supports conventional tracking, linear and non-linear map-based techniques (2) avoids 'hardwired' approximations that are not under user control (3) provides building blocks for applications. C++ was adopted as the implementation language because of its comprehensive support for operator overloading and the equal status it confers to built-in and user-defined data types. It should be mentioned that acceptance of AD techniques in accelerator science owes much to the pioneering work of Berz [1] who implemented--in fortran--the first production quality AD engine (the foundation for the code COSY). Nowadays other engines are available, but few are native C++ implementations. Although AD engines and map based techniques are making their way into more traditional codes e.g. [5

  15. Recent Improvements to CHEF, a Framework for Accelerator Computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostiguy, J.-F.; Michelotti, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    CHEF is body of software dedicated to accelerator related computations. It consists of a hierarchical set of libraries and a stand-alone application based on the latter. The implementation language is C++; the code makes extensive use of templates and modern idioms such as iterators, smart pointers and generalized function objects. CHEF has been described in a few contributions at previous conferences. In this paper, we provide an overview and discuss recent improvements. Formally, CHEF refers to two distinct but related things: (1) a set of class libraries; and (2) a stand-alone application based on these libraries. The application makes use of and exposes a subset of the capabilities provided by the libraries. CHEF has its ancestry in efforts started in the early nineties. At that time, A. Dragt, E. Forest [2] and others showed that ring dynamics can be formulated in a way that puts maps rather than Hamiltonians, into a central role. Automatic differentiation (AD) techniques, which were just coming of age, were a natural fit in a context where maps are represented by their Taylor approximations. The initial vision, which CHEF carried over, was to develop a code that (1) concurrently supports conventional tracking, linear and non-linear map-based techniques (2) avoids 'hardwired' approximations that are not under user control (3) provides building blocks for applications. C++ was adopted as the implementation language because of its comprehensive support for operator overloading and the equal status it confers to built-in and user-defined data types. It should be mentioned that acceptance of AD techniques in accelerator science owes much to the pioneering work of Berz [1] who implemented--in fortran--the first production quality AD engine (the foundation for the code COSY). Nowadays other engines are available, but few are native C++ implementations. Although AD engines and map based techniques are making their way into more traditional codes e.g. [5], it is also

  16. Does Investors' Sophistication Affect Persistence and Pricing of Discretionary Accruals?

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfeng Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether the sophistication of market investors influences management's strategy on discretionary accounting choice, and thus changes the persistence of discretionary accruals. The results show that the persistence of discretionary accruals for firms face with naive investors is lower than that for firms face with sophisticated investors. The results also demonstrate that sophisticated investors indeed incorporate the implications of current earnings components into future ...

  17. Implementation of Grid-computing Framework for Simulation in Multi-scale Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Data Iranata

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new grid-computing framework for simulation in multi-scale structural analysis is presented. Two levels of parallel processing will be involved in this framework: multiple local distributed computing environments connected by local network to form a grid-based cluster-to-cluster distributed computing environment. To successfully perform the simulation, a large-scale structural system task is decomposed into the simulations of a simplified global model and several detailed component models using various scales. These correlated multi-scale structural system tasks are distributed among clusters and connected together in a multi-level hierarchy and then coordinated over the internet. The software framework for supporting the multi-scale structural simulation approach is also presented. The program architecture design allows the integration of several multi-scale models as clients and servers under a single platform. To check its feasibility, a prototype software system has been designed and implemented to perform the proposed concept. The simulation results show that the software framework can increase the speedup performance of the structural analysis. Based on this result, the proposed grid-computing framework is suitable to perform the simulation of the multi-scale structural analysis.

  18. Toward Confirming a Framework for Securing the Virtual Machine Image in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Khalid Hussein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cloud computing has arisen thanks to academic work in the fields of utility computing, distributed computing, virtualisation, and web services. By using cloud computing, which can be accessed from anywhere, newly-launched businesses can minimise their start-up costs. Among the most important notions when it comes to the construction of cloud computing is virtualisation. While this concept brings its own security risks, these risks are not necessarily related to the cloud. The main disadvantage of using cloud computing is linked to safety and security. This is because anybody which chooses to employ cloud computing will use someone else’s hard disk and CPU in order to sort and store data. In cloud environments, a great deal of importance is placed on guaranteeing that the virtual machine image is safe and secure. Indeed, a previous study has put forth a framework with which to protect the virtual machine image in cloud computing. As such, the present study is primarily concerned with confirming this theoretical framework so as to ultimately secure the virtual machine image in cloud computing. This will be achieved by carrying out interviews with experts in the field of cloud security.

  19. Computer-aided modeling framework for efficient model development, analysis and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Sin, Gürkan; Sales Cruz, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Model-based computer aided product-process engineering has attained increased importance in a number of industries, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, fine chemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food, energy, and water. This trend is set to continue due to the substantial benefits computer-aided...... methods introduce. The key prerequisite of computer-aided product-process engineering is however the availability of models of different types, forms, and application modes. The development of the models required for the systems under investigation tends to be a challenging and time-consuming task....... The methodology has been implemented into a computer-aided modeling framework, which combines expert skills, tools, and database connections that are required for the different steps of the model development work-flow with the goal to increase the efficiency of the modeling process. The framework has two main...

  20. An Open Source Computational Framework for Uncertainty Quantification of Plasma Chemistry Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaheri Sarabi, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    The current thesis deals with the development of a computational framework for performing plasma chemistry simulations and their uncertainty quantification analysis by suitably combining and extending existing open source computational tools. A plasma chemistry solver is implemented in the OpenFOAM C++ solver suite. The OpenFOAM plasma chemistry application solves the species conservation equations and the electron energy equation by accounting suitably for various production and loss terms b...

  1. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  2. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  3. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  4. The role of sophisticated accounting system in strategy management

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Gil, David

    2004-01-01

    Organizations are designing more sophisticated accounting information systems to meet the strategic goals and enhance their performance. This study examines the effect of accounting information system design on the performance of organizations pursuing different strategic priorities. The alignment between sophisticated accounting information systems and organizational strategy is analyzed. The enabling effect of the accounting information system on performance is also examined. Relationships ...

  5. Probabilistic Sophistication, Second Order Stochastic Dominance, and Uncertainty Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cerreia-Vioglio; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinacci; Luigi Montrucchio

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of probabilistic sophistication, second order stochastic dominance, and uncertainty aversion, three fundamental notions in choice under uncertainty. In particular, our main result, Theorem 2, characterizes uncertainty averse preferences that satisfy second order stochastic dominance, as well as uncertainty averse preferences that are probabilistically sophisticated.

  6. The First Sophists and the Uses of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Susan C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of intellectual views on the Greek sophists in three phases: (1) their disparagement by Plato and Aristotle as the morally disgraceful "other"; (2) nineteenth century British positivists' reappraisal of these relativists as ethically and scientifically superior; and (3) twentieth century versions of the sophists as…

  7. Press Play for Learning: A Framework to Guide Serious Computer Game Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, Erica; Budd, Janene; Smith, Shamus

    2017-01-01

    Computer gaming is a global phenomenon and there has been rapid growth in "serious" games for learning. An emergent body of evidence demonstrates how serious games can be used in primary and secondary school classrooms. Despite the popularity of serious games and their pedagogical potential, there are few specialised frameworks to guide…

  8. PMDP: A Framework for Preserving Multiparty Data Privacy in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of Internet data is significantly increasing due to the development of network technology, inducing the appearance of big data. Experiments have shown that deep mining and analysis on large datasets would introduce great benefits. Although cloud computing supports data analysis in an outsourced and cost-effective way, it brings serious privacy issues when sending the original data to cloud servers. Meanwhile, the returned analysis result suffers from malicious inference attacks and also discloses user privacy. In this paper, to conquer the above privacy issues, we propose a general framework for Preserving Multiparty Data Privacy (PMDP for short in cloud computing. The PMDP framework can protect numeric data computing and publishing with the assistance of untrusted cloud servers and achieve delegation of storage simultaneously. Our framework is built upon several cryptography primitives (e.g., secure multiparty computation and differential privacy mechanism, which guarantees its security against semihonest participants without collusion. We further instantiate PMDP with specific algorithms and demonstrate its security, efficiency, and advantages by presenting security analysis and performance discussion. Moreover, we propose a security enhanced framework sPMDP to resist malicious inside participants and outside adversaries. We illustrate that both PMDP and sPMDP are reliable and scale well and thus are desirable for practical applications.

  9. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Theoretical Framework and a Computational Case in Mobile Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces individual tariffs at service and content bundle level in mobile communications. It gives a theoretical framework (economic, sociological) as well as a computational game solution method. The user can be an individual or a community. Individual tariffs are decided through interactions between the user and the supplier. A numerical example from mobile music illustrates the concepts.

  10. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidoukas, P. E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-03-01

    We present Π4U, an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.

  11. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present Π4U, 1 an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow

  12. A Framework for the Design of Computer-Assisted Simulation Training for Complex Police Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Tor; Åström, Jan; Anderson, Greg; Bowles, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report progress concerning the design of a computer-assisted simulation training (CAST) platform for developing decision-making skills in police students. The overarching aim is to outline a theoretical framework for the design of CAST to facilitate police students' development of search techniques in…

  13. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P. [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland); Papadimitriou, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, GR-38334 Volos (Greece); Koumoutsakos, P., E-mail: petros@ethz.ch [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    We present Π4U,{sup 1} an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.

  14. Conceptual Framework for Using Computers to Enhance Employee Engagement in Large Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Using computers to engage with staff members on their organization's Employer of Choice (EOC) program as part of a human resource development (HRD) framework can add real value to that organization's reputation. EOC is an evolving principle for Australian business. It reflects the value and importance organizations place on their key stakeholders,…

  15. Complexity and Intensionality in a Type-1 Framework for Computable Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a type-1 framework for computable analysis designed to facilitate efficient implementations and discusses properties that have not been well studied before for type-1 approaches: the introduction of complexity measures for type-1 representations of real functions, and ways...

  16. MOOSE: A parallel computational framework for coupled systems of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaston, Derek; Newman, Chris; Hansen, Glen; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Systems of coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) often arise in simulation of nuclear processes. MOOSE: Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment, a parallel computational framework targeted at the solution of such systems, is presented. As opposed to traditional data-flow oriented computational frameworks, MOOSE is instead founded on the mathematical principle of Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK). Utilizing the mathematical structure present in JFNK, physics expressions are modularized into 'Kernels,' allowing for rapid production of new simulation tools. In addition, systems are solved implicitly and fully coupled, employing physics-based preconditioning, which provides great flexibility even with large variance in time scales. A summary of the mathematics, an overview of the structure of MOOSE, and several representative solutions from applications built on the framework are presented.

  17. Computational Psychosomatics and Computational Psychiatry: Toward a Joint Framework for Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzschner, Frederike H; Weber, Lilian A E; Gard, Tim; Stephan, Klaas E

    2017-09-15

    This article outlines how a core concept from theories of homeostasis and cybernetics, the inference-control loop, may be used to guide differential diagnosis in computational psychiatry and computational psychosomatics. In particular, we discuss 1) how conceptualizing perception and action as inference-control loops yields a joint computational perspective on brain-world and brain-body interactions and 2) how the concrete formulation of this loop as a hierarchical Bayesian model points to key computational quantities that inform a taxonomy of potential disease mechanisms. We consider the utility of this perspective for differential diagnosis in concrete clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  19. CernVM Co-Pilot: an Extensible Framework for Building Scalable Cloud Computing Infrastructures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CernVM Co-Pilot is a framework for instantiating an ad-hoc computing infrastructure on top of distributed computing resources. Such resources include commercial computing clouds (e.g. Amazon EC2), scientific computing clouds (e.g. CERN lxcloud), as well as the machines of users participating in volunteer computing projects (e.g. BOINC). The framework consists of components that communicate using the Extensible Messaging and Presence protocol (XMPP), allowing for new components to be developed in virtually any programming language and interfaced to existing Grid and batch computing infrastructures exploited by the High Energy Physics community. Co-Pilot has been used to execute jobs for both the ALICE and ATLAS experiments at CERN. CernVM Co-Pilot is also one of the enabling technologies behind the LHC@home 2.0 volunteer computing project, which is the first such project that exploits virtual machine technology. The use of virtual machines eliminates the necessity of modifying existing applications and adapt...

  20. Computer-Aided Chemical Product Design Framework: Design of High Performance and Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    properties and needs should carefully be selected for a given heat pump cycle to ensure that an optimum refrigerant is found? How can cycle performance and environmental criteria be integrated at the product design stage and not in post-design analysis? Computer-aided product design methods enable...... the possibility of designing novel molecules, mixtures and blends, such as refrigerants through a systematic framework (Cignitti et al., 2015; Yunus et al., 2014). In this presentation a computer-aided framework is presented for chemical product design through mathematical optimization. Here, molecules, mixtures...... and blends, are systematically designed through a decomposition based solution method. Given a problem definition, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) problem is defined, which is formulated into a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP). The decomposed solution method then sequentially divides the MINLP...

  1. A computational fluid dynamics simulation framework for ventricular catheter design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Sofy H; TerMaath, Stephanie C; Barbier, Charlotte N; Hill, Judith C; Killeffer, James A

    2017-11-10

    OBJECTIVE Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are the primary treatment for patients suffering from hydrocephalus. While proven effective in symptom relief, these shunt systems are plagued by high failure rates and often require repeated revision surgeries to replace malfunctioning components. One of the leading causes of CSF shunt failure is obstruction of the ventricular catheter by aggregations of cells, proteins, blood clots, or fronds of choroid plexus that occlude the catheter's small inlet holes or even the full internal catheter lumen. Such obstructions can disrupt CSF diversion out of the ventricular system or impede it entirely. Previous studies have suggested that altering the catheter's fluid dynamics may help to reduce the likelihood of complete ventricular catheter failure caused by obstruction. However, systematic correlation between a ventricular catheter's design parameters and its performance, specifically its likelihood to become occluded, still remains unknown. Therefore, an automated, open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation framework was developed for use in the medical community to determine optimized ventricular catheter designs and to rapidly explore parameter influence for a given flow objective. METHODS The computational framework was developed by coupling a 3D CFD solver and an iterative optimization algorithm and was implemented in a high-performance computing environment. The capabilities of the framework were demonstrated by computing an optimized ventricular catheter design that provides uniform flow rates through the catheter's inlet holes, a common design objective in the literature. The baseline computational model was validated using 3D nuclear imaging to provide flow velocities at the inlet holes and through the catheter. RESULTS The optimized catheter design achieved through use of the automated simulation framework improved significantly on previous attempts to reach a uniform inlet flow rate distribution using

  2. A Framework for Debugging Geoscience Projects in a High Performance Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Matott, L.

    2012-12-01

    High performance computing (HPC) infrastructure has become ubiquitous in today's world with the emergence of commercial cloud computing and academic supercomputing centers. Teams of geoscientists, hydrologists and engineers can take advantage of this infrastructure to undertake large research projects - for example, linking one or more site-specific environmental models with soft computing algorithms, such as heuristic global search procedures, to perform parameter estimation and predictive uncertainty analysis, and/or design least-cost remediation systems. However, the size, complexity and distributed nature of these projects can make identifying failures in the associated numerical experiments using conventional ad-hoc approaches both time- consuming and ineffective. To address these problems a multi-tiered debugging framework has been developed. The framework allows for quickly isolating and remedying a number of potential experimental failures, including: failures in the HPC scheduler; bugs in the soft computing code; bugs in the modeling code; and permissions and access control errors. The utility of the framework is demonstrated via application to a series of over 200,000 numerical experiments involving a suite of 5 heuristic global search algorithms and 15 mathematical test functions serving as cheap analogues for the simulation-based optimization of pump-and-treat subsurface remediation systems.

  3. Anomalous Diffusion within the Transcriptome as a Bio-Inspired Computing Framework for Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seffens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Much of biology-inspired computer science is based on the Central Dogma, as implemented with genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation. That 60-year-old biological principle based on the genome, transcriptome and proteasome is becoming overshadowed by a new paradigm of complex ordered associations and connections between layers of biological entities, such as interactomes, metabolomics, etc. We define a new hierarchical concept as the “Connectosome”, and propose new venues of computational data structures based on a conceptual framework called “Grand Ensemble” which contains the Central Dogma as a subset. Connectedness and communication within and between living or biology-inspired systems comprise ensembles from which a physical computing system can be conceived. In this framework the delivery of messages is filtered by size and a simple and rapid semantic analysis of their content. This work aims to initiate discussion on the Grand Ensemble in network biology as a representation of a Persistent Turing Machine. This framework adding interaction and persistency to the classic Turing-machine model uses metrics based on resilience that has application to dynamic optimization problem solving in Genetic Programming.

  4. A framework for different levels of integration of computational models into web-based virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Narracott, Andrew J; Manini, Simone; Bayley, Martin J; Lawford, Patricia V; McCormack, Keith; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-23

    Virtual patients are increasingly common tools used in health care education to foster learning of clinical reasoning skills. One potential way to expand their functionality is to augment virtual patients' interactivity by enriching them with computational models of physiological and pathological processes. The primary goal of this paper was to propose a conceptual framework for the integration of computational models within virtual patients, with particular focus on (1) characteristics to be addressed while preparing the integration, (2) the extent of the integration, (3) strategies to achieve integration, and (4) methods for evaluating the feasibility of integration. An additional goal was to pilot the first investigation of changing framework variables on altering perceptions of integration. The framework was constructed using an iterative process informed by Soft System Methodology. The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) initiative has been used as a source of new computational models. The technical challenges associated with development of virtual patients enhanced by computational models are discussed from the perspectives of a number of different stakeholders. Concrete design and evaluation steps are discussed in the context of an exemplar virtual patient employing the results of the VPH ARCH project, as well as improvements for future iterations. The proposed framework consists of four main elements. The first element is a list of feasibility features characterizing the integration process from three perspectives: the computational modelling researcher, the health care educationalist, and the virtual patient system developer. The second element included three integration levels: basic, where a single set of simulation outcomes is generated for specific nodes in the activity graph; intermediate, involving pre-generation of simulation datasets over a range of input parameters; advanced, including dynamic solution of the model. The third element is the

  5. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of modern rhetorical theories but analyses the letter in terms of the clas- ..... If a critical reader would have had the traditional anti-sophistic arsenal ..... pressions and that 'rhetoric' is mainly a matter of communicating these thoughts.

  6. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  7. Obfuscation, Learning, and the Evolution of Investor Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Ian Carlin; Gustavo Manso

    2011-01-01

    Investor sophistication has lagged behind the growing complexity of retail financial markets. To explore this, we develop a dynamic model to study the interaction between obfuscation and investor sophistication in mutual fund markets. Taking into account different learning mechanisms within the investor population, we characterize the optimal timing of obfuscation for financial institutions who offer retail products. We show that educational initiatives that are directed to facilitate learnin...

  8. Application of computer-aided multi-scale modelling framework – Aerosol case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Sin, Gürkan; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Model-based computer aided product-process engineering has attained increased importance in a number of industries, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, fine chemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food, energy and water. This trend is set to continue due to the substantial benefits computer-aided...... methods provide. The key prerequisite of computer-aided product-process engineering is however the availability of models of different types, forms and application modes. The development of the models required for the systems under investigation tends to be a challenging and time-consuming task involving...... numerous steps, expert skills and different modelling tools. This motivates the development of a computer-aided modelling framework that supports the user during model development, documentation, analysis, identification, application and re-use with the goal to increase the efficiency of the modelling...

  9. Development of a computational framework on fluid-solid mixture flow simulations for the COMPASS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Morita, Koji; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS code is designed based on the moving particle semi-implicit method to simulate various complex mesoscale phenomena relevant to core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In this study, a computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was developed for the COMPASS code. The passively moving solid model was used to simulate hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and solids. Mechanical interactions between solids were modeled by the distinct element method. A multi-time-step algorithm was introduced to couple these two calculations. The proposed computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was verified by the comparison between experimental and numerical studies on the water-dam break with multiple solid rods. (author)

  10. A computer-aided molecular design framework for crystallization solvent design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Achenie, Luke E.K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    One of the key decisions in designing solution crystallization processes is the selection of solvents. In this paper, we present a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) framework for the design and selection of solvents and/or anti-solvents for solution crystallization. The CAMD problem is formu......One of the key decisions in designing solution crystallization processes is the selection of solvents. In this paper, we present a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) framework for the design and selection of solvents and/or anti-solvents for solution crystallization. The CAMD problem...... solvent molecules. Solvent design and selection for two types of solution crystallization processes namely cooling crystallization and drowning out crystallization are presented. In the first case study, the design of single compound solvent for crystallization of ibuprofen, which is an important...

  11. Why is a computational framework for motivational and metacognitive control needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses, in the context of computational modelling and simulation of cognition, the relevance of deeper structures in the control of behaviour. Such deeper structures include motivational control of behaviour, which provides underlying causes for actions, and also metacognitive control, which provides higher-order processes for monitoring and regulation. It is argued that such deeper structures are important and thus cannot be ignored in computational cognitive architectures. A general framework based on the Clarion cognitive architecture is outlined that emphasises the interaction amongst action selection, motivation, and metacognition. The upshot is that it is necessary to incorporate all essential processes; short of that, the understanding of cognition can only be incomplete.

  12. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  13. Microbase2.0: A Generic Framework for Computationally Intensive Bioinformatics Workflows in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan Keith; Nakjang Sirintra; Hallinan Jennifer; Harwood Colin; Hirt Robert P.; Pocock Matthew R.; Wipat Anil

    2012-01-01

    As bioinformatics datasets grow ever larger, and analyses become increasingly complex, there is a need for data handling infrastructures to keep pace with developing technology. One solution is to apply Grid and Cloud technologies to address the computational requirements of analysing high throughput datasets. We present an approach for writing new, or wrapping existing applications, and a reference implementation of a framework, Microbase2.0, for executing those applications using Grid and C...

  14. eCodonOpt: a systematic computational framework for optimizing codon usage in directed evolution experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Gregory L.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic computational framework, eCodonOpt, for designing parental DNA sequences for directed evolution experiments through codon usage optimization. Given a set of homologous parental proteins to be recombined at the DNA level, the optimal DNA sequences encoding these proteins are sought for a given diversity objective. We find that the free energy of annealing between the recombining DNA sequences is a much better descriptor of the extent of crossover formation than sequence...

  15. Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    interpretive consideration. See Vienna Convention, supra note 51, art. 31(3). 69 On economic sanctions, see Paul Szasz , The Law of Economic Sanctions...COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK AND THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW : THOUGHTS ON A NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK MICHAEL N...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a

  16. From E-commerce to Social Commerce: A Framework to Guide Enabling Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    Social commerce is doing commerce in a collaborative and participative way, by using social media, through an enterprise interactive interface that enables social interactions. Technologies such as Web 2.0, Cloud Computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) enable social commerce. Yet, a framework for social commerce, putting Enterprise Social Interactions as central entities, would provide a strong business justification for social commerce design and adoption with these enabling techno...

  17. Library of sophisticated functions for analysis of nuclear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morháč, Miroslav; Matoušek, Vladislav

    2009-10-01

    In the paper we present compact library for analysis of nuclear spectra. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. The functions can process one- and two-dimensional spectra. The software described in the paper comprises a number of conventional as well as newly developed methods needed to analyze experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: SpecAnalysLib 1.1 Catalogue identifier: AEDZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 154 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 379 437 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Pentium 3 PC 2.4 GHz or higher, Borland C++ Builder v. 6. A precompiled Windows version is included in the distribution package Operating system: Windows 32 bit versions RAM: 10 MB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 17.6 Nature of problem: The demand for advanced highly effective experimental data analysis functions is enormous. The library package represents one approach to give the physicists the possibility to use the advanced routines simply by calling them from their own programs. SpecAnalysLib is a collection of functions for analysis of one- and two-parameter γ-ray spectra, but they can be used for other types of data as well. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. Solution method: The algorithms of background estimation are based on Sensitive Non-linear Iterative Peak (SNIP) clipping algorithm. The smoothing algorithms are based on the convolution of the original data with several types of filters and algorithms based on discrete

  18. Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics-Based ICME Framework for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróyave, Raymundo; Talapatra, Anjana; Johnson, Luke; Singh, Navdeep; Ma, Ji; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, considerable interest in the development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs) for solid-state actuation has increased dramatically as key applications in the aerospace and automotive industry demand actuation temperatures well above those of conventional SMAs. Most of the research to date has focused on establishing the (forward) connections between chemistry, processing, (micro)structure, properties, and performance. Much less work has been dedicated to the development of frameworks capable of addressing the inverse problem of establishing necessary chemistry and processing schedules to achieve specific performance goals. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) has emerged as a powerful framework to address this problem, although it has yet to be applied to the development of HTSMAs. In this paper, the contributions of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to ICME of HTSMAs are described. Some representative examples of the use of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to understand the phase stability and microstructural evolution in HTSMAs are discussed. Some very recent efforts at combining both to assist in the design of HTSMAs and limitations to the full implementation of ICME frameworks for HTSMA development are presented.

  19. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  20. iTools: a framework for classification, categorization and integration of computational biology resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo D Dinov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of the computational biology field hinges on progress in three fundamental directions--the development of new computational algorithms, the availability of informatics resource management infrastructures and the capability of tools to interoperate and synergize. There is an explosion in algorithms and tools for computational biology, which makes it difficult for biologists to find, compare and integrate such resources. We describe a new infrastructure, iTools, for managing the query, traversal and comparison of diverse computational biology resources. Specifically, iTools stores information about three types of resources--data, software tools and web-services. The iTools design, implementation and resource meta-data content reflect the broad research, computational, applied and scientific expertise available at the seven National Centers for Biomedical Computing. iTools provides a system for classification, categorization and integration of different computational biology resources across space-and-time scales, biomedical problems, computational infrastructures and mathematical foundations. A large number of resources are already iTools-accessible to the community and this infrastructure is rapidly growing. iTools includes human and machine interfaces to its resource meta-data repository. Investigators or computer programs may utilize these interfaces to search, compare, expand, revise and mine meta-data descriptions of existent computational biology resources. We propose two ways to browse and display the iTools dynamic collection of resources. The first one is based on an ontology of computational biology resources, and the second one is derived from hyperbolic projections of manifolds or complex structures onto planar discs. iTools is an open source project both in terms of the source code development as well as its meta-data content. iTools employs a decentralized, portable, scalable and lightweight framework for long

  1. RSSI-Based Distance Estimation Framework Using a Kalman Filter for Sustainable Indoor Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that location information is the key to providing a variety of services in sustainable indoor computing environments, it is required to obtain accurate locations. Locations can be estimated by three distances from three fixed points. Therefore, if the distance between two points can be measured or estimated accurately, the location in indoor environments can be estimated. To increase the accuracy of the measured distance, noise filtering, signal revision, and distance estimation processes are generally performed. This paper proposes a novel framework for estimating the distance between a beacon and an access point (AP in a sustainable indoor computing environment. Diverse types of received strength signal indications (RSSIs are used for WiFi, Bluetooth, and radio signals, and the proposed distance estimation framework is unique in that it is independent of the specific wireless signal involved, being based on the Bluetooth signal of the beacon. Generally, RSSI measurement, noise filtering, and revision are required for distance estimation using RSSIs. The employed RSSIs are first measured from an AP, with multiple APs sometimes used to increase the accuracy of the distance estimation. Owing to the inevitable presence of noise in the measured RSSIs, the application of noise filtering is essential, and further revision is used to address the inaccuracy and instability that characterizes RSSIs measured in an indoor environment. The revised RSSIs are then used to estimate the distance. The proposed distance estimation framework uses one AP to measure the RSSIs, a Kalman filter to eliminate noise, and a log-distance path loss model to revise the measured RSSIs. In the experimental implementation of the framework, both a RSSI filter and a Kalman filter were respectively used for noise elimination to comparatively evaluate the performance of the latter for the specific application. The Kalman filter was found to reduce the accumulated errors by 8

  2. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Curto, Vilsa

    2017-01-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications. PMID:28553191

  3. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive health sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Collins, William B; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, Lashara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a conceptualization and measure of cognitive health sophistication--the complexity of an individual's conceptual knowledge about health. Study 1 provides initial validity evidence for the measure--the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument--by showing its association with other cognitive health constructs indicative of higher health sophistication. Study 2 presents data from a sample of low-income adults to provide evidence that the measure does not depend heavily on health-related vocabulary or ethnicity. Results from both studies suggest that the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument can be used to capture variability in the sophistication or complexity of an individual's health-related schematic structures on the basis of responses to two simple open-ended questions. Methodological advantages of the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the discussion.

  4. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S; Curto, Vilsa

    2014-10-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications.

  5. Framework and implementation for improving physics essential skills via computer-based practice: Vector math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Brendon D.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a framework for improving accuracy, fluency, and retention of basic skills essential for solving problems relevant to STEM introductory courses, and implement the framework for the case of basic vector math skills over several semesters in an introductory physics course. Using an iterative development process, the framework begins with a careful identification of target skills and the study of specific student difficulties with these skills. It then employs computer-based instruction, immediate feedback, mastery grading, and well-researched principles from cognitive psychology such as interleaved training sequences and distributed practice. We implemented this with more than 1500 students over 2 semesters. Students completed the mastery practice for an average of about 13 min /week , for a total of about 2-3 h for the whole semester. Results reveal large (>1 SD ) pretest to post-test gains in accuracy in vector skills, even compared to a control group, and these gains were retained at least 2 months after practice. We also find evidence of improved fluency, student satisfaction, and that awarding regular course credit results in higher participation and higher learning gains than awarding extra credit. In all, we find that simple computer-based mastery practice is an effective and efficient way to improve a set of basic and essential skills for introductory physics.

  6. An Adaptive and Integrated Low-Power Framework for Multicore Mobile Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmoo Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employing multicore in mobile computing such as smartphone and IoT (Internet of Things device is a double-edged sword. It provides ample computing capabilities required in recent intelligent mobile services including voice recognition, image processing, big data analysis, and deep learning. However, it requires a great deal of power consumption, which causes creating a thermal hot spot and putting pressure on the energy resource in a mobile device. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that integrates two well-known low-power techniques, DPM (Dynamic Power Management and DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling for energy efficiency in multicore mobile systems. The key feature of the proposed framework is adaptability. By monitoring the online resource usage such as CPU utilization and power consumption, the framework can orchestrate diverse DPM and DVFS policies according to workload characteristics. Real implementation based experiments using three mobile devices have shown that it can reduce the power consumption ranging from 22% to 79%, while affecting negligibly the performance of workloads.

  7. Master of Puppets: An Animation-by-Demonstration Computer Puppetry Authoring Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaoyuan; Mousas, Christos

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents Master of Puppets (MOP), an animation-by-demonstration framework that allows users to control the motion of virtual characters (puppets) in real time. In the first step, the user is asked to perform the necessary actions that correspond to the character's motions. The user's actions are recorded, and a hidden Markov model is used to learn the temporal profile of the actions. During the runtime of the framework, the user controls the motions of the virtual character based on the specified activities. The advantage of the MOP framework is that it recognizes and follows the progress of the user's actions in real time. Based on the forward algorithm, the method predicts the evolution of the user's actions, which corresponds to the evolution of the character's motion. This method treats characters as puppets that can perform only one motion at a time. This means that combinations of motion segments (motion synthesis), as well as the interpolation of individual motion sequences, are not provided as functionalities. By implementing the framework and presenting several computer puppetry scenarios, its efficiency and flexibility in animating virtual characters is demonstrated.

  8. VCC-SSF: Service-Oriented Security Framework for Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Min Kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as vehicle computing technology has advanced, the paradigm of the vehicle has changed from a simple means of transportation to a smart vehicle for safety and convenience. In addition, the previous functions of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS such as traffic accident prevention and providing traffic volume information have been combined with cloud computing. ITS services provide user-oriented broad services in the Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC environment through efficient traffic management, traffic accident prevention, and convenience services. However, existing vehicle services focus on providing services using sensing information inside the vehicle and the system to provide the service through an interface with the external infrastructure is insufficient. In addition, because wireless networks are used in VCC environments, there is a risk of important information leakage from sensors inside the vehicle, such as driver personal identification and payment information at the time of goods purchase. We propose the VCC Service-oriented Security Framework (VCC-SSF to address the limitations and security threats of VCC-based services. The proposed framework considers security for convenient and efficient services of VCC and includes new user-oriented payment management and active accident management services. Furthermore, it provides authentication, encryption, access control, confidentiality, integrity, and privacy protection for user personal information and information inside the vehicle.

  9. A Framework for Modeling Competitive and Cooperative Computation in Retinal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Díaz, Roberto; de Blasio, Gabriel; Moreno-Díaz, Arminda

    2008-07-01

    The structure of the retina suggests that it should be treated (at least from the computational point of view), as a layered computer. Different retinal cells contribute to the coding of the signals down to ganglion cells. Also, because of the nature of the specialization of some ganglion cells, the structure suggests that all these specialization processes should take place at the inner plexiform layer and they should be of a local character, prior to a global integration and frequency-spike coding by the ganglion cells. The framework we propose consists of a layered computational structure, where outer layers provide essentially with band-pass space-time filtered signals which are progressively delayed, at least for their formal treatment. Specialization is supposed to take place at the inner plexiform layer by the action of spatio-temporal microkernels (acting very locally), and having a centerperiphery space-time structure. The resulting signals are then integrated by the ganglion cells through macrokernels structures. Practically all types of specialization found in different vertebrate retinas, as well as the quasilinear behavior in some higher vertebrates, can be modeled and simulated within this framework. Finally, possible feedback from central structures is considered. Though their relevance to retinal processing is not definitive, it is included here for the sake of completeness, since it is a formal requisite for recursiveness.

  10. Model-based Computer Aided Framework for Design of Process Monitoring and Analysis Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, a thorough understanding of the process is necessary in addition to a properly designed monitoring and analysis system (PAT system) to consistently obtain the desired end-product properties. A model-based computer....... The knowledge base provides the necessary information/data during the design of the PAT system while the model library generates additional or missing data needed for design and analysis. Optimization of the PAT system design is achieved in terms of product data analysis time and/or cost of monitoring equipment......-aided framework including the methods and tools through which the design of monitoring and analysis systems for product quality control can be generated, analyzed and/or validated, has been developed. Two important supporting tools developed as part of the framework are a knowledge base and a model library...

  11. ProjectQ: an open source software framework for quantum computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian S. Steiger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ProjectQ, an open source software effort for quantum computing. The first release features a compiler framework capable of targeting various types of hardware, a high-performance simulator with emulation capabilities, and compiler plug-ins for circuit drawing and resource estimation. We introduce our Python-embedded domain-specific language, present the features, and provide example implementations for quantum algorithms. The framework allows testing of quantum algorithms through simulation and enables running them on actual quantum hardware using a back-end connecting to the IBM Quantum Experience cloud service. Through extension mechanisms, users can provide back-ends to further quantum hardware, and scientists working on quantum compilation can provide plug-ins for additional compilation, optimization, gate synthesis, and layout strategies.

  12. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  13. Finding the Fabulous Few: Why Your Program Needs Sophisticated Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfizenmaier, Emily

    1981-01-01

    Fund raising, it is argued, needs sophisticated prospect research. Professional prospect researchers play an important role in helping to identify prospective donors and also in helping to stimulate interest in gift giving. A sample of an individual work-up on a donor and a bibliography are provided. (MLW)

  14. Procles the Carthaginian: A North African Sophist in Pausanias’ Periegesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Sánchez Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Procles, cited by Pausanias (in the imperfect tense about a display in Rome and for an opinion about Pyrrhus of Epirus, probably was not a historian of Hellenistic date, but a contemporary sophist whom Pausanias encountered in person in Rome.

  15. GLOFRIM v1.0 – A globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological–hydrodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoch, J.M.; Neal, Jeffrey; Baart, Fedor; van Beek, L.P.H.; Winsemius, Hessel; Bates, Paul; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2017-01-01

    We here present GLOFRIM, a globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological–hydrodynamic modelling. GLOFRIM facilitates spatially explicit coupling of hydrodynamic and hydrologic models and caters for an ensemble of models to be coupled. It currently encompasses the global

  16. Freedom and necessity in computer aided composition: A thinking framework and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Johannes

    This paper presents some of the author's experiences with computer aided composition (CAC): the modeling of physical movements is used to obtain plausible musical gestures in interaction with constraint programming (rule based expert systems) in order to achieve precisely structured, consistent musical material with strong inner logic and syntax in pitch material. The "Constraints Engine" by Michael Laurson implemented in OpenMusic (IRCAM) or PWGL (Sibelius Academy) can be used to set up an interactive framework for composition, which offers a balance of freedom (allowing chance operations and arbitrary decisions of the composer) and necessity (through strict rules as well as through criteria for optimization). Computer Aided Composition is moving far beyond being "algorithmic" or "mechanical". This paper proposes an approach based on evolutionary epistemology (by the Austrian biologist and philosopher Rupert Riedl). The aim is a holistic synthesis of artistic freedom and coherent structures similar to the grown order of nature.

  17. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  18. CernVM Co-Pilot: an Extensible Framework for Building Scalable Computing Infrastructures on the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, A.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Charalampidis, I.; Grey, F.; Karneyeu, A.; Larsen, D.; Lombraña González, D.; Lisec, J.; Segal, B.; Skands, P.

    2012-12-01

    CernVM Co-Pilot is a framework for instantiating an ad-hoc computing infrastructure on top of managed or unmanaged computing resources. Co-Pilot can either be used to create a stand-alone computing infrastructure, or to integrate new computing resources into existing infrastructures (such as Grid or batch). Unlike traditional middleware systems, Co-Pilot components communicate using the Extensible Messaging and Presence protocol (XMPP). This allows the system to be easily scaled in case of a high load, and it also simplifies the development of new components. In this contribution we present the latest developments and the current status of the framework, discuss how it can be extended to suit the needs of a particular community, as well as describe the operational experience of using the framework in the LHC@home 2.0 volunteer computing project.

  19. CernVM Co-Pilot: an Extensible Framework for Building Scalable Computing Infrastructures on the Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harutyunyan, A; Blomer, J; Buncic, P; Charalampidis, I; Grey, F; Karneyeu, A; Larsen, D; Lombraña González, D; Lisec, J; Segal, B; Skands, P

    2012-01-01

    CernVM Co-Pilot is a framework for instantiating an ad-hoc computing infrastructure on top of managed or unmanaged computing resources. Co-Pilot can either be used to create a stand-alone computing infrastructure, or to integrate new computing resources into existing infrastructures (such as Grid or batch). Unlike traditional middleware systems, Co-Pilot components communicate using the Extensible Messaging and Presence protocol (XMPP). This allows the system to be easily scaled in case of a high load, and it also simplifies the development of new components. In this contribution we present the latest developments and the current status of the framework, discuss how it can be extended to suit the needs of a particular community, as well as describe the operational experience of using the framework in the LHC at home 2.0 volunteer computing project.

  20. Maxillary arch rehabilitation using implant-supported computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacturing-milled titanium framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika S Khanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of completely edentulous maxillary arch with fixed implant supported prosthesis is a challenging task. Newer technologies such as computer assisted design computer assisted manufacturing (CAD CAM and cone beam conventional tomography play an important role in achieving predictable results. Full mouth porcelain fused to metal (PFM individual crowns on CAD CAM milled titanium framework provides positive esthetic and functional outcome. This is a case report of rehabilitation of partially edentulous maxillary arch patient. Staged rehabilitation of this patient was planned. In the first stage, root canal treatment of key abutment teeth was done, nonsalvageable teeth were removed, and immediate interim overdenture was provided. In the second stage, five Nobel Biocare dental implants were placed. After integration impressions were made, CAD CAM milled titanium bar was fabricated. Individual PFM crowns were made and cemented. This method gives better esthetic compared to acrylic fused to metal hybrid prosthesis with the advantage of retrievability just like screw retained prosthesis. Hence, this technique is good for rehabilitation of patients with high esthetic demands.

  1. Framework for generating expert systems to perform computer security risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    At Los Alamos we are developing a framework to generate knowledge-based expert systems for performing automated risk analyses upon a subject system. The expert system is a computer program that models experts' knowledge about a topic, including facts, assumptions, insights, and decision rationale. The subject system, defined as the collection of information, procedures, devices, and real property upon which the risk analysis is to be performed, is a member of the class of systems that have three identifying characteristics: a set of desirable assets (or targets), a set of adversaries (or threats) desiring to obtain or to do harm to the assets, and a set of protective mechanisms to safeguard the assets from the adversaries. Risk analysis evaluates both vulnerability to and the impact of successful threats against the targets by determining the overall effectiveness of the subject system safeguards, identifying vulnerabilities in that set of safeguards, and determining cost-effective improvements to the safeguards. As a testbed, we evaluate the inherent vulnerabilities and risks in a system of computer security safeguards. The method considers safeguards protecting four generic targets (physical plant of the computer installation, its hardware, its software, and its documents and displays) against three generic threats (natural hazards, direct human actions requiring the presence of the adversary, and indirect human actions wherein the adversary is not on the premises-perhaps using such access tools as wiretaps, dialup lines, and so forth). Our automated procedure to assess the effectiveness of computer security safeguards differs from traditional risk analysis methods

  2. ClimateSpark: An in-memory distributed computing framework for big climate data analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei; Yang, Chaowei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Xu, Mengchao; Bowen, Michael K.; Lee, Tsengdar; Song, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    The unprecedented growth of climate data creates new opportunities for climate studies, and yet big climate data pose a grand challenge to climatologists to efficiently manage and analyze big data. The complexity of climate data content and analytical algorithms increases the difficulty of implementing algorithms on high performance computing systems. This paper proposes an in-memory, distributed computing framework, ClimateSpark, to facilitate complex big data analytics and time-consuming computational tasks. Chunking data structure improves parallel I/O efficiency, while a spatiotemporal index is built for the chunks to avoid unnecessary data reading and preprocessing. An integrated, multi-dimensional, array-based data model (ClimateRDD) and ETL operations are developed to address big climate data variety by integrating the processing components of the climate data lifecycle. ClimateSpark utilizes Spark SQL and Apache Zeppelin to develop a web portal to facilitate the interaction among climatologists, climate data, analytic operations and computing resources (e.g., using SQL query and Scala/Python notebook). Experimental results show that ClimateSpark conducts different spatiotemporal data queries/analytics with high efficiency and data locality. ClimateSpark is easily adaptable to other big multiple-dimensional, array-based datasets in various geoscience domains.

  3. A Computational Framework for Multiply-Connected and Electromagnetic Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Allyson

    In this dissertation, we develop the capabilities of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Element analysis (FEA) in the domain of computational quantum physics. We describe how FEM works and how it has been leveraged in quantum physics research over the last several decades. We derive new methods for modeling and analyzing quantum systems by using "holes" (cutouts) in the geometries of billiards in order to tune energy levels and energy level spacing. We address historical issues of the method in modeling systems with magnetic fields. These issues include nonconvergence of gauge choice as well as non-convergence of solutions at higher energy levels. By developing a set of tools and a framework to form various "admissible systems", we demonstrate that these issues stem from a misrepresentation of FEM algorithm design in quantum models. Through leveraging gauge-invariance in algorithm design, we describe how an appropriate unique gauge is identified for modeling various physical parameters. We then extend this idea into a framework that leverages various gauge selections in order to gain a much more complete picture of a quantum model and its various complementary observables. Finally, we show that this framework extends to modeling quantum systems that are bounded at realistically sized length-scales on the cusp of magnetic confinement. Through this work new limits on the canonical Dirichlet boundary conditions are defined.

  4. Efficient and Flexible Climate Analysis with Python in a Cloud-Based Distributed Computing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, C.

    2017-12-01

    As climate models become progressively more advanced, and spatial resolution further improved through various downscaling projects, climate projections at a local level are increasingly insightful and valuable. However, the raw size of climate datasets presents numerous hurdles for analysts wishing to develop customized climate risk metrics or perform site-specific statistical analysis. Four Twenty Seven, a climate risk consultancy, has implemented a Python-based distributed framework to analyze large climate datasets in the cloud. With the freedom afforded by efficiently processing these datasets, we are able to customize and continually develop new climate risk metrics using the most up-to-date data. Here we outline our process for using Python packages such as XArray and Dask to evaluate netCDF files in a distributed framework, StarCluster to operate in a cluster-computing environment, cloud computing services to access publicly hosted datasets, and how this setup is particularly valuable for generating climate change indicators and performing localized statistical analysis.

  5. GLOFRIM v1.0 - A globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Jannis M.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Baart, Fedor; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Bates, Paul D.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-10-01

    We here present GLOFRIM, a globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling. GLOFRIM facilitates spatially explicit coupling of hydrodynamic and hydrologic models and caters for an ensemble of models to be coupled. It currently encompasses the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB as well as the hydrodynamic models Delft3D Flexible Mesh (DFM; solving the full shallow-water equations and allowing for spatially flexible meshing) and LISFLOOD-FP (LFP; solving the local inertia equations and running on regular grids). The main advantages of the framework are its open and free access, its global applicability, its versatility, and its extensibility with other hydrological or hydrodynamic models. Before applying GLOFRIM to an actual test case, we benchmarked both DFM and LFP for a synthetic test case. Results show that for sub-critical flow conditions, discharge response to the same input signal is near-identical for both models, which agrees with previous studies. We subsequently applied the framework to the Amazon River basin to not only test the framework thoroughly, but also to perform a first-ever benchmark of flexible and regular grids on a large-scale. Both DFM and LFP produce comparable results in terms of simulated discharge with LFP exhibiting slightly higher accuracy as expressed by a Kling-Gupta efficiency of 0.82 compared to 0.76 for DFM. However, benchmarking inundation extent between DFM and LFP over the entire study area, a critical success index of 0.46 was obtained, indicating that the models disagree as often as they agree. Differences between models in both simulated discharge and inundation extent are to a large extent attributable to the gridding techniques employed. In fact, the results show that both the numerical scheme of the inundation model and the gridding technique can contribute to deviations in simulated inundation extent as we control for model forcing and boundary conditions. This study shows

  6. Integrating surrogate models into subsurface simulation framework allows computation of complex reactive transport scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M

  7. A computational framework for investigating the positional stability of aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anamika; Xiao, Nan; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Zarins, Christopher K; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (Greenhalgh in N Engl J Med 362(20):1863-1871, 2010) techniques have revolutionized the treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, greatly reducing the perioperative mortality and morbidity associated with open surgical repair techniques. However, EVAR is not free of important complications such as late device migration, endoleak formation and fracture of device components that may result in adverse events such as aneurysm enlargement, need for long-term imaging surveillance and secondary interventions or even death. These complications result from the device inability to withstand the hemodynamics of blood flow and to keep its originally intended post-operative position over time. Understanding the in vivo biomechanical working environment experienced by endografts is a critical factor in improving their long-term performance. To date, no study has investigated the mechanics of contact between device and aorta in a three-dimensional setting. In this work, we developed a comprehensive Computational Solid Mechanics and Computational Fluid Dynamics framework to investigate the mechanics of endograft positional stability. The main building blocks of this framework are: (1) Three-dimensional non-planar aortic and stent-graft geometrical models, (2) Realistic multi-material constitutive laws for aorta, stent, and graft, (3) Physiological values for blood flow and pressure, and (4) Frictional model to describe the contact between the endograft and the aorta. We introduce a new metric for numerical quantification of the positional stability of the endograft. Lastly, in the results section, we test the framework by investigating the impact of several factors that are clinically known to affect endograft stability.

  8. A computational framework for the automated construction of glycosylation reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is among the most common and complex post-translational modifications identified to date. It proceeds through the catalytic action of multiple enzyme families that include the glycosyltransferases that add monosaccharides to growing glycans, and glycosidases which remove sugar residues to trim glycans. The expression level and specificity of these enzymes, in part, regulate the glycan distribution or glycome of specific cell/tissue systems. Currently, there is no systematic method to describe the enzymes and cellular reaction networks that catalyze glycosylation. To address this limitation, we present a streamlined machine-readable definition for the glycosylating enzymes and additional methodologies to construct and analyze glycosylation reaction networks. In this computational framework, the enzyme class is systematically designed to store detailed specificity data such as enzymatic functional group, linkage and substrate specificity. The new classes and their associated functions enable both single-reaction inference and automated full network reconstruction, when given a list of reactants and/or products along with the enzymes present in the system. In addition, graph theory is used to support functions that map the connectivity between two or more species in a network, and that generate subset models to identify rate-limiting steps regulating glycan biosynthesis. Finally, this framework allows the synthesis of biochemical reaction networks using mass spectrometry (MS) data. The features described above are illustrated using three case studies that examine: i) O-linked glycan biosynthesis during the construction of functional selectin-ligands; ii) automated N-linked glycosylation pathway construction; and iii) the handling and analysis of glycomics based MS data. Overall, the new computational framework enables automated glycosylation network model construction and analysis by integrating knowledge of glycan structure and enzyme biochemistry. All

  9. A computational framework for the automated construction of glycosylation reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is among the most common and complex post-translational modifications identified to date. It proceeds through the catalytic action of multiple enzyme families that include the glycosyltransferases that add monosaccharides to growing glycans, and glycosidases which remove sugar residues to trim glycans. The expression level and specificity of these enzymes, in part, regulate the glycan distribution or glycome of specific cell/tissue systems. Currently, there is no systematic method to describe the enzymes and cellular reaction networks that catalyze glycosylation. To address this limitation, we present a streamlined machine-readable definition for the glycosylating enzymes and additional methodologies to construct and analyze glycosylation reaction networks. In this computational framework, the enzyme class is systematically designed to store detailed specificity data such as enzymatic functional group, linkage and substrate specificity. The new classes and their associated functions enable both single-reaction inference and automated full network reconstruction, when given a list of reactants and/or products along with the enzymes present in the system. In addition, graph theory is used to support functions that map the connectivity between two or more species in a network, and that generate subset models to identify rate-limiting steps regulating glycan biosynthesis. Finally, this framework allows the synthesis of biochemical reaction networks using mass spectrometry (MS data. The features described above are illustrated using three case studies that examine: i O-linked glycan biosynthesis during the construction of functional selectin-ligands; ii automated N-linked glycosylation pathway construction; and iii the handling and analysis of glycomics based MS data. Overall, the new computational framework enables automated glycosylation network model construction and analysis by integrating knowledge of glycan structure and enzyme

  10. South American regional ionospheric maps computed by GESA: A pilot service in the framework of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Gende, M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2008-08-01

    SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference Frame for the Americas) is an international enterprise of the geodetic community that aims to realize the Terrestrial Reference Frame in the America's countries. In order to fulfill this commitment, SIRGAS manages a network of continuously operational GNSS receivers totalling around one hundred sites in the Caribbean, Central, and South American region. Although the network was not planed for ionospheric studies, its potential to be used for such a purpose was recently recognized and SIRGAS started a pilot experiment devoted to establish a regular service for computing and releasing regional vertical TEC (vTEC) maps based on GNSS data. Since July, 2005, the GESA (Geodesia Espacial y Aeronomía) laboratory belonging to the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata computes hourly maps of vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment. These maps exploit all the GNSS data available in the South American region and are computed with the LPIM (La Plata Ionospheric Model). LPIM implements a de-biasing procedure that improves data calibration in relation to other procedures commonly used for such purposes. After calibration, slant TEC measurements are converted to vertical and mapped using local-time and modip latitude. The use of modip latitude smoothed the spatial variability of vTEC, especially in the South American low latitude region and hence allows for a better vTEC interpolation. This contribution summarizes the results obtained by GESA in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment.

  11. Development Strategies for Tourism Destinations: Tourism Sophistication vs. Resource Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...

  12. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  13. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A.; Duro, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location. PMID:27399711

  14. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  15. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  16. RIO: a new computational framework for accurate initial data of binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, W.; Clemente, P. C. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    2018-06-01

    We present a computational framework ( Rio) in the ADM 3+1 approach for numerical relativity. This work enables us to carry out high resolution calculations for initial data of two arbitrary black holes. We use the transverse conformal treatment, the Bowen-York and the puncture methods. For the numerical solution of the Hamiltonian constraint we use the domain decomposition and the spectral decomposition of Galerkin-Collocation. The nonlinear numerical code solves the set of equations for the spectral modes using the standard Newton-Raphson method, LU decomposition and Gaussian quadratures. We show the convergence of the Rio code. This code allows for easy deployment of large calculations. We show how the spin of one of the black holes is manifest in the conformal factor.

  17. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  18. Computational studies of adsorption in metal organic frameworks and interaction of nanoparticles in condensed phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annapureddy, HVR; Motkuri, RK; Nguyen, PTM; Truong, TB; Thallapally, PK; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX

    2014-02-05

    In this review, we describe recent efforts to systematically study nano-structured metal organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as metal organic heat carriers, with particular emphasis on their application in heating and cooling processes. We used both molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation techniques to gain a molecular-level understanding of the adsorption mechanism of gases in these porous materials. We investigated the uptake of various gases such as refrigerants R12 and R143a. We also evaluated the effects of temperature and pressure on the uptake mechanism. Our computed results compared reasonably well with available measurements from experiments, thus validating our potential models and approaches. In addition, we investigated the structural, diffusive and adsorption properties of different hydrocarbons in Ni-2(dhtp). Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of nanoparticle dispersion in condensed phases, we studied the interactions among nanoparticles in various liquids, such as n-hexane, water and methanol.

  19. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Varela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC and Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  20. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A; Duro, Richard

    2016-07-07

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  1. An FPGA-Based Quantum Computing Emulation Framework Based on Serial-Parallel Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware emulation of quantum systems can mimic more efficiently the parallel behaviour of quantum computations, thus allowing higher processing speed-up than software simulations. In this paper, an efficient hardware emulation method that employs a serial-parallel hardware architecture targeted for field programmable gate array (FPGA is proposed. Quantum Fourier transform and Grover’s search are chosen as case studies in this work since they are the core of many useful quantum algorithms. Experimental work shows that, with the proposed emulation architecture, a linear reduction in resource utilization is attained against the pipeline implementations proposed in prior works. The proposed work contributes to the formulation of a proof-of-concept baseline FPGA emulation framework with optimization on datapath designs that can be extended to emulate practical large-scale quantum circuits.

  2. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandan Chakrabortty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  3. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabortty, Bandan; Blilou, Ikram; Scheres, Ben; Mulder, Bela M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  4. A computational framework for cortical microtubule dynamics in realistically shaped plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabortty, Bandan

    2018-02-02

    Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed. To date, however, these models have been restricted to two dimensional planes or geometrically simple surfaces in three dimensions, which strongly limits their applicability as plant cells display a wide variety of shapes. This limitation is even more acute, as both local as well as global geometrical features of cells are expected to influence the overall organization of the array. Here we describe a framework for efficiently simulating microtubule dynamics on triangulated approximations of arbitrary three dimensional surfaces. This allows the study of microtubule array organization on realistic cell surfaces obtained by segmentation of microscopic images. We validate the framework against expected or known results for the spherical and cubical geometry. We then use it to systematically study the individual contributions of global geometry, cell-edge induced catastrophes and cell-face induced stability to array organization in a cuboidal geometry. Finally, we apply our framework to analyze the highly non-trivial geometry of leaf pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and Hedera helix. We show that our simulations can predict multiple features of the microtubule array structure in these cells, revealing, among others, strong constraints on the orientation of division planes.

  5. Causal Inference for Cross-Modal Action Selection: A Computational Study in a Decision Making Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Mehdi; Harris, Laurence R; Crawford, J Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Animals try to make sense of sensory information from multiple modalities by categorizing them into perceptions of individual or multiple external objects or internal concepts. For example, the brain constructs sensory, spatial representations of the locations of visual and auditory stimuli in the visual and auditory cortices based on retinal and cochlear stimulations. Currently, it is not known how the brain compares the temporal and spatial features of these sensory representations to decide whether they originate from the same or separate sources in space. Here, we propose a computational model of how the brain might solve such a task. We reduce the visual and auditory information to time-varying, finite-dimensional signals. We introduce controlled, leaky integrators as working memory that retains the sensory information for the limited time-course of task implementation. We propose our model within an evidence-based, decision-making framework, where the alternative plan units are saliency maps of space. A spatiotemporal similarity measure, computed directly from the unimodal signals, is suggested as the criterion to infer common or separate causes. We provide simulations that (1) validate our model against behavioral, experimental results in tasks where the participants were asked to report common or separate causes for cross-modal stimuli presented with arbitrary spatial and temporal disparities. (2) Predict the behavior in novel experiments where stimuli have different combinations of spatial, temporal, and reliability features. (3) Illustrate the dynamics of the proposed internal system. These results confirm our spatiotemporal similarity measure as a viable criterion for causal inference, and our decision-making framework as a viable mechanism for target selection, which may be used by the brain in cross-modal situations. Further, we suggest that a similar approach can be extended to other cognitive problems where working memory is a limiting factor, such

  6. An IoT-Based Computational Framework for Healthcare Monitoring in Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio Mora

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The new Internet of Things paradigm allows for small devices with sensing, processing and communication capabilities to be designed, which enable the development of sensors, embedded devices and other ‘things’ ready to understand the environment. In this paper, a distributed framework based on the internet of things paradigm is proposed for monitoring human biomedical signals in activities involving physical exertion. The main advantages and novelties of the proposed system is the flexibility in computing the health application by using resources from available devices inside the body area network of the user. This proposed framework can be applied to other mobile environments, especially those where intensive data acquisition and high processing needs take place. Finally, we present a case study in order to validate our proposal that consists in monitoring footballers’ heart rates during a football match. The real-time data acquired by these devices presents a clear social objective of being able to predict not only situations of sudden death but also possible injuries.

  7. Exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance: computational framework and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutkias, Vassilis G; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Driven by the need of pharmacovigilance centres and companies to routinely collect and review all available data about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and adverse events of interest, we introduce and validate a computational framework exploiting dominant as well as emerging publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance. Our approach relies on appropriate query formulation for data acquisition and subsequent filtering, transformation and joint visualization of the obtained data. We acquired data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), PubMed and Twitter. In order to assess the validity and the robustness of the approach, we elaborated on two important case studies, namely, clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis versus haloperidol-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis, and apixaban-induced cerebral hemorrhage. The analysis of the obtained data provided interesting insights (identification of potential patient and health-care professional experiences regarding ADRs in Twitter, information/arguments against an ADR existence across all sources), while illustrating the benefits (complementing data from multiple sources to strengthen/confirm evidence) and the underlying challenges (selecting search terms, data presentation) of exploiting heterogeneous information sources, thereby advocating the need for the proposed framework. This work contributes in establishing a continuous learning system for drug safety surveillance by exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources via appropriate support tools.

  8. A proposed framework for computational fluid dynamics code calibration/validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkampf, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the terminology and methodology that have been introduced during the last several years for building confidence n the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CID) codes. Code validation terminology developed for nuclear reactor analyses and aerospace applications is reviewed and evaluated. Currently used terminology such as ''calibrated code,'' ''validated code,'' and a ''validation experiment'' is discussed along with the shortcomings and criticisms of these terms. A new framework is proposed for building confidence in CFD code predictions that overcomes some of the difficulties of past procedures and delineates the causes of uncertainty in CFD predictions. Building on previous work, new definitions of code verification and calibration are proposed. These definitions provide more specific requirements for the knowledge level of the flow physics involved and the solution accuracy of the given partial differential equations. As part of the proposed framework, categories are also proposed for flow physics research, flow modeling research, and the application of numerical predictions. The contributions of physical experiments, analytical solutions, and other numerical solutions are discussed, showing that each should be designed to achieve a distinctively separate purpose in building confidence in accuracy of CFD predictions. A number of examples are given for each approach to suggest methods for obtaining the highest value for CFD code quality assurance

  9. An IoT-Based Computational Framework for Healthcare Monitoring in Mobile Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Gil, David; Terol, Rafael Muñoz; Azorín, Jorge; Szymanski, Julian

    2017-10-10

    The new Internet of Things paradigm allows for small devices with sensing, processing and communication capabilities to be designed, which enable the development of sensors, embedded devices and other 'things' ready to understand the environment. In this paper, a distributed framework based on the internet of things paradigm is proposed for monitoring human biomedical signals in activities involving physical exertion. The main advantages and novelties of the proposed system is the flexibility in computing the health application by using resources from available devices inside the body area network of the user. This proposed framework can be applied to other mobile environments, especially those where intensive data acquisition and high processing needs take place. Finally, we present a case study in order to validate our proposal that consists in monitoring footballers' heart rates during a football match. The real-time data acquired by these devices presents a clear social objective of being able to predict not only situations of sudden death but also possible injuries.

  10. The New Toxicology of Sophisticated Materials: Nanotoxicology and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Warheit, David B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the physical form of materials can mediate their toxicity—the health impacts of asbestiform materials, industrial aerosols, and ambient particulate matter are prime examples. Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the nanoscale and biological interactions. With the rapid rise of the field of nanotechnology and the design and production of increasingly complex nanoscale materials, it has become ever more important to understand how the physical form and chemical composition of these materials interact synergistically to determine toxicity. As a result, a new field of research has emerged—nanotoxicology. Research within this field is highlighting the importance of material physicochemical properties in how dose is understood, how materials are characterized in a manner that enables quantitative data interpretation and comparison, and how materials move within, interact with, and are transformed by biological systems. Yet many of the substances that are the focus of current nanotoxicology studies are relatively simple materials that are at the vanguard of a new era of complex materials. Over the next 50 years, there will be a need to understand the toxicology of increasingly sophisticated materials that exhibit novel, dynamic and multifaceted functionality. If the toxicology community is to meet the challenge of ensuring the safe use of this new generation of substances, it will need to move beyond “nano” toxicology and toward a new toxicology of sophisticated materials. Here, we present a brief overview of the current state of the science on the toxicology of nanoscale materials and focus on three emerging toxicology-based challenges presented by sophisticated materials that will become increasingly important over the next 50 years: identifying relevant materials for study, physicochemical characterization, and

  11. The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE): A Python Framework for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Gurrola, E. M.; Agram, P. S.; Sacco, G. F.; Lavalle, M.

    2015-12-01

    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE, funded by NASA ESTO) provides a modern computing framework for geodetic image processing of InSAR data from a diverse array of radar satellites and aircraft. ISCE is both a modular, flexible, and extensible framework for building software components and applications as well as a toolbox of applications for processing raw or focused InSAR and Polarimetric InSAR data. The ISCE framework contains object-oriented Python components layered to construct Python InSAR components that manage legacy Fortran/C InSAR programs. Components are independently configurable in a layered manner to provide maximum control. Polymorphism is used to define a workflow in terms of abstract facilities for each processing step that are realized by specific components at run-time. This enables a single workflow to work on either raw or focused data from all sensors. ISCE can serve as the core of a production center to process Level-0 radar data to Level-3 products, but is amenable to interactive processing approaches that allow scientists to experiment with data to explore new ways of doing science with InSAR data. The NASA-ISRO SAR (NISAR) Mission will deliver data of unprecedented quantity and quality, making possible global-scale studies in climate research, natural hazards, and Earth's ecosystems. ISCE is planned as the foundational element in processing NISAR data, enabling a new class of analyses that take greater advantage of the long time and large spatial scales of these new data. NISAR will be but one mission in a constellation of radar satellites in the future delivering such data. ISCE currently supports all publicly available strip map mode space-borne SAR data since ERS and is expected to include support for upcoming missions. ISCE has been incorporated into two prototype cloud-based systems that have demonstrated its elasticity in addressing larger data processing problems in a "production" context and its ability to be

  12. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  13. Few remarks on chiral theories with sophisticated topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golo, V.L.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two classes of the two-dimensional Euclidean chiral field theoreties are singled out: 1) the field phi(x) takes the values in the compact Hermitiam symmetric space 2) the field phi(x) takes the values in an orbit of the adjoint representation of the comcompact Lie group. The theories have sophisticated topological and rich analytical structures. They are considered with the help of topological invariants (topological charges). Explicit formulae for the topological charges are indicated, and the lower bound extimate for the action is given

  14. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  15. Hydra: a scalable proteomic search engine which utilizes the Hadoop distributed computing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Steven; Csordas, Attila; Killcoyne, Sarah; Hermjakob, Henning; Hoopmann, Michael R; Moritz, Robert L; Deutsch, Eric W; Boyle, John

    2012-12-05

    For shotgun mass spectrometry based proteomics the most computationally expensive step is in matching the spectra against an increasingly large database of sequences and their post-translational modifications with known masses. Each mass spectrometer can generate data at an astonishingly high rate, and the scope of what is searched for is continually increasing. Therefore solutions for improving our ability to perform these searches are needed. We present a sequence database search engine that is specifically designed to run efficiently on the Hadoop MapReduce distributed computing framework. The search engine implements the K-score algorithm, generating comparable output for the same input files as the original implementation. The scalability of the system is shown, and the architecture required for the development of such distributed processing is discussed. The software is scalable in its ability to handle a large peptide database, numerous modifications and large numbers of spectra. Performance scales with the number of processors in the cluster, allowing throughput to expand with the available resources.

  16. Porting plasma physics simulation codes to modern computing architectures using the libmrc framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaschewski, Kai; Abbott, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Available computing power has continued to grow exponentially even after single-core performance satured in the last decade. The increase has since been driven by more parallelism, both using more cores and having more parallelism in each core, e.g. in GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. Adapting existing plasma physics codes is challenging, in particular as there is no single programming model that covers current and future architectures. We will introduce the open-source libmrc framework that has been used to modularize and port three plasma physics codes: The extended MHD code MRCv3 with implicit time integration and curvilinear grids; the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere model; and the particle-in-cell code PSC. libmrc consolidates basic functionality needed for simulations based on structured grids (I/O, load balancing, time integrators), and also introduces a parallel object model that makes it possible to maintain multiple implementations of computational kernels, on e.g. conventional processors and GPUs. It handles data layout conversions and enables us to port performance-critical parts of a code to a new architecture step-by-step, while the rest of the code can remain unchanged. We will show examples of the performance gains and some physics applications.

  17. A Distributed OpenCL Framework using Redundant Computation and Data Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghyun [Seoul National University, Korea; Gangwon, Jo [Seoul National University, Korea; Jaehoon, Jung [Seoul National University, Korea; Lee, Jaejin [Seoul National University, Korea

    2016-01-01

    Applications written solely in OpenCL or CUDA cannot execute on a cluster as a whole. Most previous approaches that extend these programming models to clusters are based on a common idea: designating a centralized host node and coordinating the other nodes with the host for computation. However, the centralized host node is a serious performance bottleneck when the number of nodes is large. In this paper, we propose a scalable and distributed OpenCL framework called SnuCL-D for large-scale clusters. SnuCL-D's remote device virtualization provides an OpenCL application with an illusion that all compute devices in a cluster are confined in a single node. To reduce the amount of control-message and data communication between nodes, SnuCL-D replicates the OpenCL host program execution and data in each node. We also propose a new OpenCL host API function and a queueing optimization technique that significantly reduce the overhead incurred by the previous centralized approaches. To show the effectiveness of SnuCL-D, we evaluate SnuCL-D with a microbenchmark and eleven benchmark applications on a large-scale CPU cluster and a medium-scale GPU cluster.

  18. Automated interpretable computational biology in the clinic: a framework to predict disease severity and stratify patients from clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Banerjee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We outline an automated computational and machine learning framework that predicts disease severity and stratifies patients. We apply our framework to available clinical data. Our algorithm automatically generates insights and predicts disease severity with minimal operator intervention. The computational framework presented here can be used to stratify patients, predict disease severity and propose novel biomarkers for disease. Insights from machine learning algorithms coupled with clinical data may help guide therapy, personalize treatment and help clinicians understand the change in disease over time. Computational techniques like these can be used in translational medicine in close collaboration with clinicians and healthcare providers. Our models are also interpretable, allowing clinicians with minimal machine learning experience to engage in model building. This work is a step towards automated machine learning in the clinic.

  19. ClimateSpark: An In-memory Distributed Computing Framework for Big Climate Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F.; Yang, C. P.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Li, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Massive array-based climate data is being generated from global surveillance systems and model simulations. They are widely used to analyze the environment problems, such as climate changes, natural hazards, and public health. However, knowing the underlying information from these big climate datasets is challenging due to both data- and computing- intensive issues in data processing and analyzing. To tackle the challenges, this paper proposes ClimateSpark, an in-memory distributed computing framework to support big climate data processing. In ClimateSpark, the spatiotemporal index is developed to enable Apache Spark to treat the array-based climate data (e.g. netCDF4, HDF4) as native formats, which are stored in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) without any preprocessing. Based on the index, the spatiotemporal query services are provided to retrieve dataset according to a defined geospatial and temporal bounding box. The data subsets will be read out, and a data partition strategy will be applied to equally split the queried data to each computing node, and store them in memory as climateRDDs for processing. By leveraging Spark SQL and User Defined Function (UDFs), the climate data analysis operations can be conducted by the intuitive SQL language. ClimateSpark is evaluated by two use cases using the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. One use case is to conduct the spatiotemporal query and visualize the subset results in animation; the other one is to compare different climate model outputs using Taylor-diagram service. Experimental results show that ClimateSpark can significantly accelerate data query and processing, and enable the complex analysis services served in the SQL-style fashion.

  20. Development of Parallel Computing Framework to Enhance Radiation Transport Code Capabilities for Rare Isotope Beam Facility Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Mikhail [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2013-09-25

    A parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. It is intended to be used with older radiation transport codes implemented in Fortran77, Fortran 90 or C. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was developed and tested in conjunction with the MARS15 code. It is possible to use it with other codes such as PHITS, FLUKA and MCNP after certain adjustments. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. The framework corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.

  1. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bhardwaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor nodes and soft computing framework for computational modelling. Soft computing framework utilizes the applications of Python for user interface and fuzzy sciences for decision making. Introduction of multiple sensors in a water distribution network generates a huge number of data matrices, which are sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. Therefore, the proposed system framework also intends to simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and to support decision making for water engineers through a soft computing framework. The target of this proposed research is to provide a simple and efficient method to identify and detect presence of contamination in a water distribution network using applications of CPS.

  2. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2018-02-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor nodes and soft computing framework for computational modelling. Soft computing framework utilizes the applications of Python for user interface and fuzzy sciences for decision making. Introduction of multiple sensors in a water distribution network generates a huge number of data matrices, which are sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. Therefore, the proposed system framework also intends to simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and to support decision making for water engineers through a soft computing framework. The target of this proposed research is to provide a simple and efficient method to identify and detect presence of contamination in a water distribution network using applications of CPS.

  3. A collaborative computing framework of cloud network and WBSN applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chin-Feng; Chen, Min; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Chao, Han-Chieh

    2014-03-01

    As cloud computing and wireless body sensor network technologies become gradually developed, ubiquitous healthcare services prevent accidents instantly and effectively, as well as provides relevant information to reduce related processing time and cost. This study proposes a co-processing intermediary framework integrated cloud and wireless body sensor networks, which is mainly applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction. In this study, the main focuses includes distributed computing and resource allocation of processing sensing data over the computing architecture, network conditions and performance evaluation. Through this framework, the transmissions and computing time of sensing data are reduced to enhance overall performance for the services of fall events detection and 3-D motion reconstruction.

  4. A scalable computational framework for establishing long-term behavior of stochastic reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are systems in which the populations of a finite number of species evolve through predefined interactions. Such networks are found as modeling tools in many biological disciplines such as biochemistry, ecology, epidemiology, immunology, systems biology and synthetic biology. It is now well-established that, for small population sizes, stochastic models for biochemical reaction networks are necessary to capture randomness in the interactions. The tools for analyzing such models, however, still lag far behind their deterministic counterparts. In this paper, we bridge this gap by developing a constructive framework for examining the long-term behavior and stability properties of the reaction dynamics in a stochastic setting. In particular, we address the problems of determining ergodicity of the reaction dynamics, which is analogous to having a globally attracting fixed point for deterministic dynamics. We also examine when the statistical moments of the underlying process remain bounded with time and when they converge to their steady state values. The framework we develop relies on a blend of ideas from probability theory, linear algebra and optimization theory. We demonstrate that the stability properties of a wide class of biological networks can be assessed from our sufficient theoretical conditions that can be recast as efficient and scalable linear programs, well-known for their tractability. It is notably shown that the computational complexity is often linear in the number of species. We illustrate the validity, the efficiency and the wide applicability of our results on several reaction networks arising in biochemistry, systems biology, epidemiology and ecology. The biological implications of the results as well as an example of a non-ergodic biological network are also discussed.

  5. A dataflow meta-computing framework for event processing in the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Gerhards, R.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Levonian, S.; Grab, C.; Martyniak, J.; Nowak, J.

    2001-01-01

    Linux based networked PCs clusters are replacing both the VME non uniform direct memory access systems and SMP shared memory systems used previously for the online event filtering and reconstruction. To allow an optimal use of the distributed resources of PC clusters an open software framework is presently being developed based on a dataflow paradigm for event processing. This framework allows for the distribution of the data of physics events and associated calibration data to multiple computers from multiple input sources for processing and the subsequent collection of the processed events at multiple outputs. The basis of the system is the event repository, basically a first-in first-out event store which may be read and written in a manner similar to sequential file access. Events are stored in and transferred between repositories as suitably large sequences to enable high throughput. Multiple readers can read simultaneously from a single repository to receive event sequences and multiple writers can insert event sequences to a repository. Hence repositories are used for event distribution and collection. To support synchronisation of the event flow the repository implements barriers. A barrier must be written by all the writers of a repository before any reader can read the barrier. A reader must read a barrier before it may receive data from behind it. Only after all readers have read the barrier is the barrier removed from the repository. A barrier may also have attached data. In this way calibration data can be distributed to all processing units. The repositories are implemented as multi-threaded CORBA objects in C++ and CORBA is used for all data transfers. Job setup scripts are written in python and interactive status and histogram display is provided by a Java program. Jobs run under the PBS batch system providing shared use of resources for online triggering, offline mass reprocessing and user analysis jobs

  6. Performance Assessment Strategies: A computational framework for conceptual design of large roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Turrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using engineering performance evaluations to explore design alternatives during the conceptual phase of architectural design helps to understand the relationships between form and performance; and is crucial for developing well-performing final designs. Computer aided conceptual design has the potential to aid the design team in discovering and highlighting these relationships; especially by means of procedural and parametric geometry to support the generation of geometric design, and building performance simulation tools to support performance assessments. However, current tools and methods for computer aided conceptual design in architecture do not explicitly reveal nor allow for backtracking the relationships between performance and geometry of the design. They currently support post-engineering, rather than the early design decisions and the design exploration process. Focusing on large roofs, this research aims at developing a computational design approach to support designers in performance driven explorations. The approach is meant to facilitate the multidisciplinary integration and the learning process of the designer; and not to constrain the process in precompiled procedures or in hard engineering formulations, nor to automatize it by delegating the design creativity to computational procedures. PAS (Performance Assessment Strategies as a method is the main output of the research. It consists of a framework including guidelines and an extensible library of procedures for parametric modelling. It is structured on three parts. Pre-PAS provides guidelines for a design strategy-definition, toward the parameterization process. Model-PAS provides guidelines, procedures and scripts for building the parametric models. Explore-PAS supports the solutions-assessment based on numeric evaluations and performance simulations, until the identification of a suitable design solution. PAS has been developed based on action research. Several case studies

  7. Effect of various veneering techniques on mechanical strength of computer-controlled zirconia framework designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Burcu; Cömlekoğlu, Erhan M; Dündar-Çömlekoğlu, Mine; Hakan Sen, Bilge; Ozcan, Mutlu; Ali Güngör, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture resistance (FR), flexural strength (FS), and shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia framework material veneered with different methods and to assess the stress distributions using finite element analysis (FEA). Zirconia frameworks fabricated in the forms of crowns for FR, bars for FS, and disks for SBS (N = 90, n = 10) were veneered with either (a) file splitting (CAD-on) (CD), (b) layering (L), or (c) overpressing (P) methods. For crown specimens, stainless steel dies (N = 30; 1 mm chamfer) were scanned using the labside contrast spray. A bilayered design was produced for CD, whereas a reduced design (1 mm) was used for L and P to support the veneer by computer-aided design and manufacturing. For bar (1.5 × 5 × 25 mm(3) ) and disk (2.5 mm diameter, 2.5 mm height) specimens, zirconia blocks were sectioned under water cooling with a low-speed diamond saw and sintered. To prepare the suprastructures in the appropriate shapes for the three mechanical tests, nano-fluorapatite ceramic was layered and fired for L, fluorapatite-ceramic was pressed for P, and the milled lithium-disilicate ceramics were fused with zirconia by a thixotropic glass ceramic for CD and then sintered for crystallization of veneering ceramic. Crowns were then cemented to the metal dies. All specimens were stored at 37°C, 100% humidity for 48 hours. Mechanical tests were performed, and data were statistically analyzed (ANOVA, Tukey's, α = 0.05). Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the failure modes and surface structure. FEA modeling of the crowns was obtained. Mean FR values (N ± SD) of CD (4408 ± 608) and L (4323 ± 462) were higher than P (2507 ± 594) (p mechanical tests, whereas a layering technique increased the FR when an anatomical core design was employed. File splitting (CAD-on) or layering veneering ceramic on zirconia with a reduced framework design may reduce ceramic chipping

  8. The sophisticated control of the tram bogie on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan DOLECEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of routing control algorithms of new conception of tram vehicle bogie. The main goal of these research activities is wear reduction of rail wheels and tracks, wear reduction of traction energy losses and increasing of running comfort. The testing experimental tram vehicle with special bogie construction powered by traction battery is utilized for these purposes. This vehicle has a rotary bogie with independent rotating wheels driven by permanent magnets synchronous motors and a solid axle. The wheel forces in bogie are measured by large amounts of the various sensors placed on the testing experimental tram vehicle. Nowadays the designed control algorithms are implemented to the vehicle superset control system. The traction requirements and track characteristics have an effect to these control algorithms. This control including sophisticated routing brings other improvements which is verified and corrected according to individual traction and driving characteristics, and opens new possibilities.

  9. Computational optogenetics: A novel continuum framework for the photoelectrochemistry of living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan; Abilez, Oscar J.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-06-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard treatment for heart rhythm disorders. However, electrical pacing is associated with technical limitations and unavoidable potential complications. Recent developments now enable the stimulation of mammalian cells with light using a novel technology known as optogenetics. The optical stimulation of genetically engineered cells has significantly changed our understanding of electrically excitable tissues, paving the way towards controlling heart rhythm disorders by means of photostimulation. Controlling these disorders, in turn, restores coordinated force generation to avoid sudden cardiac death. Here, we report a novel continuum framework for the photoelectrochemistry of living systems that allows us to decipher the mechanisms by which this technology regulates the electrical and mechanical function of the heart. Using a modular multiscale approach, we introduce a non-selective cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, into a conventional cardiac muscle cell model via an additional photocurrent governed by a light-sensitive gating variable. Upon optical stimulation, this channel opens and allows sodium ions to enter the cell, inducing electrical activation. In side-by-side comparisons with conventional heart muscle cells, we show that photostimulation directly increases the sodium concentration, which indirectly decreases the potassium concentration in the cell, while all other characteristics of the cell remain virtually unchanged. We integrate our model cells into a continuum model for excitable tissue using a nonlinear parabolic second-order partial differential equation, which we discretize in time using finite differences and in space using finite elements. To illustrate the potential of this computational model, we virtually inject our photosensitive cells into different locations of a human heart, and explore its activation sequences upon photostimulation. Our computational optogenetics tool box allows us to

  10. A computational framework for converting textual clinical diagnostic criteria into the quality data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Na; Li, Dingcheng; Yu, Yue; Xiu, Qiongying; Liu, Hongfang; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-10-01

    Constructing standard and computable clinical diagnostic criteria is an important but challenging research field in the clinical informatics community. The Quality Data Model (QDM) is emerging as a promising information model for standardizing clinical diagnostic criteria. To develop and evaluate automated methods for converting textual clinical diagnostic criteria in a structured format using QDM. We used a clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool known as cTAKES to detect sentences and annotate events in diagnostic criteria. We developed a rule-based approach for assigning the QDM datatype(s) to an individual criterion, whereas we invoked a machine learning algorithm based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) for annotating attributes belonging to each particular QDM datatype. We manually developed an annotated corpus as the gold standard and used standard measures (precision, recall and f-measure) for the performance evaluation. We harvested 267 individual criteria with the datatypes of Symptom and Laboratory Test from 63 textual diagnostic criteria. We manually annotated attributes and values in 142 individual Laboratory Test criteria. The average performance of our rule-based approach was 0.84 of precision, 0.86 of recall, and 0.85 of f-measure; the performance of CRFs-based classification was 0.95 of precision, 0.88 of recall and 0.91 of f-measure. We also implemented a web-based tool that automatically translates textual Laboratory Test criteria into the QDM XML template format. The results indicated that our approaches leveraging cTAKES and CRFs are effective in facilitating diagnostic criteria annotation and classification. Our NLP-based computational framework is a feasible and useful solution in developing diagnostic criteria representation and computerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a Framework to Improve the Quality of Teaching and Learning: Consciousness and Validation in Computer Engineering Science, UCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévano, Marcos; Albornoz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a framework to improve the quality in teaching and learning in order to develop good practices to train professionals in the career of computer engineering science. To demonstrate the progress and achievements, our work is based on two principles for the formation of professionals, one based on the model of learning…

  12. A Flexible Computational Framework Using R and Map-Reduce for Permutation Tests of Massive Genetic Analysis of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjani, Behrang; Toor, Salman; Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping significance of putative QTL is often determined using permutation testing. The computational needs to calculate the significance level are immense, 10 4 up to 10 8 or even more permutations can be needed. We have previously introduced the PruneDIRECT algorithm for multiple QTL scan with epistatic interactions. This algorithm has specific strengths for permutation testing. Here, we present a flexible, parallel computing framework for identifying multiple interacting QTL using the PruneDIRECT algorithm which uses the map-reduce model as implemented in Hadoop. The framework is implemented in R, a widely used software tool among geneticists. This enables users to rearrange algorithmic steps to adapt genetic models, search algorithms, and parallelization steps to their needs in a flexible way. Our work underlines the maturity of accessing distributed parallel computing for computationally demanding bioinformatics applications through building workflows within existing scientific environments. We investigate the PruneDIRECT algorithm, comparing its performance to exhaustive search and DIRECT algorithm using our framework on a public cloud resource. We find that PruneDIRECT is vastly superior for permutation testing, and perform 2 ×10 5 permutations for a 2D QTL problem in 15 hours, using 100 cloud processes. We show that our framework scales out almost linearly for a 3D QTL search.

  13. A scalable fully implicit framework for reservoir simulation on parallel computers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian

    2017-11-10

    The modeling of multiphase fluid flow in porous medium is of interest in the field of reservoir simulation. The promising numerical methods in the literature are mostly based on the explicit or semi-implicit approach, which both have certain stability restrictions on the time step size. In this work, we introduce and study a scalable fully implicit solver for the simulation of two-phase flow in a porous medium with capillarity, gravity and compressibility, which is free from the limitations of the conventional methods. In the fully implicit framework, a mixed finite element method is applied to discretize the model equations for the spatial terms, and the implicit Backward Euler scheme with adaptive time stepping is used for the temporal integration. The resultant nonlinear system arising at each time step is solved in a monolithic way by using a Newton–Krylov type method. The corresponding linear system from the Newton iteration is large sparse, nonsymmetric and ill-conditioned, consequently posing a significant challenge to the fully implicit solver. To address this issue, the family of additive Schwarz preconditioners is taken into account to accelerate the convergence of the linear system, and thereby improves the robustness of the outer Newton method. Several test cases in one, two and three dimensions are used to validate the correctness of the scheme and examine the performance of the newly developed algorithm on parallel computers.

  14. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

  15. Free vibration analysis of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes based on a computational mechanics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J. W.; Tong, L. H.; Xiang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Free vibration behaviors of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using a computational mechanics approach. Tersoff-Brenner potential is used to reflect atomic interaction between boron and nitrogen atoms. The higher-order Cauchy-Born rule is employed to establish the constitutive relationship for single-walled boron nitride nanotubes on the basis of higher-order gradient continuum theory. It bridges the gaps between the nanoscale lattice structures with a continuum body. A mesh-free modeling framework is constructed, using the moving Kriging interpolation which automatically satisfies the higher-order continuity, to implement numerical simulation in order to match the higher-order constitutive model. In comparison with conventional atomistic simulation methods, the established atomistic-continuum multi-scale approach possesses advantages in tackling atomic structures with high-accuracy and high-efficiency. Free vibration characteristics of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes with different boundary conditions, tube chiralities, lengths and radii are examined in case studies. In this research, it is pointed out that a critical radius exists for the evaluation of fundamental vibration frequencies of boron nitride nanotubes; opposite trends can be observed prior to and beyond the critical radius. Simulation results are presented and discussed.

  16. A scalable fully implicit framework for reservoir simulation on parallel computers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian; Sun, Shuyu; Li, Yiteng; Yang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of multiphase fluid flow in porous medium is of interest in the field of reservoir simulation. The promising numerical methods in the literature are mostly based on the explicit or semi-implicit approach, which both have certain stability restrictions on the time step size. In this work, we introduce and study a scalable fully implicit solver for the simulation of two-phase flow in a porous medium with capillarity, gravity and compressibility, which is free from the limitations of the conventional methods. In the fully implicit framework, a mixed finite element method is applied to discretize the model equations for the spatial terms, and the implicit Backward Euler scheme with adaptive time stepping is used for the temporal integration. The resultant nonlinear system arising at each time step is solved in a monolithic way by using a Newton–Krylov type method. The corresponding linear system from the Newton iteration is large sparse, nonsymmetric and ill-conditioned, consequently posing a significant challenge to the fully implicit solver. To address this issue, the family of additive Schwarz preconditioners is taken into account to accelerate the convergence of the linear system, and thereby improves the robustness of the outer Newton method. Several test cases in one, two and three dimensions are used to validate the correctness of the scheme and examine the performance of the newly developed algorithm on parallel computers.

  17. A novel framework for diagnosing automatic tool changer and tool life based on cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tool change is one among the most frequently performed machining processes, and if there is improper percussion as the tool’s position is changed, the spindle bearing can be damaged. A spindle malfunction can cause problems, such as a knife being dropped or bias in a machined hole. The measures currently taken to avoid such issues, which arose from the available machine tools, only involve determining whether the clapping knife’s state is correct using a spindle and the air adhesion method, which is also used to satisfy the high precision required from mechanical components. Therefore, it cannot be used with any type of machine tool; in addition, improper tapping of the spindle during an automatic tool change cannot be detected. Therefore, this study proposes a new type of diagnostic framework that combines cloud computing and vibration sensors, among of which, tool change is automatically diagnosed using an architecture to identify abnormalities and thereby enhances the reliability and productivity of the machine and equipment.

  18. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  19. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  20. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P de Sá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids, we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  1. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , and (3) innovation, has been developed. In order to facilitate the implementation and ensure sustainability, this framework integrates a number of computer-aided methods and tools, that are important for carbon dioxide capture and utilization. Applying this framework helps to address the questions about...... opportunities and products are explored. Second, the selected processing route is designed and analyzed by using simulation software and sustainability (economic, environmental and LCA) analysis tools. From this stage, hot spotsand areas for improvement are also generated. Third, the targets for improvement...

  2. Feasibility Study of a Generalized Framework for Developing Computer-Aided Detection Systems-a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Nomura, Yukihiro; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu

    2017-10-01

    We propose a generalized framework for developing computer-aided detection (CADe) systems whose characteristics depend only on those of the training dataset. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of the framework. Two different CADe systems were experimentally developed by a prototype of the framework, but with different training datasets. The CADe systems include four components; preprocessing, candidate area extraction, candidate detection, and candidate classification. Four pretrained algorithms with dedicated optimization/setting methods corresponding to the respective components were prepared in advance. The pretrained algorithms were sequentially trained in the order of processing of the components. In this study, two different datasets, brain MRA with cerebral aneurysms and chest CT with lung nodules, were collected to develop two different types of CADe systems in the framework. The performances of the developed CADe systems were evaluated by threefold cross-validation. The CADe systems for detecting cerebral aneurysms in brain MRAs and for detecting lung nodules in chest CTs were successfully developed using the respective datasets. The framework was shown to be feasible by the successful development of the two different types of CADe systems. The feasibility of this framework shows promise for a new paradigm in the development of CADe systems: development of CADe systems without any lesion specific algorithm designing.

  3. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Weitzner, Brian D; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2018-04-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228-256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody-antigen complexes, using two design strategies-optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the native

  4. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R.

    2018-01-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228–256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody–antigen complexes, using two design strategies—optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the

  5. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; McAssey, Michael P; Beisner, Brianne; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-03-15

    We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  6. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  7. Integrated Computer-aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an integrated model-based framework for chemical product design and evaluation based on which the software, VPPD-Lab (The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory) has been developed. The framework allows the following options: (1) design a product using design templates...

  8. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    system engineering view that emphasizes a systematic and generic solution framework to solvent selection problems is presented. The framework integrates different methods and tools to manage the complexity and solve a wide range of problems in efficient and flexible manner. Its software implementation...

  9. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  10. A comprehensive combined experimental and computational framework for pre-clinical wear simulation of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgaied, A; Fisher, J; Jennings, L M

    2018-02-01

    A more robust pre-clinical wear simulation framework is required in order to simulate wider and higher ranges of activities, observed in different patient populations such as younger more active patients. Such a framework will help to understand and address the reported higher failure rates for younger and more active patients (National_Joint_Registry, 2016). The current study has developed and validated a comprehensive combined experimental and computational framework for pre-clinical wear simulation of total knee replacements (TKR). The input mechanical (elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) and wear parameters of the moderately cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) bearing material were independently measured from experimental studies under realistic test conditions, similar to the loading conditions found in the total knee replacements. The wear predictions from the computational wear simulation were validated against the direct experimental wear measurements for size 3 Sigma curved total knee replacements (DePuy, UK) in an independent experimental wear simulation study under three different daily activities; walking, deep squat, and stairs ascending kinematic conditions. The measured compressive mechanical properties of the moderately cross-linked UHMWPE material were more than 20% lower than that reported in the literature under tensile test conditions. The pin-on-plate wear coefficient of moderately cross-linked UHMWPE was significantly dependant of the contact stress and the degree of cross-shear at the articulating surfaces. The computational wear predictions for the TKR from the current framework were consistent and in a good agreement with the independent full TKR experimental wear simulation measurements, with 0.94 coefficient of determination of the framework. In addition, the comprehensive combined experimental and computational framework was able to explain the complex experimental wear trends from the three different daily

  11. A Distributed Computing Framework for Real-Time Detection of Stress and of Its Propagation in a Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Parul; Lee, Eun Kyung; Pompili, Dario

    2016-11-01

    Stress is one of the key factor that impacts the quality of our daily life: From the productivity and efficiency in the production processes to the ability of (civilian and military) individuals in making rational decisions. Also, stress can propagate from one individual to other working in a close proximity or toward a common goal, e.g., in a military operation or workforce. Real-time assessment of the stress of individuals alone is, however, not sufficient, as understanding its source and direction in which it propagates in a group of people is equally-if not more-important. A continuous near real-time in situ personal stress monitoring system to quantify level of stress of individuals and its direction of propagation in a team is envisioned. However, stress monitoring of an individual via his/her mobile device may not always be possible for extended periods of time due to limited battery capacity of these devices. To overcome this challenge a novel distributed mobile computing framework is proposed to organize the resources in the vicinity and form a mobile device cloud that enables offloading of computation tasks in stress detection algorithm from resource constrained devices (low residual battery, limited CPU cycles) to resource rich devices. Our framework also supports computing parallelization and workflows, defining how the data and tasks divided/assigned among the entities of the framework are designed. The direction of propagation and magnitude of influence of stress in a group of individuals are studied by applying real-time, in situ analysis of Granger Causality. Tangible benefits (in terms of energy expenditure and execution time) of the proposed framework in comparison to a centralized framework are presented via thorough simulations and real experiments.

  12. Computational evaluation of metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiamei

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of porous solids comprised of metal-containing nodes linked by organic ligands, have become promising materials for gas separations. In particular, their flexible chemistry makes them attractive for CO2 capture from flue gas streams in post-combustion plants. Although numerous efforts have been exerted on the investigation of MOFs for CO2 capture, the exploration of the effects from coexisting components present in very dilute proportions in flue gases is limited because of the experimental difficulty to determine the coadsorption of CO2 with trace components. In this regard, molecular simulations show superiority. In this study, molecular simulations are used to estimate the influence of impurities: water, O2, and SO2 on post-combustion CO2 capture in MOFs. Firstly, two MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs), HKUST-1 and Mg-MOF-74 are explored. Increase of CO 2 adsorption is observed for hydrated HKUST-1; on the contrary, the opposite water adsorption behavior is observed in hydrated Mg-MOF-74, leading to decrease of CO2 adsorption. Further, water effects on CO 2 capture in M-HKUST1 (M = Mg, Zn, Co, Ni) are evaluated to test whether comparing the binding energy could be a general method to evaluate water effects in MOFs with CUMs. It is found that the method works well for Zn-, Co-, and Ni-HKUST1 but partially for Mg-HKUST1. In addition, the effects of O2 and SO2 on CO2 capture in MOFs are also investigated for the first time, showing that the effects of O2 may be negligible but SO2 has negative effects in the CO 2 capture process in HKUST-1 systems. Secondly, the influences of water on CO2 capture in three UiO-66 MOFs with functional groups, --NH2, --OH and --Br are explored, respectively. For UiO-66-NH2 and -OH, the presence of water lowers CO2 adsorption significantly; in contrast, water shows much smaller effects in UiO-66-Br. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 decreases water adsorption but enhances CO

  13. The Unlock Project: a Python-based framework for practical brain-computer interface communication "app" development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Lorenz, Sean D; Galbraith, Byron V; Guenther, Frank H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for reducing the development time needed for creating applications for use in non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Our framework is primarily focused on facilitating rapid software "app" development akin to current efforts in consumer portable computing (e.g. smart phones and tablets). This is accomplished by handling intermodule communication without direct user or developer implementation, instead relying on a core subsystem for communication of standard, internal data formats. We also provide a library of hardware interfaces for common mobile EEG platforms for immediate use in BCI applications. A use-case example is described in which a user with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis participated in an electroencephalography-based BCI protocol developed using the proposed framework. We show that our software environment is capable of running in real-time with updates occurring 50-60 times per second with limited computational overhead (5 ms system lag) while providing accurate data acquisition and signal analysis.

  14. Developing and Testing a Theoretical Framework for Computer-Mediated Transparency of Local Governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Welch, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging literature on transparency by developing and empirically testing a theoretical framework that explains the determinants of local government Web site transparency. It aims to answer the following central question: What institutional factors determine the

  15. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-01-01

    of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation

  16. High performance computing system in the framework of the Higgs boson studies

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Nikita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Higgs boson physics is one of the most important and promising fields of study in modern High Energy Physics. To perform precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties, the use of fast and efficient instruments of Monte Carlo event simulation is required. Due to the increasing amount of data and to the growing complexity of the simulation software tools, the computing resources currently available for Monte Carlo simulation on the LHC GRID are not sufficient. One of the possibilities to address this shortfall of computing resources is the usage of institutes computer clusters, commercial computing resources and supercomputers. In this paper, a brief description of the Higgs boson physics, the Monte-Carlo generation and event simulation techniques are presented. A description of modern high performance computing systems and tests of their performance are also discussed. These studies have been performed on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and Kurchatov Institute Data Processing Center, including Tier...

  17. Exploring methodological frameworks for a mental task-based near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Sabine; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori; Chau, Tom

    2015-10-30

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable users to interact with their environment using only cognitive activities. This paper presents the results of a comparison of four methodological frameworks used to select a pair of tasks to control a binary NIRS-BCI; specifically, three novel personalized task paradigms and the state-of-the-art prescribed task framework were explored. Three types of personalized task selection approaches were compared, including: user-selected mental tasks using weighted slope scores (WS-scores), user-selected mental tasks using pair-wise accuracy rankings (PWAR), and researcher-selected mental tasks using PWAR. These paradigms, along with the state-of-the-art prescribed mental task framework, where mental tasks are selected based on the most commonly used tasks in literature, were tested by ten able-bodied participants who took part in five NIRS-BCI sessions. The frameworks were compared in terms of their accuracy, perceived ease-of-use, computational time, user preference, and length of training. Most notably, researcher-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher accuracies, while user-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher perceived ease-of-use. It was also concluded that PWAR minimized the amount of data that needed to be collected; while, WS-scores maximized user satisfaction and minimized computational time. In comparison to the state-of-the-art prescribed mental tasks, our findings show that overall, personalized tasks appear to be superior to prescribed tasks with respect to accuracy and perceived ease-of-use. The deployment of personalized rather than prescribed mental tasks ought to be considered and further investigated in future NIRS-BCI studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sophisticated Search Capabilities in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The ADS provides access to over 940,000 references from astronomy and planetary sciences publications and 1.5 million records from physics publications. It is funded by NASA and provides free access to these references, as well as to 2.4 million scanned pages from the astronomical literature. These include most of the major astronomy and several planetary sciences journals, as well as many historical observatory publications. The references now include the abstracts from all volumes of the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) since the beginning of 2002. We get these abstracts on a regular basis. The Kluwer journal Solar Physics has been scanned back to volume 1 and is available through the ADS. We have extracted the reference lists from this and many other journals and included them in the reference and citation database of the ADS. We have recently scanning Earth, Moon and Planets, another Kluwer journal, and will scan other Kluwer journals in the future as well. We plan on extracting references from these journals as well in the near future. The ADS has many sophisticated query features. These allow the user to formulate complex queries. Using results lists to get further information about the selected articles provide the means to quickly find important and relevant articles from the database. Three advanced feedback queries are available from the bottom of the ADS results list (in addition to regular feedback queries already available from the abstract page and from the bottom of the results list): 1. Get reference list for selected articles: This query returns all known references for the selected articles (or for all articles in the first list). The resulting list will be ranked according to how often each article is referred to and will show the most referenced articles in the field of study that created the first list. It presumably shows the most important articles in that field. 2. Get citation list for selected articles: This returns all known articles

  19. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,…

  20. Monitoring self-adaptive applications within edge computing frameworks: A state-of-the-art review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taherizadeh, S.; Jones, A.C.; Taylor, I.; Zhao, Z.; Stankovski, V.

    Recently, a promising trend has evolved from previous centralized computation to decentralized edge computing in the proximity of end-users to provide cloud applications. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) of such applications and Quality of Experience (QoE) for the end-users, it is necessary to

  1. Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT. (orig.)

  2. Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1996-02-01

    The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT.

  3. Present status and future of the sophisticated work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haruhisa

    The excellency of the work station is explained, by comparing the functions of software and hardware of work station with those of personal computer. As one of the examples utilizing the functions of work station, desk top publishing is explained. By describing the competition between the Group of ATT · Sun Microsystems which intends to have the leadership by integrating Berkeley version which is most popular at this moment and System V version, and the group led by IBM, future of UNIX as OS of work station is predicted. Development of RISC processor, TRON Plan and Sigma Projects by MITI are also mentioned as its background.

  4. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization is a vital element of carbon dioxide emission reduction to address global warming. An integrated, computer-aided framework has been developed to achieve this. This framework adopts a three-stage approach to sustainable process synthesis-design: (i) process...... synthesis, (ii) process design and (iii) innovative design. In the first stage, reaction path synthesis is used to determine the reactions and products that are considered in processing route selection and/or generation. Various scenarios are then considered for the superstructure optimization. The selected...... steps. Then, the superstructure optimization is performed on a network containing 13 likely products giving 30 feasible processing routes, considering different scenarios and objectives. Stages 2 and 3 have been applied to the optimal solution of the first scenario, which selects the production...

  5. An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid brain computer interface (BCI based on motor imagery (MI and P300 has been a preferred strategy aiming to improve the detection performance through combining the features of each. However, current methods used for combining these two modalities optimize them separately, which does not result in optimal performance. Here, we present an efficient framework to optimize them together by concatenating the features of MI and P300 in a block diagonal form. Then a linear classifier under a dual spectral norm regularizer is applied to the combined features. Under this framework, the hybrid features of MI and P300 can be learned, selected, and combined together directly. Experimental results on the data set of hybrid BCI based on MI and P300 are provided to illustrate competitive performance of the proposed method against other conventional methods. This provides an evidence that the method used here contributes to the discrimination performance of the brain state in hybrid BCI.

  6. Computational framework for risk-based planning of inspections, maintenance, and condition monitoring using discrete Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for risk-based planning of inspections and repairs for deteriorating components. Two distinct types of decision rules are used to model decisions: simple decision rules that depend on constants or observed variables (e.g. inspection outcome...... expecte d life-cycle costs. For advanced decision rules, simulations are performed to estimate the expected costs, and dBNs are used within the simulations for decision-making. Information from inspections and condition monitoring are included if available. An example in the paper demonstrates...... the framework and the implemented strategies and decision rules, including various types of condition-based maintenance. The strategies using advanced decision rules lead to reduced costs compared to the simple decision rules when condition monitoring is applied, and the value of condition monitoring...

  7. High performance computing system in the framework of the Higgs boson studies

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Nikita; The ATLAS collaboration; Velikhov, Vasily; Konoplich, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    The Higgs boson physics is one of the most important and promising fields of study in the modern high energy physics. It is important to notice, that GRID computing resources become strictly limited due to increasing amount of statistics, required for physics analyses and unprecedented LHC performance. One of the possibilities to address the shortfall of computing resources is the usage of computer institutes' clusters, commercial computing resources and supercomputers. To perform precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties in these realities, it is also highly required to have effective instruments to simulate kinematic distributions of signal events. In this talk we give a brief description of the modern distribution reconstruction method called Morphing and perform few efficiency tests to demonstrate its potential. These studies have been performed on the WLCG and Kurchatov Institute’s Data Processing Center, including Tier-1 GRID site and supercomputer as well. We also analyze the CPU efficienc...

  8. A COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK INVOLVING CFD AND DATA MINING TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DISEASE IN CAROTID ARTERY BIFURCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fonn, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, like Carotid Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are associated with the narrowing of artery due to build-up of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits (called plaque). Carotid Artery Disease increases the chances of brain stroke. Hence, the main objective of this work is to apply computational tools to help differentiate between the healthy and unhealthy artery (with 25% stenosis) using a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and data minin...

  9. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  10. A Design for Computationally Enabled Analyses Supporting the Pre-Intervention Analytical Framework (PIAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    public release; distribution is unlimited. The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and...Framework (PIAF) Timothy K. Perkins and Chris C. Rewerts Construction Engineering Research Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project P2 335530, “Cultural Reasoning and Ethnographic Analysis for the

  11. A High Performance Computing Approach to Tree Cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery Using a Probabilistic Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Ganguly, Sangram; Michaelis, Andrew; Votava, Petr; Roy, Anshuman; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Tree cover delineation is a useful instrument in deriving Above Ground Biomass (AGB) density estimates from Very High Resolution (VHR) airborne imagery data. Numerous algorithms have been designed to address this problem, but most of them do not scale to these datasets, which are of the order of terabytes. In this paper, we present a semi-automated probabilistic framework for the segmentation and classification of 1-m National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) for tree-cover delineation for the whole of Continental United States, using a High Performance Computing Architecture. Classification is performed using a multi-layer Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network and segmentation is performed using a Statistical Region Merging algorithm. The results from the classification and segmentation algorithms are then consolidated into a structured prediction framework using a discriminative undirected probabilistic graphical model based on Conditional Random Field, which helps in capturing the higher order contextual dependencies between neighboring pixels. Once the final probability maps are generated, the framework is updated and re-trained by relabeling misclassified image patches. This leads to a significant improvement in the true positive rates and reduction in false positive rates. The tree cover maps were generated for the whole state of California, spanning a total of 11,095 NAIP tiles covering a total geographical area of 163,696 sq. miles. The framework produced true positive rates of around 88% for fragmented forests and 74% for urban tree cover areas, with false positive rates lower than 2% for both landscapes. Comparative studies with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) algorithm and the LiDAR canopy height model (CHM) showed the effectiveness of our framework for generating accurate high-resolution tree-cover maps.

  12. A High Performance Computing Approach to Tree Cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery using a Probabilistic Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Roy, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tree cover delineation is a useful instrument in deriving Above Ground Biomass (AGB) density estimates from Very High Resolution (VHR) airborne imagery data. Numerous algorithms have been designed to address this problem, but most of them do not scale to these datasets which are of the order of terabytes. In this paper, we present a semi-automated probabilistic framework for the segmentation and classification of 1-m National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) for tree-cover delineation for the whole of Continental United States, using a High Performance Computing Architecture. Classification is performed using a multi-layer Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network and segmentation is performed using a Statistical Region Merging algorithm. The results from the classification and segmentation algorithms are then consolidated into a structured prediction framework using a discriminative undirected probabilistic graphical model based on Conditional Random Field, which helps in capturing the higher order contextual dependencies between neighboring pixels. Once the final probability maps are generated, the framework is updated and re-trained by relabeling misclassified image patches. This leads to a significant improvement in the true positive rates and reduction in false positive rates. The tree cover maps were generated for the whole state of California, spanning a total of 11,095 NAIP tiles covering a total geographical area of 163,696 sq. miles. The framework produced true positive rates of around 88% for fragmented forests and 74% for urban tree cover areas, with false positive rates lower than 2% for both landscapes. Comparative studies with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) algorithm and the LiDAR canopy height model (CHM) showed the effectiveness of our framework for generating accurate high-resolution tree-cover maps.

  13. An expanded framework for the advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Osni A.; Drummond, Leroy A.

    2003-11-09

    The Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit is a set of computational tools developed primarily at DOE laboratories and is aimed at simplifying the solution of common and important computational problems. The use of the tools reduces the development time for new codes and the tools provide functionality that might not otherwise be available. This document outlines an agenda for expanding the scope of the ACTS Project based on lessons learned from current activities. Highlights of this agenda include peer-reviewed certification of new tools; finding tools to solve problems that are not currently addressed by the Toolkit; working in collaboration with other software initiatives and DOE computer facilities; expanding outreach efforts; promoting interoperability, further development of the tools; and improving functionality of the ACTS Information Center, among other tasks. The ultimate goal is to make the ACTS tools more widely used and more effective in solving DOE's and the nation's scientific problems through the creation of a reliable software infrastructure for scientific computing.

  14. COMPUTER-ASSISTED CONTROL OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING GRAPHICS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAMMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel'noy Viktor Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of computer-assisted computer technologies and their integration into the academic activity with a view to the control of the academic performance within the framework of distance learning programmes represent the subject matter of the article. The article is a brief overview of the software programme designated for the monitoring of the academic performance of students enrolled in distance learning programmes. The software is developed on Delphi 7.0 for Windows operating system. The strength of the proposed software consists in the availability of the two modes of its operation that differ in the principle of the problem selection and timing parameters. Interim academic performance assessment is to be performed through the employment of computerized testing procedures that contemplate the use of a data base of testing assignments implemented in the eLearning Server media. Identification of students is to be performed through the installation of video cameras at workplaces of students.

  15. VAT: a computational framework to functionally annotate variants in personal genomes within a cloud-computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Lukas; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chen, David Z; Khurana, Ekta; Sboner, Andrea; Harmanci, Arif; Rozowsky, Joel; Clarke, Declan; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The functional annotation of variants obtained through sequencing projects is generally assumed to be a simple intersection of genomic coordinates with genomic features. However, complexities arise for several reasons, including the differential effects of a variant on alternatively spliced transcripts, as well as the difficulty in assessing the impact of small insertions/deletions and large structural variants. Taking these factors into consideration, we developed the Variant Annotation Tool (VAT) to functionally annotate variants from multiple personal genomes at the transcript level as well as obtain summary statistics across genes and individuals. VAT also allows visualization of the effects of different variants, integrates allele frequencies and genotype data from the underlying individuals and facilitates comparative analysis between different groups of individuals. VAT can either be run through a command-line interface or as a web application. Finally, in order to enable on-demand access and to minimize unnecessary transfers of large data files, VAT can be run as a virtual machine in a cloud-computing environment. VAT is implemented in C and PHP. The VAT web service, Amazon Machine Image, source code and detailed documentation are available at vat.gersteinlab.org.

  16. A sophisticated programmable miniaturised pump for insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J C; Slama, G

    1980-09-01

    We have conceived a truly pre-programmable infusion system usable for intravenous administration of insulin in diabetic subjects. The original system has been built into a small, commercially available, syringe-pump of which only the case and the mechanical parts have been kept. The computing until has a timer, a programmable memory of 512 words by 8 bits and a digital-to-frequency converter to run the motor which drives the syringe. The memory contains 8 profiles of insulin injections stored in digital form over 64 words. Each profile is selected by the patient before eating according to the carbohydrate content of the planned meal and last about two hours, starting from and returning to the basal rate of insulin, at which it remains until next profile selection. Amount, profiles and duration of insulin injection are either mean values deduced from previous studies with a closed-loop artificial pancreas or personally fitted values; they are stored in an instantly replaceable memory cell. This device allows the patient to choose the time, nature and amount of his food intake.

  17. Solving Real-Life Problems: Future Mobile Technology Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAN SHAFIQ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the human being real life concerned domains are taking advantage of latest technologies for enhancing their process, procedures and operations. This integration of technological innovations provides ease of access, flexibility, transparency, reliability and speed for the concerned process and procedures. Rapid growth of ICT (Information and Communication Technology and MT (Mobile Technology provides opportunity to redesign and reengineered the human routines? life activities process and procedures. Technology integration and adoption in routine life activities may serves compensatory mechanism to assist the population in different manner such as monitoring older adults and children at homes, provides security assistance, monitoring and recording patients vital signs automatically, controlling and monitoring equipments and devices, providing assistance in shopping, banking and education as well. Disasters happened suddenly, destroy everything indiscriminately. Adoption and integration of latest technologies including ICT and MT can enhance the current disaster management process, procedures and operations. This research study focuses the impacts of latest and emerging technology trends in routine life activities and surrounds their potential strength to improve and enhance disaster management activities. MT is providing a promising platform for facilitating people to enhance their routine life activities. This research argue that integration and adoption of mobile computing in disaster management domain can enhance disaster management activities with promising minimizing error, quick information assembling, quick response based on technology manipulation and prioritizing action.

  18. Solving real-life problems: future mobile technology sophistication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, F.; Ahsan, K.; Nadeem, A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all the human being real life concerned domains are taking advantage of latest technologies for enhancing their process, procedures and operations. This integration of technological innovations provides ease of access, flexibility, transparency, reliability and speed for the concerned process and procedures. Rapid growth of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and MT (Mobile Technology) provides opportunity to redesign and re-engineered the human routines life activities process and procedures. Technology integration and adoption in routine life activities may serves compensatory mechanism to assist the population in different manner such as monitoring older adults and children at homes, provides security assistance, monitoring and recording patients vital signs automatically, controlling and monitoring equipments and devices, providing assistance in shopping, banking and education as well. Disasters happened suddenly, destroy everything indiscriminately. Adoption and integration of latest technologies including ICT and MT can enhance the current disaster management process, procedures and operations. This research study focuses the impacts of latest and emerging technology trends in routine life activities and surrounds their potential strength to improve and enhance disaster management activities. MT is providing a promising platform for facilitating people to enhance their routine life activities. This research argue that integration and adoption of mobile computing in disaster management domain can enhance disaster management activities with promising minimizing error, quick information assembling, quick response based on technology manipulation and prioritizing action. (author)

  19. A Computational Framework for Quantifying and Optimizing the Performance of Observational Networks in 4D-Var Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioaca, Alexandru

    A deep scientific understanding of complex physical systems, such as the atmosphere, can be achieved neither by direct measurements nor by numerical simulations alone. Data assimila- tion is a rigorous procedure to fuse information from a priori knowledge of the system state, the physical laws governing the evolution of the system, and real measurements, all with associated error statistics. Data assimilation produces best (a posteriori) estimates of model states and parameter values, and results in considerably improved computer simulations. The acquisition and use of observations in data assimilation raises several important scientific questions related to optimal sensor network design, quantification of data impact, pruning redundant data, and identifying the most beneficial additional observations. These questions originate in operational data assimilation practice, and have started to attract considerable interest in the recent past. This dissertation advances the state of knowledge in four dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation by developing, implementing, and validating a novel computational framework for estimating observation impact and for optimizing sensor networks. The framework builds on the powerful methodologies of second-order adjoint modeling and the 4D-Var sensitivity equations. Efficient computational approaches for quantifying the observation impact include matrix free linear algebra algorithms and low-rank approximations of the sensitivities to observations. The sensor network configuration problem is formulated as a meta-optimization problem. Best values for parameters such as sensor location are obtained by optimizing a performance criterion, subject to the constraint posed by the 4D-Var optimization. Tractable computational solutions to this "optimization-constrained" optimization problem are provided. The results of this work can be directly applied to the deployment of intelligent sensors and adaptive observations, as well as

  20. Nurturing Opportunity Identification for Business Sophistication in a Cross-disciplinary Study Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oganisjana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity identification is the key element of the entrepreneurial process; therefore the issue of developing this skill in students is a crucial task in contemporary European education which has recognized entrepreneurship as one of the lifelong learning key competences. The earlier opportunity identification becomes a habitual way of thinking and behavior across a broad range of contexts, the more likely that entrepreneurial disposition will steadily reside in students. In order to nurture opportunity identification in students for making them able to organize sophisticated businesses in the future, certain demands ought to be put forward as well to the teacher – the person who is to promote these qualities in their students. The paper reflects some findings of a research conducted within the frameworks of a workplace learning project for the teachers of one of Riga secondary schools (Latvia. The main goal of the project was to teach the teachers to identify hidden inner links between apparently unrelated things, phenomena and events within 10th grade study curriculum and connect them together and create new opportunities. The creation and solution of cross-disciplinary tasks were the means for achieving this goal.

  1. A Framework for Collaborative and Convenient Learning on Cloud Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The depth of learning resides in collaborative work with more engagement and fun. Technology can enhance collaboration with a higher level of convenience and cloud computing can facilitate this in a cost effective and scalable manner. However, to deploy a successful online learning environment, elementary components of learning pedagogy must be…

  2. A High Performance Computing Framework for Physics-based Modeling and Simulation of Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    cluster. The co-processing idea is the enabler of the heterogeneous computing concept advertised recently as the paradigm capable of delivering exascale ...Petascale to Exascale : Extending Intel’s HPC Commitment: http://download.intel.com/pressroom/archive/reference/ISC_2010_Skaugen_keynote.pdf in

  3. A Privacy-Preserving Framework for Collaborative Intrusion Detection Networks Through Fog Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Lin; Li, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cyber threats (e.g., intrusions) are distributed across various networks with the dispersed networking resources. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have already become an essential solution to defend against a large amount of attacks. With the development of cloud computing, a modern IDS...

  4. Conceptual Framework and Computational Research of Hierarchical Residential Household Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodeng Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the quantity of household water consumption does not account for a huge proportion of the total water consumption amidst socioeconomic development, there has been a steadily increasing trend due to population growth and improved urbanization standards. As such, mastering the mechanisms of household water demand, scientifically predicting trends of household water demand, and implementing reasonable control measures are key focuses of current urban water management. Based on the categorization and characteristic analysis of household water, this paper used Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to establish a level and grade theory of household water demand, whereby household water is classified into three levels (rigid water demand, flexible water demand, and luxury water demand and three grades (basic water demand, reasonable water demand, and representational water demand. An in-depth analysis was then carried out on the factors that influence the computation of household water demand, whereby equations for different household water categories were established, and computations for different levels of household water were proposed. Finally, observational experiments on household water consumption were designed, and observation and simulation computations were performed on three typical households in order to verify the scientific outcome and rationality of the computation of household water demand. The research findings contribute to the enhancement and development of prediction theories on water demand, and they are of high theoretical and realistic significance in terms of scientifically predicting future household water demand and fine-tuning the management of urban water resources.

  5. A high performance computing framework for physics-based modeling and simulation of military ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Lamb, David; Gorsich, David

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a software infrastructure made up of tools and libraries designed to assist developers in implementing computational dynamics applications running on heterogeneous and distributed computing environments. Together, these tools and libraries compose a so called Heterogeneous Computing Template (HCT). The heterogeneous and distributed computing hardware infrastructure is assumed herein to be made up of a combination of CPUs and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The computational dynamics applications targeted to execute on such a hardware topology include many-body dynamics, smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulation, and fluid-solid interaction analysis. The underlying theme of the solution approach embraced by HCT is that of partitioning the domain of interest into a number of subdomains that are each managed by a separate core/accelerator (CPU/GPU) pair. Five components at the core of HCT enable the envisioned distributed computing approach to large-scale dynamical system simulation: (a) the ability to partition the problem according to the one-to-one mapping; i.e., spatial subdivision, discussed above (pre-processing); (b) a protocol for passing data between any two co-processors; (c) algorithms for element proximity computation; and (d) the ability to carry out post-processing in a distributed fashion. In this contribution the components (a) and (b) of the HCT are demonstrated via the example of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for rigid body dynamics with friction and contact. The collision detection task required in frictional-contact dynamics (task (c) above), is shown to benefit on the GPU of a two order of magnitude gain in efficiency when compared to traditional sequential implementations. Note: Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Army. The views and

  6. Standardized evaluation framework for evaluating coronary artery stenosis detection, stenosis quantification and lumen segmentation algorithms in computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirişli, H A; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Dharampal, A S; Meijboom, W B; Papadopoulou, S L; Dedic, A; Nieman, K; de Graaf, M A; Meijs, M F L; Cramer, M J; Broersen, A; Cetin, S; Eslami, A; Flórez-Valencia, L; Lor, K L; Matuszewski, B; Melki, I; Mohr, B; Oksüz, I; Shahzad, R; Wang, C; Kitslaar, P H; Unal, G; Katouzian, A; Örkisz, M; Chen, C M; Precioso, F; Najman, L; Masood, S; Ünay, D; van Vliet, L; Moreno, R; Goldenberg, R; Vuçini, E; Krestin, G P; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2013-12-01

    Though conventional coronary angiography (CCA) has been the standard of reference for diagnosing coronary artery disease in the past decades, computed tomography angiography (CTA) has rapidly emerged, and is nowadays widely used in clinical practice. Here, we introduce a standardized evaluation framework to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms devised to detect and quantify the coronary artery stenoses, and to segment the coronary artery lumen in CTA data. The objective of this evaluation framework is to demonstrate the feasibility of dedicated algorithms to: (1) (semi-)automatically detect and quantify stenosis on CTA, in comparison with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and CTA consensus reading, and (2) (semi-)automatically segment the coronary lumen on CTA, in comparison with expert's manual annotation. A database consisting of 48 multicenter multivendor cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standards are described and made available. The algorithms from 11 research groups were quantitatively evaluated and compared. The results show that (1) some of the current stenosis detection/quantification algorithms may be used for triage or as a second-reader in clinical practice, and that (2) automatic lumen segmentation is possible with a precision similar to that obtained by experts. The framework is open for new submissions through the website, at http://coronary.bigr.nl/stenoses/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An Interactive Web-Based Analysis Framework for Remote Sensing Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Z.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhao, J. H.; Lin, Q. H.; Zhou, Y. C.; Li, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    Spatiotemporal data, especially remote sensing data, are widely used in ecological, geographical, agriculture, and military research and applications. With the development of remote sensing technology, more and more remote sensing data are accumulated and stored in the cloud. An effective way for cloud users to access and analyse these massive spatiotemporal data in the web clients becomes an urgent issue. In this paper, we proposed a new scalable, interactive and web-based cloud computing solution for massive remote sensing data analysis. We build a spatiotemporal analysis platform to provide the end-user with a safe and convenient way to access massive remote sensing data stored in the cloud. The lightweight cloud storage system used to store public data and users' private data is constructed based on open source distributed file system. In it, massive remote sensing data are stored as public data, while the intermediate and input data are stored as private data. The elastic, scalable, and flexible cloud computing environment is built using Docker, which is a technology of open-source lightweight cloud computing container in the Linux operating system. In the Docker container, open-source software such as IPython, NumPy, GDAL, and Grass GIS etc., are deployed. Users can write scripts in the IPython Notebook web page through the web browser to process data, and the scripts will be submitted to IPython kernel to be executed. By comparing the performance of remote sensing data analysis tasks executed in Docker container, KVM virtual machines and physical machines respectively, we can conclude that the cloud computing environment built by Docker makes the greatest use of the host system resources, and can handle more concurrent spatial-temporal computing tasks. Docker technology provides resource isolation mechanism in aspects of IO, CPU, and memory etc., which offers security guarantee when processing remote sensing data in the IPython Notebook. Users can write

  8. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, N

    2014-09-01

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator-prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework.

  9. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Li, N

    2014-01-01

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator–prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. (paper)

  10. A framework for the computer-aided planning and optimisation of manufacturing processes for components with functional graded properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, D.; Gausemeier, J.; Heim, H.-P.; Hess, S.; Petersen, M.; Ries, A.; Wagner, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution a framework for the computer-aided planning and optimisation of functional graded components is presented. The framework is divided into three modules - the "Component Description", the "Expert System" for the synthetisation of several process chains and the "Modelling and Process Chain Optimisation". The Component Description module enhances a standard computer-aided design (CAD) model by a voxel-based representation of the graded properties. The Expert System synthesises process steps stored in the knowledge base to generate several alternative process chains. Each process chain is capable of producing components according to the enhanced CAD model and usually consists of a sequence of heating-, cooling-, and forming processes. The dependencies between the component and the applied manufacturing processes as well as between the processes themselves need to be considered. The Expert System utilises an ontology for that purpose. The ontology represents all dependencies in a structured way and connects the information of the knowledge base via relations. The third module performs the evaluation of the generated process chains. To accomplish this, the parameters of each process are optimised with respect to the component specification, whereby the result of the best parameterisation is used as representative value. Finally, the process chain which is capable of manufacturing a functionally graded component in an optimal way regarding to the property distributions of the component description is presented by means of a dedicated specification technique.

  11. GLOFRIM v1.0 – A globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological–hydrodynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We here present GLOFRIM, a globally applicable computational framework for integrated hydrological–hydrodynamic modelling. GLOFRIM facilitates spatially explicit coupling of hydrodynamic and hydrologic models and caters for an ensemble of models to be coupled. It currently encompasses the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB as well as the hydrodynamic models Delft3D Flexible Mesh (DFM; solving the full shallow-water equations and allowing for spatially flexible meshing and LISFLOOD-FP (LFP; solving the local inertia equations and running on regular grids. The main advantages of the framework are its open and free access, its global applicability, its versatility, and its extensibility with other hydrological or hydrodynamic models. Before applying GLOFRIM to an actual test case, we benchmarked both DFM and LFP for a synthetic test case. Results show that for sub-critical flow conditions, discharge response to the same input signal is near-identical for both models, which agrees with previous studies. We subsequently applied the framework to the Amazon River basin to not only test the framework thoroughly, but also to perform a first-ever benchmark of flexible and regular grids on a large-scale. Both DFM and LFP produce comparable results in terms of simulated discharge with LFP exhibiting slightly higher accuracy as expressed by a Kling–Gupta efficiency of 0.82 compared to 0.76 for DFM. However, benchmarking inundation extent between DFM and LFP over the entire study area, a critical success index of 0.46 was obtained, indicating that the models disagree as often as they agree. Differences between models in both simulated discharge and inundation extent are to a large extent attributable to the gridding techniques employed. In fact, the results show that both the numerical scheme of the inundation model and the gridding technique can contribute to deviations in simulated inundation extent as we control for model forcing and boundary

  12. Sophistication of burnup analysis system for fast reactor (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hirai, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Improvement on prediction accuracy for neutronics characteristics of fast reactor cores is one of the most important study domains in terms of both achievement of high economical plant efficiency based on reasonably advanced designs and increased reliability and safety margins. In former study, considerable improvement on prediction accuracy in neutronics design has been achieved in the development of the unified cross-section set as a fruit of a series of critical experiments such as JUPITER in application of the reactor constant adjustments. For design of fast reactor cores improvement of not only static characteristics but also burnup characteristics is very important. For such purpose, it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy on burnup characteristics using actual burnup data of 'JOYO' and 'MONJU', experimental and prototype fast reactors. Recently, study on effective burnup method for minor actinides becomes important theme. However, there is a problem that analysis work tends to become inefficient for lack of functionality suitable for analysis of composition change due to burnup since the conventional analysis system is targeted to critical assembly systems. Therefore development of burnup analysis system for fast reactors with modularity and flexibility is being done that would contribute to actual core design work and improvement of prediction accuracy. In the previous study, we have developed a prototype system which has functions of performing core and burnup calculations using given constant files (PDS files) and information based on simple and easy user input data. It has also functions of fuel shuffling which is indispensable for power reactor analysis systems. In the present study, by extending the prototype system, features for handling of control rods and energy collapse of group constants have been designed and implemented. Computational results from the present analysis system are stored into restart files which can be accessible by

  13. A computational framework for 3D mechanical modeling of plant morphogenesis with cellular resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boudon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between genetic regulation and the definition of form and size during morphogenesis remains largely an open question in both plant and animal biology. This is partially due to the complexity of the process, involving extensive molecular networks, multiple feedbacks between different scales of organization and physical forces operating at multiple levels. Here we present a conceptual and modeling framework aimed at generating an integrated understanding of morphogenesis in plants. This framework is based on the biophysical properties of plant cells, which are under high internal turgor pressure, and are prevented from bursting because of the presence of a rigid cell wall. To control cell growth, the underlying molecular networks must interfere locally with the elastic and/or plastic extensibility of this cell wall. We present a model in the form of a three dimensional (3D virtual tissue, where growth depends on the local modulation of wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure. The model shows how forces generated by turgor-pressure can act both cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously to drive growth in different directions. We use simulations to explore lateral organ formation at the shoot apical meristem. Although different scenarios lead to similar shape changes, they are not equivalent and lead to different, testable predictions regarding the mechanical and geometrical properties of the growing lateral organs. Using flower development as an example, we further show how a limited number of gene activities can explain the complex shape changes that accompany organ outgrowth.

  14. Hi-tech in space - Rosetta - a space sophisticate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission will be getting under way in February 2004. The Rosetta spacecraft will be pairing up with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and accompanying it on its journey, investigating the comet’s composition and the dynamic processes at work as it flies sunwards. The spacecraft will even deposit a lander on the comet. “This will be our first direct contact with the surface of a comet,” said Dr Manfred Warhaut, Operations Manager for the Rosetta mission at ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. The trip is certainly not short: Rosetta will need ten years just to reach the comet. This places extreme demands on its hardware; when the probe meets up with the comet, all instruments must be fully operational, especially since it will have been in “hibernation” for 2 and a half years of its journey. During this ‘big sleep’, all systems, scientific instruments included, are turned off. Only the on-board computer remains active. Twelve cubic metres of technical wizardry Rosetta’s hardware fits into a sort of aluminium box measuring just 12 cubic metres. The scientific payload is mounted in the upper part, while the subsystems - on-board computer, transmitter and propulsion system - are housed below. The lander is fixed to the opposite side of the probe from the steerable antenna. As the spacecraft orbits the comet, the scientific instruments will at all times be pointed towards its surface; the antenna and solar panels will point towards the Earth and Sun respectively. For trajectory and attitude control and for the major braking manœuvres, Rosetta is equipped with 24 thrusters each delivering 10 N. That corresponds to the force needed here on Earth to hold a bag containing 10 apples. Rosetta sets off with 1650 kg of propellant on board, accounting for more than half its mass at lift-off. Just 20% of total mass is available for scientific purposes. So when developing the research instruments

  15. Lexical Sophistication as a Multidimensional Phenomenon: Relations to Second Language Lexical Proficiency, Development, and Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2018-01-01

    This study conceptualizes lexical sophistication as a multidimensional phenomenon by reducing numerous lexical features of lexical sophistication into 12 aggregated components (i.e., dimensions) via a principal component analysis approach. These components were then used to predict second language (L2) writing proficiency levels, holistic lexical…

  16. The predictors of economic sophistication: media, interpersonal communication and negative economic experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeropoulos, A.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.; van Dalen, A.

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to political sophistication, it is imperative that citizens have a certain level of economic sophistication, especially in times of heated debates about the economy. This study examines the impact of different influences (media, interpersonal communication and personal experiences) on

  17. Isocratean Discourse Theory and Neo-Sophistic Pedagogy: Implications for the Composition Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristine L.

    With the recent interest in the fifth century B.C. theories of Protagoras and Gorgias come assumptions about the philosophical affinity of the Greek educator Isocrates to this pair of older sophists. Isocratean education in discourse, with its emphasis on collaborative political discourse, falls within recent definitions of a sophist curriculum.…

  18. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  19. Web mining in soft computing framework: relevance, state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Talwar, V; Mitra, P

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the different characteristics of Web data, the basic components of Web mining and its different types, and the current state of the art. The reason for considering Web mining, a separate field from data mining, is explained. The limitations of some of the existing Web mining methods and tools are enunciated, and the significance of soft computing (comprising fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural networks (ANNs), genetic algorithms (GAs), and rough sets (RSs) are highlighted. A survey of the existing literature on "soft Web mining" is provided along with the commercially available systems. The prospective areas of Web mining where the application of soft computing needs immediate attention are outlined with justification. Scope for future research in developing "soft Web mining" systems is explained. An extensive bibliography is also provided.

  20. A Finite-Volume computational mechanics framework for multi-physics coupled fluid-stress problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C; Cross, M.; Pericleous, K.

    1998-01-01

    Where there is a strong interaction between fluid flow, heat transfer and stress induced deformation, it may not be sufficient to solve each problem separately (i.e. fluid vs. stress, using different techniques or even different computer codes). This may be acceptable where the interaction is static, but less so, if it is dynamic. It is desirable for this reason to develop software that can accommodate both requirements (i.e. that of fluid flow and that of solid mechanics) in a seamless environment. This is accomplished in the University of Greenwich code PHYSICA, which solves both the fluid flow problem and the stress-strain equations in a unified Finite-Volume environment, using an unstructured computational mesh that can deform dynamically. Example applications are given of the work of the group in the metals casting process (where thermal stresses cause elasto- visco-plastic distortion)

  1. Shader programming for computational arts and design: A comparison between creative coding frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Andres Felipe; Colubri, Andres; Charalambos, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We describe an Application Program Interface (API) that facilitates the use of GLSL shaders in computational design, interactive arts, and data visualization. This API was first introduced in the version 2.0 of Processing, a programming language and environment widely used for teaching and production in the context of media arts and design, and has been recently completed in the 3.0 release. It aims to incorporate low-level shading programming into code-based design, by int...

  2. A Methodological Framework for Software Safety in Safety Critical Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Srinivas Acharyulu; P. Seetharamaiah

    2012-01-01

    Software safety must deal with the principles of safety management, safety engineering and software engineering for developing safety-critical computer systems, with the target of making the system safe, risk-free and fail-safe in addition to provide a clarified differentaition for assessing and evaluating the risk, with the principles of software risk management. Problem statement: Prevailing software quality models, standards were not subsisting in adequately addressing the software safety ...

  3. An experimental and computational framework to build a dynamic protein atlas of human cell division

    OpenAIRE

    Kavur, Marina; Kavur, Marina; Kavur, Marina; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael; Ladurner, Rene; Martinic, Marina; Kueblbeck, Moritz; Nijmeijer, Bianca; Wachsmuth, Malte; Koch, Birgit; Walther, Nike; Politi, Antonio; Heriche, Jean-Karim; Hossain, M.

    2017-01-01

    Essential biological functions of human cells, such as division, require the tight coordination of the activity of hundreds of proteins in space and time. While live cell imaging is a powerful tool to study the distribution and dynamics of individual proteins after fluorescence tagging, it has not yet been used to map protein networks due to the lack of systematic and quantitative experimental and computational approaches. Using the cell and nuclear boundaries as landmarks, we generated a 4D ...

  4. TelluSim: A Python Plug-in Based Computational Framework for Spatially Distributed Environmental and Earth Sciences Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    TelluSim is a python-based computational framework for integrating and manipulating modules written in a variety of computer languages. TelluSim consists of a main program that dynamically, at run time, assembles a series of modules. These modules can be written in any language that can be accessed by Python. Currently we have modules in Fortran and Python, with C to be supported soon. New modules are incorporated as plug-ins like done for a browser or Photoshop, simply by copying the module binary into a plug-in directory. TelluSim automatically generates a GUI for parameter and state I/O, and automatically creates the intermodule communication mechanisms needed for the computations. A decision to use Python was arrived at after detailed trials using other languages including C, Tcl/Tk and Fortran. An important aspect of the design of TelluSim was to minimise the overhead in interfacing the modules with TelluSim, and minimise any requirement for recoding of existing software, so eliminating a major disadvantage of more complex frameworks (e.g. JAMS, openMI). Several significant Fortran codes developed by the author have been incorporated as part of the design process and as proof of concept. In particular the SIBERIA landform evolution code (a high performance F90 code, including parallel capability) has been broken up into a series of TelluSim modules, so that the SIBERIA now consists of a Python script of 20 lines. These 20 lines assemble and run the underlying modules (about 50,000 lines of Fortran code). The presentation will discuss in more detail the design of TelluSim, and our experiences of the advantages and disadvantages of using Python relative to other approaches.

  5. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR REMOTE SENSING CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal data, especially remote sensing data, are widely used in ecological, geographical, agriculture, and military research and applications. With the development of remote sensing technology, more and more remote sensing data are accumulated and stored in the cloud. An effective way for cloud users to access and analyse these massive spatiotemporal data in the web clients becomes an urgent issue. In this paper, we proposed a new scalable, interactive and web-based cloud computing solution for massive remote sensing data analysis. We build a spatiotemporal analysis platform to provide the end-user with a safe and convenient way to access massive remote sensing data stored in the cloud. The lightweight cloud storage system used to store public data and users’ private data is constructed based on open source distributed file system. In it, massive remote sensing data are stored as public data, while the intermediate and input data are stored as private data. The elastic, scalable, and flexible cloud computing environment is built using Docker, which is a technology of open-source lightweight cloud computing container in the Linux operating system. In the Docker container, open-source software such as IPython, NumPy, GDAL, and Grass GIS etc., are deployed. Users can write scripts in the IPython Notebook web page through the web browser to process data, and the scripts will be submitted to IPython kernel to be executed. By comparing the performance of remote sensing data analysis tasks executed in Docker container, KVM virtual machines and physical machines respectively, we can conclude that the cloud computing environment built by Docker makes the greatest use of the host system resources, and can handle more concurrent spatial-temporal computing tasks. Docker technology provides resource isolation mechanism in aspects of IO, CPU, and memory etc., which offers security guarantee when processing remote sensing data in the IPython Notebook

  6. Computational design of metal-organic frameworks with paddlewheel-type secondary building units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlogl, Udo; Peskov, Maxim V.; Masghouni, Nejib

    We employ the TOPOS package to study 697 coordination polymers containing paddlewheel-type secondary building units. The underlying nets are analyzed and 3 novel nets are chosen as potential topologies for paddlewheel-type metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Dicarboxylate linkers are used to build basic structures for novel isoreticular MOF series, aiming at relatively compact structures with a low number of atoms per unit cell. The structures are optimized using density functional theory. Afterwards the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo approach is employed to generate adsorption isotherms for CO2, CO, and CH4 molecules. We utilize the universal forcefield for simulating the interaction between the molecules and hosting MOF. The diffusion behavior of the molecules inside the MOFs is analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. A Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Integrated Design and Control of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    -separator-recycle (RSR) system. Next, it will be shown that the RSR system can be replaced by an intensified unit operation, a reactive distillation column (RDC) which optimal design-control solution is also presented. The operation and control of the RSR and RDC at the optimal designs is compared with other candidate...... processes including process intensification is proposed. Note however, because of integration of functions/operations into one system the controllability region of intensified equipment may become smaller (Nikačević et al., 2012). The methodology developed in this work, employs a decomposition......-based approach so that the complexity of the problem is reduced into a set of sub-problems that are solved sequentially. The production of methy-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) is used to demonstrate the application of the framework. First, optimal design-control solution is presented for MTBE production via a reactor...

  8. Framework and Method for Controlling a Robotic System Using a Distributed Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic system for performing an autonomous task includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of compliant robotic joints, actuators, and other integrated system devices that are controllable in response to control data from various control points, and having sensors for measuring feedback data at the control points. The system includes a multi-level distributed control framework (DCF) for controlling the integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. The DCF has a plurality of first controllers each embedded in a respective one of the integrated system components, e.g., the robotic joints, a second controller coordinating the components via the first controllers, and a third controller for transmitting a signal commanding performance of the autonomous task to the second controller. The DCF virtually centralizes all of the control data and the feedback data in a single location to facilitate control of the robot across the multiple communication networks.

  9. A computational framework for the optimal design of morphing processes in locally activated smart material structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuang; Brigham, John C

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-concept study is presented for a strategy to obtain maximally efficient and accurate morphing structures composed of active materials such as shape memory polymers (SMP) through synchronization of adaptable and localized activation and actuation. The work focuses on structures or structural components entirely composed of thermo-responsive SMP, and particularly utilizes the ability of such materials to display controllable variable stiffness. The study presents and employs a computational inverse mechanics approach that combines a computational representation of the SMP thermo-mechanical behavior with a nonlinear optimization algorithm to determine location, magnitude and sequencing of the activation and actuation to obtain a desired shape change subject to design objectives such as prevention of damage. Two numerical examples are presented in which the synchronization of the activation and actuation and the location of activation excitation were optimized with respect to the combined thermal and mechanical energy for design concepts in morphing skeletal structural components. In all cases the concept of localized activation along with the optimal design strategy were able to produce far more energy efficient morphing structures and more accurately reach the desired shape change in comparison to traditional methods that require complete structural activation prior to actuation. (paper)

  10. The One-node CMFD Computational Framework for Highly Parallel Reactor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents one such possible approach named the One-Node and Two-Node Hybrid CMFD method; One-Node CMFD is used to solve the global problem, while Two-Node NEM (Nodal Expansion Method) CMFD replaces FMFD as the local problem. Rapid advancement in computing capabilities has enabled the pursuit for high-fidelity tools in analyzing the reactor configurations. One such tool that gains a lot of recent attention is the pin-by-pin core calculation via local-global iteration with nonlinear acceleration scheme. One-Node CMFD method uses two correction terms to preserve the interface current and flux, in contrast to one correction term employed by conventional nonlinear iterative method proposed. With two correction terms, One-Node CMFD can reduce computing time of local FMFD (Fine-Mesh Finite Difference) as it nonlinearly couples the CMFD and FMFD methods in global-local iterations. Nonetheless, retrieving the pinlevel information from the local FMFD is very time consuming. As such, a more flexible approach is needed to address this challenge.

  11. Interpenetrated Uranyl-Organic Frameworks with bor and pts Topology: Structure, Spectroscopy, and Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Yang, Weiting; Pan, Qing-Jiang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2017-11-20

    Two novel three-dimensional interpenetrated uranyl-organic frameworks, (NH 4 ) 4 [(UO 2 ) 4 (L 1 ) 3 ]·6H 2 O (1) and [(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 L 2 ]·2H 2 O (2), where L 1 = tetrakis(3-carboxyphenyl)silicon and L 2 = tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)silicon, were synthesized by a combination of two isomeric tetrahedral silicon-centered ligands with 3-connected triangular [(UO 2 )(COO) 3 ] - and 4-connected dinuclear [(UO 2 ) 2 (COO) 4 ] units, respectively. Structural analyses indicate that 1 possesses a 2-fold interpenetrating anion bor network, while 2 exhibits a 3-fold interpenetrated 4,4-connected neutral network with pts topology. Both compounds were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and IR, UV-vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A relativistic density functional theory (DFT) investigation on 10 model compounds of 1 and 2 shows good agreement of the structural parameters, stretching vibrational frequencies, and absorption with experimental results; the time-dependent DFT calculations unravel that low-energy absorption bands originate from ligand-to-uranium charge transfer.

  12. ECG Signal Processing, Classification and Interpretation A Comprehensive Framework of Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are among the most important sources of diagnostic information in healthcare so improvements in their analysis may also have telling consequences. Both the underlying signal technology and a burgeoning variety of algorithms and systems developments have proved successful targets for recent rapid advances in research. ECG Signal Processing, Classification and Interpretation shows how the various paradigms of Computational Intelligence, employed either singly or in combination, can produce an effective structure for obtaining often vital information from ECG signals. Neural networks do well at capturing the nonlinear nature of the signals, information granules realized as fuzzy sets help to confer interpretability on the data and evolutionary optimization may be critical in supporting the structural development of ECG classifiers and models of ECG signals. The contributors address concepts, methodology, algorithms, and case studies and applications exploiting the paradigm of Comp...

  13. An Equivalent cross-section Framework for improving computational efficiency in Distributed Hydrologic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Urooj; Tuteja, Narendra; Ajami, Hoori; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    While the potential uses and benefits of distributed catchment simulation models is undeniable, their practical usage is often hindered by the computational resources they demand. To reduce the computational time/effort in distributed hydrological modelling, a new approach of modelling over an equivalent cross-section is investigated where topographical and physiographic properties of first-order sub-basins are aggregated to constitute modelling elements. To formulate an equivalent cross-section, a homogenization test is conducted to assess the loss in accuracy when averaging topographic and physiographic variables, i.e. length, slope, soil depth and soil type. The homogenization test indicates that the accuracy lost in weighting the soil type is greatest, therefore it needs to be weighted in a systematic manner to formulate equivalent cross-sections. If the soil type remains the same within the sub-basin, a single equivalent cross-section is formulated for the entire sub-basin. If the soil type follows a specific pattern, i.e. different soil types near the centre of the river, middle of hillslope and ridge line, three equivalent cross-sections (left bank, right bank and head water) are required. If the soil types are complex and do not follow any specific pattern, multiple equivalent cross-sections are required based on the number of soil types. The equivalent cross-sections are formulated for a series of first order sub-basins by implementing different weighting methods of topographic and physiographic variables of landforms within the entire or part of a hillslope. The formulated equivalent cross-sections are then simulated using a 2-dimensional, Richards' equation based distributed hydrological model. The simulated fluxes are multiplied by the weighted area of each equivalent cross-section to calculate the total fluxes from the sub-basins. The simulated fluxes include horizontal flow, transpiration, soil evaporation, deep drainage and soil moisture. To assess

  14. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  15. A High-Throughput Computational Framework for Identifying Significant Copy Number Aberrations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of copy number aberrations (CNA from comparative genomic hybridization data would be improved by the availability of a generalised method for processing large datasets. To this end, we developed swatCGH, a data analysis framework and region detection heuristic for computational grids. swatCGH analyses sequentially displaced (sliding windows of neighbouring probes and applies adaptive thresholds of varying stringency to identify the 10% of each chromosome that contains the most frequently occurring CNAs. We used the method to analyse a published dataset, comparing data preprocessed using four different DNA segmentation algorithms, and two methods for prioritising the detected CNAs. The consolidated list of the most commonly detected aberrations confirmed the value of swatCGH as a simplified high-throughput method for identifying biologically significant CNA regions of interest.

  16. Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    This research is aimed at developing a neiv and advanced simulation framework that will significantly improve the overall efficiency of aerospace systems design and development. This objective will be accomplished through an innovative integration of object-oriented and Web-based technologies ivith both new and proven simulation methodologies. The basic approach involves Ihree major areas of research: Aerospace system and component representation using a hierarchical object-oriented component model which enables the use of multimodels and enforces component interoperability. Collaborative software environment that streamlines the process of developing, sharing and integrating aerospace design and analysis models. . Development of a distributed infrastructure which enables Web-based exchange of models to simplify the collaborative design process, and to support computationally intensive aerospace design and analysis processes. Research for the first year dealt with the design of the basic architecture and supporting infrastructure, an initial implementation of that design, and a demonstration of its application to an example aircraft engine system simulation.

  17. A clinically driven variant prioritization framework outperforms purely computational approaches for the diagnostic analysis of singleton WES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Zornitza; Dashnow, Harriet; Lunke, Sebastian; Tan, Tiong Y; Yeung, Alison; Sadedin, Simon; Thorne, Natalie; Macciocca, Ivan; Gaff, Clara; Oshlack, Alicia; White, Susan M; James, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Rapid identification of clinically significant variants is key to the successful application of next generation sequencing technologies in clinical practice. The Melbourne Genomics Health Alliance (MGHA) variant prioritization framework employs a gene prioritization index based on clinician-generated a priori gene lists, and a variant prioritization index (VPI) based on rarity, conservation and protein effect. We used data from 80 patients who underwent singleton whole exome sequencing (WES) to test the ability of the framework to rank causative variants highly, and compared it against the performance of other gene and variant prioritization tools. Causative variants were identified in 59 of the patients. Using the MGHA prioritization framework the average rank of the causative variant was 2.24, with 76% ranked as the top priority variant, and 90% ranked within the top five. Using clinician-generated gene lists resulted in ranking causative variants an average of 8.2 positions higher than prioritization based on variant properties alone. This clinically driven prioritization approach significantly outperformed purely computational tools, placing a greater proportion of causative variants top or in the top 5 (permutation P-value=0.001). Clinicians included 40 of the 49 WES diagnoses in their a priori list of differential diagnoses (81%). The lists generated by PhenoTips and Phenomizer contained 14 (29%) and 18 (37%) of these diagnoses respectively. These results highlight the benefits of clinically led variant prioritization in increasing the efficiency of singleton WES data analysis and have important implications for developing models for the funding and delivery of genomic services.

  18. A computer vision framework for finger-tapping evaluation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Taha; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The rapid finger-tapping test (RFT) is an important method for clinical evaluation of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In clinical practice, the naked-eye evaluation of RFT results in a coarse judgment of symptom scores. We introduce a novel computer-vision (CV) method for quantification of tapping symptoms through motion analysis of index-fingers. The method is unique as it utilizes facial features to calibrate tapping amplitude for normalization of distance variation between the camera and subject. The study involved 387 video footages of RFT recorded from 13 patients diagnosed with advanced PD. Tapping performance in these videos was rated by two clinicians between the symptom severity levels ('0: normal' to '3: severe') using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor examination of finger-tapping (UPDRS-FT). Another set of recordings in this study consisted of 84 videos of RFT recorded from 6 healthy controls. These videos were processed by a CV algorithm that tracks the index-finger motion between the video-frames to produce a tapping time-series. Different features were computed from this time series to estimate speed, amplitude, rhythm and fatigue in tapping. The features were trained in a support vector machine (1) to categorize the patient group between UPDRS-FT symptom severity levels, and (2) to discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. A new representative feature of tapping rhythm, 'cross-correlation between the normalized peaks' showed strong Guttman correlation (μ2=-0.80) with the clinical ratings. The classification of tapping features using the support vector machine classifier and 10-fold cross validation categorized the patient samples between UPDRS-FT levels with an accuracy of 88%. The same classification scheme discriminated between RFT samples of healthy controls and PD patients with an accuracy of 95%. The work supports the feasibility of the approach, which is presumed suitable for PD monitoring

  19. Investigating the gas sorption mechanism in an rht -metal-organic framework through computational studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2014-01-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate CO2 and H2 sorption in an rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) that was synthesized with a ligand having a nitrogen-rich trigonal core through trisubstituted triazine groups and amine functional groups. This MOF was synthesized by two different groups, each reporting their own distinct gas sorption measurements and crystal structure. Electronic structure calculations demonstrated that the small differences in the atomic positions between each group\\'s crystal structure resulted in different electrostatic parameters about the Cu2+ ions for the respective unit cells. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed with and without many-body polarization effects and using our recently developed CO2 potentials, in addition to a well-known bulk CO2 model, in both crystallographic unit cells. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the results reported previously by Eddaoudi et al. for both structures using the polarizable CO2 potential. For both crystal structures, the initial site for CO2 sorption were the Cu 2+ ions that had the higher positive charge in the unit cell, although the identity of this electropositive Cu2+ ion was different in each case. Simulations of H2 sorption were performed with three different hydrogen potentials of increasing anisotropy in both crystal structures and the results, especially with the highest fidelity model, agreed well with Eddaoudi et al.\\'s experimental data. The preferred site of H 2 sorption at low loading was between two Cu2+ ions of neighboring paddlewheels. The calculation of the normalized hydrogen dipole distribution for the polarizable model in both crystal structures aided in the identification of four distinct sorption sites in the MOF, which is consistent to what was observed in the experimental inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra. Lastly, while the

  20. hctsa: A Computational Framework for Automated Time-Series Phenotyping Using Massive Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D; Jones, Nick S

    2017-11-22

    Phenotype measurements frequently take the form of time series, but we currently lack a systematic method for relating these complex data streams to scientifically meaningful outcomes, such as relating the movement dynamics of organisms to their genotype or measurements of brain dynamics of a patient to their disease diagnosis. Previous work addressed this problem by comparing implementations of thousands of diverse scientific time-series analysis methods in an approach termed highly comparative time-series analysis. Here, we introduce hctsa, a software tool for applying this methodological approach to data. hctsa includes an architecture for computing over 7,700 time-series features and a suite of analysis and visualization algorithms to automatically select useful and interpretable time-series features for a given application. Using exemplar applications to high-throughput phenotyping experiments, we show how hctsa allows researchers to leverage decades of time-series research to quantify and understand informative structure in time-series data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloud Computing Integrated Multi-Factor Authentication Framework Application in Logistics Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Erdi Karabulut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As new technology enables firms to perform many daily processes easier the need of authentication and authorization process is becoming an integral part of many businesses. Also mobile applications are very popular nowadays play an important role in our lives. Such demands are not only limited to Logistics Information Systems (LIS but many field of information system as well. In this study multi-dimensional authentication which consist of online biometric face detection integrated as cloud computing software as a Service (SaaS, Near Field Communication (NFC card authentication, location confirmation, and temporal data confirmation are gathered together to fulfill different scenarios of authentication needs of business. Microsoft Face API (Application Program Interface, SAAS (software as a service has been used in face recognition module of developed mobile application. The face recognition module of the mobile application has been tested with Yale Face Database. Location, temporal data and NFC card information are collected and confirmed by the mobile application for authentication and authorization. These images were tested with our facial recognition module and confusion matrices were created. The accuracy of the system after the facial recognition test was found to be 100%. NFC card, location and temporal data authentication not only further increases security level but also fulfils many business authentication scenarios successfully. To the best of our knowledge there is no other authentication model other than implemented one that has a-4-factor confirmation including biometric face identification, NFC card authentication, location confirmation and temporal data confirmation.

  2. Toward a framework for computer-mediated collaborative design in medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V L; Kaufman, D R; Allen, V G; Shortliffe, E H; Cimino, J J; Greenes, R A

    1999-09-01

    The development and implementation of enabling tools and methods that provide ready access to knowledge and information are among the central goals of medical informatics. The need for multi-institutional collaboration in the development of such tools and methods is increasingly being recognized. Collaboration involves communication, which typically involves individuals who work together at the same location. With the evolution of electronic modalities for communication, we seek to understand the role that such technologies can play in supporting collaboration, especially when the participants are geographically separated. Using the InterMed Collaboratory as a subject of study, we have analyzed their activities as an exercise in computer- and network-mediated collaborative design. We report on the cognitive, sociocultural, and logistical issues encountered when scientists from diverse organizations and backgrounds use communications technologies while designing and implementing shared products. Results demonstrate that it is important to match carefully the content with the mode of communication, identifying, for example, suitable uses of E-mail, conference calls, and face-to-face meetings. The special role of leaders in guiding and facilitating the group activities can also be seen, regardless of the communication setting in which the interactions occur. Most important is the proper use of technology to support the evolution of a shared vision of group goals and methods, an element that is clearly necessary before successful collaborative designs can proceed.

  3. A computational geometry framework for the optimisation of atom probe reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfer, Peter [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Institute for General Materials Properties, Department of Materials Science, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Cairney, Julie [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we present pathways for improving the reconstruction of atom probe data on a coarse (>10 nm) scale, based on computational geometry. We introduce a way to iteratively improve an atom probe reconstruction by adjusting it, so that certain known shape criteria are fulfilled. This is achieved by creating an implicit approximation of the reconstruction through a barycentric coordinate transform. We demonstrate the application of these techniques to the compensation of trajectory aberrations and the iterative improvement of the reconstruction of a dataset containing a grain boundary. We also present a method for obtaining a hull of the dataset in both detector and reconstruction space. This maximises data utilisation, and can be used to compensate for ion trajectory aberrations caused by residual fields in the ion flight path through a ‘master curve’ and correct for overall shape deviations in the data. - Highlights: • An atom probe reconstruction can be iteratively improved by using shape constraints. • An atom probe reconstruction can be inverted using barycentric coordinate transforms. • Hulls for atom probe datasets can be obtained from 2D detector outlines that are co-reconstructed with the data. • Ion trajectory compressions caused by instrument-specific residual fields in the drift tube can be corrected.

  4. A linear programming computational framework integrates phosphor-proteomics and prior knowledge to predict drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing; Yan, Ke; Dong, Ligang; Meng, Guanmin; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-21

    In recent years, the integration of 'omics' technologies, high performance computation, and mathematical modeling of biological processes marks that the systems biology has started to fundamentally impact the way of approaching drug discovery. The LINCS public data warehouse provides detailed information about cell responses with various genetic and environmental stressors. It can be greatly helpful in developing new drugs and therapeutics, as well as improving the situations of lacking effective drugs, drug resistance and relapse in cancer therapies, etc. In this study, we developed a Ternary status based Integer Linear Programming (TILP) method to infer cell-specific signaling pathway network and predict compounds' treatment efficacy. The novelty of our study is that phosphor-proteomic data and prior knowledge are combined for modeling and optimizing the signaling network. To test the power of our approach, a generic pathway network was constructed for a human breast cancer cell line MCF7; and the TILP model was used to infer MCF7-specific pathways with a set of phosphor-proteomic data collected from ten representative small molecule chemical compounds (most of them were studied in breast cancer treatment). Cross-validation indicated that the MCF7-specific pathway network inferred by TILP were reliable predicting a compound's efficacy. Finally, we applied TILP to re-optimize the inferred cell-specific pathways and predict the outcomes of five small compounds (carmustine, doxorubicin, GW-8510, daunorubicin, and verapamil), which were rarely used in clinic for breast cancer. In the simulation, the proposed approach facilitates us to identify a compound's treatment efficacy qualitatively and quantitatively, and the cross validation analysis indicated good accuracy in predicting effects of five compounds. In summary, the TILP model is useful for discovering new drugs for clinic use, and also elucidating the potential mechanisms of a compound to targets.

  5. A Framework to Support the Sharing and Reuse of Computable Phenotype Definitions Across Health Care Delivery and Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Smerek, Michelle M; Blake Cameron, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reproducibly identify clinically equivalent patient populations is critical to the vision of learning health care systems that implement and evaluate evidence-based treatments. The use of common or semantically equivalent phenotype definitions across research and health care use cases will support this aim. Currently, there is no single consolidated repository for computable phenotype definitions, making it difficult to find all definitions that already exist, and also hindering the sharing of definitions between user groups. Drawing from our experience in an academic medical center that supports a number of multisite research projects and quality improvement studies, we articulate a framework that will support the sharing of phenotype definitions across research and health care use cases, and highlight gaps and areas that need attention and collaborative solutions. An infrastructure for re-using computable phenotype definitions and sharing experience across health care delivery and clinical research applications includes: access to a collection of existing phenotype definitions, information to evaluate their appropriateness for particular applications, a knowledge base of implementation guidance, supporting tools that are user-friendly and intuitive, and a willingness to use them. We encourage prospective researchers and health administrators to re-use existing EHR-based condition definitions where appropriate and share their results with others to support a national culture of learning health care. There are a number of federally funded resources to support these activities, and research sponsors should encourage their use.

  6. IPTV Service Framework Based on Secure Authentication and Lightweight Content Encryption for Screen-Migration in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, the advancing of smart devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, PC, etc. capabilities and the increase of internet bandwidth enables IPTV service provider to extend their services to smart mobile devices. User can just receive their IPTV service using any smart devices by accessing the internet via wireless network from anywhere anytime in the world which is convenience for users. However, wireless network communication has well a known critical security threats and vulnerabilities to user smart devices and IPTV service such as user identity theft, reply attack, MIM attack, and so forth. A secure authentication for user devices and multimedia protection mechanism is necessary to protect both user devices and IPTV services. As result, we proposed framework of IPTV service based on secure authentication mechanism and lightweight content encryption method for screen-migration in Cloud computing. We used cryptographic nonce combined with user ID and password to authenticate user device in any mobile terminal they passes by. In addition we used Lightweight content encryption to protect and reduce the content decode overload at mobile terminals. Our proposed authentication mechanism reduces the computational processing by 30% comparing to other authentication mechanism and our lightweight content encryption reduces encryption delay to 0.259 second.

  7. SnowCloud - a Framework to Predict Streamflow in Snowmelt-dominated Watersheds Using Cloud-based Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Crumley, R. L.; Nolin, A. W.; Mar, E.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow in snowy mountain regions is extraordinarily challenging to forecast, and prediction efforts are hampered by the lack of timely snow data—particularly in data sparse regions. SnowCloud is a prototype web-based framework that integrates remote sensing, cloud computing, interactive mapping tools, and a hydrologic model to offer a new paradigm for delivering key data to water resource managers. We tested the skill of SnowCloud to forecast monthly streamflow with one month lead time in three snow-dominated headwaters. These watersheds represent a range of precipitation/runoff schemes: the Río Elqui in northern Chile (200 mm/yr, entirely snowmelt); the John Day River, Oregon, USA (635 mm/yr, primarily snowmelt); and the Río Aragon in the northern Spain (850 mm/yr, snowmelt dominated). Model skill corresponded to snowpack contribution with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.86, 0.52, and 0.21 respectively. SnowCloud does not require the user to possess advanced programming skills or proprietary software. We access NASA's MOD10A1 snow cover product to calculate the snow metrics globally using Google Earth Engine's geospatial analysis and cloud computing service. The analytics and forecast tools are provided through a web-based portal that requires only internet access and minimal training. To test the efficacy of SnowCloud we provided the tools and a series of tutorials in English and Spanish to water resource managers in Chile, Spain, and the United States. Participants assessed their user experience and provided feedback, and the results of our multi-cultural assessment are also presented. While our results focus on SnowCloud, they outline methods to develop cloud-based tools that function effectively across cultures and languages. Our approach also addresses the primary challenges of science-based computing; human resource limitations, infrastructure costs, and expensive proprietary software. These challenges are particularly problematic in developing

  8. Reuse, Recycle, Reweigh: Combating Influenza through Efficient Sequential Bayesian Computation for Massive Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tom, Jennifer A.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Massive datasets in the gigabyte and terabyte range combined with the availability of increasingly sophisticated statistical tools yield analyses at the boundary of what is computationally feasible. Compromising in the face of this computational burden by partitioning the dataset into more tractable sizes results in stratified analyses, removed from the context that justified the initial data collection. In a Bayesian framework, these stratified analyses generate intermediate realizations, of...

  9. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Computer Information Systems Technology. Computer Information Systems Technology (Program CIP: 52.1201--Management Information Systems & Business Data). Computer Programming (Program CIP: 52.1201). Network Support (Program CIP: 52.1290--Computer Network Support Technology). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for two programs in the state's postsecondary-level computer information systems technology cluster: computer programming and network support. Presented in the introduction are program descriptions and suggested course…

  10. Creation of an Open Framework for Point-of-Care Computer-Assisted Reporting and Decision Support Tools for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Bizzo, Bernardo C; Berland, Lincoln L; Nair, Sujith; Pandharipande, Pari V; Harvey, H Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Decreasing unnecessary variation in radiology reporting and producing guideline-concordant reports is fundamental to radiology's success in value-based payment models and good for patient care. In this article, we present an open authoring system for point-of-care clinical decision support tools integrated into the radiologist reporting environment referred to as the computer-assisted reporting and decision support (CAR/DS) framework. The CAR/DS authoring system, described herein, includes: (1) a definition format for representing radiology clinical guidelines as structured, machine-readable Extensible Markup Language documents and (2) a user-friendly reference implementation to test the fidelity of the created definition files with the clinical guideline. The proposed definition format and reference implementation will enable content creators to develop CAR/DS tools that voice recognition software (VRS) vendors can use to extend the commercial tools currently in use. In making the definition format and reference implementation software freely available, we hope to empower individual radiologists, expert groups such as the ACR, and VRS vendors to develop a robust ecosystem of CAR/DS tools that can further improve the quality and efficiency of the patient care that our field provides. We hope that this initial effort can serve as the basis for a community-owned open standard for guideline definition that the imaging informatics and VRS vendor communities will embrace and strengthen. To this end, the ACR Assist™ initiative is intended to make the College's clinical content, including the Incidental Findings Committee White Papers, available for decision support tool creation based upon the herein described CAR/DS framework. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A quality assurance framework for the fully automated and objective evaluation of image quality in cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiding, Christian; Kolditz, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Thousands of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners for vascular, maxillofacial, neurological, and body imaging are in clinical use today, but there is no consensus on uniform acceptance and constancy testing for image quality (IQ) and dose yet. The authors developed a quality assurance (QA) framework for fully automated and time-efficient performance evaluation of these systems. In addition, the dependence of objective Fourier-based IQ metrics on direction and position in 3D volumes was investigated for CBCT. Methods: The authors designed a dedicated QA phantom 10 cm in length consisting of five compartments, each with a diameter of 10 cm, and an optional extension ring 16 cm in diameter. A homogeneous section of water-equivalent material allows measuring CT value accuracy, image noise and uniformity, and multidimensional global and local noise power spectra (NPS). For the quantitative determination of 3D high-contrast spatial resolution, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of centrally and peripherally positioned aluminum spheres was computed from edge profiles. Additional in-plane and axial resolution patterns were used to assess resolution qualitatively. The characterization of low-contrast detectability as well as CT value linearity and artifact behavior was tested by utilizing sections with soft-tissue-equivalent and metallic inserts. For an automated QA procedure, a phantom detection algorithm was implemented. All tests used in the dedicated QA program were initially verified in simulation studies and experimentally confirmed on a clinical dental CBCT system. Results: The automated IQ evaluation of volume data sets of the dental CBCT system was achieved with the proposed phantom requiring only one scan for the determination of all desired parameters. Typically, less than 5 min were needed for phantom set-up, scanning, and data analysis. Quantitative evaluation of system performance over time by comparison to previous examinations was also

  12. A quality assurance framework for the fully automated and objective evaluation of image quality in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiding, Christian; Kolditz, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners for vascular, maxillofacial, neurological, and body imaging are in clinical use today, but there is no consensus on uniform acceptance and constancy testing for image quality (IQ) and dose yet. The authors developed a quality assurance (QA) framework for fully automated and time-efficient performance evaluation of these systems. In addition, the dependence of objective Fourier-based IQ metrics on direction and position in 3D volumes was investigated for CBCT. The authors designed a dedicated QA phantom 10 cm in length consisting of five compartments, each with a diameter of 10 cm, and an optional extension ring 16 cm in diameter. A homogeneous section of water-equivalent material allows measuring CT value accuracy, image noise and uniformity, and multidimensional global and local noise power spectra (NPS). For the quantitative determination of 3D high-contrast spatial resolution, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of centrally and peripherally positioned aluminum spheres was computed from edge profiles. Additional in-plane and axial resolution patterns were used to assess resolution qualitatively. The characterization of low-contrast detectability as well as CT value linearity and artifact behavior was tested by utilizing sections with soft-tissue-equivalent and metallic inserts. For an automated QA procedure, a phantom detection algorithm was implemented. All tests used in the dedicated QA program were initially verified in simulation studies and experimentally confirmed on a clinical dental CBCT system. The automated IQ evaluation of volume data sets of the dental CBCT system was achieved with the proposed phantom requiring only one scan for the determination of all desired parameters. Typically, less than 5 min were needed for phantom set-up, scanning, and data analysis. Quantitative evaluation of system performance over time by comparison to previous examinations was also verified. The maximum

  13. Second generation registry framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Hunter, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Information management systems are essential to capture data be it for public health and human disease, sustainable agriculture, or plant and animal biosecurity. In public health, the term patient registry is often used to describe information management systems that are used to record and track phenotypic data of patients. Appropriate design, implementation and deployment of patient registries enables rapid decision making and ongoing data mining ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. A major bottleneck encountered is the static nature of these registries. That is, software developers are required to work with stakeholders to determine requirements, design the system, implement the required data fields and functionality for each patient registry. Additionally, software developer time is required for ongoing maintenance and customisation. It is desirable to deploy a sophisticated registry framework that can allow scientists and registry curators possessing standard computing skills to dynamically construct a complete patient registry from scratch and customise it for their specific needs with little or no need to engage a software developer at any stage. This paper introduces our second generation open source registry framework which builds on our previous rare disease registry framework (RDRF). This second generation RDRF is a new approach as it empowers registry administrators to construct one or more patient registries without software developer effort. New data elements for a diverse range of phenotypic and genotypic measurements can be defined at any time. Defined data elements can then be utilised in any of the created registries. Fine grained, multi-level user and workgroup access can be applied to each data element to ensure appropriate access and data privacy. We introduce the concept of derived data elements to assist the data element standards communities on how they might be best categorised. We introduce the second generation RDRF that

  14. Hi-Jack: a novel computational framework for pathway-based inference of host–pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2015-03-09

    Motivation: Pathogens infect their host and hijack the host machinery to produce more progeny pathogens. Obligate intracellular pathogens, in particular, require resources of the host to replicate. Therefore, infections by these pathogens lead to alterations in the metabolism of the host, shifting in favor of pathogen protein production. Some computational identification of mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions have been proposed, but it seems the problem has yet to be approached from the metabolite-hijacking angle. Results: We propose a novel computational framework, Hi-Jack, for inferring pathway-based interactions between a host and a pathogen that relies on the idea of metabolite hijacking. Hi-Jack searches metabolic network data from hosts and pathogens, and identifies candidate reactions where hijacking occurs. A novel scoring function ranks candidate hijacked reactions and identifies pathways in the host that interact with pathways in the pathogen, as well as the associated frequent hijacked metabolites. We also describe host-pathogen interaction principles that can be used in the future for subsequent studies. Our case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) revealed pathways in human-e.g. carbohydrate metabolism, lipids metabolism and pathways related to amino acids metabolism-that are likely to be hijacked by the pathogen. In addition, we report interesting potential pathway interconnections between human and Mtb such as linkage of human fatty acid biosynthesis with Mtb biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, or linkage of human pentose phosphate pathway with lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mtb. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  16. Moral foundations and political attitudes: The moderating role of political sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Political attitudes can be associated with moral concerns. This research investigated whether people's level of political sophistication moderates this association. Based on the Moral Foundations Theory, this article examined whether political sophistication moderates the extent to which reliance on moral foundations, as categories of moral concerns, predicts judgements about policy positions. With this aim, two studies examined four policy positions shown by previous research to be best predicted by the endorsement of Sanctity, that is, the category of moral concerns focused on the preservation of physical and spiritual purity. The results showed that reliance on Sanctity predicted political sophisticates' judgements, as opposed to those of unsophisticates, on policy positions dealing with equal rights for same-sex and unmarried couples and with euthanasia. Political sophistication also interacted with Fairness endorsement, which includes moral concerns for equal treatment of everybody and reciprocity, in predicting judgements about equal rights for unmarried couples, and interacted with reliance on Authority, which includes moral concerns for obedience and respect for traditional authorities, in predicting opposition to stem cell research. Those findings suggest that, at least for these particular issues, endorsement of moral foundations can be associated with political attitudes more strongly among sophisticates than unsophisticates. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  18. EEG Recording and Online Signal Processing on Android: A Multiapp Framework for Brain-Computer Interfaces on Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debener, Stefan; Emkes, Reiner; Volkening, Nils; Fudickar, Sebastian; Bleichner, Martin G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our aim was the development and validation of a modular signal processing and classification application enabling online electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing on off-the-shelf mobile Android devices. The software application SCALA (Signal ProCessing and CLassification on Android) supports a standardized communication interface to exchange information with external software and hardware. Approach In order to implement a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) on the smartphone, we used a multiapp framework, which integrates applications for stimulus presentation, data acquisition, data processing, classification, and delivery of feedback to the user. Main Results We have implemented the open source signal processing application SCALA. We present timing test results supporting sufficient temporal precision of audio events. We also validate SCALA with a well-established auditory selective attention paradigm and report above chance level classification results for all participants. Regarding the 24-channel EEG signal quality, evaluation results confirm typical sound onset auditory evoked potentials as well as cognitive event-related potentials that differentiate between correct and incorrect task performance feedback. Significance We present a fully smartphone-operated, modular closed-loop BCI system that can be combined with different EEG amplifiers and can easily implement other paradigms. PMID:29349070

  19. EEG Recording and Online Signal Processing on Android: A Multiapp Framework for Brain-Computer Interfaces on Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Sarah; Debener, Stefan; Emkes, Reiner; Volkening, Nils; Fudickar, Sebastian; Bleichner, Martin G

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was the development and validation of a modular signal processing and classification application enabling online electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing on off-the-shelf mobile Android devices. The software application SCALA (Signal ProCessing and CLassification on Android) supports a standardized communication interface to exchange information with external software and hardware. In order to implement a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) on the smartphone, we used a multiapp framework, which integrates applications for stimulus presentation, data acquisition, data processing, classification, and delivery of feedback to the user. We have implemented the open source signal processing application SCALA. We present timing test results supporting sufficient temporal precision of audio events. We also validate SCALA with a well-established auditory selective attention paradigm and report above chance level classification results for all participants. Regarding the 24-channel EEG signal quality, evaluation results confirm typical sound onset auditory evoked potentials as well as cognitive event-related potentials that differentiate between correct and incorrect task performance feedback. We present a fully smartphone-operated, modular closed-loop BCI system that can be combined with different EEG amplifiers and can easily implement other paradigms.

  20. EEG Recording and Online Signal Processing on Android: A Multiapp Framework for Brain-Computer Interfaces on Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Blum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Our aim was the development and validation of a modular signal processing and classification application enabling online electroencephalography (EEG signal processing on off-the-shelf mobile Android devices. The software application SCALA (Signal ProCessing and CLassification on Android supports a standardized communication interface to exchange information with external software and hardware. Approach. In order to implement a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI on the smartphone, we used a multiapp framework, which integrates applications for stimulus presentation, data acquisition, data processing, classification, and delivery of feedback to the user. Main Results. We have implemented the open source signal processing application SCALA. We present timing test results supporting sufficient temporal precision of audio events. We also validate SCALA with a well-established auditory selective attention paradigm and report above chance level classification results for all participants. Regarding the 24-channel EEG signal quality, evaluation results confirm typical sound onset auditory evoked potentials as well as cognitive event-related potentials that differentiate between correct and incorrect task performance feedback. Significance. We present a fully smartphone-operated, modular closed-loop BCI system that can be combined with different EEG amplifiers and can easily implement other paradigms.

  1. Gas adsorption in Mg-porphyrin-based porous organic frameworks: A computational simulation by first-principles derived force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yujia; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-09-15

    A novel type of porous organic frameworks, based on Mg-porphyrin, with diamond-like topology, named POF-Mgs is computationally designed, and the gas uptakes of CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , and H 2 O in POF-Mgs are investigated by Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations based on first-principles derived force fields (FF). The FF, which describes the interactions between POF-Mgs and gases, are fitted by dispersion corrected double-hybrid density functional theory, B2PLYP-D3. The good agreement between the obtained FF and the first-principle energies data confirms the reliability of the FF. Furthermore our simulation shows the presence of a small amount of H 2 O (≤ 0.01 kPa) does not much affect the adsorption quantity of CO 2 , but the presence of higher partial pressure of H 2 O (≥ 0.1 kPa) results in the CO 2 adsorption decrease significantly. The good performance of POF-Mgs in the simulation inspires us to design novel porous materials experimentally for gas adsorption and purification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. FLUKA-LIVE-an embedded framework, for enabling a computer to execute FLUKA under the control of a Linux OS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.; Battistoni, G.; Mark, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a Linux-based OS framework for integrating the FLUKA Monte Carlo software (currently distributed only for Linux) into a CD-ROM, resulting in a complete environment for a scientist to edit, link and run FLUKA routines-without the need to install a UNIX/Linux operating system. The building process includes generating from scratch a complete operating system distribution which will, when operative, build all necessary components for successful operation of FLUKA software and libraries. Various source packages, as well as the latest kernel sources, are freely available from the Internet. These sources are used to create a functioning Linux system that integrates several core utilities in line with the main idea-enabling FLUKA to act as if it was running under a popular Linux distribution or even a proprietary UNIX workstation. On boot-up a file system will be created and the contents from the CD will be uncompressed and completely loaded into RAM-after which the presence of the CD is no longer necessary, and could be removed for use on a second computer. The system can operate on any i386 PC as long as it can boot from a CD

  3. Landscape of Research Areas for Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Computational Classification Based on Citation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Ogawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of porous materials is widely spreading nowadays, and researchers need to read tremendous numbers of papers to obtain a “bird’s eye” view of a given research area. However, it is difficult for researchers to obtain an objective database based on statistical data without any relation to subjective knowledge related to individual research interests. Here, citation network analysis was applied for a comparative analysis of the research areas for zeolites and metal-organic frameworks as examples for porous materials. The statistical and objective data contributed to the analysis of: (1 the computational screening of research areas; (2 classification of research stages to a certain domain; (3 “well-cited” research areas; and (4 research area preferences of specific countries. Moreover, we proposed a methodology to assist researchers to gain potential research ideas by reviewing related research areas, which is based on the detection of unfocused ideas in one area but focused in the other area by a bibliometric approach.

  4. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as

  5. The Value of Multivariate Model Sophistication: An Application to pricing Dow Jones Industrial Average options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    innovation for a Laplace innovation assumption improves the pricing in a smaller way. Apart from investigating directly the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses, we also use the model condence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performance.......We assess the predictive accuracy of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set 248 multivariate models that differer...

  6. Cognitive ability rivals the effect of political sophistication on ideological voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...... are consistent with the effect of cognitive ability being partly mediated by political sophistication. Much of the effect of cognitive ability remains however and is not explained by differences in education or Openness to experience either. The implications of these results for democratic theory are discussed....

  7. High-Throughput Computational Screening of the Metal Organic Framework Database for CH4/H2 Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Cigdem; Erucar, Ilknur; Keskin, Seda

    2018-01-31

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been considered as one of the most exciting porous materials discovered in the last decade. Large surface areas, high pore volumes, and tailorable pore sizes make MOFs highly promising in a variety of applications, mainly in gas separations. The number of MOFs has been increasing very rapidly, and experimental identification of materials exhibiting high gas separation potential is simply impractical. High-throughput computational screening studies in which thousands of MOFs are evaluated to identify the best candidates for target gas separation is crucial in directing experimental efforts to the most useful materials. In this work, we used molecular simulations to screen the most complete and recent collection of MOFs from the Cambridge Structural Database to unlock their CH 4 /H 2 separation performances. This is the first study in the literature, which examines the potential of all existing MOFs for adsorption-based CH 4 /H 2 separation. MOFs (4350) were ranked based on several adsorbent evaluation metrics including selectivity, working capacity, adsorbent performance score, sorbent selection parameter, and regenerability. A large number of MOFs were identified to have extraordinarily large CH 4 /H 2 selectivities compared to traditional adsorbents such as zeolites and activated carbons. We examined the relations between structural properties of MOFs such as pore sizes, porosities, and surface areas and their selectivities. Correlations between the heat of adsorption, adsorbility, metal type of MOFs, and selectivities were also studied. On the basis of these relations, a simple mathematical model that can predict the CH 4 /H 2 selectivity of MOFs was suggested, which will be very useful in guiding the design and development of new MOFs with extraordinarily high CH 4 /H 2 separation performances.

  8. Integrated computer-aided framework for chemical product and process application design and optimization for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Woodley, John M.; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents an integrated framework for product-process design. The framework integrates the two design problems into one and finds the optimal solution through simultaneous optimization. The framework consists of four hierarchical steps and uses a set of methods, tools and databases...... for property prediction, novel fluid design and mathematical programming. The application of the framework is targeted for waste heat recovery design systems, where the sensitivity of product and process design variables is high and the simultaneous design is necessary. The sustainable design solutions...... are showcased in this paper for mixed refrigeration design....

  9. A programming environment for distributed complex computing. An overview of the Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO) project. NASA Langley TOPS exhibit H120b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James C.; Weston, Robert P.; Eidson, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    The Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO) is a general programming environment for automating the distribution of complex computing tasks over a networked system of heterogeneous computers. For example, instead of manually passing a complex design problem between its diverse specialty disciplines, the FIDO system provides for automatic interactions between the discipline tasks and facilitates their communications. The FIDO system networks all the computers involved into a distributed heterogeneous computing system, so they have access to centralized data and can work on their parts of the total computation simultaneously in parallel whenever possible. Thus, each computational task can be done by the most appropriate computer. Results can be viewed as they are produced and variables changed manually for steering the process. The software is modular in order to ease migration to new problems: different codes can be substituted for each of the current code modules with little or no effect on the others. The potential for commercial use of FIDO rests in the capability it provides for automatically coordinating diverse computations on a networked system of workstations and computers. For example, FIDO could provide the coordination required for the design of vehicles or electronics or for modeling complex systems.

  10. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  11. The Relationship between Logistics Sophistication and Drivers of the Outsourcing of Logistics Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A strong link has been established between operational excellence and the degree of sophistication of logistics organization, a function of factors such as performance monitoring, investment in Information Technology [IT] and the formalization of logistics organization, as proposed in the Bowersox, Daugherty, Dröge, Germain and Rogers (1992 Leading Edge model. At the same time, shippers have been increasingly outsourcing their logistics activities to third party providers. This paper, based on a survey with large Brazilian shippers, addresses a gap in the literature by investigating the relationship between dimensions of logistics organization sophistication and drivers of logistics outsourcing. To this end, the dimensions behind the logistics sophistication construct were first investigated. Results from factor analysis led to the identification of six dimensions of logistics sophistication. By means of multivariate logistical regression analyses it was possible to relate some of these dimensions, such as the formalization of the logistics organization, to certain drivers of the outsourcing of logistics activities of Brazilian shippers, such as cost savings. These results indicate the possibility of segmenting shippers according to characteristics of their logistics organization, which may be particularly useful to logistics service providers.

  12. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?: Political Sophistication Moderates the Effect of Exposure to Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  13. Sophistic Ethics in the Technical Writing Classroom: Teaching "Nomos," Deliberation, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    1995-01-01

    Claims that teaching ethics is particularly important to technical writing. Outlines a classical, sophistic approach to ethics based on the theories and pedagogies of Protagoras, Gorgias, and Isocrates, which emphasizes the Greek concept of "nomos," internal and external deliberation, and responsible action. Discusses problems and…

  14. Close to the Clothes : Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  15. Close to the Clothes: Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  16. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012, three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011, and four Vocabprofile indices (Cobb, 2000 were selected to measure different dimensions of LC. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA indicated an improvement with regard to only lexical sophistication. Positive and significant relationships were found between time and mean values in Academic Word List and Beyond-2000 as indicators of lexical sophistication. The remaining seven indices of LC, falling short of significance, tended to flatten over the course of this writing program. Correlation analyses among LC indices indicated that lexical density enjoyed positive correlations with lexical sophistication. However, lexical diversity revealed no significant correlations with both lexical density and lexical sophistication. This study suggests that DST perspective specifies a viable foundation for analyzing lexical complexity

  17. Does a more sophisticated storm erosion model improve probabilistic erosion estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Callaghan, D.; Roelvink, D.

    2013-01-01

    The dependency between the accuracy/uncertainty of storm erosion exceedance estimates obtained via a probabilistic model and the level of sophistication of the structural function (storm erosion model) embedded in the probabilistic model is assessed via the application of Callaghan et al.'s (2008)

  18. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  19. Comparative Evaluation of a Four-Implant-Supported Polyetherketoneketone Framework Prosthesis: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Computer-Aided Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Sun; Shin, Sang-Wan; Lee, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Yol

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and compare polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) with different framework materials for implant-supported prostheses by means of a three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and computer-aided design (CAD) data. A geometric model that consisted of four maxillary implants supporting a prosthesis framework was constructed from CBCT and CAD data of a treated patient. Three different materials (zirconia, titanium, and PEKK) were selected, and their material properties were simulated using FEA software in the generated geometric model. In the PEKK framework (ie, low elastic modulus) group, the stress transferred to the implant and simulated adjacent tissue was reduced when compressive stress was dominant, but increased when tensile stress was dominant. This study suggests that the shock-absorbing effects of a resilient implant-supported framework are limited in some areas and that rigid framework material shows a favorable stress distribution and safety of overall components of the prosthesis.

  20. Decomposing dendrophilia. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Zuidema, Willem

    2014-09-01

    The future of cognitive science will be about bridging neuroscience and behavioral studies, with essential roles played by comparative biology, formal modeling, and the theory of computation. Nowhere will this integration be more strongly needed than in understanding the biological basis of language and music. We thus strongly sympathize with the general framework that Fitch [1] proposes, and welcome the remarkably broad and readable review he presents to support it.

  1. Sophisticated Fowl: The Complex Behaviour and Cognitive Skills of Chickens and Red Junglefowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garnham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

  2. The relation between maturity and sophistication shall be properly dealt with in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjiang

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies mainly developed in China in terms of safety and economy. The paper also discusses the maturity of the second generation improved technologies and the sophistication of the third generation technologies respectively. Meanwhile, the paper proposes that the advantage and disadvantage of second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies should be carefully taken into consideration and the relationship between the maturity and sophistication should be properly dealt with in the current stage. A two-step strategy shall be taken as a solution to solve the problem of insufficient capacity of nuclear power, trace and develop the third generation technologies, so as to ensure the sound and fast development of nuclear power. (authors)

  3. Financial Sophistication and the Distribution of the Welfare Cost of Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Boel; Gabriele Camera

    2009-01-01

    The welfare cost of anticipated inflation is quantified in a calibrated model of the U.S. economy that exhibits tractable equilibrium dispersion in wealth and earnings. Inflation does not generate large losses in societal welfare, yet its impact varies noticeably across segments of society depending also on the financial sophistication of the economy. If money is the only asset, then inflation hurts mostly the wealthier and more productive agents, while those poorer and less productive may ev...

  4. Putin’s Russia: Russian Mentality and Sophisticated Imperialism in Military Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Szénási, Lieutenant-Colonel Endre

    2016-01-01

    According to my experiences, the Western world hopelessly fails to understand Russian mentality, or misinterprets it. During my analysis of the Russian way of thinking I devoted special attention to the examination of military mentality. I have connected the issue of the Russian way of thinking to the contemporary imperial policies of Putin’s Russia.  I have also attempted to prove the level of sophistication of both. I hope that a better understanding of both the Russian mentality and imperi...

  5. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  6. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  7. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: The effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, J.L.B.; Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Johnson, P.W.; Raina, S.M.; Rynell, P.; Huysmans, M.A.; Dieën, J.H. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were

  8. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: the effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno-Garza, J.L.; Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Johnson, P.W.; Raina, S.M.; Rynell, P.; Huijsmans, M.A.; van Dieen, J.H.; van der Beek, A.J.; Blatter, B.M.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were

  9. Brains are not just neurons. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    This comment addresses the first component of Fitch's framework: the computational power of single neurons [3]. Although I agree that traditional models of neural computation have vastly underestimated the computational power of single neurons, I am hesitant to follow him completely. The exclusive focus on neurons is likely to underestimate the importance of other cells in the brain. In the last years, two such cell types have received appropriate attention by neuroscientists: interneurons and glia. Interneurons are small, tightly packed cells involved in the control of information processing in learning and memory. Rather than transmitting externally (like motor or sensory neurons), these neurons process information within internal circuits of the brain (therefore also called 'relay neurons'). Some specialized interneuron subtypes temporally regulate the flow of information in a given cortical circuit during relevant behavioral events [4]. In the human brain approx. 100 billion interneurons control information processing and are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson's.

  10. A two-stage multi-view learning framework based computer-aided diagnosis of liver tumors with contrast enhanced ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le-Hang; Wang, Dan; Qian, Yi-Yi; Zheng, Xiao; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Yue, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Jun; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2018-04-04

    With the fast development of artificial intelligence techniques, we proposed a novel two-stage multi-view learning framework for the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based computer-aided diagnosis for liver tumors, which adopted only three typical CEUS images selected from the arterial phase, portal venous phase and late phase. In the first stage, the deep canonical correlation analysis (DCCA) was performed on three image pairs between the arterial and portal venous phases, arterial and delayed phases, and portal venous and delayed phases respectively, which then generated total six-view features. While in the second stage, these multi-view features were then fed to a multiple kernel learning (MKL) based classifier to further promote the diagnosis result. Two MKL classification algorithms were evaluated in this MKL-based classification framework. We evaluated proposed DCCA-MKL framework on 93 lesions (47 malignant cancers vs. 46 benign tumors). The proposed DCCA-MKL framework achieved the mean classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, false positive rate, and false negative rate of 90.41 ± 5.80%, 93.56 ± 5.90%, 86.89 ± 9.38%, 79.44 ± 11.83%, 13.11 ± 9.38% and 6.44 ± 5.90%, respectively, by soft margin MKL classifier. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DCCA-MKL framework achieves best performance for discriminating benign liver tumors from malignant liver cancers. Moreover, it is also proved that the three-phase CEUS image based CAD is feasible for liver tumors with the proposed DCCA-MKL framework.

  11. Privacy and Data Security under Cloud Computing Arrangements: The Legal Framework and Practical Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Joel; Gold, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines privacy and data security compliance issues facing postsecondary education institutions when they utilize cloud computing and concludes with a practical list of do's and dont's. Cloud computing does not change an institution's privacy and data security obligations. It does involve reliance on a third party, which requires an…

  12. A Framework for Assessing High School Students' Intercultural Communicative Competence in a Computer-Mediated Language Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Chao-I

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the essential dimensions of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and to establish a framework for assessing the ICC level of high school students that included a self-report inventory and scoring rubrics for online interaction in intercultural contexts. A total of 472 high school students from…

  13. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CO2 Capture Using the SIFSIX-2-Cu-i Metal-Organic Framework: A Computational Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Maurin, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide and its separation from mixtures with methane using the recently synthetized SIFSIX-2-Cu-i metal-organic framework (Nature, 2014, 495, 80-84) has been systematically studied by employing a variety of molecular

  15. Do organizations adopt sophisticated capital budgeting practices to deal with uncertainty in the investment decision? : A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H M

    This study examines the impact of uncertainty on the sophistication of capital budgeting practices. While the theoretical applications of sophisticated capital budgeting practices (defined as the use of real option reasoning and/or game theory decision rules) have been well documented, empirical

  16. "SOCRATICS" AS ADDRESSES OF ISOCRATES’ EPIDEICTIC SPEECHES (Against the Sophists, Encomium of Helen, Busiris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Usacheva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the three epideictic orations of Isocrates which are in themselves a precious testimony of the quality of intellectual life at the close of the fourth century before Christ. To this period belong also the Socratics who are generally seen as an important link between Socrates and Plato. The author of this article proposes a more productive approach to the study of Antisthenes, Euclid of Megara and other so-called Socratics, revealing them not as independent thinkers but rather as adherents of the sophistic school and also as teachers, thereby, including them among those who took part in the educative activity of their time

  17. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  18. A Framework for Federated Two-Factor Authentication Enabling Cost-Effective Secure Access to Distributed Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Rogers, Gary L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Peterson, Gregory D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    As cyber attacks become increasingly sophisticated, the security measures used to mitigate the risks must also increase in sophistication. One time password (OTP) systems provide strong authentication because security credentials are not reusable, thus thwarting credential replay attacks. The credential changes regularly, making brute-force attacks significantly more difficult. In high performance computing, end users may require access to resources housed at several different service provider locations. The ability to share a strong token between multiple computing resources reduces cost and complexity. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) provides access to digital resources, including supercomputers, data resources, and software tools. XSEDE will offer centralized strong authentication for services amongst service providers that leverage their own user databases and security profiles. This work implements a scalable framework built on standards to provide federated secure access to distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  19. Learning openCV computer vision with the openCV library

    CERN Document Server

    Bradski, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Learning OpenCV puts you right in the middle of the rapidly expanding field of computer vision. Written by the creators of OpenCV, the widely used free open-source library, this book introduces you to computer vision and demonstrates how you can quickly build applications that enable computers to see" and make decisions based on the data. With this book, any developer or hobbyist can get up and running with the framework quickly, whether it's to build simple or sophisticated vision applications

  20. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor no...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  2. Relationship between quality of care and choice of clinical computing system: retrospective analysis of family practice performance under the UK's quality and outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Buchan, Iain; Reeves, David; Checkland, Kath; Doran, Tim

    2013-08-02

    To investigate the relationship between performance on the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework pay-for-performance scheme and choice of clinical computer system. Retrospective longitudinal study. Data for 2007-2008 to 2010-2011, extracted from the clinical computer systems of general practices in England. All English practices participating in the pay-for-performance scheme: average 8257 each year, covering over 99% of the English population registered with a general practice. Levels of achievement on 62 quality-of-care indicators, measured as: reported achievement (levels of care after excluding inappropriate patients); population achievement (levels of care for all patients with the relevant condition) and percentage of available quality points attained. Multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify population, practice and clinical computing system predictors of achievement. Seven clinical computer systems were consistently active in the study period, collectively holding approximately 99% of the market share. Of all population and practice characteristics assessed, choice of clinical computing system was the strongest predictor of performance across all three outcome measures. Differences between systems were greatest for intermediate outcomes indicators (eg, control of cholesterol levels). Under the UK's pay-for-performance scheme, differences in practice performance were associated with the choice of clinical computing system. This raises the question of whether particular system characteristics facilitate higher quality of care, better data recording or both. Inconsistencies across systems need to be understood and addressed, and researchers need to be cautious when generalising findings from samples of providers using a single computing system.

  3. Systematization and sophistication of a comprehensive sensitivity analysis program. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Takao

    2004-02-01

    This study developed minute estimation by adopting comprehensive sensitivity analytical program for reliability of TRU waste repository concepts in a crystalline rock condition. We examined each components and groundwater scenario of geological repository and prepared systematic bases to examine the reliability from the point of comprehensiveness. Models and data are sophisticated to examine the reliability. Based on an existing TRU waste repository concepts, effects of parameters to nuclide migration were quantitatively classified. Those parameters, that will be decided quantitatively, are such as site character of natural barrier and design specification of engineered barriers. Considering the feasibility of those figures of specifications, reliability is re-examined on combinations of those parameters within a practical range. Future issues are; Comprehensive representation of hybrid geosphere model including the fractured medium and permeable matrix medium. Sophistication of tools to develop the reliable combinations of parameters. It is significant to continue this study because the disposal concepts and specification of TRU nuclides containing waste on various sites shall be determined rationally and safely through these studies. (author)

  4. Blueprint and First Experiences Bridging Hardware Virtualization and Global Grids for Advanced Scientific Computing: Designing and Building a Global Edge Services Framework (ESF) for OSG, EGEE, and LCG

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, A S; Vaniachine, A; Wurthwein, F; Foster, I; Sotomayor, B; Freeman, T

    2006-01-01

    We report on first experiences with building and operating an edge services framework (ESF) based on Xen virtual machines instantiated via the workspace service in Globus toolkit, and developed as a joint project between EGEE, LCG, and OSG. Many computing facilities are architected with their compute and storage clusters behind firewalls. Edge services (ES) are instantiated on a small set of gateways to provide access to these clusters via standard grid interfaces. Experience on EGEE, LCG, and OSG has shown that at least two issues are of critical importance when designing an infrastructure in support of ES. The first concerns ES configuration. It is impractical to assume that each virtual organization (VO) using a facility will employ the same ES configuration, or that different configurations will coexist easily. Even within a VO, it should be possible to run different versions of the same ES simultaneously. The second issue concerns resource allocation: it is essential that an ESF be able to effectively gu...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  8. Computational Analysis and Simulation of Empathic Behaviors: a Survey of Empathy Modeling with Behavioral Signal Processing Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Atkins, David C; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2016-05-01

    Empathy is an important psychological process that facilitates human communication and interaction. Enhancement of empathy has profound significance in a range of applications. In this paper, we review emerging directions of research on computational analysis of empathy expression and perception as well as empathic interactions, including their simulation. We summarize the work on empathic expression analysis by the targeted signal modalities (e.g., text, audio, and facial expressions). We categorize empathy simulation studies into theory-based emotion space modeling or application-driven user and context modeling. We summarize challenges in computational study of empathy including conceptual framing and understanding of empathy, data availability, appropriate use and validation of machine learning techniques, and behavior signal processing. Finally, we propose a unified view of empathy computation and offer a series of open problems for future research.

  9. Extended exploding reflector concept for computing prestack traveltimes for waves of different type in the DSR framework

    KAUST Repository

    Duchkov, Anton A.

    2013-09-22

    The double-square-root (DSR) equation can be viewed as a Hamilton-Jacobi equation describing kinematics of downward data continuation in depth. It describes simultaneous propagation of source and receiver rays which allows computing reflection wave prestack traveltimes (for multiple sources) in a one run thus speeding up solution of the forward problem. Here we give and overview of different alternative forms of the DSR equation which allows stepping in two-way time and subsurface offset instead of depth. Different forms of the DSR equation are suitable for computing different types of waves including reflected, head and diving waves. We develop a WENO-RK numerical scheme for solving all mentioned forms of the DSR equation. Finally the extended exploding reflector concept can be used for computing prestack traveltimes while initiating the numerical solver as if a reflector was exploding in extended imaging space.

  10. Cloud based automated framework for semantic rich ontology construction and similarity computation for E-health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MuthamilSelvan

    Full Text Available Ontology structure, a core of semantic web is an excellent tool for knowledge representation and semantic visualization. Moreover, knowledge reuse is made possible through similarity measure estimation between two ontologies, threshold estimation and use of simple if-then rules for checking relevancy and irrelevancy measures. Reduced semantic representations of the ontology provide reduced knowledge visualization which is critical especially for e-health data processing and analysis. This usually occurs due to the presence of implicit knowledge and polymorphic objects and can be made semantically rich through the construction by resolving this implicit knowledge occurring in the form of non-dominant words and conditional dependence actions. This paper presents the working of the automated framework for the construction of semantic rich ontology structures and store in the repository. This construction uses dyadic deontic logic based Graph Derivation Representation in order to construct semantically rich ontologies. Moreover, in order to retrieve a set of relevant documents in response to the cloud user document, the degree of similarity between two ontologies is estimated using the traditional cosine similarity measure and simple if-then rules are used to determine the number of relevant documents and obtain such document's metadata for further processing. These working modules will be extremely beneficial to the authenticated cloud users for document retrieval, information extraction and domain dictionary construction which are especially used for e-health applications. The proposed framework is implemented using diabetes dataset and the effectiveness of the experimental results is high when compared to other Graph Derivation Representation methods. The graphical results shown in the paper is an added visualization for viewing the performance of the proposed framework. Keywords: Ontology, Implicit knowledge, Conditional dependence, Graph

  11. A Framework for Developing Real-Time OLAP algorithm using Multi-core processing and GPU: Heterogeneous Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzeini, H I; Hameed, Sh A; Habaebi, M H

    2013-01-01

    The overwhelmingly increasing amount of stored data has spurred researchers seeking different methods in order to optimally take advantage of it which mostly have faced a response time problem as a result of this enormous size of data. Most of solutions have suggested materialization as a favourite solution. However, such a solution cannot attain Real-Time answers anyhow. In this paper we propose a framework illustrating the barriers and suggested solutions in the way of achieving Real-Time OLAP answers that are significantly used in decision support systems and data warehouses

  12. A Framework for Developing Real-Time OLAP algorithm using Multi-core processing and GPU: Heterogeneous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeini, H. I.; Hameed, Sh A.; Habaebi, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    The overwhelmingly increasing amount of stored data has spurred researchers seeking different methods in order to optimally take advantage of it which mostly have faced a response time problem as a result of this enormous size of data. Most of solutions have suggested materialization as a favourite solution. However, such a solution cannot attain Real-Time answers anyhow. In this paper we propose a framework illustrating the barriers and suggested solutions in the way of achieving Real-Time OLAP answers that are significantly used in decision support systems and data warehouses.

  13. The Language Factor in Elementary Mathematics Assessments: Computational Skills and Applied Problem Solving in a Multidimensional IRT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…

  14. The Plant-Window System: A framework for an integrated computing environment at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The extensive use of computer technology in advanced reactor designs provides the opportunity to greatly expand the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, to support highly efficient and increasingly safe operation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and sued, to the proper users throughout the plan. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications within a common computing environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces so as to define a flexible computing environment for both current generation nuclear power plants and advanced reactor designs

  15. Extended exploding reflector concept for computing prestack traveltimes for waves of different type in the DSR framework

    KAUST Repository

    Duchkov, Anton A.; Serdyukov, Alexander S.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    including reflected, head and diving waves. We develop a WENO-RK numerical scheme for solving all mentioned forms of the DSR equation. Finally the extended exploding reflector concept can be used for computing prestack traveltimes while initiating the numerical solver as if a reflector was exploding in extended imaging space.

  16. A Framework for Safe Composition of Heterogeneous SOA Services in a Pervasive Computing Environment with Resource Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Alamo, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Service Oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm, defines services as software artifacts whose implementations are separated from their specifications. Application developers rely on services to simplify the design, reduce the development time and cost. Within the SOC paradigm, different Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) have been developed.…

  17. Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Huttenga, A.; Jackson, R.; TenBrook, W.; Russell, J.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the DOE complex, (2) development and frequency estimation of the risk-dominant sequences of accidents, and (3) determination of the evolution of and final compositions of radiological or chemically hazardous source terms predicted to be released as a function of the storage inventory or treatment process throughput. The computational framework automates these elements to provide source term input for the second part of the analysis which includes (1) development or integration of existing site-specific demographics and meteorological data and calculation of attendant unit-risk factors and (2) assessment of the radiological or toxicological consequences of accident releases to the general public and to the occupational work force

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  19. CO2 Capture Using the SIFSIX-2-Cu-i Metal-Organic Framework: A Computational Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis

    2017-10-24

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide and its separation from mixtures with methane using the recently synthetized SIFSIX-2-Cu-i metal-organic framework (Nature, 2014, 495, 80-84) has been systematically studied by employing a variety of molecular simulation techniques. Quantum density functional theory calculations have been combined with force-field based Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations in order to provide a deeper insight on the molecular-scale processes controlling the thermodynamic and dynamic adsorption selectivity of carbon dioxide over methane, giving particular emphasis on the mechanisms underlying the diffusion of the confined molecules in this porous hybrid material. The diffusion process was revealed to be mainly controlled by both (i) the residence dynamics around some specific interaction sites of the fluorinated metal-organic framework and (ii) the dynamics related to the process where faster molecules overtake slower ones in the narrow one-dimensional channel of SIFSIX-2-Cu-i. We further unveil a 1-dimensional diffusion behavior of both carbon dioxide and methane confined in this small pore MOF where single file diffusion is not observed.

  20. Optimization of Network Topology in Computer-Aided Detection Schemes Using Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time-Scaled Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In the field of computer-aided mammographic mass detection, many different features and classifiers have been tested. Frequently, the relevant features and optimal topology for the artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches at the classification stage are unknown, and thus determined by trial-and-error experiments. In this study, we analyzed a classifier that evolves ANNs using genetic algorithms (GAs), which combines feature selection with the learning task. The classifier named "Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time-Scaled Framework" was analyzed using a dataset with 800 malignant and 800 normal tissue regions in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. The classification performance measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.856 ± 0.029. The result was also compared with four other well-established classifiers that include fixed-topology ANNs, support vector machines (SVMs), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and bagged decision trees. The results show that Phased Searching outperformed the LDA and bagged decision tree classifiers, and was only significantly outperformed by SVM. Furthermore, the Phased Searching method required fewer features and discarded superfluous structure or topology, thus incurring a lower feature computational and training and validation time requirement. Analyses performed on the network complexities evolved by Phased Searching indicate that it can evolve optimal network topologies based on its complexification and simplification parameter selection process. From the results, the study also concluded that the three classifiers - SVM, fixed-topology ANN, and Phased Searching with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) in a Time-Scaled Framework - are performing comparably well in our mammographic mass detection scheme.

  1. Development and Application of a Numerical Framework for Improving Building Foundation Heat Transfer Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Nathanael J. F.

    Heat transfer from building foundations varies significantly in all three spatial dimensions and has important dynamic effects at all timescales, from one hour to several years. With the additional consideration of moisture transport, ground freezing, evapotranspiration, and other physical phenomena, the estimation of foundation heat transfer becomes increasingly sophisticated and computationally intensive to the point where accuracy must be compromised for reasonable computation time. The tools currently available to calculate foundation heat transfer are often either too limited in their capabilities to draw meaningful conclusions or too sophisticated to use in common practices. This work presents Kiva, a new foundation heat transfer computational framework. Kiva provides a flexible environment for testing different numerical schemes, initialization methods, spatial and temporal discretizations, and geometric approximations. Comparisons within this framework provide insight into the balance of computation speed and accuracy relative to highly detailed reference solutions. The accuracy and computational performance of six finite difference numerical schemes are verified against established IEA BESTEST test cases for slab-on-grade heat conduction. Of the schemes tested, the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme demonstrates the best balance between accuracy, performance, and numerical stability. Kiva features four approaches of initializing soil temperatures for an annual simulation. A new accelerated initialization approach is shown to significantly reduce the required years of presimulation. Methods of approximating three-dimensional heat transfer within a representative two-dimensional context further improve computational performance. A new approximation called the boundary layer adjustment method is shown to improve accuracy over other established methods with a negligible increase in computation time. This method accounts for the reduced heat transfer

  2. xSyn: A Software Tool for Identifying Sophisticated 3-Way Interactions From Cancer Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishali Bandyopadhyay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constructing gene co-expression networks from cancer expression data is important for investigating the genetic mechanisms underlying cancer. However, correlation coefficients or linear regression models are not able to model sophisticated relationships among gene expression profiles. Here, we address the 3-way interaction that 2 genes’ expression levels are clustered in different space locations under the control of a third gene’s expression levels. Results: We present xSyn, a software tool for identifying such 3-way interactions from cancer gene expression data based on an optimization procedure involving the usage of UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and synergy. The effectiveness is demonstrated by application to 2 real gene expression data sets. Conclusions: xSyn is a useful tool for decoding the complex relationships among gene expression profiles. xSyn is available at http://www.bdxconsult.com/xSyn.html .

  3. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  4. RSYST: From nuclear reactor calculations towards a highly sophisticated scientific software integration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, M.; Seybold, J.; Ruehle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The software environment RSYST was originally used to solve problems of reactor physics. The consideration of advanced scientific simulation requirements and the strict application of modern software design principles led to a system which is perfectly suitable to solve problems in various complex scientific problem domains. Starting with a review of the early days of RSYST, we describe the straight evolution driven by the need of software environment which combines the advantages of a high-performance database system with the capability to integrate sophisticated scientific technical applications. The RSYST architecture is presented and the data modelling capabilities are described. To demonstrate the powerful possibilities and flexibility of the RSYST environment, we describe a wide range of RSYST applications, e.g., mechanical simulations of multibody systems, which are used in biomechanical research, civil engineering and robotics. In addition, a hypermedia system which is used for scientific technical training and documentation is presented. (orig.) [de

  5. EEG Recording and Online Signal Processing on Android: A Multiapp Framework for Brain-Computer Interfaces on Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Sarah; Debener, Stefan; Emkes, Reiner; Volkening, Nils; Fudickar, Sebastian; Bleichner, Martin G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Our aim was the development and validation of a modular signal processing and classification application enabling online electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing on off-the-shelf mobile Android devices. The software application SCALA (Signal ProCessing and CLassification on Android) supports a standardized communication interface to exchange information with external software and hardware. Approach. In order to implement a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) on the sma...

  6. How Our Cognition Shapes and Is Shaped by Technology: A Common Framework for Understanding Human Tool-Use Interactions in the Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Osiurak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the evolution, humans have constantly developed and improved their technologies. This evolution began with the use of physical tools, those tools that increase our sensorimotor abilities (e.g., first stone tools, modern knives, hammers, pencils. Although we still use some of these tools, we also employ in daily life more sophisticated tools for which we do not systematically understand the underlying physical principles (e.g., computers, cars. Current research is also turned toward the development of brain–computer interfaces directly linking our brain activity to machines (i.e., symbiotic tools. The ultimate goal of research on this topic is to identify the key cognitive processes involved in these different modes of interaction. As a primary step to fulfill this goal, we offer a first attempt at a common framework, based on the idea that humans shape technologies, which also shape us in return. The framework proposed is organized into three levels, describing how we interact when using physical (Past, sophisticated (Present, and symbiotic (Future technologies. Here we emphasize the role played by technical reasoning and practical reasoning, two key cognitive processes that could nevertheless be progressively suppressed by the proficient use of sophisticated and symbiotic tools. We hope that this framework will provide a common ground for researchers interested in the cognitive basis of human tool-use interactions, from paleoanthropology to neuroergonomics.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  9. EU-Korea FTA and Its Impact on V4 Economies. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Sophistication and Intra-Industry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9 strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade. The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.

  10. Next-to-Leading Order Computation of Exclusive Diffractive Light Vector Meson Production in a Saturation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussarie, R; Grabovsky, A V; Ivanov, D Yu; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2017-08-18

    We perform the first next-to-leading order computation of the γ^{(*)}→V (ρ,ϕ,ω) exclusive impact factor in the QCD shock-wave approach and in the most general kinematics. This paves the way to the very first quantitative study of high-energy nucleon and nucleus saturation beyond the leading order for a whole range of small-x exclusive processes, to be measured in ep, eA, pp, and pA collisions at existing and future colliders.

  11. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography: Part I. System design and simulation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to introduce a new device that allows for patient-specific imaging-dose modulation in conventional and cone-beam CT. The device is called a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The DBA modulates an x-ray beam by varying the attenuation of a set of attenuating wedge filters across the fan angle. The ability to modulate the imaging dose across the fan beam represents another stride in the direction of personalized medicine. With the DBA, imaging dose can be tailored for a given patient anatomy, or even tailored to provide signal-to-noise ratio enhancement within a region of interest. This modulation enables decreases in: dose, scatter, detector dynamic range requirements, and noise nonuniformities. In addition to introducing the DBA, the simulation framework used to study the DBA under different configurations is presented. Finally, a detailed study on the choice of the material used to build the DBA is presented. Methods: To change the attenuator thickness, the authors propose to use an overlapping wedge design. In this design, for each wedge pair, one wedge is held stationary and another wedge is moved over the stationary wedge. The composite thickness of the two wedges changes as a function of the amount of overlap between the wedges. To validate the DBA concept and study design changes, a simulation environment was constructed. The environment allows for changes to system geometry, different source spectra, DBA wedge design modifications, and supports both voxelized and analytic phantom models. A study of all the elements from atomic number 1 to 92 were evaluated for use as DBA filter material. The amount of dynamic range and tube loading for each element were calculated for various DBA designs. Tube loading was calculated by comparing the attenuation of the DBA at its minimum attenuation position to a filtered non-DBA acquisition. Results: The design and parametrization of DBA implemented FFMCT has been introduced. A simulation

  12. MRUniNovo: an efficient tool for de novo peptide sequencing utilizing the hadoop distributed computing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Chen, Tao; He, Qiang; Zhu, Yunping; Li, Kenli

    2017-03-15

    Tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing is a complex and time-consuming process. The current algorithms for de novo peptide sequencing cannot rapidly and thoroughly process large mass spectrometry datasets. In this paper, we propose MRUniNovo, a novel tool for parallel de novo peptide sequencing. MRUniNovo parallelizes UniNovo based on the Hadoop compute platform. Our experimental results demonstrate that MRUniNovo significantly reduces the computation time of de novo peptide sequencing without sacrificing the correctness and accuracy of the results, and thus can process very large datasets that UniNovo cannot. MRUniNovo is an open source software tool implemented in java. The source code and the parameter settings are available at http://bioinfo.hupo.org.cn/MRUniNovo/index.php. s131020002@hnu.edu.cn ; taochen1019@163.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  20. Operator Decomposition Framework for Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Wang, Congjian; Bang, Young Suk [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States)

    2012-05-15

    This summary describes a new framework for perturbation theory intended to improve its performance, in terms of the associated computational cost and the complexity of implementation, for routine reactor calculations in support of design, analysis, and regulation. Since its first introduction in reactor analysis by Winger, perturbation theory has assumed an aura of sophistication with regard to its implementation and its capabilities. Only few reactor physicists, typically mathematically proficient, have contributed to its development, with the general body of the nuclear engineering community remaining unaware of its current status, capabilities, and challenges. Given its perceived sophistication and the small body of community users, the application of perturbation theory has been limited to investigatory analyses only. It is safe to say that the nuclear community is split into two groups, a small one which understands the theory and, and a much bigger group with the perceived notion that perturbation theory is nothing but a fancy mathematical approach that has very little use in practice. Over the past three years, research has demonstrated two goals. First, reduce the computational cost of perturbation theory in order to enable its use for routine reactor calculations. Second, expose some of the myth about perturbation theory and present it in a form that is simple and relatable in order to stimulate the interest of nuclear practitioners, especially those who are currently working on the development of next generation reactor design and analysis tools. The operator decomposition approach has its roots in linear algebra and can be easily understood by code developers, especially those involved in the design of iterative numerical solution strategies

  1. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer; Brophy, Mark; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Barron, John L.; Beauchemin, Steven S.; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development.

  2. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Spencer; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart; Brophy, Mark; Barron, John L; Beauchemin, Steven S; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development. (paper)

  3. Toward standardized quantitative image quality (IQ) assessment in computed tomography (CT): A comprehensive framework for automated and comparative IQ analysis based on ICRU Report 87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahn, Gregor; Skornitzke, Stephan; Schlemmer, Hans-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Based on the guidelines from "Report 87: Radiation Dose and Image-quality Assessment in Computed Tomography" of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a software framework for automated quantitative image quality analysis was developed and its usability for a variety of scientific questions demonstrated. The extendable framework currently implements the calculation of the recommended Fourier image quality (IQ) metrics modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS), and additional IQ quantities such as noise magnitude, CT number accuracy, uniformity across the field-of-view, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of simulated lesions for a commercially available cone-beam phantom. Sample image data were acquired with different scan and reconstruction settings on CT systems from different manufacturers. Spatial resolution is analyzed in terms of edge-spread function, line-spread-function, and MTF. 3D NPS is calculated according to ICRU Report 87, and condensed to 2D and radially averaged 1D representations. Noise magnitude, CT numbers, and uniformity of these quantities are assessed on large samples of ROIs. Low-contrast resolution (CNR, SNR) is quantitatively evaluated as a function of lesion contrast and diameter. Simultaneous automated processing of several image datasets allows for straightforward comparative assessment. The presented framework enables systematic, reproducible, automated and time-efficient quantitative IQ analysis. Consistent application of the ICRU guidelines facilitates standardization of quantitative assessment not only for routine quality assurance, but for a number of research questions, e.g. the comparison of different scanner models or acquisition protocols, and the evaluation of new technology or reconstruction methods. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study for application of the compressed-sensing framework to interior computed tomography (ICT) for low-dose, high-accurate dental x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, U. K.; Cho, H. M.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Park, C. K.; Lim, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. A.; Park, S. Y.; Woo, T. H.; Choi, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new/next-generation type of CT examinations, the so-called Interior Computed Tomography (ICT), which may presumably lead to dose reduction to the patient outside the target region-of-interest (ROI), in dental x-ray imaging. Here an x-ray beam from each projection position covers only a relatively small ROI containing a target of diagnosis from the examined structure, leading to imaging benefits such as decreasing scatters and system cost as well as reducing imaging dose. We considered the compressed-sensing (CS) framework, rather than common filtered-backprojection (FBP)-based algorithms, for more accurate ICT reconstruction. We implemented a CS-based ICT algorithm and performed a systematic simulation to investigate the imaging characteristics. Simulation conditions of two ROI ratios of 0.28 and 0.14 between the target and the whole phantom sizes and four projection numbers of 360, 180, 90, and 45 were tested. We successfully reconstructed ICT images of substantially high image quality by using the CS framework even with few-view projection data, still preserving sharp edges in the images.

  5. An Information Technology Framework for the Development of an Embedded Computer System for the Remote and Non-Destructive Study of Sensitive Archaeology Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Georgiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an information technology framework for the development of an embedded remote system for non-destructive observation and study of sensitive archaeological sites. The overall concept and motivation are described. The general hardware layout and software configuration are presented. The paper concentrates on the implementation of the following informational technology components: (a a geographically unique identification scheme supporting a global key space for a key-value store; (b a common method for octree modeling for spatial geometrical models of the archaeological artifacts, and abstract object representation in the global key space; (c a broadcast of the archaeological information as an Extensible Markup Language (XML stream over the Web for worldwide availability; and (d a set of testing methods increasing the fault tolerance of the system. This framework can serve as a foundation for the development of a complete system for remote archaeological exploration of enclosed archaeological sites like buried churches, tombs, and caves. An archaeological site is opened once upon discovery, the embedded computer system is installed inside upon a robotic platform, equipped with sensors, cameras, and actuators, and the intact site is sealed again. Archaeological research is conducted on a multimedia data stream which is sent remotely from the system and conforms to necessary standards for digital archaeology.

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  13. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

  14. Exploring the predictive power of interaction terms in a sophisticated risk equalization model using regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S H C M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M; van Vliet, R C J A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores the predictive power of interaction terms between the risk adjusters in the Dutch risk equalization (RE) model of 2014. Due to the sophistication of this RE-model and the complexity of the associations in the dataset (N = ~16.7 million), there are theoretically more than a million interaction terms. We used regression tree modelling, which has been applied rarely within the field of RE, to identify interaction terms that statistically significantly explain variation in observed expenses that is not already explained by the risk adjusters in this RE-model. The interaction terms identified were used as additional risk adjusters in the RE-model. We found evidence that interaction terms can improve the prediction of expenses overall and for specific groups in the population. However, the prediction of expenses for some other selective groups may deteriorate. Thus, interactions can reduce financial incentives for risk selection for some groups but may increase them for others. Furthermore, because regression trees are not robust, additional criteria are needed to decide which interaction terms should be used in practice. These criteria could be the right incentive structure for risk selection and efficiency or the opinion of medical experts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The tool for the automatic analysis of lexical sophistication (TAALES): version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott; Berger, Cynthia

    2017-07-11

    This study introduces the second release of the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES 2.0), a freely available and easy-to-use text analysis tool. TAALES 2.0 is housed on a user's hard drive (allowing for secure data processing) and is available on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux). TAALES 2.0 adds 316 indices to the original tool. These indices are related to word frequency, word range, n-gram frequency, n-gram range, n-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors. In this study, we validated TAALES 2.0 by investigating whether its indices could be used to model both holistic scores of lexical proficiency in free writes and word choice scores in narrative essays. The results indicated that the TAALES 2.0 indices could be used to explain 58% of the variance in lexical proficiency scores and 32% of the variance in word-choice scores. Newly added TAALES 2.0 indices, including those related to n-gram association strength, word neighborhood, and word recognition norms, featured heavily in these predictor models, suggesting that TAALES 2.0 represents a substantial upgrade.

  16. The State of Nursing Home Information Technology Sophistication in Rural and Nonrural US Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Madsen, Richard W; Miller, Erin L; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wise, Keely K; Alexander, Rachel L

    2017-06-01

    To test for significant differences in information technology sophistication (ITS) in US nursing homes (NH) based on location. We administered a primary survey January 2014 to July 2015 to NH in each US state. The survey was cross-sectional and examined 3 dimensions (IT capabilities, extent of IT use, degree of IT integration) among 3 domains (resident care, clinical support, administrative activities) of ITS. ITS was broken down by NH location. Mean responses were compared across 4 NH categories (Metropolitan, Micropolitan, Small Town, and Rural) for all 9 ITS dimensions and domains. Least square means and Tukey's method were used for multiple comparisons. Methods yielded 815/1,799 surveys (45% response rate). In every health care domain (resident care, clinical support, and administrative activities) statistical differences in facility ITS occurred in larger (metropolitan or micropolitan) and smaller (small town or rural) populated areas. This study represents the most current national assessment of NH IT since 2004. Historically, NH IT has been used solely for administrative activities and much less for resident care and clinical support. However, results are encouraging as ITS in other domains appears to be greater than previously imagined. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  18. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed ‘two-step’ behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects’ investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues. PMID:26657806

  19. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Akam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  20. A sophisticated simulation for the fracture behavior of concrete material using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Changhai; Wang, Xiaomin; Kong, Jingchang; Li, Shuang; Xie, Lili

    2017-10-01

    The development of a powerful numerical model to simulate the fracture behavior of concrete material has long been one of the dominant research areas in earthquake engineering. A reliable model should be able to adequately represent the discontinuous characteristics of cracks and simulate various failure behaviors under complicated loading conditions. In this paper, a numerical formulation, which incorporates a sophisticated rigid-plastic interface constitutive model coupling cohesion softening, contact, friction and shear dilatation into the XFEM, is proposed to describe various crack behaviors of concrete material. An effective numerical integration scheme for accurately assembling the contribution to the weak form on both sides of the discontinuity is introduced. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been assessed by simulating several well-known experimental tests. It is concluded that the numerical method can successfully capture the crack paths and accurately predict the fracture behavior of concrete structures. The influence of mode-II parameters on the mixed-mode fracture behavior is further investigated to better determine these parameters.

  1. OpenVX-based Python Framework for real-time cross platform acceleration of embedded computer vision applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Heimlich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedded real-time vision applications are being rapidly deployed in a large realm of consumer electronics, ranging from automotive safety to surveillance systems. However, the relatively limited computational power of embedded platforms is considered as a bottleneck for many vision applications, necessitating optimization. OpenVX is a standardized interface, released in late 2014, in an attempt to provide both system and kernel level optimization to vision applications. With OpenVX, Vision processing are modeled with coarse-grained data flow graphs, which can be optimized and accelerated by the platform implementer. Current full implementations of OpenVX are given in the programming language C, which does not support advanced programming paradigms such as object-oriented, imperative and functional programming, nor does it have runtime or type-checking. Here we present a python-based full Implementation of OpenVX, which eliminates much of the discrepancies between the object-oriented paradigm used by many modern applications and the native C implementations. Our open-source implementation can be used for rapid development of OpenVX applications in embedded platforms. Demonstration includes static and real-time image acquisition and processing using a Raspberry Pi and a GoPro camera. Code is given as supplementary information. Code project and linked deployable virtual machine are located on GitHub: https://github.com/NBEL-lab/PythonOpenVX.

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  3. The inherent dangers of using computable general equilibrium models as a single integrated modelling framework for sustainability impact assessment. A critical note on Boehringer and Loeschel (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrieciu, S. Serban

    2007-01-01

    The search for methods of assessment that best evaluate and integrate the trade-offs and interactions between the economic, environmental and social components of development has been receiving a new impetus due to the requirement that sustainability concerns be incorporated into the policy formulation process. A paper forthcoming in Ecological Economics (Boehringer, C., Loeschel, A., in press. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: status quo and prospects, Ecological Economics.) claims that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models may potentially represent the much needed 'back-bone' tool to carry out reliable integrated quantitative Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs). While acknowledging the usefulness of CGE models for some dimensions of SIA, this commentary questions the legitimacy of employing this particular economic modelling tool as a single integrating modelling framework for a comprehensive evaluation of the multi-dimensional, dynamic and complex interactions between policy and sustainability. It discusses several inherent dangers associated with the advocated prospects for the CGE modelling approach to contribute to comprehensive and reliable sustainability impact assessments. The paper warns that this reductionist viewpoint may seriously infringe upon the basic values underpinning the SIA process, namely a transparent, heterogeneous, balanced, inter-disciplinary, consultative and participatory take to policy evaluation and building of the evidence-base. (author)

  4. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography is regarded by many as a complicated union of sophisticated x-ray equipment and computer technology. This book overcomes these complexities. The rigid technicalities of the machinery and the clinical aspects of computed tomography are discussed including the preparation of patients, both physically and mentally, for scanning. Furthermore, the author also explains how to set up and run a computed tomography department, including advice on how the room should be designed

  5. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Identifying critical parameters and operating variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the development and application of a systematic model-based framework for bioprocess optimization, evaluated on a cellulosic ethanol production case study. The implementation of the framework involves the use of dynamic simulations, sophisticated uncertainty analysis (Monte...

  6. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-01-23

    5G is the upcoming evolution for the current cellular networks that aims at satisfying the future demand for data services. Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRANs) are envisioned as a new trend of 5G that exploits the advantages of heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks to enhance spectral and energy efficiency. Remote radio heads (RRHs) are small cells utilized to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service (QoS) requirements, while high power macro base station (BS) is deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users service. Inter-tier interference between macro BSs and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRANs. Therefore, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme using online learning, which mitigates interference and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. The resource allocation includes resource blocks (RBs) and power. The proposed scheme is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster the performance of such sophisticated scheme with a model free learning, we consider users\\' priority in RB allocation and compact state representation learning methodology to improve the speed of convergence and account for the curse of dimensionality during the learning process. The proposed scheme including both approaches is implemented using software defined radios testbed. The obtained results and simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution in H-CRANs increases the energy efficiency significantly and maintains users\\' QoS.

  7. Multi-disciplinary communication networks for skin risk assessment in nursing homes with high IT sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Steege, Linsey M; Strecker, E Bradley; Carley, Kathleen M

    2014-08-01

    The role of nursing home (NH) information technology (IT) in quality improvement has not been clearly established, and its impacts on communication between care givers and patient outcomes in these settings deserve further attention. In this research, we describe a mixed method approach to explore communication strategies used by healthcare providers for resident skin risk in NH with high IT sophistication (ITS). Sample included NH participating in the statewide survey of ITS. We incorporated rigorous observation of 8- and 12-h shifts, and focus groups to identify how NH IT and a range of synchronous and asynchronous tools are used. Social network analysis tools and qualitative analysis were used to analyze data and identify relationships between ITS dimensions and communication interactions between care providers. Two of the nine ITS dimensions (resident care-technological and administrative activities-technological) and total ITS were significantly negatively correlated with number of unique interactions. As more processes in resident care and administrative activities are supported by technology, the lower the number of observed unique interactions. Additionally, four thematic areas emerged from staff focus groups that demonstrate how important IT is to resident care in these facilities including providing resident-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, maintaining safety and quality, and using standardized information resources. Our findings in this study confirm prior research that as technology support (resident care and administrative activities) and overall ITS increases, observed interactions between staff members decrease. Conversations during staff interviews focused on how technology facilitated resident centered care through enhanced information sharing, greater virtual collaboration between team members, and improved care delivery. These results provide evidence for improving the design and implementation of IT in long term care systems to support

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  9. Reactive polymer coatings: A robust platform towards sophisticated surface engineering for biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    Functionalized poly(p-xylylenes) or so-called reactive polymers can be synthesized via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization. The resulting ultra-thin coatings are pinhole-free and can be conformally deposited to a wide range of substrates and materials. More importantly, the equipped functional groups can served as anchoring sites for tailoring the surface properties, making these reactive coatings a robust platform that can deal with sophisticated challenges faced in biointerfaces. In this work presented herein, surface coatings presenting various functional groups were prepared by CVD process. Such surfaces include aldehyde-functionalized coating to precisely immobilize saccharide molecules onto well-defined areas and alkyne-functionalized coating to click azide-modified molecules via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Moreover, CVD copolymerization has been conducted to prepare multifunctional coatings and their specific functions were demonstrated by the immobilization of biotin and NHS-ester molecules. By using a photodefinable coating, polyethylene oxides were immobilized onto a wide range of substrates through photo-immobilization. Spatially controlled protein resistant properties were characterized by selective adsorption of fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin as model systems. Alternatively, surface initiator coatings were used for polymer graftings of polyethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, and the resultant protein- and cell- resistant properties were characterized by adsorption of kinesin motor proteins, fibrinogen, and murine fibroblasts (NIH3T3). Accessibility of reactive coatings within confined microgeometries was systematically studied, and the preparation of homogeneous polymer thin films within the inner surface of microchannels was demonstrated. Moreover, these advanced coatings were applied to develop a dry adhesion process for microfluidic devices. This process provides (i) excellent bonding strength, (ii) extended

  10. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  11. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  12. Hypercell : A bio-inspired information design framework for real-time adaptive spatial components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biloria, N.M.; Chang, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary explorations within the evolutionary computational domain have been heavily instrumental in exploring biological processes of adaptation, growth and mutation. On the other hand a plethora of designers owing to the increasing sophistication in computer aided design software are equally

  13. Autonomic computing meets SCADA security

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, S; Patel, S; Patel, D

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. National assets such as transportation networks, large manufacturing, business and health facilities, power generation, and distribution networks are critical infrastructures. The cyber threats to these infrastructures have increasingly become more sophisticated, extensive and numerous. Cyber security conventional measures have proved useful in the past but increasing sophistication of attacks dictates the need for newer measures. The autonomic computing paradigm mimics the auton...

  14. Phased searching with NEAT in a time-scaled framework: experiments on a computer-aided detection system for lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Cornelis, Jan; Jansen, Bart

    2013-11-01

    In the field of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for lung nodules in computed tomography (CT) scans, many image features are presented and many artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers with various structural topologies are analyzed; frequently, the classifier topologies are selected by trial-and-error experiments. To avoid these trial and error approaches, we present a novel classifier that evolves ANNs using genetic algorithms, called "Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time or Generation-Scaled Framework", integrating feature selection with the classification task. We analyzed our method's performance on 360 CT scans from the public Lung Image Database Consortium database. We compare our method's performance with other more-established classifiers, namely regular NEAT, Feature-Deselective NEAT (FD-NEAT), fixed-topology ANNs, and support vector machines (SVMs) using ten-fold cross-validation experiments of all 360 scans. The results show that the proposed "Phased Searching" method performs better and faster than regular NEAT, better than FD-NEAT, and achieves sensitivities at 3 and 4 false positives (FP) per scan that are comparable with the fixed-topology ANN and SVM classifiers, but with fewer input features. It achieves a detection sensitivity of 83.0±9.7% with an average of 4FP/scan, for nodules with a diameter greater than or equal to 3mm. It also evolves networks with shorter evolution times and with lower complexities than regular NEAT (p=0.026 and pNEAT and by our approach shows that our approach searches for good solutions in lower dimensional search spaces, and evolves networks without superfluous structure. We have presented a novel approach that combines feature selection with the evolution of ANN topology and weights. Compared with the original threshold-based Phased Searching method of Green, our method requires fewer parameters and converges to the optimal network complexity required for the classification task at hand. The results of the

  15. A Case Study on E - Banking Security – When Security Becomes Too Sophisticated for the User to Access Their Information

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron M. French

    2012-01-01

    While eBanking security continues to increase in sophistication to protect against threats, the usability of the eBanking decreases resulting in poor security behaviors by the users. The current research evaluates se curity risks and measures taken for eBanking solutions. A case study is presented describing how increased complexity decreases vulnerabilities online but increases vulnerabilities from internal threats and eBanking users

  16. >From naive to sophisticated behavior in multiagents-based financial market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, R.

    2000-09-01

    The behavior of physical complexity and mutual information function of the outcome of a model of heterogeneous, inductive rational agents inspired by the El Farol Bar problem and the Minority Game is studied. The first magnitude is a measure rooted in the Kolmogorov-Chaitin theory and the second a measure related to Shannon's information entropy. Extensive computer simulations were done, as a result of which, is proposed an ansatz for physical complexity of the type C(l)=lα and the dependence of the exponent α from the parameters of the model is established. The accuracy of our results and the relationship with the behavior of mutual information function as a measure of time correlation of agents choice are discussed.

  17. Towards sophisticated learning from EHRs: increasing prediction specificity and accuracy using clinically meaningful risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljeva, Ieva; Arandjelovic, Ognjen

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) has the potential to provide major novel insights of benefit both to specific individuals in the context of personalized medicine, as well as on the level of population-wide health care and policy. The present paper introduces a novel algorithm that uses machine learning for the discovery of longitudinal patterns in the diagnoses of diseases. Two key technical novelties are introduced: one in the form of a novel learning paradigm which enables greater learning specificity, and another in the form of a risk driven identification of confounding diagnoses. We present a series of experiments which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, and which reveal novel insights regarding the most promising future research directions.

  18. Home, Hearth and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Anita

    1982-01-01

    Advantages of having children use microcomputers at school and home include learning about sophisticated concepts early in life without a great deal of prodding, playing games that expand knowledge, and becoming literate in computer knowledge needed later in life. Includes comments from parents on their experiences with microcomputers and…

  19. The mARM spatially distributed soil evolution model: A computationally efficient modeling framework and analysis of hillslope soil surface organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sagy; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg

    2009-09-01

    Hillslope surface armouring and weathering processes have received little attention in geomorphologic and hydrologic models due to their complexity and the uncertainty associated with them. Their importance, however, in a wide range of spatial processes is well recognized. A physically based armouring and weathering computer model (ARMOUR) has previously been used to successfully simulate the effect of these processes on erosion and soil grading at a hillslope scale. This model is, however, computationally complex and cannot realistically be applied over large areas or over long periods of time. A simplified process conceptualization approach is presented (named mARM) which uses a novel approach of modeling physical processes using transition matrices, which is orders of magnitude faster. We describe in detail the modeling framework. We calibrate and evaluate the model against ARMOUR simulations and show it matches ARMOUR for a range of conditions. The computational efficiency of mARM allowed us to easily examine time- and space-varying relationships between erosion and physical weathering rates at the hillslope scale. For erosion-dominated slopes the surface coarsens over time, while for weathering domination the surface fines over time. When erosion and weathering are comparable in scale a slope can be weathering-dominated upslope (where runoff and therefore erosion is low) and armouring-dominated downslope. In all cases, for a constant gradient slope the surface armour coarsens downslope as a result of a balance between erosion and weathering. Thus even for weathering-dominated slopes the surface grading catena is dependent on armouring through the balance between weathering and armouring. We also observed that for many slopes the surface initially armours but, after some period of time (space- and rate-dependent), weathering begins to dominate and the surface subsequently fines. Depending on the relative magnitude of armouring and weathering the final

  20. Critical confrontation of standard and more sophisticated methods for modelling the dispersion in air of heavy gas clouds; evaluation and illustration of the intrinsic limitations of both categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riethmuller, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical models of gas dispersion have evolved drastically since the 1930's. For a long time, the most widely used approach was the so-called Gaussian model as described in practical terms by Turner or box models which have shown relative merits. In the field of heavy gas dispersion, the use of such approaches appeared somewhat limited and therefore new models have been proposed. Some of these new generation models were making use of the latest progress in turbulence modelling as derived from laboratory work as well as numerical advances. The advent of faster and larger computers made possible the development of three dimensional codes that were computing both flow field and gas dispersion taking into account details of the ground obstacles, heat exchange and possibly phase changes as well. The description of these new types of models makes them appear as a considerable improvement over the simpler approaches. However, recent comparisons between many of these have led to the conclusion that the scatter between predictions attained with sophisticated models was just as large as with other ones. It seems therefore, that current researchers might have fallen into the trap of confusing mathematical precision with accuracy. It is therefore felt necessary to enlighten this question by an investigation which, rather than comparing individual models, would analyse the key features of both approaches and put in evidence their relative merits and degree of realism when being really applied

  1. Advances in the spatially distributed ages-w model: parallel computation, java connection framework (JCF) integration, and streamflow/nitrogen dynamics assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic and water quality (H/WQ) simulation components under the Java Connection Framework (JCF) and the Object Modeling System (OMS) environmental modeling framework. AgES-W is implicitly scala...

  2. On the Relevancy of Efficient, Integrated Computer and Network Monitoring in HEP Distributed Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D.; Gavillet, Ph.; Delgado, V.; Albert, J. N.; Bellas, N.; Javello, J.; Miere, Y.; Ruffinoni, D.; Smith, G.

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer Systems whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, the sophistication of its treatment and, on the other hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them genetically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this framework the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is proposed to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer System.

  3. A Computational Framework for Planning Therapeutical Sessions aimed to Support the Prevention and Treatment of Mental Health Disorders using Emotional Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    BRESÓ GUARDADO, ADRIÁN

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Interaction is defined as the realization of a reciprocal action between two or more people or things. Particularly in computer science, the term interaction refers to the discipline that studies the exchange of information between people and computers, and is generally known by the term Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Good design decisions and an adequate development of the software is required for efficient HCI to facilitate the acceptability of computer-based applications by the...

  4. Computer-assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.

    1988-01-01

    New digital imaging modalities and more sophisticated image processing systems will have a profound effect on those areas of medicine concerned with imaging. This mainly means computer-assisted radiology (CAR) and implies a transition from analog film systems to digital imaging systems, integration of digital imaging modalities through picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the graduated employment of image-oriented medical work stations (MWS) for computer-assisted representation, communication, diagnosis, and therapy planning. (orig.) [de

  5. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  6. Optimizing transformations of stencil operations for parallel object-oriented scientific frameworks on cache-based architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.; Quinlan, D.

    1998-12-31

    High-performance scientific computing relies increasingly on high-level large-scale object-oriented software frameworks to manage both algorithmic complexity and the complexities of parallelism: distributed data management, process management, inter-process communication, and load balancing. This encapsulation of data management, together with the prescribed semantics of a typical fundamental component of such object-oriented frameworks--a parallel or serial array-class library--provides an opportunity for increasingly sophisticated compile-time optimization techniques. This paper describes two optimizing transformations suitable for certain classes of numerical algorithms, one for reducing the cost of inter-processor communication, and one for improving cache utilization; demonstrates and analyzes the resulting performance gains; and indicates how these transformations are being automated.

  7. Temporal locality optimizations for stencil operations for parallel object-oriented scientific frameworks on cache-based architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.; Quinlan, D.

    1998-12-01

    High-performance scientific computing relies increasingly on high-level large-scale object-oriented software frameworks to manage both algorithmic complexity and the complexities of parallelism: distributed data management, process management, inter-process communication, and load balancing. This encapsulation of data management, together with the prescribed semantics of a typical fundamental component of such object-oriented frameworks--a parallel or serial array-class library--provides an opportunity for increasingly sophisticated compile-time optimization techniques. This paper describes a technique for introducing cache blocking suitable for certain classes of numerical algorithms, demonstrates and analyzes the resulting performance gains, and indicates how this optimization transformation is being automated.

  8. Synthetic analog computation in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ramiz; Rubens, Jacob R; Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-05-30

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to achieve multi-signal integration and processing in living cells for diagnostic, therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Digital logic has been used to build small-scale circuits, but other frameworks may be needed for efficient computation in the resource-limited environments of cells. Here we demonstrate that synthetic analog gene circuits can be engineered to execute sophisticated computational functions in living cells using just three transcription factors. Such synthetic analog gene circuits exploit feedback to implement logarithmically linear sensing, addition, ratiometric and power-law computations. The circuits exhibit Weber's law behaviour as in natural biological systems, operate over a wide dynamic range of up to four orders of magnitude and can be designed to have tunable transfer functions. Our circuits can be composed to implement higher-order functions that are well described by both intricate biochemical models and simple mathematical functions. By exploiting analog building-block functions that are already naturally present in cells, this approach efficiently implements arithmetic operations and complex functions in the logarithmic domain. Such circuits may lead to new applications for synthetic biology and biotechnology that require complex computations with limited parts, need wide-dynamic-range biosensing or would benefit from the fine control of gene expression.

  9. Learning Strategic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Maier, M.

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally investigate coordination games in which cognition plays an important role, i.e. where outcomes are affected by the agents level of understanding of the game and the beliefs they form about each others understanding.We ask whether and when repeated exposure permits agents to learn

  10. Planning Framework for Mesolevel Optimization of Urban Runoff Control Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Blohm, Andrew; Liu, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A planning framework is developed to optimize runoff control schemes at scales relevant for regional planning at an early stage. The framework employs less sophisticated modeling approaches to allow a practical application in developing regions with limited data sources and computing capability. The methodology contains three interrelated modules: (1)the geographic information system (GIS)-based hydrological module, which aims at assessing local hydrological constraints and potential for runoff control according to regional land-use descriptions; (2)the grading module, which is built upon the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is used to establish a priority ranking system to assist the allocation of runoff control targets at the subdivision level; and (3)the genetic algorithm-based optimization module, which is included to derive Pareto-based optimal solutions for mesolevel allocation with multiple competing objectives. The optimization approach describes the trade-off between different allocation plans and simultaneously ensures that all allocation schemes satisfy the minimum requirement on runoff control. Our results highlight the importance of considering the mesolevel allocation strategy in addition to measures at macrolevels and microlevels in urban runoff management. (C) 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. Sophisticated Calculation of the 1oo4-architecture for Safety-related Systems Conforming to IEC61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayek, A; Al Bokhaiti, M; Schwarz, M H; Boercsoek, J

    2012-01-01

    With the publication and enforcement of the standard IEC 61508 of safety related systems, recent system architectures have been presented and evaluated. Among a number of techniques and measures to the evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) for safety-related systems, several measures such as reliability block diagrams and Markov models are used to analyze the probability of failure on demand (PFD) and mean time to failure (MTTF) which conform to IEC 61508. The current paper deals with the quantitative analysis of the novel 1oo4-architecture (one out of four) presented in recent work. Therefore sophisticated calculations for the required parameters are introduced. The provided 1oo4-architecture represents an advanced safety architecture based on on-chip redundancy, which is 3-failure safe. This means that at least one of the four channels have to work correctly in order to trigger the safety function.

  12. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  13. Exploring a business to business recurring revenue framework for the delivery of software as a service through a cloud computing channel

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, David

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Computing (CC) is creating a new paradigm for the distribution of computer software applications. Within this context CC enabled Software as a Service (SaaS) fundamentally changes the revenue expectations and business model for the application software industry. This study considers the revenue expectation of the CC industry and its dependency on renewal subscriptions, while the study focuses on SaaS in the Business-to-Business (B2B) domain, delivered through the CC chann...

  14. A framework using cluster-based hybrid network architecture for collaborative virtual surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Choi, Kup-Sze; Poon, Wai-Sang; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2009-12-01

    Research on collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) opens the opportunity for simulating the cooperative work in surgical operations. It is however a challenging task to implement a high performance collaborative surgical simulation system because of the difficulty in maintaining state consistency with minimum network latencies, especially when sophisticated deformable models and haptics are involved. In this paper, an integrated framework using cluster-based hybrid network architecture is proposed to support collaborative virtual surgery. Multicast transmission is employed to transmit updated information among participants in order to reduce network latencies, while system consistency is maintained by an administrative server. Reliable multicast is implemented using distributed message acknowledgment based on cluster cooperation and sliding window technique. The robustness of the framework is guaranteed by the failure detection chain which enables smooth transition when participants join and leave the collaboration, including normal and involuntary leaving. Communication overhead is further reduced by implementing a number of management approaches such as computational policies and collaborative mechanisms. The feasibility of the proposed framework is demonstrated by successfully extending an existing standalone orthopedic surgery trainer into a collaborative simulation system. A series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate the system performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of supporting collaborative surgical simulation.

  15. Determining open cluster membership. A Bayesian framework for quantitative member classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan J.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: My goal is to develop a quantitative algorithm for assessing open cluster membership probabilities. The algorithm is designed to work with single-epoch observations. In its simplest form, only one set of program images and one set of reference images are required. Methods: The algorithm is based on a two-stage joint astrometric and photometric assessment of cluster membership probabilities. The probabilities were computed within a Bayesian framework using any available prior information. Where possible, the algorithm emphasizes simplicity over mathematical sophistication. Results: The algorithm was implemented and tested against three observational fields using published survey data. M 67 and NGC 654 were selected as cluster examples while a third, cluster-free, field was used for the final test data set. The algorithm shows good quantitative agreement with the existing surveys and has a false-positive rate significantly lower than the astrometric or photometric methods used individually.

  16. A Framework for WWW Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binghui Helen; Wharton, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Query processing is the most common operation in a DBMS. Sophisticated query processing has been mainly targeted at a single enterprise environment providing centralized control over data and metadata. Submitting queries by anonymous users on the web is different in such a way that load balancing or DBMS' accessing control becomes the key issue. This paper provides a solution by introducing a framework for WWW query processing. The success of this framework lies in the utilization of query optimization techniques and the ontological approach. This methodology has proved to be cost effective at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC).

  17. A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...

  18. Effective ligand functionalization of zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks for the adsorption and separation of benzene and toluene: a multiscale computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Chen, Huiyong; Liu, Defei; Xiao, Jing; Qian, Yu; Xi, Hongxia

    2015-03-18

    The adsorption and separation properties of benzene and toluene on the zirconium-based frameworks UiO-66, -67, -68, and their functional analogues UiO-Phe and UiO-Me2 were studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, density functional theory, and ideal adsorbed solution theory. Remarkable higher adsorption uptakes of benzene and toluene at low pressures on UiO-Phe and -Me2 were found compared to their parent framework UiO-67. It can be ascribed to the presence of functional groups (aromatic rings and methyl groups) that significantly intensified the adsorption, majorly by reducing the effective pore size and increasing the interaction strength with the adsorbates. At high pressures, the pore volumes and accessible surfaces of the frameworks turned out to be the dominant factors governing the adsorption. In the case of toluene/benzene separation, toluene selectivities of UiOs showed a two-stage separation behavior at the measured pressure range, resulting from the greater interaction affinities of toluene at low pressures and steric hindrance effects at high pressures. Additionally, the counterbalancing factors of enhanced π delocalization and suitable pore size of UiO-Phe gave rise to the highest toluene selectivity, suggesting the ligand functionalization strategy could reach both high adsorption capacity and separation selectivity from aromatic mixtures at low concentrations.

  19. Learning, epigenetics, and computation: An extension on Fitch's proposal. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    The comparative computational approach of Fitch [1] attempts to renew the classical David Marr paradigm of computation, algorithm, and implementation, by introducing evolutionary view of the relationship between neural architecture and cognition. This comparative evolutionary view provides constraints useful in narrowing down the problem space for both cognition and neural mechanisms. I will provide two examples from our own studies that reinforce and extend Fitch's proposal.

  20. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  1. Security Scenario Generator (SecGen): A Framework for Generating Randomly Vulnerable Rich-scenario VMs for Learning Computer Security and Hosting CTF Events

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuders, ZC; Shaw, T; Shan-A-Khuda, M; Ravichandran, G; Keighley, J; Ordean, M

    2017-01-01

    Computer security students benefit from hands-on experience applying security tools and techniques to attack and defend vulnerable systems. Virtual machines (VMs) provide an effective way of sharing targets for hacking. However, developing these hacking challenges is time consuming, and once created, essentially static. That is, once the challenge has been "solved" there is no remaining challenge for the student, and if the challenge is created for a competition or assessment, the challenge c...

  2. r.avaflow v1, an advanced open-source computational framework for the propagation and interaction of two-phase mass flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Krenn, Julia; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-02-01

    r.avaflow represents an innovative open-source computational tool for routing rapid mass flows, avalanches, or process chains from a defined release area down an arbitrary topography to a deposition area. In contrast to most existing computational tools, r.avaflow (i) employs a two-phase, interacting solid and fluid mixture model (Pudasaini, 2012); (ii) is suitable for modelling more or less complex process chains and interactions; (iii) explicitly considers both entrainment and stopping with deposition, i.e. the change of the basal topography; (iv) allows for the definition of multiple release masses, and/or hydrographs; and (v) serves with built-in functionalities for validation, parameter optimization, and sensitivity analysis. r.avaflow is freely available as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, employing the programming languages Python and C along with the statistical software R. We exemplify the functionalities of r.avaflow by means of two sets of computational experiments: (1) generic process chains consisting in bulk mass and hydrograph release into a reservoir with entrainment of the dam and impact downstream; (2) the prehistoric Acheron rock avalanche, New Zealand. The simulation results are generally plausible for (1) and, after the optimization of two key parameters, reasonably in line with the corresponding observations for (2). However, we identify some potential to enhance the analytic and numerical concepts. Further, thorough parameter studies will be necessary in order to make r.avaflow fit for reliable forward simulations of possible future mass flow events.

  3. Combining patient journey modelling and visual multi-agent computer simulation: a framework to improving knowledge translation in a healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Joanne; Fitzgerald, Anneke; Prodan, Ante; Dadich, Ann; Sloan, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on a framework that will investigate the integration of two disparate methodologies: patient journey modelling and visual multi-agent simulation, and its impact on the speed and quality of knowledge translation to healthcare stakeholders. Literature describes patient journey modelling and visual simulation as discrete activities. This paper suggests that their combination and their impact on translating knowledge to practitioners are greater than the sum of the two technologies. The test-bed is ambulatory care and the goal is to determine if this approach can improve health services delivery, workflow, and patient outcomes and satisfaction. The multidisciplinary research team is comprised of expertise in patient journey modelling, simulation, and knowledge translation.

  4. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Parametric modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals: an open-source computer framework for performance evaluation of ECG, PCG and ABP event detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Sabetian, P; Feizollahi, A; Ghaffari, A; Rahmani, R

    2012-02-01

    The major focus of this study is to present a performance accuracy assessment framework based on mathematical modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals. Three mathematical algebraic subroutines with simple structural functions for synthetic generation of the synchronously triggered electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals are described. In the case of ECG signals, normal and abnormal PQRST cycles in complicated conditions such as fascicular ventricular tachycardia, rate dependent conduction block and acute Q-wave infarctions of inferior and anterolateral walls can be simulated. Also, continuous ABP waveform with corresponding individual events such as systolic, diastolic and dicrotic pressures with normal or abnormal morphologies can be generated by another part of the model. In addition, the mathematical synthetic PCG framework is able to generate the S4-S1-S2-S3 cycles in normal and in cardiac disorder conditions such as stenosis, insufficiency, regurgitation and gallop. In the PCG model, the amplitude and frequency content (5-700 Hz) of each sound and variation patterns can be specified. The three proposed models were implemented to generate artificial signals with varies abnormality types and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), for quantitative detection-delineation performance assessment of several ECG, PCG and ABP individual event detectors designed based on the Hilbert transform, discrete wavelet transform, geometric features such as area curve length (ACLM), the multiple higher order moments (MHOM) metric, and the principal components analysed geometric index (PCAGI). For each method the detection-delineation operating characteristics were obtained automatically in terms of sensitivity, positive predictivity and delineation (segmentation) error rms and checked by the cardiologist. The Matlab m-file script of the synthetic ECG, ABP and PCG signal generators are available in the Appendix.

  6. A feasibility study on the use of the MOOSE computational framework to simulate three-dimensional deformation of CANDU reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A., E-mail: Kyle.Gamble@inl.gov [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Williams, Anthony F., E-mail: Tony.Williams@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Chan, Paul K., E-mail: Paul.Chan@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wowk, Diane, E-mail: Diane.Wowk@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This is the first demonstration of using the MOOSE framework for modeling CANDU fuel. • Glued and frictionless contact algorithms behave as expected for 2D and 3D cases. • MOOSE accepts and correctly interprets functions of arbitrary form. • 3D deformation calculations accurately compare against analytical solutions. • MOOSE is a viable simulation tool for modeling accident reactor conditions. - Abstract: Horizontally oriented fuel bundles, such as those in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors present unique modeling challenges. After long irradiation times or during severe transients the fuel elements can laterally deform out of plane due to processes known as bow and sag. Bowing is a thermally driven process that causes the fuel elements to laterally deform when a temperature gradient develops across the diameter of the element. Sagging is a coupled mechanical and thermal process caused by deformation of the fuel pin due to creep mechanisms of the sheathing after long irradiation times and or high temperatures. These out-of-plane deformations can lead to reduced coolant flow and a reduction in coolability of the fuel bundle. In extreme cases element-to-element or element-to-pressure tube contact could occur leading to reduced coolant flow in the subchannels or pressure tube rupture leading to a loss of coolant accident. This paper evaluates the capability of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to model these deformation mechanisms. The material model capabilities of MOOSE and its ability to simulate contact are also investigated.

  7. Evaluation Framework for Search Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Cooper, Matt W.; Kaye, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A framework for quantitatively evaluating current and proposed gamma-ray search instrument designs has been developed. The framework is designed to generate a large library of ''virtual neighborhoods'' that can be used to test and evaluate nearly any gamma-ray sensor type. Calculating nuisance-source emissions and combining various sources to create a large number of random virtual scenes places a significant computational burden on the development of the framework. To reduce this burden, a number of radiation transport simplifications have been made which maintain the essential physics ingredients for the quantitative assessment of search instruments while significantly reducing computational times. The various components of the framework, from the simulation and benchmarking of nuisance source emissions to the computational engine for generating the gigabytes of simulated search scenes, are discussed

  8. Building Models in the Classroom: Taking Advantage of Sophisticated Geomorphic Numerical Tools Using a Simple Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Koons, P. O.; Gerbi, C. C.; Capps, D. K.; Tucker, G. E.; Rogers, Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sophisticated numerical tools exist for modeling geomorphic processes and linking them to tectonic and climatic systems, but they are often seen as inaccessible for users with an exploratory level of interest. We have improved the accessibility of landscape evolution models by producing a simple graphics user interface (GUI) that takes advantage of the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model. Model access is flexible: the user can edit values for basic geomorphic, tectonic, and climate parameters, or obtain greater control by defining the spatiotemporal distributions of those parameters. Users can make educated predictions by choosing their own parametric values for the governing equations and interpreting the results immediately through model graphics. This method of modeling allows users to iteratively build their understanding through experimentation. Use of this GUI is intended for inquiry and discovery-based learning activities. We discuss a number of examples of how the GUI can be used at the upper high school, introductory university, and advanced university level. Effective teaching modules initially focus on an inquiry-based example guided by the instructor. As students become familiar with the GUI and the CHILD model, the class can shift to more student-centered exploration and experimentation. To make model interpretations more robust, digital elevation models can be imported and direct comparisons can be made between CHILD model results and natural topography. The GUI is available online through the University of Maine's Earth and Climate Sciences website, through the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) model repository, or by contacting the corresponding author.

  9. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-08-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity toning and matching problems

  11. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity tuning and matching problems. (Author) 8 refs., 10 figs

  12. Computers in nuclear medicine: introductory concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Computers play an important role in image and data processing in nuclear medicine. Applications extend from relatively simple mathematical processing of in vitro specimen assays to more sophisticated image reconstruction procedures for emission tomography. The basic concepts and terminology associated with computer applications in image and data processing in nuclear medicine are presented here

  13. MCdevelop - a universal framework for Stochastic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, M.; Jadach, S.

    2011-03-01

    We present MCdevelop, a universal computer framework for developing and exploiting the wide class of Stochastic Simulations (SS) software. This powerful universal SS software development tool has been derived from a series of scientific projects for precision calculations in high energy physics (HEP), which feature a wide range of functionality in the SS software needed for advanced precision Quantum Field Theory calculations for the past LEP experiments and for the ongoing LHC experiments at CERN, Geneva. MCdevelop is a "spin-off" product of HEP to be exploited in other areas, while it will still serve to develop new SS software for HEP experiments. Typically SS involve independent generation of large sets of random "events", often requiring considerable CPU power. Since SS jobs usually do not share memory it makes them easy to parallelize. The efficient development, testing and running in parallel SS software requires a convenient framework to develop software source code, deploy and monitor batch jobs, merge and analyse results from multiple parallel jobs, even before the production runs are terminated. Throughout the years of development of stochastic simulations for HEP, a sophisticated framework featuring all the above mentioned functionality has been implemented. MCdevelop represents its latest version, written mostly in C++ (GNU compiler gcc). It uses Autotools to build binaries (optionally managed within the KDevelop 3.5.3 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)). It uses the open-source ROOT package for histogramming, graphics and the mechanism of persistency for the C++ objects. MCdevelop helps to run multiple parallel jobs on any computer cluster with NQS-type batch system. Program summaryProgram title:MCdevelop Catalogue identifier: AEHW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http

  14. V&V framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naughton, Jonathan W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A Verification and Validation (V&V) framework is presented for the development and execution of coordinated modeling and experimental program s to assess the predictive capability of computational models of complex systems through focused, well structured, and formal processes.The elements of the framework are based on established V&V methodology developed by various organizations including the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Four main topics are addressed: 1) Program planning based on expert elicitation of the modeling physics requirements, 2) experimental design for model assessment, 3) uncertainty quantification for experimental observations and computational model simulations, and 4) assessment of the model predictive capability. The audience for this document includes program planners, modelers, experimentalist, V &V specialist, and customers of the modeling results.

  15. EarthCube - Earth System Bridge: Spanning Scientific Communities with Interoperable Modeling Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S. D.; DeLuca, C.; Gochis, D. J.; Arrigo, J.; Kelbert, A.; Choi, E.; Dunlap, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand and predict environmental hazards of weather/climate, ecology and deep earth processes, geoscientists develop and use physics-based computational models. These models are used widely both in academic and federal communities. Because of the large effort required to develop and test models, there is widespread interest in component-based modeling, which promotes model reuse and simplified coupling to tackle problems that often cross discipline boundaries. In component-based modeling, the goal is to make relatively small changes to models that make it easy to reuse them as "plug-and-play" components. Sophisticated modeling frameworks exist to rapidly couple these components to create new composite models. They allow component models to exchange variables while accommodating different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and units. Modeling frameworks have arisen in many modeling communities. CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) serves the academic earth surface process dynamics community, while ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) serves many federal Earth system modeling projects. Others exist in both the academic and federal domains and each satisfies design criteria that are determined by the community they serve. While they may use different interface standards or semantic mediation strategies, they share fundamental similarities. The purpose of the Earth System Bridge project is to develop mechanisms for interoperability between modeling frameworks, such as the ability to share a model or service component. This project has three main goals: (1) Develop a Framework Description Language (ES-FDL) that allows modeling frameworks to be described in a standard way so that their differences and similarities can be assessed. (2) Demonstrate that if a model is augmented with a framework-agnostic Basic Model Interface (BMI), then simple, universal adapters can go from BMI to a

  16. A discrete-time Bayesian network reliability modeling and analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudali, H.; Dugan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Dependability tools are becoming an indispensable tool for modeling and analyzing (critical) systems. However the growing complexity of such systems calls for increasing sophistication of these tools. Dependability tools need to not only capture the complex dynamic behavior of the system components, but they must be also easy to use, intuitive, and computationally efficient. In general, current tools have a number of shortcomings including lack of modeling power, incapacity to efficiently handle general component failure distributions, and ineffectiveness in solving large models that exhibit complex dependencies between their components. We propose a novel reliability modeling and analysis framework based on the Bayesian network (BN) formalism. The overall approach is to investigate timed Bayesian networks and to find a suitable reliability framework for dynamic systems. We have applied our methodology to two example systems and preliminary results are promising. We have defined a discrete-time BN reliability formalism and demonstrated its capabilities from a modeling and analysis point of view. This research shows that a BN based reliability formalism is a powerful potential solution to modeling and analyzing various kinds of system components behaviors and interactions. Moreover, being based on the BN formalism, the framework is easy to use and intuitive for non-experts, and provides a basis for more advanced and useful analyses such as system diagnosis

  17. Elucidating the Vibrational Fingerprint of the Flexible Metal–Organic Framework MIL-53(Al) Using a Combined Experimental/Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In this work, mid-infrared (mid-IR), far-IR, and Raman spectra are presented for the distinct (meta)stable phases of the flexible metal–organic framework MIL-53(Al). Static density functional theory (DFT) simulations are performed, allowing for the identification of all IR-active modes, which is unprecedented in the low-frequency region. A unique vibrational fingerprint is revealed, resulting from aluminum-oxide backbone stretching modes, which can be used to clearly distinguish the IR spectra of the closed- and large-pore phases. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations based on a DFT description of the potential energy surface enable determination of the theoretical Raman spectrum of the closed- and large-pore phases for the first time. An excellent correspondence between theory and experiment is observed. Both the low-frequency IR and Raman spectra show major differences in vibrational modes between the closed- and large-pore phases, indicating changes in lattice dynamics between the two structures. In addition, several collective modes related to the breathing mechanism in MIL-53(Al) are identified. In particular, we rationalize the importance of the trampoline-like motion of the linker for the phase transition. PMID:29449906

  18. Simply computing for seniors

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for seniors to get up and running on a home PC Answering the call for an up-to-date, straightforward computer guide targeted specifically for seniors, this helpful book includes easy-to-follow tutorials that escort you through the basics and shows you how to get the most out of your PC. Boasting an elegant, full-color interior with a clean, sophisticated look and feel, the layout makes it easy for you to find the information you need quickly. Author Linda Clark has earned her highly respected reputation through years of teaching computers at both the beginnin

  19. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-07

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis.

  20. Optimizing the Performance of Data Analytics Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghit, B.I.

    2017-01-01

    Data analytics frameworks enable users to process large datasets while hiding the complexity of scaling out their computations on large clusters of thousands of machines. Such frameworks parallelize the computations, distribute the data, and tolerate server failures by deploying their own runtime