WorldWideScience

Sample records for soot concentration measurements

  1. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  2. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  3. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2015-06-01

    Ambient oxygen concentration, a key variable directly related to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in diesel engines, plays a significant role in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The utilization of biodiesel in diesel engines has been investigated over the last decades for its renewable characteristics and lower emissions compared to diesel. In an earlier work, we demonstrated that the soot temperature and concentration of biodiesel were lower than diesel under regular diesel engine conditions without EGR. Soot concentration was quantified by a parameter called KL factor. As a continuous effort, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and KL factor during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color pyrometry technique was used to measure transient soot temperature and the KL factor of the spray flame. The soot temperature of biodiesel is found to be lower than that of diesel under the same conditions, which follows the same trend from our previous results found when the ambient temperature changes to 21% oxygen conditions. A reduction in ambient oxygen concentration generally reduces the soot temperature for both fuels. However, this is a complicated effect on soot processes as the change of oxygen concentration greatly affects the balance between soot formation and oxidation. The KL factor is observed to be the highest at 12% O2 for diesel and 18% O2 for biodiesel, respectively. On the other hand, the 10% O2 condition shows the lowest KL factor for both fuels. These results can provide quantitative experimental evidences to optimize the ambient oxygen concentration for diesel engines using different fuels for better emissions characteristics. © 2014 American Society of

  4. Diffusion air effects on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassani, Fabio Luis; Santos, Alex Alisson Bandeira; Goldstein Junior, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos]. E-mails: fassani@fem.unicamp.br; absantos@fem.unicamp.br; leonardo@fem.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Eletronica Quantica]. E-mail: ferrari@ifi.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Soot particles are produced during the high temperature pyrolysis or combustion of hydrocarbons. The emission of soot from a combustor, or from a flame, is determined by the competition between soot formation and its oxidation. Several factors affect these processes, including the type of fuel, the air-to-fuel ratio, flame temperature, pressure, and flow pattern. In this paper, the influence of the induced air diffusion on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame was studied. The flame was generated in a vertical axis burner in which the fuel - oxidant mixture flow was surrounded by a nitrogen discharge coming from the annular region between the burner tube and an external concentric tube. The nitrogen flow provided a shield that protected the flame from the diffusion of external air, enabling its control. The burner was mounted on a step-motor driven, vertical translation table. The use of several air-to-fuel ratios made possible to establish the sooting characteristics of this flame, by measuring soot concentration along the flame height with a non-intrusive laser light absorption technique. (author)

  5. Characterizing germania concentration and structure in fiber soot using multiphoton microscopy and spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghan; Li, Ming-Jun; Liu, Anping

    2015-02-01

    Germania doping is commonly used in the core of optical fiber due to its advantages compared to other materials such as superior transparency in near-infrared telecommunication wavelength region. During fiber preform manufacturing using the outside vapor deposition (OVD) process, Ge is doped into a silica soot preform by chemical vapor deposition. Since the Ge doping concentration profile is directly correlated with the fiber refractive index profile, its characterization is critical for the fiber industry. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) is a conventional analysis method for characterizing the Ge concentration profile. However, it requires extensive sample preparation and lengthy measurement. In this paper, a multiphoton microscopy technique is utilized to measure the Ge doping profile based on the multiphoton fluorescence intensity of the soot layers. Two samples, one with ramped and another with stepped Ge doping profiles were prepared for measurements. Measured results show that the technique is capable of distinguishing ramped and stepped Ge doping profiles with good accuracy. In the ramped soot sample, a sharp increment of doping level was observed in about 2 mm range from soot edge followed by a relative slow gradient doping accretion. As for the stepped doping sample, step sizes ranging from around 1 mm (at soot edge) to 3 mm (at soot center) were observed. All the measured profiles are in close agreement with that of the EPMA measurements. In addition, both multiphoton fluorescence (around 420 nm) and sharp second harmonic generations (at 532 nm) were observed, which indicates the co-existence of crystal and amorphous GeO2.

  6. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekveld, David; Liu, Liaohui [AMEC NSS, 700 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada); UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Harrison, Andrew; Gill, Spencer; Harvel, Glenn [UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Chang, Jen-Shih [McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  7. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekveld, David; Liu, Liaohui; Harrison, Andrew; Gill, Spencer; Harvel, Glenn; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2008-01-01

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  8. Laser-induced incandescence: Towards quantitative soot volume fraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A P; Wienbeucker, F; Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence has recently emerged as a versatile tool for measuring soot volume fraction in a wide range of combustion systems. In this work we investigate the essential features of the method. LII is based on the acquisition of the incandescence of soot when heated through a high power laser pulse. Initial experiments have been performed on a model laboratory flame. The behaviour of the LII signal is studied experimentally. By applying numerical calculations we investigate the possibility to obtain two-dimensional soot volume fraction distributions. For this purpose a combination of LII with other techniques is required. This part is discussed in some extent and the future work is outlined. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot

  10. Modeling annual benzene, toluene, NO2, and soot concentrations on the basis of road traffic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, David; Ehrenstein, Ondine von; Weiland, Stephan; Wagner, Claudia; Wellie, Oliver; Nicolai, Thomas; Mutius, Erika von

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of urban traffic-related air pollution is hampered by difficulties encountered with exposure assessment. Usually public measuring sites are few and thereby do not adequately describe spatial variation of pollutant levels over an urban area. In turn, individual monitoring of pollution exposure among study subjects is laborious and expensive. We therefore investigated whether traffic characteristics can be used to adequately predict benzene, NO 2 , and soot concentrations at individual addresses of study subjects in the city area of Munich, Germany. For all road segments with expected traffic volumes of at least 4000 vehicles a day (n=1840), all vehicles were counted manually or a single weekday in 1995. The proportion of vehicles in 'stop-go' mode, n estimate of traffic jam, was determined. Furthermore, annual concentrations of benzene, NO 2 , and soot from 18 high-concentration sites means: 8.7, 65.8, and 12.9 μg/m 3 , respectively) and from 16 school sites with moderate concentrations (means: 2.6, 32.2, and 5.7 μg/m 3 , respectively) were measured from 1996 to 1998. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using components of two different statistical models recently used to predict air pollution levels in comparable settings. Two traffic characteristics, traffic volume and traffic jam percentage, adequately described air pollutant concentrations (R 2 : 0.76-0.80, P=0.0001). This study shows that air pollutant concentrations can be accurately predicted by two traffic characteristics and that these models compare favorably with other more complex models in the literature

  11. Measuring and predicting sooting tendencies of oxygenates, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics on a unified scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Dhrubajyoti D.; St. John, Peter C.; McEnally, Charles S.; Kim, Seonah; Pfefferle, Lisa D.

    2018-04-01

    Databases of sooting indices, based on measuring some aspect of sooting behavior in a standardized combustion environment, are useful in providing information on the comparative sooting tendencies of different fuels or pure compounds. However, newer biofuels have varied chemical structures including both aromatic and oxygenated functional groups, which expands the chemical space of relevant compounds. In this work, we propose a unified sooting tendency database for pure compounds, including both regular and oxygenated hydrocarbons, which is based on combining two disparate databases of yield-based sooting tendency measurements in the literature. Unification of the different databases was made possible by leveraging the greater dynamic range of the color ratio pyrometry soot diagnostic. This unified database contains a substantial number of pure compounds (greater than or equal to 400 total) from multiple categories of hydrocarbons important in modern fuels and establishes the sooting tendencies of aromatic and oxygenated hydrocarbons on the same numeric scale for the first time. Using this unified sooting tendency database, we have developed a predictive model for sooting behavior applicable to a broad range of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The model decomposes each compound into single-carbon fragments and assigns a sooting tendency contribution to each fragment based on regression against the unified database. The model's predictive accuracy (as demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation) is comparable to a previously developed, more detailed predictive model. The fitted model provides insight into the effects of chemical structure on soot formation, and cases where its predictions fail reveal the presence of more complicated kinetic sooting mechanisms. This work will therefore enable the rational design of low-sooting fuel blends from a wide range of feedstocks and chemical functionalities.

  12. Soot measurements for diesel and biodiesel spray combustion under high temperature highly diluted ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel, namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel fuel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. The KL factor is a parameter for soot concentration

  13. Effects of morphology and wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction by laser extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-fei; Huang, Qun-xing; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2018-01-01

    A novel method to evaluate the quantitative effects of soot morphology and incident wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction, by the laser extinction (LE) technique is proposed in this paper. The results indicate that the traditional LE technique would overestimate soot volume fraction if the effects of morphology and wavelength are not considered. Before the agglomeration of isolated soot primary particles, the overestimation of the LE technique is in the range of 2-20%, and rises with increasing primary particle diameter and with decreasing incident wavelength. When isolated primary particles are agglomerated into fractal soot aggregates, the overestimation would exceed 30%, and rise with increasing primary particle number per soot aggregate, fractal dimension and fractal prefactor and with decreasing incident wavelength to a maximum value of 55%. Finally, based on these results above, the existing formula of the LE technique gets modified, and the modification factor is 0.65-0.77.

  14. Soot concentrations along busy inland waterways in the Netherlands; Roetconcentraties langs drukke binnenvaarwegen in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Jonkers, S.; Moerman, M. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Hoek, G. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Exploratory research by TNO and IRAS shows that residents in the Netherlands are exposed to soot concentrations along busy inland waterways similar to living along a busy highway [Dutch] Verkennend onderzoek van TNO en IRAS laat zien dat bewoners langs drukke binnenvaarwegen worden blootgesteld aan roetconcentraties vergelijkbaar met wonen langs een drukke snelweg.

  15. Soot measurements for diesel and biodiesel spray combustion under high temperature highly diluted ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel, namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel fuel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. The KL factor is a parameter for soot concentration, where K is an absorption coefficient and proportional to the number density of soot particles, L is the geometric thickness of the flame along the optical detection axis, and KL factor is proportional to soot volume fraction. The main objective is to explore a combustion regime called high-temperature and highly-diluted combustion (HTHDC) and compare it with the conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes. The three different combustion regimes are implemented under different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1400 K) and ambient oxygen concentrations (10%, 15%, and 21%). Results are presented in terms of soot temperature and KL factor images, time-resolved pixel-averaged soot temperature, KL factor, and spatially integrated KL factor over the soot area. The time-averaged results for these three regimes are compared for both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Results show complex combined effects of the ambient temperature and oxygen concentration, and that two-color temperature for the HTHDC mode at the 10% oxygen level can actually be lower than the conventional mode. Increasing ambient oxygen and temperature increases soot temperature. Diesel fuel results in higher soot temperature than biodiesel for all three regimes. Results also show that diesel and biodiesel fuels have very different burning and sooting behavior under the three different combustion regimes. For diesel fuel, the HTHDC regime offers better results in terms of lower soot than the conventional and LTC regimes, and the 10% O2, 1400 K ambient condition shows the lowest soot concentration while maintaining a moderate two-color temperature. For biodiesel, the 15% O2, 800 K ambient condition shows some advantages in terms of reducing soot

  16. Effects of self-absorption on simultaneous estimation of temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames using a spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Liu, Dong

    2018-06-01

    An improved inverse reconstruction model with consideration of self-absorption effect for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames was proposed based on the flame emission spectrometry. The effects of self-absorption on the temperature profile and concentration fields were investigated for various measurement errors, flame optical thicknesses and detecting lines numbers. The model neglecting the self-absorption caused serious reconstruction errors especially in the nanofluid fuel flames with large optical thicknesses, while the improved model was used to successfully recover the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the flames regardless of the optical thickness. Through increasing detecting lines number, the reconstruction accuracy can be greatly improved due to more flame emission information received by the spectrometer. With the adequate detecting lines number, the estimations for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in flames with large optical thicknesses were still satisfying even from the noisy radiation intensities with signal to noise ratio (SNR) as low as 46 dB. The results showed that the improved reconstruction model was effective and robust to concurrently retrieve the temperature distribution and volume fraction fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the exact and noisy data in nanofluid fuel sooting flames with different optical thicknesses.

  17. Measurement of Soot Volume Fraction and Temperature for Oxygen-Enriched Ethylene Combustion Based on Flame Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneously visualizing the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and soot volume fraction in an ethylene flame was presented. A single-color charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to capture the flame image in the visible spectrum considering the broad-response spectrum of the R and G bands of the camera. The directional emissive power of the R and G bands were calibrated and used for measurement. Slightly increased temperatures and reduced soot concentration were predicted in the central flame without self-absorption effects considered, an iterative algorithm was used for eliminating the effect of self-absorption. Nine different cases were presented in the experiment to demonstrate the effects of fuel mass flow rate and oxygen concentration on temperature and soot concentration in three different atmospheres. For ethylene combustion in pure-air atmosphere, as the fuel mass flow rate increased, the maximum temperature slightly decreased, and the maximum soot volume fraction slightly increased. For oxygen fractions of 30%, 40%, and 50% combustion in O2/N2 oxygen-enhanced atmospheres, the maximum flame temperatures were 2276, 2451, and 2678 K, whereas combustion in O2/CO2 atmospheres were 1916, 2322, and 2535 K. The maximum soot volume fractions were 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere and 13.6, 15.3, and 14.8 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/CO2 atmosphere. Compared with the O2/CO2 atmosphere, combustion in the oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere produced higher flame temperature and larger soot volume fraction. Preliminary results indicated that this technique is reliable and can be used for combustion diagnosis.

  18. Light scattering and extinction measurements combined with laser-induced incandescence for the real-time determination of soot mass absorption cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiyi; Ma, Lulu; Cao, Tingting; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Jun; Buseck, Peter R; Thompson, J E

    2013-10-01

    An aerosol albedometer was combined with laser-induced incandescence (LII) to achieve simultaneous measurements of aerosol scattering, extinction coefficient, and soot mass concentration. Frequency doubling of a Nd:YAG laser line resulted in a colinear beam of both λ = 532 and 1064 nm. The green beam was used to perform cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), with simultaneous measurements of scattering coefficient made through use of a reciprocal sphere nephelometer. The 1064 nm beam was selected and directed into a second integrating sphere and used for LII of light-absorbing kerosene lamp soot. Thermal denuder experiments showed the LII signals were not affected by the particle mixing state when laser peak power was 1.5-2.5 MW. The combined measurements of optical properties and soot mass concentration allowed determination of mass absorption cross section (M.A.C., m(2)/g) with 1 min time resolution when soot concentrations were in the low microgram per cubic meter range. Fresh kerosene nanosphere soot (ns-soot) exhibited a mean M.A.C and standard deviation of 9.3 ± 2.7 m(2)/g while limited measurements on dry ambient aerosol yielded an average of 8.2 ± 5.9 m(2)/g when soot was >0.25 μg/m(3). The method also detected increases in M.A.C. values associated with enhanced light absorption when polydisperse, laboratory-generated ns-soot particles were embedded within or coated with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and glycerol. Glycerol coatings produced the largest fractional increase in M.A.C. (1.41-fold increase), while solid coatings of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate produced increases of 1.10 and 1.06, respectively. Fresh, ns-soot did not exhibit increased M.A.C. at high relative humidity (RH); however, lab-generated soot coated with ammonium nitrate and held at 85% RH exhibited M.A.C. values nearly double the low-humidity case. The hybrid instrument for simultaneously tracking soot mass concentration and aerosol optical properties in real time is a

  19. Planar measurements of soot volume fraction and OH in a JP-8 pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Tara L.; Ring, Terry A.; Eddings, Eric G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Nathan, Graham J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Zeyad T.; Qamar, Nader [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The simultaneous measurement of soot volume fraction by laser induced incandescence (LII) and qualitative imaging of OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed in a JP-8 pool fire contained in a 152 mm diameter pan. Line of sight extinction was used to calibrate the LII system in a laminar flame, and to provide an independent method of measuring average soot volume fraction in the turbulent flame. The presence of soot in the turbulent flame was found to be approximately 50% probable, resulting in high levels of optical extinction, which increased slightly through the flame from approximately 30% near the base, to approximately 50% at the tip. This high soot loading pushes both techniques toward their detection limit. Nevertheless, useful accuracy was obtained, with the LII measurement of apparent extinction in the turbulent flame being approximately 21% lower than a direct measurement, consistent with the influence of signal trapping. The axial and radial distributions of soot volume fraction are presented, along with PDFs of volume fraction, and new insight into the behavior of soot sheets in pool fires are sought from the simultaneous measurements of OH and LII. (author)

  20. Oil soot measurement system of diesel engine; Diesel engine no oil sutsu sokutei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Y; Moritsugu, M; Kato, N [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Osaki, R [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For use evaluate diesel engine in laboratory, we have developed a apparatus which can measure soot density in engine oil instantly and accurately. We have achieved accuracy of 0.03 wt% by employing the following; (1) utilize a ligh-reflecting oil soot sensor, (2) regurate the temperature and flow of the in-coming oil to be constant. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Steady State Investigations of DPF Soot Burn Rates and DPF Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    and soot mass concentrations are used as model boundary conditions. An in-house developed raw exhaust gas sampling technique is used to measure the soot concentration upstream the DPF which is also needed to find the DPF soot burn rate. The soot concentration is measured basically by filtering the soot...... characteristics are used to fit model constants of soot and filter properties. Measured DPF gas conversions and soot burn rates are used to fit model activation energies of four DPF regeneration reactions using O2 and NO2 as reactants. Modeled DPF pressure drops and soot burn rates are compared to the steady...... state DPF experiments in the temperature range between 260 and 480 °C. The model widely reproduces the experimental results. Especially the exponential soot burn rate versus temperature is accurately reproduced by the model....

  2. Studies of propane flame soot acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei in conjunction with single particle soot photometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation efficiency of propane flame soot particles with and without a sulphuric acid coating was investigated using the aerosol and cloud chamber facility AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere. The test soot for cloud formation simulations was produced using a propane flame Combustion Aerosol Standard generator (CAST, Jing-CAST Technologies. The organic carbon content (OC of the test soot was altered in a reproducible fashion by changing the fuel/air mixture of the generator. The soot content of ice nuclei was subsequently investigated using a combination of a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI to separate and evaporate the ice crystals, and a DMT single particle soot photometer (SP2 to examine the mixing state of the BC containing ice residuals.

    Ice nucleation was found to be most efficient for uncoated soot of low organic carbon content (~5 % organic carbon content where deposition freezing occurred at an ice saturation ratio Sice ~ 1.22 at a temperature T = 226.6 K with 25 % of the test soot becoming active as ice nuclei. Propane flame soot of higher organic carbon content (~30 % and ~70 % organic carbon content showed significantly lower ice nucleation efficiency (an activated fraction of the order of a few percent in the experiments than the low organic carbon content soot, with water saturation being required for freezing to occur. Ice nucleation occurred over the range Sice = 1.22–1.70, and T = 223.2–226.6 K. Analysis of the SP2 data showed that the 5 % organic carbon content soot had an undetectable OC coating whereas the 30 % organic carbon content soot had a thicker or less volatile OC coating.

    The application of a sulphuric acid coating to the flame soot shifted the threshold of the onset of freezing towards that of the homogeneous freezing of sulphuric acid; for the minimum OC flame soot this inhibited nucleation since the

  3. Development of a photometric measuring method for soot analysis in flames. Final report; Entwicklung eines photometrischen Messverfahrens zur Russanalyse in Flammen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichert, R.; Niemann, J.

    1995-12-31

    The present photometric measuring method for soot analysis in flames meets the following specifications: determination of the volume concentration of soot particles from 2 x 10{sup -7} upwards by means of extinction measurement at three different wavelengths; determination of the particle size distribution of soot particles by means of nephelometry in the range betwenn 20 and 400 nm; contactless measurements on the particle collective in the flame; no need for calibration of the photometric measuring method on the basis of particles of known size and concentration. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergeben sich fuer das entwickelte photometrische Messverfahren zur Russanalyse in Flammen folgende Spezifikationen: - Bestimmung der Volumenkonzentration der Russpartikel ab 2 x 10{sup -7} mittels Extinktionsmessungen bei drei Lichtwellenlaengen, - Ermittlung der Partikelgroessenverteilung der Russpartikel aus Streulichtmessungen im Bereich von 20 bis 400 nm, - beruehrungsfreie Messung in der Flamme am Partikelkollektiv und, - keine Kalibrierung des photometrischen Messverfahrens mit Partikeln bekannter Groesse bzw. bekannter Konzentration erforderlich. (orig./SR)

  4. Soot Formation In Turbulent Combusting Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santoro, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... Laser-based techniques were used to measure the soot volume fraction, particle size and number density as well as the temperature and relative concentration of hydroxyl radicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

  5. Soot particle size measurements in ethylene diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2016-05-07

    Soot particle size is investigated in laminar nitrogen-diluted ethylene coflow diffusion flames at 4, 8, 12 and 16 atm. Line of sight attenuation and scattering are used to measure two-dimensional soot volume fraction and particle size fields for the first time at elevated pressures. Soot volume fraction dependence on pressure is consistent with the observations of similar studies, scaling approximately with the square of pressure. Scattering intensity is analyzed through Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans polydisperse fractal aggregate theories to provide two estimates of particle size. An increase in overall particle sizes with pressure is found, consistent with similar one-dimensional studies. Particle diameters in the annulus of the flame increase faster with pressure than those on centerline. Contrary to previous studies, the dependence of particle size on pressure was found to taper off between 8 and 12 atm, with little observed growth beyond 12 atm. The measurements provide additional data for one of the International Sooting Flame (ISF) workshop\\'s target pressurized flames.

  6. Characterization and reactivity of soot from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic compounds and monolignols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Brown, Avery; Tompsett, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    spectroscopy. The CO2 reactivity of soot was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Soot from cellulose was more reactive than soot produced from extractives, lignin and monolignols. Soot reactivity was correlated with the separation distances between adjacent graphene layers, as measured using...... transmission electron microscopy. Particle size, free radical concentration, differences in a degree of curvature and multi-core structures influenced the soot reactivity less than the interlayer separation distances. Soot yield was correlated with the lignin content of the feedstock. The selection...... of the extraction solvent had a strong influence on the soot reactivity. The Soxhlet extraction of softwood and wheat straw lignin soot using methanol decreased the soot reactivity, whereas acetone extraction had only a modest effect....

  7. Size distribution and concentration of soot generated in oil and gas-fired residential boilers under different combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Santiago; Barroso, Jorge; Pina, Antonio; Ballester, Javier

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the relevance of residential heating burners in the global emission of soot particles to the atmosphere, relatively little information on their properties (concentration, size distribution) is available in the literature, and even less regarding the dependence of those properties on the operating conditions. Instead, the usual procedure to characterize those emissions is to measure the smoke opacity by several methods, among which the blackening of a paper after filtering a fixed amount of gas (Bacharach test) is predominant. In this work, the size distributions of the particles generated in the combustion of a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in a laboratory facility equipped with commercial burners have been measured with a size classifier coupled to a particle counter in a broad range of operating conditions (air excesses), with simultaneous determination of the Bacharach index. The shape and evolution of the distribution with progressively smaller oxygen concentrations depends essentially on the state of the fuel: whereas the combustion of the gases results in monomodal distributions that 'shift' towards larger diameters, in the case of the gas-oils an ultrafine mode is always observed, and a secondary mode of coarse particle grows in relevance. In both cases, there is a strong, exponential correlation between the total mass concentration and the Bacharach opacity index, quite similar for both groups of fuels. The empirical expressions proposed may allow other researchers to at least estimate the emissions of numerous combustion facilities routinely characterized by their smoke opacities.

  8. Experimental and computational investigation of temperature effects on soot mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaojie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of initial ambient temperatures on combustion and soot emission characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated through experiment conducted in optical constant volume chamber and simulation using phenomenological soot model. There are four difference initial ambient temperatures adopted in our research: 1000 K, 900 K, 800 K and 700 K. In order to obtain a better prediction of soot behavior, phenomenological soot model was revised to take into account the soot oxidation feedback on soot number density and good agreement was observed in the comparison of soot measurement and prediction. Results indicated that ignition delay prolonged with the decrease of initial ambient temperature. The heat release rate demonstrated the transition from mixing controlled combustion at high ambient temperature to premixed combustion mode at low ambient temperature. At lower ambient temperature, soot formation and oxidation mechanism were both suppressed. But finally soot mass concentration reduced with decreasing initial ambient temperature. Although the drop in ambient temperature did not cool the mean in-cylinder temperature during the combustion, it did shrink the total area of local high equivalence ratio, in which soot usually generated fast. At 700 K initial ambient temperature, soot emissions were almost negligible, which indicates that sootless combustion might be achieved at super low initial temperature operation conditions.

  9. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot during the pyrolysis of ethylene and benzene in a shock tube

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav

    2016-10-12

    Acetylene is one of the most important precursors of soot and contributes to soot growth by the hydrogen-abstraction acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism. In this work, we undertake time-resolved simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1600-2200. K and pressures of 3-5. bar. Acetylene mole fraction time-histories are measured from the absorption of a quantum-cascade laser operating around 13.6. μm. The soot volume fraction, particle size and number densities are calculated from the extinction and scattering of a cw Nd:Yag laser at 532. nm. Acetylene and soot are generated from the pyrolysis of 1% benzene in argon, 2.35% ethylene in argon, and binary mixtures of ethylene with propane/methane in argon. We note that acetylene time-histories exhibit a two-stage growth during the pyrolysis of benzene, which can be correlated to the initial rapid increase of soot volume fraction and a later plateauing. In comparison to ethylene pyrolysis, the pyrolysis of benzene results in larger values of the soot volume fraction, particle diameter and number density. We compare the measured data against the values simulated using the method-of-moments routine in Chemkin-Pro and a detailed PAH mechanism based on KM2 [1] and AramcoMech 1.3 [2]. Large discrepancies are observed between the measured and predicted values of the soot parameters. The data obtained from our experiments may assist future validation and development of soot mechanisms.

  11. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color

  12. Improved soot blowing, based on needs, through measurement of the natural frequency of the heat transferring tubes; Foerbaettrad behovsstyrd sotning genom maetning av oeverfoerande tubernas egenfrekvens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Ivarsson, Christofer

    2007-11-15

    The aim of the project is to develop a method for detecting soot on the transferring tubes by measuring the Eigen frequency of the tubes as a function of the soot deposit growth. The project is a pilot study independent of boiler type and it is applicable to all boilers where soot deposit on transferring tubes is a repeating issue. The report is supposed to answer two major questions. Is it possible to make use of Eigen frequencies in order to trace soot deposit on transferring tubes? What governing parameters are related to the Eigen frequency of transferring tubes? By today, soot blowing is executed after recommendations from the manufacturer in terms of number of soot blowing per time unit. The fuel type as well as boiler type has great influence on the soot deposit growth. The objective of the project is to investigate whether the mechanical properties of the transferring tube can be used to detect soot deposit. The project is divided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical part covers the design of the probe and the change of its mechanical properties when soot deposit is present. Practical experiments were then carried out in a laboratory were the probes mechanical properties with and without soot deposit were investigated. It was shown that the Eigen frequency of the probe decreased with an increased mass due to soot deposit. A test was also made in a boiler at SAKAB but difficulties in attaching the probe to the inspection hatch. The results varied and the interpretation of the results become difficult. However, it was obvious that the mechanical properties of the probe changed with the amount of soot deposit. It was concluded that detection of soot deposit by studying the mechanical properties of the transferring tubes is possible. Yet, using a probe is no optimal solution, instead measurements should be done directly on the heat transferring tubes. In addition, a strategy for controlling the soot deposit has to be developed

  13. Aromatics Oxidation and Soot Formation in Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J. B.; Richter, H.

    2005-03-29

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and the growth process to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of increasing size, soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The overall objective of the experimental aromatics oxidation work is to extend the set of available data by measuring concentration profiles for decomposition intermediates such as phenyl, cyclopentadienyl, phenoxy or indenyl radicals which could not be measured with molecular-beam mass spectrometry to permit further refinement and testing of benzene oxidation mechanisms. The focus includes PAH radicals which are thought to play a major role in the soot formation process while their concentrations are in many cases too low to permit measurement with conventional mass spectrometry. The radical species measurements are used in critical testing and improvement of a kinetic model describing benzene oxidation and PAH growth. Thermodynamic property data of selected species are determined computationally, for instance using density functional theory (DFT). Potential energy surfaces are explored in order to identify additional reaction pathways. The ultimate goal is to understand the conversion of high molecular weight compounds to nascent soot particles, to assess the roles of planar and curved PAH and relationships between soot and fullerenes formation. The specific aims are to characterize both the high molecular weight compounds involved in the nucleation of soot particles and the structure of soot including internal nanoscale features indicative of contributions of planar and/or curved PAH to particle inception.

  14. Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.

  15. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Cheng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are the most efficient light absorbing aerosol species in the atmosphere, playing an important role as a driver of global warming. Their climate effects strongly depend on their mixing state, which significantly changes their light absorbing capability and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. Therefore, knowledge about the mixing state of soot and its aging mechanism becomes an important topic in the atmospheric sciences.

    The size-resolved (30–320 nm diameter mixing state of soot particles in polluted megacity air was measured at a suburban site (Yufa during the CAREBeijing 2006 campaign in Beijing, using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA. Particles in this size range with non-volatile residuals at 300 °C were considered to be soot particles. On average, the number fraction of internally mixed soot in total soot particles (Fin, decreased from 0.80 to 0.57 when initial Dp increased from 30 to 320 nm. Further analysis reveals that: (1 Fin was well correlated with the aerosol hygroscopic mixing state measured by a CCN counter. More externally mixed soot particles were observed when particles showed more heterogeneous features with regard to hygroscopicity. (2 Fin had pronounced diurnal cycles. For particles in the accumulation mode (Dp at 100–320 nm, largest Fin were observed at noon time, with "apparent" turnover rates (kex → in up to 7.8% h−1. (3 Fin was subject to competing effects of both aging and emissions. While aging increases Fin by converting externally mixed soot particles into internally mixed ones, emissions tend to reduce Fin by emitting more fresh and externally mixed soot particles. Similar competing effects were also found with air mass age indicators. (4 Under the estimated emission

  16. Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed mc1hane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt: the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames. for reasons that still must be explained.

  17. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, G.N. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gng@aber.ac.uk; Hargrave, G.K. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Wildman, P. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Meneau, F. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Thomas, G. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s{sup -1} we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  18. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G.N.; Hargrave, G.K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s -1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene

  19. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G. N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-08-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s-1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot during the pyrolysis of ethylene and benzene in a shock tube

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav; Beshir, Mohamed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1600-2200. K and pressures of 3-5. bar. Acetylene mole fraction time-histories are measured from the absorption of a quantum-cascade laser operating around 13.6. μm. The soot volume fraction, particle size and number

  1. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-07-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed.

  2. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed

  3. Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot calibration of photoacoustic instruments for measurement of light absorption by aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.

    2000-01-01

    A nitrogen dioxide calibration method is developed to evaluate the theoretical calibration for a photoacoustic instrument used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical calibration, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the instrument compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the calibration method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the calibration method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively

  4. Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2016-01-20

    The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot modeling using recently developed PAH chemistry and surface reaction mechanism was performed and the results were compared with experimental data for ethylene flames, focusing on the effects of strain rates. The results showed that increase in strain rate reduced soot volume fraction, average size and peak number density. Increase in oxygen mole fraction increased soot loading and decreased its sensitivity on strain rate. The soot volume fractions of ethane, propene and propane flames were also measured as a function of global strain rate. The sensitivity of soot volume fraction to strain rate was observed to be fuel dependent at a fixed oxygen mole fraction, with the sensitivity being higher for more sooting fuels. However, when the soot loadings were matched at a reference strain rate for different fuels by adjusting oxygen mole fraction, the dependence of soot loading on strain rate became comparable among the tested fuels. PAH concentrations were shown to decrease with increase in strain rate and the dependence on strain rate is more pronounced for larger PAHs. Soot modeling was performed using detailed PAH growth chemistry with molecular growth up to coronene. A qualitative agreement was obtained between experimental and simulation results, which was then used to explain the experimentally observed strain rate effect on soot growth. However, quantitatively, the simulation result exhibits higher sensitivity to strain rate, especially for large PAHs and soot volume fractions.

  5. Soot particle size measurements in ethylene diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott; Fang, Tiegang; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    for the first time at elevated pressures. Soot volume fraction dependence on pressure is consistent with the observations of similar studies, scaling approximately with the square of pressure. Scattering intensity is analyzed through Rayleigh and Rayleigh

  6. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Mixing on Soot Size Distribution in Premixed Ethylene Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zepeng

    2016-04-21

    As a byproduct of incomplete combustion, soot attracts increasing attentions as extensive researches exploring serious health and environmental effects from soot particles. Soot emission reduction requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and of soot formation and aging processes. Therefore, advanced experimental techniques and numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate this procedure. In order to investigate the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) mixing on soot particle size distribution functions (PSDFs), DME was mixed in premixed ethylene/oxygen/argon at flames at the equivalence ratio of 2.0 with a range of mixing ratio from 0% to 30% of the total carbon fed. Two series of atmospheric pressure flames were tested in which cold gas velocity was varied to obtain different flame temperatures. The evolution of PSDFs along the centerline of the flame was determined by burner stabilized stagnation probe and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) techniques, yielding the PSDFs for various separation distances above the burner surface. Meanwhile, the flame temperature profiles were carefully measured by a thermocouple and the comparison to that of simulated laminar premixed burner-stabilized stagnation flame was satisfactory. Additionally, to understand the chemical role of DME mixing in soot properties, characterization measurements were conducted on soot samples using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). Results of the evolution of PSDFs and soot volume fraction showed that adding DME into ethylene flame could reduce soot yield significantly. The addition of DME led to the decrease of both the soot nucleation rate and the particle mass growth rate. To explain the possible mechanism for the observation, numerical simulations were performed. Although DME addition resulted in the slight increase of methyl radicals from pyrolysis, the decrease in acetylene and propargyl radicals

  7. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor. PMID:28218700

  8. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-02-18

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  9. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF. The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  10. Computational Investigation of Soot and Radiation in Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalit, Harshad

    scalars from the LES are used in conjunction with the radiation heat transfer equation and a narrow band radiation model to compute time dependent and time averaged images of infrared radiation intensity in spectral bands corresponding to molecular radiation from gas phase carbon dioxide and soot particles exclusively. While qualitative and quantitative comparisons with measured images in the CO2 radiation band show that the flame structure is correctly computed, images computed in the soot radiation band illustrate that the soot volume fraction is under predicted by the computations. The effect of the soot model and cause of under prediction is investigated further by correcting the soot volume fraction using an empirical state relationship. By comparing default simulations with computations using the state relation, it is shown that while the soot model under-estimates the soot concentration, it correctly computes the intermittency of soot in the flame. The study of sooting flames is extended further by performing a parametric analysis of physical and numerical parameters that affect soot formation and transport in two laboratory scale turbulent sooting flames, one fueled by natural gas and the other by ethylene. The study is focused on investigating the effect of molecular diffusion of species, dilution of fuel with hydrogen gas and the effect of chemical reaction mechanism on the soot concentration in the flame. The effect of species Lewis numbers on soot evolution and transport is investigated by carrying out simulations, first with the default equal diffusivity (ED) assumption and then by incorporating a differential diffusion (DD) model. Computations using the DD model over-estimate the concentration of the soot precursor and soot oxidizer species, leading to inconsistencies in the estimate of the soot concentration. The linear differential diffusion (LDD) model, reported previously to consistently model differential diffusion effects is implemented to correct the

  11. Formation of Soot in Counterflow Diffusion Flames with Carbon Dioxide Dilution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2016-05-04

    Experimental and numerical modeling studies have been performed to investigate the effect of CO2 dilution on soot formation in ethylene counterflow diffusion flames. Thermal and chemical effects of CO2 addition on soot growth was numerically identified by using a fictitious CO2 species, which was treated as inert in terms of chemical reactions. The results showed that CO2 addition reduces soot formation both thermodynamically and chemically. In terms of chemical effect, the addition of CO2 decreases soot formation through various pathways, including: (1) reduced soot precursor (PAH) formation leading to lower inception rates and soot number density, which in turn results in lower surface area for soot mass addition; (2) reduced H, CH3, and C3H3 concentrations causing lower H abstraction rate and therefore less active site per surface area for soot growth; and (3) reduced C2H2 mole fraction and thus a slower C2H2 mass addition rate. In addition, the sooting limits were also measured for ethylene counterflow flames in both N2 and CO2 atmosphere and the results showed that sooting region was significantly reduced in the CO2 case compared to the N2 case. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  12. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  13. Evaluation of a Lagrangian Soot Tracking Method for the prediction of primary soot particle size under engine-like conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai Ong, Jiun; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation and evaluation of a Lagrangian soot tracking (LST) method for the modeling of soot in diesel engines. The LST model employed here has the tracking capability of a Lagrangian method and the ability to predict primary soot particle sizing. The Moss-Brookes soot...... in predicting temporal soot cloud development, mean soot diameter and primary soot size distribution is evaluated using measurements of n-heptane and n-dodecane spray combustion obtained under diesel engine-like conditions. In addition, sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the influence of soot....... A higher rate of soot oxidation due to OH causes the soot particles to be fully oxidized downstream of the flame. In general, the LST model performs better than the Eulerian method in terms of predicting soot sizing and accessing information of individual soot particles, both of which are shortcomings...

  14. Development of a photoacoustic sensor system for the measurement of atmospheric soot aerosols. Final report; Weiterentwicklung und Charakterisierung des photoakustischen Russsensors. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, L.; Bozoki, Z.; Niessner, R.

    2001-03-01

    The photoacoustic soot sensor (PASS) has been optimised and characterised in this work to enable online atmospheric black carbon (BC) monitoring. The mobility of the sensor suited for outdoor measurements was already achieved by a former setup. The major technical modifications include the use of a new diode laser with an emission wavelength of 680 nm and an output power of 250 mW and the redesign of the photoacoustic resonance cell and all optical components. Additionally, most of the electronic compounds have been exchanged, e.g. function generator, microphone preamplifier, lock-in amplifier. Due to these modifications, the increase in the sensitivity of the system led to a detection limit in the order of 100 ng per m{sup 3}. The selectivity has been enhanced by the use of a magnetic valve, which enables the independent determination of particular and gaseous compounds of the sample. Cross-sensitivities to water vapor or nitrogen dioxide can be excluded by differential measurement. Any influence by other airborne atmospheric particles like scattering salt aerosols, desert dust or humic acid is negligable under atmospheric conditions as has been shown in laboratory experiments. For the determination of low atmospheric BC concentrations, the time resolution of the entire setup by employing a software controlled, automated measurement cycle equals {proportional_to}5 minutes. The PASS was tested in various field campaigns at different measurement sites to determine atmospheric BC (Munich-Grosshadern, Kleiner Feldberg) and diesel soot (AIDA, FZ Karlsruhe; diesel engine, DaimlerChrysler). (orig.)

  15. Investigation of soot formation and temperature field in laminar diffusion flames of LPG-air mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahad, Haroun A.K.; Mohammed, Yassar K.A. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Israel)

    2000-11-01

    Soot formation and burnout were studied at atmospheric pressure in co-flowing, axisymmetric buoyant laminar diffusion flames and double flames of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)-air mixtures. In diffusion flames, two different fuel flow rates were examined. In double flames, three different primary air flow rates were examined. A soot sampling probe and a thermocouple were used to measure the local soot mass concentration and flame temperature, respectively. Flame residence time was predicted using a uniformly accelerated motion model as function of axial distance of the flame. The increase of primary air flow rate was found to suppress the energy transfer from the annular region, at which the soot is produced, to the flame axis. The time required to initiate soot formation at the flame axis becomes longer as the primary air is increased. The trend rate of soot formation was found to be similar along the flame axis in all tested diffusion flames. The increase of primary air by 10% of the stoichiometric air requirement of the fuel results in a 70% reduction in maximum soot concentration. The final exhaust of soot, which is determined by the net effect of soot formation and burnout, is much lower in double flames than that in diffusion flames. (Author)

  16. Soot measurements by two angle scattering and extinction in an N 2 -diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame from 2 to 5 atm

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Hafiz M.F.

    2016-06-27

    The soot formed in an N-diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame at elevated pressure was investigated using two angle light scattering/extinction technique. To provide a well-controlled pressurized environment for the flame, a novel pressure vessel was built with the required optical access. The soot parameters were measured along the centerline of the counterflow flame. These properties included soot volume fraction (f ), primary particle diameter (d ), population averaged radius of gyration (R ) and number density of primary particles (n ). The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for Fractal Aggregates (RDG-FA) was used to retrieve these properties from scattering and extinction measurements. Soot volume fraction was measured via light extinction from 2 to 5atm while maintaining the same global strain rate at all pressures. Scattered light from soot particles was measured at 45° and 135° and primary particle diameter was calculated using scattering/extinction ratio and the radius of gyration was determined from the dissymmetry ratio. Soot volume fraction, primary particle diameter and radius of gyration all increased with pressure while the number density of primary particles decreased with increasing pressure.

  17. Soot measurements by two angle scattering and extinction in an N 2 -diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame from 2 to 5 atm

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Hafiz M.F.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The soot formed in an N-diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame at elevated pressure was investigated using two angle light scattering/extinction technique. To provide a well-controlled pressurized environment for the flame, a novel pressure vessel was built with the required optical access. The soot parameters were measured along the centerline of the counterflow flame. These properties included soot volume fraction (f ), primary particle diameter (d ), population averaged radius of gyration (R ) and number density of primary particles (n ). The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for Fractal Aggregates (RDG-FA) was used to retrieve these properties from scattering and extinction measurements. Soot volume fraction was measured via light extinction from 2 to 5atm while maintaining the same global strain rate at all pressures. Scattered light from soot particles was measured at 45° and 135° and primary particle diameter was calculated using scattering/extinction ratio and the radius of gyration was determined from the dissymmetry ratio. Soot volume fraction, primary particle diameter and radius of gyration all increased with pressure while the number density of primary particles decreased with increasing pressure.

  18. Investigations of Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames at Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott A.

    2016-12-01

    Soot is a common byproduct of hydrocarbon based combustion systems. It poses a risk to human and environmental health, and can negatively or positively affect combustor performance. As a result, there is significant interest in understanding soot formation in order to better control it. More recently, the need to study soot formation in engine relevant conditions has become apparent. One engine relevant parameter that has had little focus is the ambient pressure. This body of work focuses on the formation of soot in elevated pressure environments, and a number of investigations are carried out with this purpose. Laminar coflow diffusion flames are used as steady, simple soot producers. First, a commonly studied flame configuration is further characterized. Coflow flames are frequently used for fundamental flame studies, particularly at elevated pressures. However, they are more susceptible to buoyancy induced instabilities at elevated pressures. The velocity of the coflow is known to have an effect on flame stability and soot formation, though these have not been characterized at elevated pressures. A series of flames are investigated covering a range of flowrates, pressures, and nozzle diameters. The stability limits of coflow flames in this range is investigated. Additionally, an alternative strategy for scaling these flames to elevated pressures is proposed. Finally, the effect of coflow rate on soot formation is evaluated. Identification of fundamental flames for coordinated research can facilitate our understanding of soot formation. The next study of this work focuses on adding soot concentration and particle size information to an existing fundamental flame dataset for the purpose of numerical model validation. Soot volume fraction and average particle diameters are successfully measured in nitrogen-diluted ethylene-air laminar coflow flames at pressures of 4, 8, 12, and 16 atm. An increase in particle size with pressure is found up to 12 atm, where particle

  19. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  20. Laser-Induced Emissions Sensor for Soot Mass in Rocket Plumes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method is proposed to measure soot mass concentration non-intrusively from a distance in a rocket engine exhaust stream during ground tests using laser-induced...

  1. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  2. Investigating Soot Morphology in Counterflow Flames at Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Hafiz Muhammad Fahid

    2018-01-01

    volume fraction from 2 to 10 atm. Local soot volume fraction increased with pressure and soot concentration profiles showed good agreements when measured by both techniques. Experimental data obtained in this work is very helpful for the modelers for validating their codes and predicting the soot formation in pressurized flames.

  3. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  4. The concentration of heavy metals and PAH's in soot water - suggested methods of treatment; Halten av tungmetaller och PAH:er i sotvatten - foerslag paa behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Bjoern (TecNet Nordic AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-12-15

    What we here call 'soot water' is a contaminated water from seasonal cleaning of the furnace and heating sections with water. Earlier, it was common to discharge this type of water directly to a recipient or to the municipal sewage plant. Today, with new, more restricted regulations, this is not accepted unless the concentrations of different substances is well documented and below official limits. The objective of this project has been to increase the knowledge of soot water from different types of combustion plants and suggest ways to handle/treat this water. The project started with a literature survey of soot water in the Swedish, English and German open literature. The next step was to perform analyses on soot water from combustion of waste, wood chips, wood chips/peat, bio oil and heavy fuel oil. It is very difficult to take a representative sample of soot water. It is especially the amount of particles in the water that may change. Since particles contains high levels of heavy metals, this may severely affect the concentrations of metals in the sample, if included in the analysis. Soot water contains very low concentrations of mercury. The concentrations of PAH is also close to or below the detection limit. On the other hand, all soot water analysed, contains enough concentrations of some metal, to make it unsuitable to be discharged directly to a recipient or drain. Four methods of water treatment have been examined for its capacity to treat soot water with regard to their capacity, operational and economical performance. The result is as follows: Chemical precipitation is the method that is judged to have the highest potential as long as the chlorides and sulphates can be discharged to the recipient or municipal waste plant. Reversed osmosis is judged less suitable for soot water since the water contains calcium, sulfates and carbonates that may clog the membranes. Evaporators is also judged to be of less interest for soot water due to its

  5. Stochastic Simulation of Soot Formation Evolution in Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soot generally refers to carbonaceous particles formed during incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A typical simulation of soot formation and evolution contains two parts: gas chemical kinetics, which models the chemical reaction from hydrocarbon fuels to soot precursors, that is, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and soot dynamics, which models the soot formation from PAHs and evolution due to gas-soot and soot-soot interactions. In this study, two detailed gas kinetic mechanisms (ABF and KM2 have been compared during the simulation (using the solver Chemkin II of ethylene combustion in counterflow diffusion flames. Subsequently, the operator splitting Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the soot dynamics. Both the simulated data from the two mechanisms for gas and soot particles are compared with experimental data available in the literature. It is found that both mechanisms predict similar profiles for the gas temperature and velocity, agreeing well with measurements. However, KM2 mechanism provides much closer prediction compared to measurements for soot gas precursors. Furthermore, KM2 also shows much better predictions for soot number density and volume fraction than ABF. The effect of nozzle exit velocity on soot dynamics has also been investigated. Higher nozzle exit velocity renders shorter residence time for soot particles, which reduces the soot number density and volume fraction accordingly.

  6. Numerical investigation on soot particles emission in compression ignition diesel engine by using particulate mimic soot model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research via computational method, specifically by detailed-kinetic soot model offers much more advantages than the simple model as more detailed formation/oxidation process is taken into consideration, thus providing better soot mass concentration, soot size, soot number density as well as information regarding other related species. In the present computational study, investigation of in-cylinder soot concentration as well as other emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine has been conducted, using a commercial multidimensional CFD software, CONVERGE CFD. The simulation was carried out for a close-cycle combustion environment from inlet valve closing (IVC to exhaust valve opening (EVO. In this case, detailed-kinetic Particulate Mimic (PM soot model was implemented as to take benefit of the method of moment, instead of commonly implemented simple soot model. Analyses of the results are successfully plotted to demonstrate that the soot size and soot mass concentration are strongly dependent on the detailed soot formation and oxidation process rates. The calculated of soot mass concentration and average soot size at EVO provide the end value of 29.2 mg/m3 and 2.04 × 10−8 m, respectively. Besides, post-processing using EnSight shows the qualitative results of soot concentration along simulation period in the combustion chamber.

  7. Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2010-10-01

    This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation

  8. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to reliably detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gysel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The single particle soot photometer (SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence (LII for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit. It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of a femtogram BC in order to be detected by the SP2.

    Here we show the result that most BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM, is clearly above the typical lower detection limit of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST, fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's lower detection limit. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, most PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to their vaporisation temperature because of their small size (Dpp ≈ 5–10 nm. Previous knowledge from pulsed laser-induced incandescence indicated that particle morphology might have an effect on the SP2's lower detection limit, however, an increase of the lower detection limit by a factor of ∼5–10, as reported here for PALAS soot, was not expected.

    In conclusion, the SP2's lower detection limit at a certain laser power depends primarily on the total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective

  9. Sooting limit in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene/propane fuels and implication to threshold soot index

    KAUST Repository

    Joo, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of propane/ethylene fuels have been studied experimentally using a light scattering technique, including the effects of dilution, fuel mixing, and strain rate. The results are discussed in view of the threshold soot index (TSI). In soot-formation (SF) flames, where the flame is located on the oxidizer side of the stagnation plane, the sooting limit depends critically on fuel type and subsequently on flame temperature. The sooting limit has a non-linear dependence on the fuel-mixing ratio, which is similar to the non-linear mixing rule for TSI observed experimentally in rich premixed flames, where soot oxidation is absent for both SF and rich premixed flames. In soot-formation-oxidation (SFO) flames, where the flame is located on the fuel side, the sooting limit depends critically on flame temperature, while it is relatively independent on fuel type. This result suggests a linear mixing rule for sooting limits in SFO flames, which is similar to the TSI behavior for coflow diffusion flames. Soot oxidation takes place for both types of flames. The aerodynamic strain effect on the sooting limits has also been studied and an appreciable influence has been observed. Under sooting conditions, soot volume fraction was measured using a light extinction technique. The soot loadings in SF flames of the mixture fuels demonstrated a synergistic effect, i.e., soot production increased for certain mixture fuels as compared to the respective singlecomponent fuels. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam

    2014-05-20

    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. The effect of ethanol blending on mixture formation, combustion and soot emission studied in an optical DISI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Michael; Hinrichsen, Florian; Wensing, Michael; Will, Stefan; Zigan, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalyst heating points were analyzed using optical measurement techniques. • E20 shows stronger soot radiation and higher soot concentration as isooctane. • Different mixing formation of isooctane and E20 was determined. • Strong mixture stratification was identified for both fuels. • Remaining droplets and fuel rich regions are the main source for soot formation. - Abstract: In various research studies, ethanol blended fuels have shown reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions in comparison to gasoline and its surrogate fuels in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. However, there are also studies reporting increased particulate concentration for fuels with low ethanol content. In this work the mixture formation and sooting combustion behavior of isooctane and the mixture E20 (20 vol% of ethanol in isooctane) is analyzed for catalyst heating operation. These operating conditions are critical as they strongly contribute to overall soot emissions in driving cycles. Simultaneous high speed imaging of OH ∗ –chemiluminescence and natural soot luminosity measurements are performed in combination with primary particle concentration measurements using a laser induced incandescence (LII) sensor in the engine exhaust duct. At these operating conditions E20 exhibits a higher sooting tendency as compared to isooctane. In order to identify the reason for increased soot formation, the mixture formation process is analyzed by planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. The results show that soot was formed in fuel rich regions with incomplete evaporated fuel droplets remaining from the injection event. A different evaporation process of E20 fuel spray and mixing behavior is indicated showing a more compact rich mixture cloud with surrounding lean areas near the spark plug region. This mixture stratification is characterized by higher cyclic variations and constitutes a significant source of soot formation

  13. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, J. E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  14. Numerical simulation of combustion and soot under partially premixed combustion of low-octane gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2017-09-23

    In-cylinder combustion visualization and engine-out soot particle emissions were investigated in an optical diesel engine fueled with low octane gasoline. Single injection strategy with an early injection timing (−30 CAD aTDC) was employed to achieve partially premixed combustion (PPC) condition. A high-speed color camera was used to record the combustion images for 150 cycles. The regulated emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and soot mass concentration were measured experimentally. Full cycle engine simulations were performed using CONVERGE™ and the simulation results matched with the experimental results. The in-cylinder soot particle evolution was performed by coupling a reduced toluene reference fuel mechanism including the PAHs formation/oxidation reactions with particulate size mimic model. The results showed that PPC presents typical stratified combustion characteristics, which is significantly different from the conventional diesel spray-driven combustion. The in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio overlaid with soot-NO formation regime revealed that PPC operating condition under study mostly avoided the main sooting conditions throughout the entire combustion. The evaluation of temperature distribution showed formaldehyde could be regarded as an indicator for low temperature reactions, while hydroxyl group represents the high temperature reactions. Soot evolution happened during the combustion process, hydroxyl radicals promoted the soot oxidation.

  15. Numerical simulation of combustion and soot under partially premixed combustion of low-octane gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao; Jaasim, Mohammed; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Im, Hong G.; Johansson, Bengt.

    2017-01-01

    In-cylinder combustion visualization and engine-out soot particle emissions were investigated in an optical diesel engine fueled with low octane gasoline. Single injection strategy with an early injection timing (−30 CAD aTDC) was employed to achieve partially premixed combustion (PPC) condition. A high-speed color camera was used to record the combustion images for 150 cycles. The regulated emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and soot mass concentration were measured experimentally. Full cycle engine simulations were performed using CONVERGE™ and the simulation results matched with the experimental results. The in-cylinder soot particle evolution was performed by coupling a reduced toluene reference fuel mechanism including the PAHs formation/oxidation reactions with particulate size mimic model. The results showed that PPC presents typical stratified combustion characteristics, which is significantly different from the conventional diesel spray-driven combustion. The in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio overlaid with soot-NO formation regime revealed that PPC operating condition under study mostly avoided the main sooting conditions throughout the entire combustion. The evaluation of temperature distribution showed formaldehyde could be regarded as an indicator for low temperature reactions, while hydroxyl group represents the high temperature reactions. Soot evolution happened during the combustion process, hydroxyl radicals promoted the soot oxidation.

  16. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  17. Post-depositional enrichment of black soot in snow-pack and accelerated melting of Tibetan glaciers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Baiqing; Joswiak, Daniel R; Zhao Huabiao; Cao Junji; Liu Xianqin; He Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    The post-depositional enrichment of black soot in snow-pack was investigated by measuring the redistribution of black soot along monthly snow-pits on a Tien Shan glacier. The one-year experiment revealed that black soot was greatly enriched, defined as the ratio of concentration to original snow concentration, in the unmelted snow-pack by at least an order of magnitude. Greatest soot enrichment was observed in the surface snow and the lower firn-pack within the melt season percolation zone. Black carbon (BC) concentrations as high as 400 ng g −1 in the summer surface snow indicate that soot can significantly contribute to glacier melt. BC concentrations reaching 3000 ng g −1 in the bottom portion of the firn pit are especially concerning given the expected equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) rise associated with future climatic warming, which would expose the dirty underlying firn and ice. Since most of the accumulation area on Tibetan glaciers is within the percolation zone where snow densification is characterized by melting and refreezing, the enrichment of black soot in the snow-pack is of foremost importance. Results suggest the effect of black soot on glacier melting may currently be underestimated. (letter)

  18. Measurements of Nascent Soot Using a Cavity Attenauted Phase Shift (CAPS)-based Single Scattering Albedo Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Renbaum-Wollf, L.; Lambe, A. T.; Davidovits, P.; Kebabian, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate, as compared to precise, measurement of aerosol absorption has always posed a significant problem for the particle radiative properties community. Filter-based instruments do not actually measure absorption but rather light transmission through the filter; absorption must be derived from this data using multiple corrections. The potential for matrix-induced effects is also great for organic-laden aerosols. The introduction of true in situ measurement instruments using photoacoustic or photothermal interferometric techniques represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. However, measurement artifacts caused by changes in humidity still represent a significant hurdle as does the lack of a good calibration standard at most measurement wavelengths. And, in the absence of any particle-based absorption standard, there is no way to demonstrate any real level of accuracy. We, along with others, have proposed that under the circumstance of low single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption is best determined by difference using measurement of total extinction and scattering. We discuss a robust, compact, field deployable instrument (the CAPS PMssa) that simultaneously measures airborne particle light extinction and scattering coefficients and thus the single scattering albedo (SSA) on the same sample volume. The extinction measurement is based on cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) techniques as employed in the CAPS PMex particle extinction monitor; scattering is measured using integrating nephelometry by incorporating a Lambertian integrating sphere within the sample cell. The scattering measurement is calibrated using the extinction measurement of non-absorbing particles. For small particles and low SSA, absorption can be measured with an accuracy of 6-8% at absorption levels as low as a few Mm-1. We present new results of the measurement of the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot generated by an inverted methane diffusion flame at 630 nm. A value

  19. Thermal fragmentation and deactivation of combustion-generated soot particles

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2014-09-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on diesel soot and on a commercial soot in an inert environment under isothermal conditions at intermediate temperatures (400-900°C) is studied. Two important phenomena are observed in both the soot samples: soot fragmentation leading to its mass loss, and loss of soot reactivity towards O2. Several experimental techniques such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to identify the changes in structures, functional groups such as oxygenates and aliphatics, σ and π bonding, O/C and H/C ratios, and crystallite parameters of soot particles, introduced by heat. A decrease in the size of primary particles and an increase in the average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) size was observed in soots after thermal treatment. The activation energies of soot oxidation for thermally treated soot samples were found to be higher than those for the untreated ones at most conversion levels. The cyclic or acyclic aliphatics with sp3 hybridization were present in significant amounts in all the soot samples, but their concentration decreased with thermal treatment. Interestingly, the H/C and the O/C ratios of soot particles increased after thermal treatment, and thus, they do not support the decrease in soot reactivity. The increase in the concentration of oxygenates on soot surface indicate that their desorption from soot surface in the form of CO, CO2 and other oxygenated compounds may not be significant at the temperatures (400-900°C) studied in this work. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  20. Numerical Modelling of Soot Formation in Laminar Axisymmetric Ethylene-Air Coflow Flames at Atmospheric and Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Rakha, Ihsan Allah

    2015-05-01

    The steady coflow diffusion flame is a widely used configuration for studying combustion kinetics, flame dynamics, and pollutant formation. In the current work, a set of diluted ethylene-air coflow flames are simulated to study the formation, growth, and oxidation of soot, with a focus on the effects of pressure on soot yield. Firstly, we assess the ability of a high performance CFD solver, coupled with detailed transport and kinetic models, to reproduce experimental measurements, like the temperature field, the species’ concentrations and the soot volume fraction. Fully coupled conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, and species mass fractions are solved using a low Mach number formulation. Detailed finite rate chemistry describing the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons up to cyclopenta[cd]pyrene is used. Soot is modeled using a moment method and the resulting moment transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian numerical scheme. Numerical and experimental results are compared for various pressures. Reasonable agreement is observed for the flame height, temperature, and the concentrations of various species. In each case, the peak soot volume fraction is predicted along the centerline as observed in the experiments. The predicted integrated soot mass at pressures ranging from 4-8 atm, scales as P2.1, in satisfactory agreement with the measured integrated soot pressure scaling (P2.27). Significant differences in the mole fractions of benzene and PAHs, and the predicted soot volume fractions are found, using two well-validated chemical kinetic mechanisms. At 4 atm, one mechanism over-predicts the peak soot volume fraction by a factor of 5, while the other under-predicts it by a factor of 5. A detailed analysis shows that the fuel tube wall temperature has an effect on flame stabilization.

  1. Monte carlo simulation for soot dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.

  2. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  3. Sooting Characteristics and Modeling in Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Soot formation is one of the most complex phenomena in combustion science and an understanding of the underlying physico-chemical mechanisms is important. This work adopted both experimental and numerical approaches to study soot formation in laminar counterfl ow diffusion flames. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the precursors of soot particles, a detailed gas-phase chemical mechanism describing PAH growth upto coronene for fuels with 1 to 4 carbon atoms was validated against laminar premixed and counter- flow diffusion fl ames. Built upon this gas-phase mechanism, a soot model was then developed to describe soot inception and surface growth. This soot model was sub- sequently used to study fuel mixing effect on soot formation in counterfl ow diffusion flames. Simulation results showed that compared to the baseline case of the ethylene flame, the doping of 5% (by volume) propane or ethane in ethylene tends to increase the soot volume fraction and number density while keeping the average soot size almost unchanged. These results are in agreement with experimental observations. Laser light extinction/scattering as well as laser induced fluorescence techniques were used to study the effect of strain rate on soot and PAH formation in counterfl ow diffusion ames. The results showed that as strain rate increased both soot volume fraction and PAH concentrations decreased. The concentrations of larger PAH were more sensitive to strain rate compared to smaller ones. The effect of CO2 addition on soot formation was also studied using similar experimental techniques. Soot loading was reduced with CO2 dilution. Subsequent numerical modeling studies were able to reproduce the experimental trend. In addition, the chemical effect of CO2 addition was analyzed using numerical data. Critical conditions for the onset of soot were systematically studied in counterfl ow diffusion ames for various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and at different strain rates. A sooting

  4. Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles, consisting of black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, inorganic salts, and trace elements, are emitted into the atmosphere during incomplete combustion. Accurate measurements of atmospheric BC are important as BC particles cause adverse health effects and impact the climate.

    Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the properties and mass concentrations of BC particles remains difficult. The Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 can contribute to improving this situation by measuring the mass of refractory BC in individual particles as well as its mixing state.

    Here, the results of the first detailed SP2 intercomparison, involving 6 SP2s from 6 different research groups, are presented, including the most evolved data products that can presently be calculated from SP2 measurements.

    It was shown that a detection efficiency of almost 100% down to 1 fg BC per particle can readily be achieved, and that this limit can be pushed down to ∼0.2 fg BC with optimal SP2 setup. Number and mass size distributions of BC cores agreed within ±5% and ±10%, respectively, in between the SP2s, with larger deviations in the range below 1 fg BC.

    The accuracy of the SP2's mass concentration measurement depends on the calibration material chosen. The SP2 has previously been shown to be equally sensitive to fullerene soot and ambient BC from sources where fossil fuel was dominant and less sensitive to fullerene soot than to Aquadag. Fullerene soot was therefore chosen as the standard calibration material by the SP2 user community; however, many data sets rely solely on Aquadag calibration measurements. The difference in SP2 sensitivity was found to be almost equal (fullerene soot to Aquadag response ratio of ∼0.75 at 8.9 fg BC for all SP2s. This allows the calculation of a fullerene soot equivalent calibration curve from a measured Aquadag calibration, when no fullerene soot calibration is available. It could be

  5. Effect of Coatings on the Uptake Rate and HONO Yield in Heterogeneous Reaction of Soot with NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Quiñones, M.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Heterogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide on carbon soot aerosols has been suggested as a possible source of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) in atmosphere boundary layer. Available laboratory data show significant variability in the measured reaction probabilities and HONO yields, making it difficult to asses the atmospheric significance of this process. Moreover, little is known of how aging of soot aerosol through internal mixing with other atmospheric trace constituents will affect the heterogeneous reactivity and HONO production. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on fresh and aged soot films leading to HONO formation was studied through a series of kinetic uptake experiments and HONO yield measurements. Soot samples were prepared by incomplete combustion of propane and kerosene fuels under lean and rich flame conditions. Experiments were performed in a low-pressure, fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), using atmospheric-level NO2 concentrations. Heterogeneous uptake coefficients, γ(geom) and γ(BET), were calculated using geometric and internal BET soot surface areas, respectively. The uptake coefficient and the HONO yield depend on the type of fuel and combustion regime and are the highest for soot samples prepared using rich kerosene flame. Although, the internal surface area of soot measured by BET method is a factor of 50 to 500 larger than the geometric surface area, only the top soot layers are involved in heterogeneous reaction with NO2 as follows from the observed weak dependence of γ(geom) and decrease in γ(BET) with increasing sample mass. Heating the soot samples before exposure to NO2 increases the BET surface area, the HONO yield, and the NO2 uptake coefficient due to the removal of the organic fraction from the soot backbone that unblocks active sites and makes them accessible for physical adsorption and chemical reactions. Our results support the oxidation-reduction mechanism involving

  6. Soot in the atmosphere and snow surface of Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.G.; Clarke, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of snow collected near the south pole during January and February 1986 were analyzed for the presence of light-absorbing particles by passing the melted snow through a nuclepore filter. Transmission of light through the filter showed that snow far from the station contains the equivalent of 0.1-0.3 ng of carbon per gram of snow (ng/g). Samples of ambient air were filtered and found to contain about 1-2 ng of carbon per kilogram of air, giving a scavenging ratio of about 150. The snow downwind of the station exhibited a well-defined plume of soot due to the burning of diesel fuel, but even in the center of the plume 1 km downwind, the soot concentration was only 3 ng/g, too small to affect snow albedo significantly. Measurements of snow albedo near large inland stations are therefore probably representative of their surrounding regions

  7. Soot Formation in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.-C.; Hassan, M. I.; Faeth, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science. Thus, the present study is considering soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames, exploiting the microgravity environment to simplify measurements at the high-pressure conditions of interest for many practical applications. The findings of the investigation are relevant to reducing emissions of soot and continuum radiation from combustion processes, to improving terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety, and to developing methods of computational combustion, among others. Laminar premixed flames are attractive for studying soot formation because they are simple one-dimensional flows that are computationally tractable for detailed numerical simulations. Nevertheless, studying soot-containing burner-stabilized laminar premixed flames is problematical: spatial resolution and residence times are limited at the pressures of interest for practical applications, flame structure is sensitive to minor burner construction details so that experimental reproducibility is not very good, consistent burner behavior over the lengthy test programs needed to measure soot formation properties is hard to achieve, and burners have poor durability. Fortunately, many of these problems are mitigated for soot-containing, freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. The present investigation seeks to extend work in this laboratory for various soot processes in flames by observing soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. Measurements are being made at both Normal Gravity (NG) and MicroGravity (MG), using a short-drop free-fall facility to provide MG conditions.

  8. Investigations of the long-term effects of LII on soot and bath gas

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre; Bennett, A.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    A combination of high-repetition rate imaging, laser extinction measurements, two-colour soot pyrometry imaging, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of thermophoretically sampled soot is used to investigate the long

  9. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  10. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  11. Dynamics of very small soot particles during soot burnout in diesel engines; Dynamik kleinster Russteilchen waehrend der Russausbrandphase im Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik; Peters, N. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Institut fuer Technische Mechanik (ITM); Pittermann, R. [WTZ fuer Motoren- und Maschinenforschung Rosslau gGmbH (Germany); Hentschel, J.; Weber, J.

    2003-07-01

    The investigations used advanced laser-optical methods for measuring soot particle size distributions, temporally and spectrally resolved measurements of engine combustion, measurements of composition and size distribution of particles in exhaust, and further development and validation of reaction-kinetic models. In all, it can be stated that mixing will affect not only soot particle formation but also soot particle emissions. Mixing can be influenced by using a fuel-water emulsion and by CR injection. Experiments and models both showed the advantageous effects of water added to the diesel fuels and of CR injection. The higher OH radical concentrations in the later combustion stages also serve to ensure faster oxidation of soot. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, Informationen ueber die Bildung und Oxidation von Russ sowie die Teilchendynamik der Russteilchen waehrend der Ausbrandphase zu erhalten. Dies wurde erreicht durch die Weiterentwicklung laseroptischer Methoden zur Bestimmung der Groessenverteilung von Russpartikeln, durch zeit- und spektral aufgeloeste Erfassung der motorischen Verbrennung, durch die Bestimmung von Zusammensetzung und Groessenverteilung von Partikeln im Abgas sowie durch die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von reaktionskinetischen Modellen. Zusammenfassend laesst sich sagen, dass sich die Gemischbildung im Dieselmotor nicht nur auf die Bildung der Russpartikel sondern auch auf die Russpartikelemission auswirkt. Die Verwendung einer Kraftstoff-Wasser-Emulsion und die Common-Rail-Einspritzung stellen zwei Verfahren zur Beeinflussung der Gemischbildung dar. Sowohl die experimentellen Untersuchungen als auch die Modellierung zeigen den die Gemischbildung foerdernden Einfluss des Zusatzes von Wasser zum Dieselbrennstoff. Ein erhoehter Anteil an vorgemischter Verbrennung, wie er auch durch die Verwendung hoher Einspritzdruecke bei der Common-Rail-Einspritzung erreicht werden kann, verringert die waehrend der Verbrennung entstehende

  12. Simulation and analysis of the soot particle size distribution in a turbulent nonpremixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucchesi, Marco

    2017-02-05

    A modeling framework based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is employed to simulate the evolution of the soot particle size distribution in turbulent sooting flames. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a n-heptane turbulent nonpremixed flame. The DSMC method is validated against experimentally measured size distributions in laminar premixed flames and found to reproduce quantitatively the experimental results, including the appearance of the second mode at large aggregate sizes and the presence of a trough at mobility diameters in the range 3–8 nm. The model is then applied to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates lead to a higher peak in number density and to the size distribution attaining its second mode sooner. The ensemble-averaged PSDF in the turbulent flame is computed from individual samples of the PSDF from large sets of Lagrangian trajectories. This statistical measure is equivalent to time-averaged, scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements in turbulent flames. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a long, broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Our results agree very well with SMPS measurements available in the literature. Conditioning on key features of the trajectory, such as mixture fraction or radial locations does not reduce the scatter in the size distributions and the ensemble-averaged PSDF remains broad. The results highlight and explain the important role of turbulence in broadening the size distribution of

  13. Soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames burning simple alkane fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteenwalla, P.M.; Johnson, M.R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Thomson, K.A.; Smallwood, G.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2007-07-01

    A classic problem in combustion involves measurement and prediction of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames. Very high-sensitivity measurements of particulate matter (PM) from very low-sooting diffusion flames burning methane and other simple alkane fuels have been enabled from recent advances in laser-induced incandescence (LII). In order to quantify soot emissions from a lab-scale turbulent diffusion flame burner, this paper presented a study that used LII to develop a sampling protocol. The purpose of the study was to develop an experimentally based model to predict PM emissions from flares used in industry using soot emissions from lab-scale flares. Quantitative results of mass of soot emitted per mass of fuel burned were presented across a range of flow conditions and fuels. The experiment used digital imaging to measure flame lengths and estimate flame residence times. Comparisons were also made between current measurements and results of previous researchers for soot in the overfire region. The study also considered the validity applicability of buoyancy based models for predicting and scaling soot emissions. The paper described the experimental setup including sampling system and flame length imaging. Background information on soot yield and a comparison of flame residence time definitions were provided. The results and discussion of results were also presented. It was concluded that the results highlighted the subjective nature of flame length measurements. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Effect of diluents on soot precursor formation and temperature in ethylene laminar diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Abhinavam Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Soot precursor species concentrations and flame temperature were measured in a diluted laminar co-flow jet diffusion flame at pressures up to eight atmospheres while varying diluent type. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of soot production and oxidation mechanisms, which could potentially lead to a reduction in soot emissions from practical combustion devices. Gaseous samples were extracted from the centerline of an ethylene-air laminar diffusion flame, which was diluted individually with four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) to manipulate flame temperature and transport properties. The diluted fuel and co-flow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear-layer effects, and the mass fluxes were fixed over the pressure range to maintain constant Reynolds number. The flame temperature was measured using a fine gauge R-type thermocouple at pressures up to four atmospheres. Centerline concentration profiles of major non-fuel hydrocarbons collected via extractive sampling with a quartz microprobe and quantification using GC/MS+FID are reported within. The measured hydrocarbon species concentrations are vary dramatically with pressure and diluent, with the helium and carbon dioxide diluted flames yielding the largest and smallest concentrations of soot precursors, respectively. In the case of C2H2 and C6H6, two key soot precursors, helium diluted flames had concentrations more than three times higher compared with the carbon dioxide diluted flame. The peak flame temperature vary with diluents tested, as expected, with carbon dioxide diluted flame being the coolest, with a peak temperature of 1760K at 1atm, and the helium diluted flame being the hottest, with a peak temperature of 2140K. At four atmospheres, the helium diluted flame increased to 2240K, but the CO2 flame temperature increased more, decreasing the difference to approximately 250K. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  15. Large eddy simulation of soot evolution in an aircraft combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz

    2013-11-01

    -to-air ratio, the maximum soot volume fraction is found inside the recirculation zone; at the lower fuel-to-air ratio, turbulent fluctuations in the mixture fraction promote the oxidation of soot inside the recirculation zone and suppress the accumulation of a large soot volume fraction. Downstream, soot exits the combustor in intermittent fuel-rich pockets that are not mixed during the injection of dilution air and subsequent secondary fuel-lean combustion. At the higher fuel-to-air ratio, the frequency of these fuel-rich pockets is increased, leading to higher soot emissions from the combustor. Quantitatively, the soot emissions from the combustor are overpredicted by about 50%, which is a substantial improvement over previous works utilizing RANS to predict such emissions. In addition, the ratio between the two fuel-to-air ratios predicted by LES compares very favorably with the experimental measurements. Furthermore, soot growth is dominated by an acetylene-based pathway rather than an aromatic-based pathway, which is usually the dominant mechanism in nonpremixed flames. This finding is the result of the interactions between the hydrodynamics, mixing, chemistry, and soot in the recirculation zone and the resulting residence times of soot at various mixture fractions (compositions), which are not the same in this complex recirculating flow as in nonpremixed jet flames.

  16. Effects of DME mixing on number density and size properties of soot particles in counterflow non-premixed ethylene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, J. H.; Choi, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, W. L.; Choi, S. K.; Park, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of DME mixing on the number density and size of soot particles, DME was mixed in a counter flow non-premixed ethylene flame with mixture ratios of 5%, 14% and 30%. A laser extinction/scattering technique has been adopted to measure the volume fraction, number density, and mean size of soot particles. The experimental results showed that the highest soot concentrations were observed for flames with mixture ratios of 5% and 14%; however, for a mixture ratio of 30% the soot concentration decreased. Numerical results showed that the concentrations of propargyl radicals (C3H3) at the 5% and 14% ratios were higher than those measured in the ethylene-based flame, and the production of benzene (C6H6) in the 5% and 14% DME mixture flames was also increased. This indicates the crucial role of propargyl in benzene ring formation. These reactions generally become stronger with increased DME mixing, except for A1- + H2 → A1 + H (-R554) and n-C4H5 + C2H2 → A1 + H (R542). Therefore, it is indicated that adding DME to ethylene flames promotes benzene ring formation. Note that although the maximum C6H6 concentration is largest in the 30% DME mixing flame, the soot volume fraction is smaller than those for the 5% and 14% mixture ratios. This is because the local C6H6 concentration decreases in the relatively low temperature region in the fuel side where soot growth occurs. © 2015, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Effects of DME mixing on number density and size properties of soot particles in counterflow non-premixed ethylene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of DME mixing on the number density and size of soot particles, DME was mixed in a counter flow non-premixed ethylene flame with mixture ratios of 5%, 14% and 30%. A laser extinction/scattering technique has been adopted to measure the volume fraction, number density, and mean size of soot particles. The experimental results showed that the highest soot concentrations were observed for flames with mixture ratios of 5% and 14%; however, for a mixture ratio of 30% the soot concentration decreased. Numerical results showed that the concentrations of propargyl radicals (C3H3) at the 5% and 14% ratios were higher than those measured in the ethylene-based flame, and the production of benzene (C6H6) in the 5% and 14% DME mixture flames was also increased. This indicates the crucial role of propargyl in benzene ring formation. These reactions generally become stronger with increased DME mixing, except for A1- + H2 → A1 + H (-R554) and n-C4H5 + C2H2 → A1 + H (R542). Therefore, it is indicated that adding DME to ethylene flames promotes benzene ring formation. Note that although the maximum C6H6 concentration is largest in the 30% DME mixing flame, the soot volume fraction is smaller than those for the 5% and 14% mixture ratios. This is because the local C6H6 concentration decreases in the relatively low temperature region in the fuel side where soot growth occurs. © 2015, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Time-averaged probability density functions of soot nanoparticles along the centerline of a piloted turbulent diffusion flame using a scanning mobility particle sizer

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhury, Snehaunshu

    2017-01-23

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating existing soot models are reported at intervals of ∆x/D∆x/D = 5 along the centerline of turbulent, non-premixed, C2H4/N2 flames. The jet exit Reynolds numbers of the flames investigated were 10,000 and 20,000. A simplified burner geometry based on a published design was chosen to aid modelers. Soot was sampled directly from the flame using a sampling probe with a 0.5-mm diameter orifice and diluted with N2 by a two-stage dilution process. The overall dilution ratio was not evaluated. An SMPS system was used to analyze soot particle concentrations in the diluted samples. Sampling conditions were optimized over a wide range of dilution ratios to eliminate the effect of agglomeration in the sampling probe. Two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) with different size ranges were used separately in the SMPS measurements to characterize the entire size range of particles. In both flames, the PDFs were found to be mono-modal in nature near the jet exit. Further downstream, the profiles were flatter with a fall-off at larger particle diameters. The geometric mean of the soot size distributions was less than 10 nm for all cases and increased monotonically with axial distance in both flames.

  19. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Andersen, Myrrha E.

    2016-10-19

    Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10. W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28, 32, and 36%). Experiments were designed to produce flames with practically relevant stoichiometric ratios (SR. =1.2-1.4) and constant residence times (2.3. s). Size-classified fly ash samples were collected, and measurements focused on the soot, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) composition of the total and ultrafine (<0.6. μm) fly ash. Results indicate that although the total fly ash carbon, as measured by loss on ignition, was always acceptably low (<2%) with all three oxy-combustion conditions lower than air-combustion, the ultrafine fly ash for both air-fired and oxy-fired combustion conditions consists primarily of carbonaceous material (50-95%). Carbonaceous components on particles <0.6. μm measured by a thermal optical method showed that large fractions (52-93%) consisted of OC rather than EC, as expected. This observation was supported by thermogravimetric analysis indicating that for the air, 28% oxy, and 32% oxy conditions, 14-71% of this material may be OC volatilizing between 100. C and 550. C with the remaining 29-86% being EC/soot. However, for the 36% oxy condition, OC may comprise over 90% of the ultrafine carbon with a much smaller EC/soot contribution. These data were interpreted by considering the effects of oxy-combustion on flame attachment, ignition delay, and soot oxidation of a bituminous coal, and the effects of these processes on OC and EC emissions. Flame aerodynamics and inlet oxidant composition may influence emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from a bituminous coal. During oxy-coal combustion, judicious control of inlet oxygen concentration and placement may be used to minimize organic HAP and soot emissions.

  20. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; M?ller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this...

  1. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  2. Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A soot model was developed based on the recently proposed PAH growth mechanism for C1-C4 gaseous fuels (KAUST PAH Mechanism 2, KM2) that included molecular growth up to coronene (A7) to simulate soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified hydrogen-abstraction-acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism in which CH3, C3H3 and C2H radicals were included in the hydrogen abstraction reactions in addition to H atoms. PAH condensation on soot particles was also considered. The experimentally measured profiles of soot volume fraction, number density, and particle size were well captured by the model for the baseline case of ethylene along with the cases involving mixtures of fuels. The simulation results, which were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data in the effects of binary fuel mixing on the sooting structures of the measured flames, showed in particular that 5% addition of propane (ethane) led to an increase in the soot volume fraction of the ethylene flame by 32% (6%), despite the fact that propane and ethane are less sooting fuels than is ethylene, which is in reasonable agreement with experiments of 37% (14%). The model revealed that with 5% addition of methane, there was an increase of 6% in the soot volume fraction. The average soot particle sizes were only minimally influenced while the soot number densities were increased by the fuel mixing. Further analysis of the numerical data indicated that the chemical cross-linking effect between ethylene and the dopant fuels resulted in an increase in PAH formation, which led to higher soot nucleation rates and therefore higher soot number densities. On the other hand, the rates of soot surface growth per unit surface area through the HACA mechanism were

  3. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  4. Black carbon aerosol properties measured by a single particle soot photometer in emissions from biomass burning in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. McMeeking; J. W. Taylor; A. P. Sullivan; M. J. Flynn; S. K. Akagi; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Collett; E. Fortner; T. B. Onasch; S. M. Kreidenweis; R. J. Yokelson; C. Hennigan; A. L. Robinson; H. Coe

    2010-01-01

    We present SP2 observations of BC mass, size distributions and mixing state in emissions from laboratory and field biomass fires in California, USA. Biomass burning is the primary global black carbon (BC) source, but understanding of the amount emitted and its physical properties at and following emission are limited. The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses a...

  5. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Numerical modeling of soot formation in a turbulent C2H4/air diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manedhar Reddy Busupally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soot formation in a lifted C2H4-Air turbulent diffusion flame is studied using two different paths for soot nucleation and oxidation; by a 2D axisymmetric RANS simulation using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The turbulence-chemistry interactions are modeled using two different approaches: steady laminar flamelet approach and flamelet-generated manifold. Chemical mechanism is represented by POLIMI to study the effect of species concentration on soot formation. P1 approximation is employed to approximate the radiative transfer equation into truncated series expansion in spherical harmonics while the weighted sum of gray gases is invoked to model the absorption coefficient while the soot model accounts for nucleation, coagulation, surface growth, and oxidation. The first route for nucleation considers acetylene concentration as a linear function of soot nucleation rate, whereas the second route considers two and three ring aromatic species as function of nucleation rate. Equilibrium-based and instantaneous approach has been used to estimate the OH concentration for soot oxidation. Lee and Fenimore-Jones soot oxidation models are studied to shed light on the effect of OH on soot oxidation. Moreover, the soot-radiation interactions are also included in terms of absorption coefficient of soot. Furthermore, the soot-turbulence interactions have been invoked using a temperature/mixture fraction-based single variable PDF. Both the turbulence-chemistry interaction models are able to accurately predict the flame liftoff height, and for accurate prediction of flame length, radiative heat loss should be accounted in an accurate way. The soot-turbulence interactions are found sensitive to the PDF used in present study.

  7. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  8. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  9. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41 Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10 -15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41 Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41 Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41 Ca concentration of less then 10 -17 referred to 40 Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41 Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41 Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged between 10 -14 to 10 -13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41 Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41 Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41 Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41 Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41 Ca concentrations. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Source identification of individual soot agglomerates in Arctic air by transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbruch, S.; Benker, N.; Kandler, K.; Schütze, K.; Kling, K.; Berlinger, B.; Thomassen, Y.; Drotikova, T.; Kallenborn, R.

    2018-01-01

    Individual soot agglomerates collected at four different locations on the Arctic archipelago Svalbard (Norway) were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. For source identification of the ambient soot agglomerates, samples from different local sources (coal burning power plants in Longyearbyen and Barentsburg, diesel and oil burning for power generation in Sveagruva and Ny Ålesund, cruise ship) as well as from other sources which may contribute to Arctic soot concentrations (biomass burning, aircraft emissions, diesel engines) were investigated. Diameter and graphene sheet separation distance of soot primary particles were found to be highly variable within each source and are not suited for source identification. In contrast, concentrations of the minor elements Si, P, K, Ca and Fe showed significant differences which can be used for source attribution. The presence/absence of externally mixed particle groups (fly ashes, tar balls, mercury particles) gives additional hints about the soot sources. Biomass/wood burning, ship emissions and coal burning in Barentsburg can be excluded as major source for ambient soot at Svalbard. The coal power plant in Longyearbyen is most likely a major source of soot in the settlement of Longyearbyen but does not contribute significantly to soot collected at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Zeppelin Mountain near Ny Ålesund. The most probable soot sources at Svalbard are aircraft emissions and diesel exhaust as well as long range transport of coal burning emissions.

  11. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content. PMID:26580621

  12. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-11-13

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the "engine-out" soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  13. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the “engine-out” soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  14. Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.

  15. Durable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmeryan, K. D.; Radeva, E. I.; Avramov, I. D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of durable superhydrophobic (SH) carbon soot coatings used in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based gas or liquid sensors is reported. The method uses modification of the carbon soot through polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by means of glow discharge RF plasma. The surface characterization shows a fractal-like network of carbon nanoparticles with diameter of ~50 nm. These particles form islands and cavities in the nanometer range, between which the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) embeds and binds to the carbon chains and QCM surface. Such modified surface structure retains the hydrophobic nature of the soot and enhances its robustness upon water droplet interactions. Moreover, it significantly reduces the insertion loss and dynamic resistance of the QCM compared to the commonly used carbon soot/epoxy resin approach. Furthermore, the PPHMDSO/carbon soot coating demonstrates durability and no aging after more than 40 probing cycles in water based liquid environments. In addition, the surface layer keeps its superhydrophobicity even upon thermal annealing up to 540 °C. These experiments reveal an opportunity for the development of soot based SH QCMs with improved electrical characteristics, as required for high-resolution gas or liquid measurements.

  16. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Simulation and analysis of the soot particle size distribution in a turbulent nonpremixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucchesi, Marco; Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates

  18. Impacts of fuel formulation and engine operating parameters on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehliu, Kuen

    This study focuses on the impacts of fuel formulations on the reactivity and nanostructure of diesel soot. A 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine was used in generating soot samples. The impacts of engine operating modes and the start of combustion on soot reactivity were investigated first. Based on preliminary investigations, a test condition of 2400 rpm and 64 Nm, with single and split injection strategies, was chosen for studying the impacts of fuel formulation on the characteristics of diesel soot. Three test fuels were used: an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (BP15), a pure soybean methyl-ester (B100), and a synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) produced in a gas-to-liquid process. The start of injection (SOI) and fuel rail pressures were adjusted such that the three test fuels have similar combustion phasing, thereby facilitating comparisons between soots from the different fuels. Soot reactivity was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to TGA, B100 soot exhibits the fastest oxidation on a mass basis followed by BP15 and FT derived soots in order of apparent rate constant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates no relation between the surface oxygen content and the soot reactivity. Crystalline information for the soot samples was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The basal plane diameter obtained from XRD was inversely related to the apparent rate constants for soot oxidation. For comparison, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) provided images of the graphene layers. Quantitative image analysis proceeded by a custom algorithm. B100 derived soot possessed the shortest mean fringe length and greatest mean fringe tortuosity. This suggests soot (nano)structural disorder correlates with a faster oxidation rate. Such results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis, as the observed fringe length is a measure of basal plane diameter. Moreover the relation

  19. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Springston, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Koontz, A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Aiken, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  20. Measurement of concentration of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yuichi; Kondo, Mitsuo; Sakurai, Naoyuki

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of heavy water is measured as one of the technical management in the Fugen plant. The heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor. The measuring method depends on the theory of light absorption. The light absorption range of heavy water spreads from near infrared to infrared zone. The near infrared absorption was adopted for the purpose, as the absorption is much larger in infrared zone, and the measurement has to be conducted, limiting the apparent absorption. This measuring method is available to determine the concentration of heavy water in the broad range exactly. The preparation of heavy water sample and the measurement of the absorption spectra of near infrared ray are explained, as the experimental procedure. The sample cell was made of quartz, and the spectroscope was the Hitachi 323 type. The resolving power is 100 nm and 27 nm for the wave length of 1000 nm and 2500 nm, respectively. Concerning the measured results, the absorption was recorded in the wave length range from 600 nm to 2600 nm, and for the heavy water concentration range from 0 to 99.77 wt. %. The peaks of absorption were located at the wave length of 1450, 1660, 1920, 1970, 2020 and 2600 nm. The three kinds of fundamental vibration mode of the molecules of both light and heavy water are shown, and the peaks belong to H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O, respectively. The relation between the absorption and the heavy water concentration, and that between the transmissivity and the wave length are shown, when the cell thickness was varied to 5 mm and 20 mm, and the heavy water concentration to 21%, 62% and 99.85%. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Role of Fluid-Dynamics in Soot Formation and Microstructure in Acetylene-Air Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Residence time and thermo-chemical environment are important factors in the soot-formation process in flames. Studies have revealed that flow-dynamics plays a dominant role in soot formation process. For understanding the effect of flow dynamics on soot formation and physical structure of the soot formed in different combustion environments two types of laminar diffusion flames of Acetylene and air, a normal diffusion flame (NDF and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF have been investigated. The fuel and air supply in the reaction zone in two flame types were kept constant but the interchange of relative position of fuel and air altered the burner exit Reynolds and Froude numbers of gases, fuel/air velocity ratio and flame shape. Soot samples were collected using thermophoretic sampling on transmission electron microscope (TEM grids at different flame heights and were analyzed off-line in a Transmission Electron Microscope. Soot primary particle size, soot aggregate size and soot volume fraction were measured using an image analysis software. In NDF the maximum flame temperature was about 1525 K and 1230 K for IDF. The soot primary particles are distinctly smaller in size in IDF (between 19 – 26 nm compared to NDF (between 29–34 nm. Both NDF and IDF show chainlike branched structure of soot agglomerate with soot particles of a nearly spherical shape. The average number of soot primary particles per aggregate in NDF was in the range of 24 to 40 and in IDF it varied between 16 to 24. Soot volume fraction was between 0.6 to 1.5 ppm in NDF where as it was less than 0.2 ppm in IDF. The change in sooting characteristics of the two flame types is attributed to changed fuel/air velocity ratio, entrainment of gas molecules and thermophoresis on soot particles.

  2. Time-averaged probability density functions of soot nanoparticles along the centerline of a piloted turbulent diffusion flame using a scanning mobility particle sizer

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhury, Snehaunshu; Boyette, Wesley; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating

  3. The effect of mineral dust and soot aerosols on ice microphysics near the foothills of the Himalayas: A numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Anupam; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the influence of different ice nuclei (IN) species and their number concentrations on cloud ice production. The numerical simulation with different species of ice nuclei is investigated using an explicit bulk-water microphysical scheme in a Mesoscale Meteorological Model version 5 (MM5). The species dependent ice nucleation parameterization that is based on the classical nucleation theory has been implemented into the model. The IN species considered include dust and soot with two different concentrations (Low and High). The simulated cloud microphysical properties like droplet number concentration and droplet effective radii as well as macro-properties (equivalent potential temperature and relative humidity) are comparable with aircraft observations. When higher dust IN concentrations are considered, the simulation results showed good agreement with the cloud ice and cloud water mixing ratio from aircraft measurements during Cloud Aerosol Interactions and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis. Relative importance of IN species is shown as compared to the homogeneous freezing nucleation process. The tendency of cloud ice production rates is also analyzed and found that dust IN is more efficient in producing cloud ice when compared to soot IN. The dust IN with high concentration can produce more surface precipitation than soot IN at the same concentration. This study highlights the need to improve the ice nucleation parameterization in numerical models.

  4. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  5. Soot reduction under DC electric fields in counterflow non-premixed laminar ethylene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2014-04-23

    The effects of DC electric fields on non-premixed ethylene flames in a counterflow burner were studied experimentally with a focus on the reduction of soot particles. The experiment was conducted by connecting a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal to a lower (fuel) and upper (oxidizer) nozzle, respectively. We applied direct current (DC) potentials in a range of -5 kV < Vdc < 5 kV. Uniform electric fields were then generated in the gap between the two nozzles. The experimental conditions were selected to cover both soot formation (SF) and soot formation oxidation (SFO) flames. The flames subjected to the negative electric fields moved toward the fuel nozzle because of an ionic wind due to the Lorentz force acting on the positive ions in the flames. In addition, the yellow luminosity significantly decreased, indicating changes in the sooting characteristics. To analyze the sooting characteristics under the electric fields, planar laser induced incandescence (PLII) and fluorescence (PLIF) techniques were used to visualize the soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and OH radicals. The sooting limits in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fractions were measured. No substantial soot formation due to the effects of the DC electric fields for the tested range of voltages and reactant mole fractions could be identified. The detailed flame behaviors and sooting characteristics under the DC electric fields are discussed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Soot formation characteristics of gasoline surrogate fuels in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot for gasoline surrogate fuels have been investigated in counterflow diffusion flames by adopting laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques for both soot formation and soot formation/oxidation flames. Tested fuels were three binary mixtures from the primary reference fuels of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. The result showed that PAH and soot maintained near zero level for all mixtures of n-heptane/iso-octane case under present experimental conditions. For n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene mixtures, PAH initially increased and then decreased with the toluene ratio, exhibiting a synergistic effect. The soot formation increased monotonically with the toluene ratio, however the effect of toluene on soot formation was minimal for relatively small toluene ratios. These results implied that even though toluene had a dominant role in soot and PAH formations, small amount of toluene had a minimal effect on soot formation. Numerical simulations have also been conducted by adopting recently proposed two kinetic mechanisms. The synergistic behavior of aromatic rings was predicted similar to the experimental PAH measurement, however, the degree of the synergistic effect was over-predicted for the soot formation flame, indicating the need for refinements in the kinetic mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  7. Soot in the air may have serious climatic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seip, Hans Martin

    2002-01-01

    Emissions of soot in China and India may be an important cause of changed summer weather in China, with increasing floods in the south-east and increasing droughts in the north-east. In addition to the greenhouse gases, the particulate matter (aerosols) in the air has an important effect on the climate. Most particles have a cooling effect since they reflect solar radiation. However, some particles are dark as they contain soot ('black carbon'). Such particles, which are formed by incomplete combustion of coal, oil and biomass, absorb solar radiation and thus have a warming effect, even if they reduce the solar irradiation on the ground. Soot particles do not have quite the same effect as the greenhouse gases. The soot particles absorb solar radiation, while the greenhouse gases absorb terrestrial heat radiation. In addition, the residence time of the soot particles in the atmosphere is shorter than that of, say, carbon dioxide. The concentration is therefore much higher in areas close to emission sources than elsewhere

  8. Nitric oxide concentration measurements in atmospheric pressure flames using electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, N.; Kulatilaka, W. D.; Naik, S. V.; Laurendeau, N. M.; Lucht, R. P.; Kuehner, J. P.; Roy, S.; Katta, V. R.; Gord, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    We report the application of electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (ERE-CARS) for measurements of nitric oxide concentration ([NO]) in three different atmospheric pressure flames. Visible pump (532 nm) and Stokes (591 nm) beams are used to probe the Q-branch of the Raman transition. A significant resonance enhancement is obtained by tuning an ultraviolet probe beam (236 nm) into resonance with specific rotational transitions in the (v’=0, v”=1) vibrational band of the A2Σ+-X2Π electronic system of NO. ERE-CARS spectra are recorded at various heights within a hydrogen-air flame producing relatively low concentrations of NO over a Hencken burner. Good agreement is obtained between NO ERE-CARS measurements and the results of flame computations using UNICORN, a two-dimensional flame code. Excellent agreement between measured and calculated NO spectra is also obtained when using a modified version of the Sandia CARSFT code for heavily sooting acetylene-air flames (φ=0.8 to φ=1.6) on the same Hencken burner. Finally, NO concentration profiles are measured using ERE-CARS in a laminar, counter-flow, non-premixed hydrogen-air flame. Spectral scans are recorded by probing the Q1 (9.5), Q1 (13.5) and Q1 (17.5) Raman transitions. The measured shape of the [NO] profile is in good agreement with that predicted using the OPPDIF code, even without correcting for collisional effects. These comparisons between [NO] measurements and predictions establish the utility of ERE-CARS for detection of NO in flames with large temperature and concentration gradients as well as in sooting environments.

  9. A computational study of ethylene–air sooting flames: Effects of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Selvaraj, Prabhu

    2015-11-05

    An updated reduced gas-phase kinetic mechanism was developed and integrated with aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene nonpremixed and premixed flames. A primary objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The gas-phase chemical mechanism adopted the KAUST-Aramco PAH Mech 1.0, which utilized the AramcoMech 1.3 for gas-phase reactions validated for up to C2 fuels. In addition, PAH species up to coronene (C24H12 or A7) were included to describe the detailed formation pathways of soot precursors. In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph with expert knowledge (DRG-X) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames at low strain rate sooting conditions were considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics to different nucleation pathways were investigated. Premixed flame experiment data at different equivalence ratios were also used for validation. The findings show that higher PAH concentrations result in a higher soot nucleation rate, and that the total soot volume and average size of the particles are predicted in good agreement with experimental results. Subsequently, the effects of different pathways, with respect to pyrene- or coronene-based nucleation models, on the net soot formation rate were analyzed. It was found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) are sensitive to the choice of PAH precursors, and consideration of higher PAH species beyond pyrene is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  10. Quantitative characterization of steady and time-varying, sooting, laminar diffusion flames using optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Blair C.

    In order to reduce the emission of pollutants such as soot and NO x from combustion systems, a detailed understanding of pollutant formation is required. In addition to environmental concerns, this is important for a fundamental understanding of flame behavior as significant quantities of soot lower local flame temperatures, increase overall flame length and affect the formation of such temperature-dependent species as NOx. This problem is investigated by carrying out coupled computational and experimental studies of steady and time-varying sooting, coflow diffusion flames. Optical diagnostic techniques are a powerful tool for characterizing combustion systems, as they provide a noninvasive method of probing the environment. Laser diagnostic techniques have added advantages, as systems can be probed with high spectral, temporal and spatial resolution, and with species selectivity. Experimental soot volume fractions were determined by using two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence (LII), calibrated with an on-line extinction measurement, and soot pyrometry. Measurements of soot particle size distributions are made using time-resolved LII (TR-LII). Laser-induced fluorescence measurements are made of NO and formaldehyde. These experimental measurements, and others, are compared with computational results in an effort to understand and model soot formation and to examine the coupled relationship of soot and NO x formation.

  11. Chinese Soot on a Vietnamese Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, X.

    2015-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an aerosol emitted as soot during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion together with other carbonaceous aerosols such as organic carbon (OC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While the impacts of BC on health and climate have been studied for many years, studies about its deposition and impact on marine ecosystems are scares. This is rather surprising considering that a large fraction of atmospheric BC deposits on the surface of the ocean via dry or wet deposition. On a global scale, deposition on the ocean is about 45 Tg C per year, with higher fluxes in the northern hemisphere and in inter-tropical regions, following the occurrence of the hot-spots of concentration. In the present study conducted on shore, in Haiphong and Halong cities, North Vietnam, we measured the seasonal variations of atmospheric BC, OC and PAHs during a complete annual cycle. The presentation will discuss the atmospheric results in terms of seasonal variability and sources. Inputs to the marine system are higher during the dry season, concomitantly with the arrival of air masses enriched in BC coming from the North. However, the carbon fingerprint can significantly differ at shorter time periods depending on the air mass pathway and speed. Our work leads to the characterization and the determination of the relative contribution of more specific sources like local traffic, which includes tourism and fishing boats, coal dust emitted from the nearby mine, and long-range transported aerosols. This variable input of carbonaceous aerosols might have consequences for the cycling and the repartition of carbon and nutrients in the marine ecosystem of Halong Bay.

  12. Portable method of measuring gaseous acetone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of acetone in human breath samples has been previously shown to provide significant non-invasive diagnostic insight into the control of a patient's diabetic condition. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetone, which are then exhaled during respiration. Using various breath analysis methods has allowed for the accurate determination of acetone concentrations in exhaled breath. However, many of these methods require instrumentation and pre-concentration steps not suitable for point-of-care use. We have found that by immobilizing resorcinol reagent into a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membrane, a controlled organic synthesis reaction occurs with acetone in a dry carrier gas. The immobilized, highly selective product of this reaction (a flavan) is found to produce a visible spectrum color change which could measure acetone concentrations to less than ppm. We here demonstrate how this approach can be used to produce a portable optical sensing device for real-time, non-invasive acetone analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders. -- Highlights: ► New superposition T-matrix code is applied to soot aerosols. ► Quasi-Rayleigh side-scattering peak in linear depolarization (LD) is explained. ► LD measurements can be used for morphological characterization of soot aerosols

  14. Effect of relative humidity on soot - secondary organic aerosol mixing: A case study from the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (PNNL-SAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N.; China, S.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Pekour, M. S.; Liu, S.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M. K.; Gourihar, K.; Chand, D.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Subramanian, R.; Onasch, T. B.; Laskin, A.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric processing of fresh soot particles emitted by anthropogenic as well as natural sources alters their physical and chemical properties. For example, fresh and aged soot particles interact differently with incident solar radiation, resulting in different overall radiation budgets. Varying atmospheric chemical and meteorological conditions can result in complex soot mixing states. The Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in November 2013 and January 2014 as a step towards understanding the evolution of mixing state of soot and its impact on climate-relevant properties. Aging experiments on diesel soot were carried out in a controlled laboratory chamber, and the effects of condensation and coagulation processes were systematically explored in separate sets of experiments. In addition to online measurement of aerosol properties, aerosol samples were collected for offline single particle analysis to investigate the evolution of the morphology, elemental composition and fine structure of sample particles from different experiments. Condensation experiments focused on the formation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol on diesel soot aerosol seeds. Experiments were conducted to study the aging of soot under dry (RH < 2%) and humid conditions (RH ~ 80%). We present an analysis of the morphology of soot, its evolution, and its correlation with optical properties, as the condensation of α-pinene SOA is carried out for the two different RH conditions. The analysis was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission x-ray microscopy and atomic force microscopy for single particle characterization. In addition, particle size, mass, composition, shape, and density were characterized in-situ, as a function of organics condensed on soot seeds, using single particle mass spectrometer.

  15. Apparatus for measuring a concentration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, H.; Ogushi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for measuring concentration of radioactivity in a fluid circulating in a cooling system or a disposal system, etc., of a nuclear power plant (e.g. coolant), the apparatus having a plurality of sampling tubes with different diameters depending on the intensities of radioactivity, and the sampling tubes having valves for switching from one fluid to another fluid. The sampling tubes are connected to the system to a discharge pipe, and are disposed in the proximity of a radiation detector adapted to issue a signal representative of radiation. The issued signal is supplied to a multichannel pulse height analyzer and a data processing system providing an indication of the concentrations of radioactivities for respective radionuclides

  16. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.; Arias, P.G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Park, S.; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho; Lu, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  17. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.

    2015-03-30

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  18. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peñ a, Gerardo D.J.; Alrefaai, Mhd Maher; Yang, Seung Yeon; Raj, Abhijeet; Brito, Joaquin L.; Stephen, Samuel; Anjana, Tharalekshmy; Pillai, Vinu; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  19. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peña, Gerardo D.J.

    2016-07-23

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  20. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  1. Molecular modelling investigations on the possibility of phenanthrene dimers to be the primary nuclei of soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingrui; Wu, Sheng; Li, Fan; Zhang, Dongju; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Guanlun

    2017-11-01

    Pyrene dimerisation was successfully used to model the beginning of soot nucleation in some simulation models. However, the quantum mechanics (QM) calculations proved that the binding energy of a PAH dimer with three six-member rings was similar to that of a pyrene dimer. Meanwhile, the high concentration of phenanthrene at flame conditions indicated high probability of collisions among them. The small difference of the binding energy and high concentration indicated that PAHs structurally smaller than pyrene also could be involved in soot inception. Hence, binary collisions of phenanthrene were simulated to find out whether phenanthrene dimers can serve as soot primary nuclei or not by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD). Three temperatures, six collision orientations and 155 initial translational velocities (ITVs) were considered. The results indicated that the number of dimers with lifetime over 10 ps which can serve as soot nuclei decreased from 52 at 1000 K to 17 at 1600 K, and further to 6 at 2400 K, which means that low temperature was more favourable for phenanthrene to form soot nuclei. Meanwhile, no soot nuclei were formed at the high velocity region (HVR), compared to 43 and 9 at low and middle velocity regions (LVR and MVR), respectively, when temperature was 1000 K. Also, no soot nuclei were formed at HVR when the temperature was raised to 1600 K and 2400 K. This indicated that HVR was unfavourable for phenanthrene to form soot nuclei. The results computationally further illustrated that small PAHs such as phenanthrene could serve as soot primary nuclei, since they have similar mole fractions in some flames. This may be useful for future soot simulation models.

  2. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  3. Heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with soot: The roles of relative humidity and surface composition of soot in surface sulfate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of SO2 to sulfates on the surface of soot is still poorly understood. Soot samples with different fractions of unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing groups were prepared by combusting n-hexane under well-controlled conditions. The heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with soot was investigated using in situ attenuated total internal reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, ion chromatography (IC) and a flow tube reactor at the ambient pressure and relative humidity (RH). Water promoted SO2 adsorption and sulfate formation at the RH range from 6% to 70%, while exceeded water condensed on soot was unfavorable for sulfate formation due to inhibition of SO2 adsorption when RH was higher than 80%. The surface composition of soot, which was governed by combustion conditions, also played an important role in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with soot. This effect was found to greatly depend on RH. At low RH of 6%, soot with the highest fuel/oxygen ratio of 0.162 exhibited a maximum uptake capacity for SO2 because it contained a large amount of aromatic Csbnd H groups, which acted as active sites for SO2 adsorption. At RH of 54%, soot produced with a fuel/oxygen ratio of 0.134 showed the highest reactivity toward SO2 because it contained appropriate amounts of aromatic Csbnd H groups and oxygen-containing groups, subsequently leading to the optimal surface concentrations of both SO2 and water. These results suggest that variation in the surface composition of soot from different sources and/or resulting from chemical aging in the atmosphere likely affects the conversion of SO2 to sulfates.

  4. Development and test of a soot-specific method for immission measurement. Pt. 3. Content determination of tire abrasion in atmospherical elementary carbon; Weiterentwicklung und Erprobung eines Immissionsmessverfahrens zur spezifischen Erfassung von Russpartikeln. T. 3. Ermittlung des Anteils von Reifenabrieb am atmosphaerischen elementaren Kohlenstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaender, N.; Weinberg, G.; Wild, U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out methods of discrimination between diesel soot and tire abrasion in carbons of aerosol filter samples. A method of determination between diesel soot and tire abrasion should be found because of the offered standard methods (combustion methods) do not distinguish between the carbon forms. A considerable content of tire abrasion traffic control samples of ``carbon`` would require a correction of the integral ascertained carbon concentration. Three sets of samples have been investigated with the help of TEM, SEM, EDX and ESCA. One basis for discrimination is the chemical activity of the surfaces. While the tire abrasion shows a chemically saturated polymer surface, the diesel soot has a chemically very active soot surface. A second basis for discrimination is the very different particle-size distribution of the diesel soot and the tire abrasion particles. This has been ascertained with the help of TEM and SEM. The results of 3 sets of samples show that a corresponding semi-quantitative discrimination with morphological, element analytical and surface analytical methods between diesel soot and tire abrasion is possible. The main result is a low to very low abundance of the tire abrasion in the total carbon contents. An absolute determination fails mainly because of the interference of the tire abrasion analysis with molecular hydrocarbons. The samples succumb to chemical ageing, where especially diesel soot partially oxidizes. A Thermal treatment also changes the chemical nature of the soot components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe dieser Arbeit war es, Methoden zu finden, die in einer Aerosolfilterprobe Kohlenstoffe nach Dieselruss und Reifenabrieb zu unterscheiden vermoegen. Es sollte eine grobe Quantitifizerung des Reifenabrieb am Dieselruss ermittelt werden, da in den vorgeschlagenen Standardverfahren (Oxidationsverfahren) nicht zwischen den Kohlenstoff-Formen unterschieden werden kann, was bei erheblichen Anteilen von

  5. A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

    KAUST Repository

    Skeen, Scott A.

    2016-04-05

    The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.

  6. A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

    KAUST Repository

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien; Pickett, Lyle M.; Cenker, Emre; Bruneaux, Gilles; Kondo, Katsufumi; Aizawa, Tets; Westlye, Fredrik; Dalen, Kristine; Ivarsson, Anders; Xuan, Tiemin; Garcia-Oliver, Jose M; Pei, Yuanjiang; Som, Sibendu; Hu, Wang; Reitz, Rolf D.; Lucchini, Tommaso; D'Errico, Gianluca; Farrace, Daniele; Pandurangi, Sushant S.; Wright, Yuri M.; Chishty, Muhammad Aqib; Bolla, Michele; Hawkes, Evatt

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.

  7. Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Lutic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  8. Device for measuring the tritium concentration in a measuring gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koran, P.

    1987-01-01

    The measuring gas is brought into contact via a measuring gas path with a diaphragm permeable to water, which separates the measuring gas path from a counter gas path leading to a proportional detector. The measuring gas path and the counter gas path are in counterflow in the area of diaphragm. The preferably hose diaphragm consists of a well-known ion exchange material, which can be used for gas drying purposes, which is permeable to water and tritium compounds similar to water, but is impermeable to other gases and liquids contained in air, particularly rare gases. In this way, the tritium concentration can be measured with great rare gas suppression. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song

    2015-01-01

    with the spray combustion solver. Prior to the soot modelling, combustion simulations are carried out. Numerical results show that the ignition delay times and lift-off lengths exhibit good agreement with the experimental measurements across a wide range of operating conditions, apart from those in the cases......, variation of spatial soot distribution and soot mass produced at oxygen molar fractions ranging from 10.0 to 21.0% for both low and high density conditions are reproduced....

  10. The investigation of soot and temperature distributions in a visualized direct injection diesel engine using laser diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-taek; Kim, Ki-bum; Lee, Ki-hyung

    2008-11-01

    Based upon the method of temperature calibration using the diffusion flame, the temperature and soot concentrations of the turbulent flame in a visualized diesel engine were qualitatively measured. Two different cylinder heads were used to investigate the effect of swirl ratio within the combustion chamber. From this experiment, we find that the highest flame temperature of the non-swirl head engine is approximately 2400 K and that of the swirl head engine is 2100 K. In addition, as the pressure of fuel injection increases, the in-cylinder temperature increases due to the improved combustion of a diesel engine. This experiment represented the soot quantity in the KL factor and revealed that the KL factor was high when the fuel collided with the cylinder wall. Moreover, the KL factor was also high in the area of the chamber where the temperature dropped rapidly.

  11. Phototransformation rate constants of PAHs associated with soot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-01-01

    Photodegradation is a key process governing the residence time and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles, both in the atmosphere and after deposition. We have measured photodegradation rate constants of PAHs in bulk deposits of soot particles illuminated with simulated sunlight. The photodegradation rate constants at the surface (k p 0 ), the effective diffusion coefficients (D eff ), and the light penetration depths (z 0.5 ) for PAHs on soot layers of variable thickness were determined by fitting experimental data with a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. The overall disappearance rates of irradiated low molecular weight PAHs (with 2–3 rings) on soot particles were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion kinetics, while those of high molecular weight PAHs (with 4 or more rings) were apparently controlled by either the combination of slow photodegradation and slow diffusion kinetics or by very slow diffusion kinetics alone. The value of z 0.5 is more sensitive to the soot layer thickness than the k p 0 value. As the thickness of the soot layer increases, the z 0.5 values increase, but the k p 0 values are almost constant. The effective diffusion coefficients calculated from dark experiments are generally higher than those from the model fitting method for illumination experiments. Due to the correlation between k p 0 and z 0.5 in thinner layers, D eff should be estimated by an independent method for better accuracy. Despite some limitations of the model used in this study, the fitted parameters were useful for describing empirical results of photodegradation of soot-associated PAHs. - Highlights: ► PAHs on soot were evaluated by a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. ► Photodegradation rate at the surface, diffusion coefficient, and light penetration path were determined. ► Low MW PAHs were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion. ► High MW PAHs were controlled either by slow

  12. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  13. Investigations of the long-term effects of LII on soot and bath gas

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre

    2017-08-24

    A combination of high-repetition rate imaging, laser extinction measurements, two-colour soot pyrometry imaging, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of thermophoretically sampled soot is used to investigate the long-term and permanent effects of rapid heating of in-flame soot during laser-induced incandescence (LII). Experiments are carried out on a laminar non-premixed co-annular ethylene/air flame with various laser fluences. The high-repetition rate images clearly show that the heated and the neighbouring laser-border zones undergo a permanent transformation after the laser pulse, and advect vertically with the flow while the permanent marking is preserved. The soot volume fraction at the heated zone reduces due to the sublimation of soot and the subsequent enhanced oxidation. At the laser-border zones, however, optical thickness increases that may be due to thermophoretic forces drawing hot particles towards relatively cooler zones and the rapid compression of the bath gas induced by the pressure waves created by the expansion of the desorbed carbon clusters. Additionally sublimed carbon clusters can condense onto existing particles and contribute to increase of the optical thickness. Time-resolved two-colour pyrometry imaging show that the increased temperature of soot both in the heated and neighbouring laser-border zones persists for several milliseconds. This can be associated to the increase in the bath-gas temperature, and a change in the wavelength-dependent emissivity of soot particles induced by the thermal annealing of soot. Ex-situ analysis show that the lattice structure of the soot sampled at the laser-border zones tend to change and soot becomes more graphitic. This may be attributed to thermal annealing induced by elevated temperature.

  14. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm 2 with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process

  15. An analysis of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Teresa L.; Storey, John M. E.; Youngquist, Adam D.; Szybist, James P.

    2012-03-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  16. Effects of soot by-product from the synthesis of engineered metallofullerene nanomaterials on terrestrial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Boyd, Robert E; Bednar, Anthony J; Weiss, Charles A; Hull, Matt S; Coleman, Jessica G; Kennedy, Alan J; Banks, Cynthia J; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2018-02-23

    The synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials is often inefficient, generating large amounts of soot with metals as waste by-product. Currently, there are no specific regulations for disposal of engineered nanomaterials or the waste by-products resulting from their synthesis, so it is presumed that by-products are disposed of in the same way as the parent (bulk) materials. We studied the terrestrial toxicity of soot from gadolinium metallofullerene nanomanufacturing on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). The metallofullerene soot consisted of carbon particle agglomerates in the nanometer and submicrometer ranges (1-100 and 101-999 nm, respectively), with metals used during nanomanufacturing detectable on the particles. Despite high metal concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in the soot, only a relatively small amount of metals leached out of a spiked field soil, suggesting only moderate mobility. Seven- and 14-d exposures in field soil demonstrated that the soot was only toxic to earthworms at high concentrations (>10 000 mg/kg); however, earthworms avoided spiked soils at lower concentrations (as low as 500 mg/kg) and at lower soil pH. The presence of soot in food and soil did not cause isopod avoidance. These data demonstrate that metallofullerene soot from nanomanufacturing may only be toxic to earthworms at high concentrations representative of improper disposal or accidental spills. However, our results indicate that terrestrial invertebrates may avoid soils contaminated with soot at sublethal concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-12. Published 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work, and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work, and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Dielectric properties of PMMA/Soot nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Lanetra M; Cinke, Martin; Meyyappan, M; Harmon, Julie P

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric analysis (DEA) of relaxation behavior in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) soot nanocomposites is described herein. The soot, an inexpensive material, consists of carbon nanotubes, amorphous and graphitic carbon and metal particles. Results are compared to earlier studies on PMMA/multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) composites and PMMA/single-walled nanotube (SWNT) composites. The beta relaxation process appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the soot, as was noted earlier in nanotube composites. The gamma relaxation region in PMMA, normally dielectrically inactive, was "awakened" in the PMMA/soot composite. This occurrence is consistent with previously published data on nanotube composites. The dielectric permittivity, s', increased with soot content. The sample with 1% soot exhibited a permittivity (at 100 Hz and 25 degrees C) of 7.3 as compared to 5.1 for neat PMMA. Soot increased the dielectric strength, deltaE, of the composites. The 1% soot sample exhibited a dielectric strength of 6.38, while the neat PMMA had a value of 2.95 at 40 degrees C. The symmetric broadening term (alpha) was slightly higher for the 1% composite at temperatures near the secondary relaxation and near the primary relaxation, but all samples deviated from symmetrical semi-circular behavior (alpha = 1). The impact of the soot filler is seen more clearly in dielectric properties than in mechanical properties studies conducted earlier.

  18. Simulation of soot size distribution in an ethylene counterflow flame

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun; Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Soot, an aggregate of carbonaceous particles produced during the rich combustion of fossil fuels, is an undesirable pollutant and health hazard. Soot evolution involves various dynamic processes: nucleation soot formation from polycyclic aromatic

  19. Uranium concentrations in fossils measured by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Okano, Jun

    1988-01-01

    Semiquantitative analyses of uranium in fossil bones and teeth were carried out by SIMS. The results show a tendency that uranium concentrations in the fossils increase with the ages of the fossils. It is noticed that fossil bones and teeth having uranium concentration of more than several hundred ppm are not rare. (author)

  20. High-throughput approach to the catalytic combustion of diesel soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iojoiu, Eduard Emil; Bassou, Badr; Guilhaume, Nolven; Farrusseng, David; Desmartin-Chomel, Arnold; Bianchi, Daniel; Mirodatos, Claude [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon IRCELYON, UMR5256 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lombaert, Karine [Renault, Diesel Innovative Catalytic Materials, Direction de l' Ingenierie Materiaux, 1 Allee Cornuel, 91510 Lardy (France)

    2008-08-30

    A methodology for the evaluation of diesel soot oxidation catalysts by high-throughput (HT) screening was developed. The optimal experimental conditions (soot amount, catalyst/soot ratio, type of contact, composition and flow rate of gas reactants) ensuring a reliable and reproducible detection of light-off temperatures in a 16 parallel channels reactor were set up. The temperature profile measured in the catalyst/soot bed under TPO conditions when the exothermic combustion of soot takes place was shown to provide an accurate measurement of the ignition. Its reproducibility and relevance were checked. The results obtained with a reference noble metal free catalyst (La{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.8}Li{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} perovskite) agree very well with literature data. Qualitative mechanistic features could be derived from these experiments, stressing the likely limiting step of oxygen transfer from catalyst surface to soot particulates to ignite the soot combustion. Ceria material was shown to be more appropriate than perovskite one. From an HT screening of a large diverse library (over 100 mixed oxides catalysts) under optimized conditions, about 10 new formulations were found to perform better than selected noble metal free reference materials. (author)

  1. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song; Schramm, Jesper

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics study is reported of an n-heptane combustion event and the associated soot formation process in a constant volume combustion chamber. The key interest here is to evaluate the sensitivity of the chemical kinetics and submodels of a semi-empirical soot model in predicting the associated events. Numerical computation is performed using an open-source code and a chemistry coordinate mapping approach is used to expedite the calculation. A library consisting of various phenomenological multi-step soot models is constructed and integrated with the spray combustion solver. Prior to the soot modelling, combustion simulations are carried out. Numerical results show that the ignition delay times and lift-off lengths exhibit good agreement with the experimental measurements across a wide range of operating conditions, apart from those in the cases with ambient temperature lower than 850 K. The variation of the soot precursor production with respect to the change of ambient oxygen levels qualitatively agrees with that of the conceptual models when the skeletal n-heptane mechanism is integrated with a reduced pyrene chemistry. Subsequently, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to appraise the existing soot formation and oxidation submodels. It is revealed that the soot formation is captured when the surface growth rate is calculated using a square root function of the soot specific surface area and when a pressure-dependent model constant is considered. An optimised soot model is then proposed based on the knowledge gained through this exercise. With the implementation of optimised model, the simulated soot onset and transport phenomena before reaching quasi-steady state agree reasonably well with the experimental observation. Also, variation of spatial soot distribution and soot mass produced at oxygen molar fractions ranging from 10.0 to 21.0% for both low and high density conditions are reproduced.

  2. Simulation of soot size distribution in an ethylene counterflow flame

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2014-01-06

    Soot, an aggregate of carbonaceous particles produced during the rich combustion of fossil fuels, is an undesirable pollutant and health hazard. Soot evolution involves various dynamic processes: nucleation soot formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) condensation PAHs condensing on soot particle surface surface processes hydrogen-abstraction-C2H2-addition, oxidation coagulation two soot particles coagulating to form a bigger particle This simulation work investigates soot size distribution and morphology in an ethylene counterflow flame, using i). Chemkin with a method of moments to deal with the coupling between vapor consumption and soot formation; ii). Monte Carlo simulation of soot dynamics.

  3. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messerer Armin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging" was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot.

  4. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot. PMID:18533015

  5. Measuring Concentration in Data with an Exogenous Order

    OpenAIRE

    Abedieh, Jasmin; Groll, Andreas; Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Concentration measures order the statistical units under observation according to their market share. However, there are situations where an order according to an exogenous variable is more appropriate or even required. The present article introduces a generalized definition of market concentration and defines a corresponding concentration measure. It is shown that this generalized concept of market concentration satisfies the common axioms of (classical) concentration measures. In an appl...

  6. NASA: Black soot fuels global warming

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

  7. Use of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter for ice nucleation measurements: effect of particle mixing state and determination of SP2 conditions to fully vaporize refractory black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Gregory P.; DeMott, Paul J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2018-05-01

    Ice nucleation is a fundamental atmospheric process that impacts precipitation, cloud lifetimes, and climate. Challenges remain to identify and quantify the compositions and sources of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). Assessment of the role of black carbon (BC) as an INP is particularly important due to its anthropogenic sources and abundance at upper-tropospheric cloud levels. The role of BC as an INP, however, is unclear. This is, in part, driven by a lack of techniques that directly determine the contribution of refractory BC (rBC) to INP concentrations. One previously developed technique to measure this contribution uses the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter to an online ice-nucleating particle counter. In this technique, rBC particles are selectively heated to their vaporization temperature in the SP2 cavity by a 1064 nm laser. From previous work, however, it is unclear under what SP2 conditions, if any, the original rBC particles were fully vaporized. Furthermore, previous work also left questions about the effect of the SP2 laser on the ice-nucleating properties of several INP proxies and their mixtures with rBC.To answer these questions, we sampled the exhaust of an SP2 with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and a Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber. Using Aquadag® as an rBC proxy, the effect of several SP2 instrument parameters on the size distribution and physical properties of particles in rBC SP2 exhaust were explored. We found that a high SP2 laser power (930 nW/(220 nm PSL)) is required to fully vaporize a ˜ 0.76 fg rBC particle. We also found that the exhaust particle size distribution is minimally affected by the SP2 sheath-to-sample ratio; the size of the original rBC particle, however, greatly influences the size distribution of the SP2 exhaust. The effect of the SP2 laser on the ice nucleation efficiency of Snomax®, NX-illite, and Suwannee River Fulvic Acid was studied; these particles acted as proxies for biological, illite

  8. Developing a predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violi, Angela [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Michelsen, Hope [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, Nils [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-07

    In order to provide the scientific foundation to enable technology breakthroughs in transportation fuel, it is important to develop a combustion modeling capability to optimize the operation and design of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The goal of this proposal is to develop a validated predictive model to describe the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles in premixed and diffusion flames. Atomistic studies in conjunction with state-of-the-art experiments are the distinguishing characteristics of this unique interdisciplinary effort. The modeling effort has been conducted at the University of Michigan by Prof. A. Violi. The experimental work has entailed a series of studies using different techniques to analyze gas-phase soot precursor chemistry and soot particle production in premixed and diffusion flames. Measurements have provided spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other gas-phase species and size and composition of incipient soot nanoparticles for comparison with model results. The experimental team includes Dr. N. Hansen and H. Michelsen at Sandia National Labs' Combustion Research Facility, and Dr. K. Wilson as collaborator at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab's Advanced Light Source. Our results show that the chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles affect the coagulation behavior in soot formation, and our results on an experimentally validated, predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles will not only enhance our understanding of soot formation since but will also allow the prediction of particle size distributions under combustion conditions. These results provide a novel description of soot formation based on physical and chemical properties of the particles for use in the next generation of soot models and an enhanced capability for facilitating the design of alternative fuels and the engines they will power.

  9. Turbidimetry for measurement of radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanqiang

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a turbidimetric technique counting the tracks registered on CR-39 foils exposed to radon. Instead of eyeview through microscope, by using the differential spectrophotometer, strong correlation between the radon cumulative concentration and track turbidence was observed(r=0.999). Under the etching condition of 7.07 mol·L -1 KOH water solution at 80 o C for 16 hr, linear regression showed that the ratio of track turbidence and cumulative concentration of radon exposure was 1.99 x 10 -1 turbidence (KBq m -1 h) -1 and the determination limit was 36 KBq m -3 h. The details of the experiments are represented in this paper. (Author)

  10. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Quantitative effects of rapid heating on soot-particle sizing through analysis of two-pulse LII

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    particle size, respectively. Overall, effects of these two processes on soot and LII model-based particle sizing are investigated by measuring the two-color time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signal decay from in-flame soot after two consecutive laser pulses

  12. Gadolinium doped cerium oxide for soot oxidation: Influence of interfacial metal–support interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgasri, D. Naga; Vinodkumar, T.; Lin, Fangjian; Alxneit, Ivo; Reddy, Benjaram M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Supported Ce-Gd-oxides are applied for soot oxidation for the first time. • Gd 2 O 3 doping facilitates enhanced extrinsic oxygen vacancy concentration in ceria. • The Ce-Gd/TiO 2 exhibited the highest soot oxidation activity. • Key parameters that involved in tuning the activity are discussed. - Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to ascertain the role of Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , and TiO 2 supports in modulating the catalytic performance of ceria-based solid solutions. In this study, we prepared nanosized Ce-Gd/Al 2 O 3 , Ce-Gd/SiO 2 , and Ce-Gd/TiO 2 catalysts by a deposition coprecipitation method and evaluated for soot oxidation. The synthesized catalysts were calcined at two different temperatures to assess their thermal stability and extensively characterized by various techniques, namely, XRD, Raman, BET surface area, TEM, H 2 -TPR, and UV–vis DRS. XRD and TEM results indicate that Ce-Gd-oxide nanoparticles are in highly dispersed form on the surface of the supports. Raman results show a prominent sharp peak and a broad peak corresponding to the F 2g mode of ceria and the presence of oxygen vacancies, respectively. The presence of a significant number of oxygen vacancies in all samples is also confirmed from UV–vis DRS measurements. The H 2 -TPR results suggest that Gd-doping facilitates the reduction of the materials and decreases the onset temperature of reduction. Among the prepared samples, Ce-Gd/TiO 2 catalyst exhibited the highest activity, suggesting the existence of strong interfacial metal support interaction between the active metal oxide and the support

  13. Gadolinium doped cerium oxide for soot oxidation: Influence of interfacial metal–support interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgasri, D. Naga; Vinodkumar, T. [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR–Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Lin, Fangjian; Alxneit, Ivo [Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Reddy, Benjaram M., E-mail: bmreddy@iict.res.in [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR–Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Supported Ce-Gd-oxides are applied for soot oxidation for the first time. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping facilitates enhanced extrinsic oxygen vacancy concentration in ceria. • The Ce-Gd/TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest soot oxidation activity. • Key parameters that involved in tuning the activity are discussed. - Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to ascertain the role of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} supports in modulating the catalytic performance of ceria-based solid solutions. In this study, we prepared nanosized Ce-Gd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ce-Gd/SiO{sub 2}, and Ce-Gd/TiO{sub 2} catalysts by a deposition coprecipitation method and evaluated for soot oxidation. The synthesized catalysts were calcined at two different temperatures to assess their thermal stability and extensively characterized by various techniques, namely, XRD, Raman, BET surface area, TEM, H{sub 2}-TPR, and UV–vis DRS. XRD and TEM results indicate that Ce-Gd-oxide nanoparticles are in highly dispersed form on the surface of the supports. Raman results show a prominent sharp peak and a broad peak corresponding to the F{sub 2g} mode of ceria and the presence of oxygen vacancies, respectively. The presence of a significant number of oxygen vacancies in all samples is also confirmed from UV–vis DRS measurements. The H{sub 2}-TPR results suggest that Gd-doping facilitates the reduction of the materials and decreases the onset temperature of reduction. Among the prepared samples, Ce-Gd/TiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited the highest activity, suggesting the existence of strong interfacial metal support interaction between the active metal oxide and the support.

  14. Emissions of soot particles from heat generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2017-11-01

    «Soot carbon» or «Soot» - incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition particulate carbon product of hydrocarbons consisting of particles of various shapes and sizes. Soot particles are harmful substances Class 2 and like a dust dispersed by wind for thousands of kilometers. Soot have more powerful negative factor than carbon dioxide. Therefore, more strict requirements on ecological and economical performance for energy facilities at Arctic areas have to be developed to protect fragile Arctic ecosystems and global climate change from degradation and destruction. Quantity of soot particles in the flue gases of energy facilities is a criterion of effectiveness for organization of the burning process. Some of heat generators do not provide the required energy and environmental efficiency which results in irrational use of energy resources and acute pollution of environment. The paper summarizes the results of experimental study of solid particles emission from wide range of capacity boilers burning different organic fuels (natural gas, fuel oil, coal and biofuels). Special attention is paid to environmental and energy performance of the biofuels combustion. Emissions of soot particles PM2.5 are listed. Structure, composition and dimensions of entrained particles with the use of electronic scanning microscope Zeiss SIGMA VP were also studied. The results reveal an impact of several factors on soot particles emission.

  15. Investigation of black soot staining in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugler, D. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Air quality investigators are frequently called upon to determine the origin of streaking, staining or soot marks in both new and old homes. Those marks display common characteristics: black marks along baseboards at interior or exterior walls, behind furniture and at doorways; black smudges on window frames and plastic cabinets; and even shadowing of studs on exterior wall drywall in a few cases. In most instances, carbon soot from a combustion source is the culprit. The combustion sources include furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, gas dryers, gas ranges, smoking, vehicle exhaust and candle burning. Scepticism about candle soot is prevalent among callers. As a result, a study was initiated in homes where occupants burn candles regularly to investigate soot problems. Samples were collected from five homes, and included stained carpets, filters, and swab samples of black dust or soot. All the houses selected for the study had been built within a three-year period. Some samples of candles commonly burned in those homes were burnt in a laboratory. Air quality audits had been performed in the homes and had revealed other potential pollutant sources. Best practices for cost-effective clean up and control of soot were researched in industry information. The tests conducted in the laboratory found materials consistent with candle soot or residue during microscopic investigations, but no link was established with the stained material obtained from the homes. A few tips for homeowners were included concerning candle burning, and tips for builders were also offered. 1 tab.

  16. The impact of carbon dioxide and exhaust gas recirculation on the oxidative reactivity of soot from ethylene flames and diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid O.

    Restrictive emissions standards to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines necessitate the development of advanced emission control technology. The engine manufacturers in the United States have implemented the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) to meet the stringent emissions limits on NOx and PM, respectively. Although the EGR-DPF system is an effective means to control diesel engine emissions, there are some concerns associated with its implementation. The chief concern with this system is the DPF regenerability, which depends upon several factors, among which are the physicochemical properties of the soot. Despite the plethora of research that has been conducted on DPF regenerability, the impact of EGR on soot reactivity and DPF regenerability is yet to be examined. This work concerns the impact of EGR on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. It is part of ongoing research to bridge the gap in establishing a relationship between soot formation conditions, properties, and reactivity. This work is divided into three phases. In the first phase, carbon dioxide (CO2) was added to the intake charge of a single cylinder engine via cylinders of compressed CO2. This approach simulates the cold-particle-free EGR. The results showed that inclusion of CO2 changes the soot properties and yields synergistic effects on the oxidative reactivity of the resulting soot. The second phase of this research was motivated by the findings from the first phase. In this phase, post-flame ethylene soot was produced from a laboratory co-flow laminar diffusion flame to better understand the mechanism by which the CO2 affects soot reactivity. This phase was accomplished by successfully isolating the dilution, thermal, and chemical effects of the CO2. The results showed that all of these effects account for a measurable increase in soot reactivity. Nevertheless, the thermal effect was found to be the most

  17. Oxidation kinetics and soot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K.

    1983-01-01

    The research objective is to clarify the role of aromaticity in the soot nucleation process by determining the relative importance of phenyl radical/molecular oxygen and benzene/atomic oxygen reactions in the complex combustion of aromatic compounds. Three sets of chemical flow reactor experiments have been designed to determine the relative importance of the phenyl radical/molecular oxygen and benzene/atomic oxygen reactions. The essential elements of these experiments are 1) the use of cresols and anisole formed during the high temperature oxidation of toluene as chemical reaction indicators; 2) the in situ photolysis of molecular oxygen to provide an oxygen atom perturbation in the reacting aromatic system; and 3) the high temperature pyrolysis of phenol, the cresols and possibly anisole.

  18. Influence of thermal radiation on soot production in Laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarco, R.; Nmira, F.; Consalvi, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of radiative heat transfer on soot production in laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames. Twenty-four C 1 –C 3 hydrocarbon–air flames, consisting of normal (NDF) and inverse (IDF) diffusion flames at both normal gravity (1 g) and microgravity (0 g), and covering a wide range of conditions affecting radiative heat transfer, were simulated. The numerical model is based on the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model, a semi-empirical two-equation acetylene/benzene based soot model and the Statistical Narrow Band Correlated K (SNBCK) model coupled to the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to compute thermal radiation. Predictions relative to velocity, temperature, soot volume fraction and radiative losses are on the whole in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that, for all the flames considered, thermal radiation is a crucial process with a view to providing accurate predictions for temperatures and soot concentrations. It becomes increasingly significant from IDFs to NDFs and its influence is much greater as gravity is reduced. The radiative contribution of gas prevails in the weakly-sooting IDFs and in the methane and ethane NDFs, whereas soot radiation dominates in the other flames. However, both contributions are significant in all cases, with the exception of the 1 g IDFs investigated where soot radiation can be ignored. The optically-thin approximation (OTA) was also tested and found to be applicable as long as the optical thickness, based on flame radius and Planck mean absorption coefficient, is less than 0.05. The OTA is reasonable for the IDFs and for most of the 1 g NDFs, but it fails to predict the radiative heat transfer for the 0 g NDFs. The accuracy of radiative-property models was then assessed in the latter cases. Simulations show that the gray approximation can be applied to soot but not to combustion gases. Both the non-gray and gray soot versions of the Full Spectrum Correlated

  19. Advances in deuterium dioxide concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Woojung [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal, E-mail: nspyim@kaeri.re.kr [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Rag; Chung, Hongsuk [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheo Kyung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. • D{sub 2}O purity is analyzed using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). • OA-ICOS has advantages in terms of analysis of D{sub 2}O vapor. • OA-ICOS is expected that it can be used for accurate isotopic analyses in the future. - Abstract: The deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient reaction for fusion devices. Deuterium can be obtained by heavy water electrolysis. Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. A D{sub 2}O isotopic analysis is thus very important. A system for a heavy water analysis was built and a newly designed isotopic analysis experiment was carried out. We tried to analyze the D{sub 2}O purity using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). We found that the OA-ICOS based on measurement via laser absorption spectroscopy shows very high sensitivity. We ameliorated the sensitivity by an order of magnitude of more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}. We could make the apparatus smaller by employing very tiny diode laser and fiber optics elements of a DFB (Distributed Feedback) type. Consequently, our device has advantages in terms of maintainability and mobility even in a radioactive environment. This new method could be used for an accurate isotopic analysis in the future.

  20. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  1. Electrometric aviation soot monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a highly sensitive and portable device to monitor soot particle mass distribution from aircraft engine exhaust. The proposed method is based on...

  2. Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haiwen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003. In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single ...

  3. Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. Those properties commonly change through reaction with other particles or gases, resulting in complex internal mixtures. Using transmission electron microscopy, we measured ~8000 particles (25 samples) with aerodynamic diameters from 0.05 to 0.3 μm that were collected in March 2006 from aircraft over Mexico City (MC) and adjacent areas. More than 50% of the particles consist of internally mixed soot, organic matter, and sulfate. Imaging combined with chemical analysis of individual particles show that many are coated, consist of aggregates, or both. Coatings on soot particles can amplify their light absorption, and coagulation with sulfates changes their hygroscopic properties, resulting in shorter lifetime. Our results suggest that a mixture of materials from multiple sources such as vehicles, power plants, and biomass burning occurs in individual particles, thereby increasing their complexity. Through changes in their optical and hygroscopic properties, internally mixed soot particles have a greater effect on the regional climate than uncoated soot particles. Moreover, soot occurs in more than 60% of all particles in the MC plumes, suggesting its important role in the formation of secondary aerosol particles.

  4. Estimating soot emissions from an elevated flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Sosa, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Combustion aerosols are one of the major concerns in flaring operations, due to both health and environmental hazards. Preliminary results are presented for a 2D transient simulation of soot formation in a reacting jet with exit velocity of 130 m/s under a 5 m/s crossflow released from a 50 m high elevated flare and a 50 cm nozzle. Combustion dynamics was simulated with OpenFOAM. Gas-phase non-premixed combustion was modeled with the Chalmers PaSR approach and a κ-ɛ turbulence model. For soot formation, Moss model was used and the ISAT algorithm for solving the chemistry. Sulfur chemistry was considered to account for the sourness of the fuel. Gas composition is 10 % H2S and 90 % C2H4. A simplified Glassman reaction mechanism was used for this purpose. Results show that soot levels are sensitive to the sulfur present in the fuel, since it was observed a slight decrease in the soot volume fraction. NSC is the current oxidation model for soot formation. Predicted temperature is high (about 2390 K), perhaps due to soot-radiation interaction is not considered yet, but a radiation model implementation is on progress, as well as an oxidation mechanism that accounts for OH radical. Flame length is about 50 m.

  5. NATO Workshop on Soot in Combustion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, G

    1983-01-01

    Our interest in Mulhouse for carbon black and soot began some 30 years ago when J.B. Donnet developed the concept of surface chemistry of carbon and its involvement in interactions with gas, liquid and solid phases. In the late sixties, we began to study soot formation in pyrolytic systems and later on in flames. The idea of organ1z1ng a meeting on soot formation originated some four or five years ago, through discussions among Professor J.B. Howard, Dr. A. D'Alessio and ourselves. At that time the scientific community was becoming aware of the necessity to strictly control soot formation and emission. Being involved in the study of surface properties of carbon black as well as of formation of soot, we realized that the combustion community was not always fully aware of the progress made by the physical-chemists on carbon black. Reciprocally, the carbon specialists were often ignoring the research carried out on soot in flames. One objective of this workshop was to stimulate discussions between these two scie...

  6. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  7. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  8. A Nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (nASA) for Rapid Measurement of High-concentration Size Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.-S.; Chen, D.-R.; Pui, David Y.H.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a fast-response nanometer aerosol size analyzer (nASA) that is capable of scanning 30 size channels between 3 and 100 nm in a total time of 3 s. The analyzer includes a bipolar charger (Po 210 ), an extended-length nanometer differential mobility analyzer (Nano-DMA), and an electrometer (TSI 3068). This combination of components provides particle size spectra at a scan rate of 0.1 s per channel free of uncertainties caused by response-time-induced smearing. The nASA thus offers a fast response for aerosol size distribution measurements in high-concentration conditions and also eliminates the need for applying a de-smearing algorithm to resulting data. In addition, because of its thermodynamically stable means of particle detection, the nASA is useful for applications requiring measurements over a broad range of sample pressures and temperatures. Indeed, experimental transfer functions determined for the extended-length Nano-DMA using the tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique indicate the nASA provides good size resolution at pressures as low as 200 Torr. Also, as was demonstrated in tests to characterize the soot emissions from the J85-GE engine of a T-38 aircraft, the broad dynamic concentration range of the nASA makes it particularly suitable for studies of combustion or particle formation processes. Further details of the nASA performance as well as results from calibrations, laboratory tests and field applications are presented below

  9. Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of

  10. Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mü eller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz G.

    2014-01-01

    The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of

  11. Nondestructive measurement for radionuclide concentration distribution in soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method has been studied for determining the concentration of radionuclide (Cs-137) distributed in a soil column. The concentration distribution was calculated from the counting rate distribution using the efficiency matrix of a detector. The concentration distribution obtained by this method, with measuring efficiencies of theoretical calculation, coincides well with that obtained by the destructive sampling method. This method is, therefore, found to be effective for the measurement of one dimensional concentration distribution. The measuring limit of this method is affected not only by the radionuclide concentration but also by the shape of concentration distribution in a soil column and also by the way it is divided into concentration blocks. It is found that, the radioactive concentration up to 2.6 x 10 -4 μCi/g (9.62 Bq/g), and also the distribution up to where the concentration reduces to half at every 1 cm of depth, can be measured by this system. The concentration blocks can be divided into 1 cm of thickness as a minimum value. (author)

  12. Compositional effects on PAH and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2017-02-05

    Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.

  13. Investigating the formation mechanism of soot-like materials present in blast furnace coke samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; P. A' lvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-09-15

    An attempt to gain an understanding of the formation mechanism of these 'soot-like' materials has been made by means of tracing the changes in the molecular-mass distribution and molecular structure of the NMP-extractable materials from an injectant coal as well as its partially gasified chars and its pyrolytic tars. Variations in the SEC chromatograms provide clues about changes in the apparent molecular-mass distributions of these NMP extracts. Results suggest that the build-up of 'soot-like' materials follows from the secondary reactions of tars evolved from the injectant coal. The likely secondary-reaction pathways have been probed by collating structural information on these NMP extracts. The time-resolved 13-16 and 22-25 min elution fractions from the SEC column have been characterized using UV fluorescence (UV F) spectroscopy. Greater concentrations of larger aromatic ring systems are found present in samples formed under conditions appearing more prone for soot formation. The 11-16 min (large apparent molecular mass) effluent from SEC has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from FTIR spectroscopy are consistent with the UV F data, showing more significant extents of dehydrogenation under conditions more prone to form soot. Similarly, TEM results show that larger amount of graphene layers exist in samples exposed to more soot-prone conditions. The emerging picture for the formation of 'soot-like' materials involves a well-defined sequence. Tars evolved from the injectant coal undergo secondary dehydrogenation, condensation, and repolymerization reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of the NMP-extractable 'soot-like' materials of large apparent molecular mass. 44 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Compositional effects on PAH and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo; Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.

  15. Measured and calculated NO2 concentrations in Amsterdam in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, J.P.; Nguyen, P.L.; Van der Zee, S.

    2010-08-01

    Calculations using the Dutch standard calculation method for air quality in urban streets performed for 38 streets in Amsterdam in 2008 yield, on average, lower Nitrogen dioxide concentrations than measurements at those locations. This follows from research by the RIVM and the Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD Amsterdam). The average difference between measured and calculated concentrations is 11 %. At measuring locations of the National Air Quality Measuring Network in the Netherlands no significant underestimation of concentrations by the model is observed. The research was performed by the Dutch ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en the Environment (VROM). The air quality in the streets that were investigated is mainly determined by emissions from local traffic. The measurements have been performed during thirteen periods of four weeks each, using so called 'Palmes' diffusion tubes. These measurements have been calibrated using the European reference method that is operational in the permanent measuring stations of the GGD Amsterdam. The calculations were performed using the geometry of the roads and information of the traffic at the measuring locations. Part of the differences can be explained, as some locations are not within the scope of the model. In these situations the model is known to perform slightly less. Apart from local traffic, other sources, like shipping, also contribute to the NO2 background concentrations in streets in Amsterdam. Sources that have only globally been included in the calculation of this background concentration may influence concentrations at specific locations. Further studies on this subject will be conducted in 2010. [nl

  16. Minor and Trace Element Chemistry of Urban NS-Soot from the Central Valley of CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleich, S. J.; Hooper, R.

    2017-12-01

    During a recent study of metal transport in the Central Valley of California, it was noted that ns-soot (soot) occurred as complex clusters of graphene-like spheres admixed with other aerosols and were usually the dominant component of PM2.5 air particulates. These soot clusters contained a wide variety of metals of environmental concern such as As,Pb,Cr, and Ni. This study reports semi-quantitative results for 20 minor and trace elements (calibrated with Smithsonian microbeam standards) using a 200kV Transmission Electron Microscope, EDS, and SAED. This study also examined the mineralogy and crystallinity of admixed aerosols within composite soot clusters. Samples selected represent three contrasting urban settings in the Central Valley: Woodland, on the western side of the valley (Interstate highway to the east); Stockton, an inland sea-port and land transportation corridor in the center of the valley; and Roseville, a major rail-transport hub to the east. The wet/dry Mediterranean climate of California resulted in pronounced seasonal variations in total metal content. Soot cluster chemistry is highly variable however certain patterns emerged. Soot collected during the wet season is generally more aciniform, less structurally complex, and had lower sulfur (sulfate) concentrations but still had significant levels of transition metals (V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Zn and Pb) . Dry season soot was predominantly admixed with sulfate aerosols, and enriched in alkalis and alkaline earth metals. Stockton (wet-season) soot had up to 6000ppm of Pb. There is appreciable Pb (210ppm-2600ppm) in 38% of samples from Roseville but no Pb greater than 200ppm in Woodland. The highest overall total metals were found in Roseville soot with appreciable As(670ppm), V(100ppm), Pb(2600ppm), Zn(4000 ppm), Cr(90ppm), and Ni(300ppm). Heavy transport (road/rail/port) correlates with higher metal contents regardless of climate.

  17. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  18. Variation of pH-measurement in platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; van Zanten, A. P.; Pietersz, R. N.; Reesink, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    To measure pH in platelet concentrates, blood gas analysers with different calibration principles may be used. In this study, variances observed in pH measurements with two types of blood gas analysers were investigated. pH was measured in crystalloid solutions (platelet additive solution (PAS-II),

  19. Numerical Modelling of Soot Formation in Laminar Axisymmetric Ethylene-Air Coflow Flames at Atmospheric and Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelgadir, Ahmed; Rakha, Ihsan Allah; Steinmetz, Scott A.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    , coupled with detailed transport and kinetic models, to reproduce experimental measurements of a series of ethylene-air coflow flames. Detailed finite rate chemistry describing the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons is used. Soot is modeled

  20. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam; Zhang, Ji; Fang, Tiegang; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both

  1. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Soot Formation in Non-premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin

    2017-01-01

    Soot is a carbon particulate formed as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels. Due to the health hazard posed by the carbon particulate, government agencies have applied strict regulations to control soot emissions from road vehicles, airplanes

  3. Aquatic respiration rate measurements at low oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Holtappels

    Full Text Available Despite its huge ecological importance, microbial oxygen respiration in pelagic waters is little studied, primarily due to methodological difficulties. Respiration measurements are challenging because of the required high resolution of oxygen concentration measurements. Recent improvements in oxygen sensing techniques bear great potential to overcome these limitations. Here we compare 3 different methods to measure oxygen consumption rates at low oxygen concentrations, utilizing amperometric Clark type sensors (STOX, optical sensors (optodes, and mass spectrometry in combination with (18-18O2 labeling. Oxygen concentrations and consumption rates agreed well between the different methods when applied in the same experimental setting. Oxygen consumption rates between 30 and 400 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were measured with high precision and relative standard errors of less than 3%. Rate detection limits in the range of 1 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were suitable for rate determinations in open ocean water and were lowest at the lowest applied O2 concentration.

  4. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle

  5. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Fazlic, R.; Tresnjo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m 3 . The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  6. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameya, Yuki, E-mail: ykameya@anl.gov; Lee, Kyeong O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Transportation Research (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed.

  7. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Yuki; Lee, Kyeong O.

    2013-10-01

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed.

  8. Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering characterization of diesel/gasoline soot: sizes and particle-packing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Yuki; Lee, Kyeong O.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations on particulate emissions from internal combustion engines tend to become more stringent, accordingly the importance of particulate filters in the after-treatment system has been increasing. In this work, the applicability of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to diesel soot cake and gasoline soot was investigated. Gasoline-direct-injection engine soot was collected at different fuel injection timings. The unified fits method was applied to analyze the resultant scattering curves. The validity of analysis was supported by comparing with carbon black and taking the sample images using a transmission electron microscope, which revealed that the primary particle size ranged from 20 to 55 nm. In addition, the effects of particle-packing conditions on the USAXS measurement were demonstrated by using samples suspended in acetone. Then, the investigation was extended to characterization of diesel soot cake deposited on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Diesel soot was trapped on a small piece of DPF at different deposition conditions which were specified using the Peclet number. The dependence of scattering curve on soot-deposition conditions was demonstrated. To support the interpretation of the USAXS results, soot cake samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and the influence of particle-packing conditions on scattering curve was discussed

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleation activity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic soot particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kirsten A; DeMott, Paul J; Kreidenweis, Sonia M; Popovicheva, Olga B; Petters, Markus D; Carrico, Christian M; Kireeva, Elena D; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Shonija, Natalia K

    2009-09-28

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and ice nucleation behavior (for temperaturesnucleation experiments below -40 degrees C, AEC particles nucleated ice near the expected condition for homogeneous freezing of water from aqueous solutions. In contrast, GTS, TS, and TC1 required relative humidity well in excess of water saturation at -40 degrees C for ice formation. GTS particles required water supersaturation conditions for ice activation even at -51 degrees C. At -51 to -57 degrees C, ice formation in particles with electrical mobility diameter of 200 nm occurred in up to 1 in 1000 TS and TC1 particles, and 1 in 100 TOS particles, at relative humidities below those required for homogeneous freezing in aqueous solutions. Our results suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation is favored in cirrus conditions on oxidized hydrophilic soot of intermediate polarity. Simple considerations suggest that the impact of hydrophilic soot particles on cirrus cloud formation would be most likely in regions of elevated atmospheric soot number concentrations. The ice formation properties of AEC soot are reasonably consistent with present understanding of the conditions required for aircraft contrail formation and the proportion of soot expected to nucleate under such conditions.

  10. Measurements of indoor radon concentration in Libyan cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elarabiy, S. F.; Khalifa, M.; Misrati, N.; Chahboune, N.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies confirm that the risk of exposure to indor radon is attributable to lung cancer worldwide. The relationship between radon exposure and cancer is a linear one which necessitates for need for measurements of indoor radon concentration. This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon in several libya cities using CR-39 plastic. The results showed that the average radon concentration in the cities of Tripoli, Al-harcha and Alrajaban were 48.8 Bg/m 3 , 51.4 Bg/m 3 and 55.5 Bg/m 3 respectively. The average indoor radon concentration in Libya is low comparing with other studies. (Author)

  11. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  12. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T; Kilpinen, P; Hupa, M [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  13. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  14. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  15. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  16. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  17. Intercomparison of different instruments that measure radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap technique, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting technique), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integrating radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in indoor air). The results obtained from these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling technique was about 52% of radon concentrations

  18. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  19. Comparison of the tribology performance of nano-diesel soot and graphite particles as lubricant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zu-chuan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Peng, Jin-fang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    The tribology behavior of exhaust diesel soot as a lubricant additive was investigated and then compared with that of a selection of commercial nano-graphite particles. Specifically, 0.01 wt% particles were dispersed in PAO4 oil with 1 wt% sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) as a dispersing agent, and wear tests based on the ball against plate mode were conducted at various temperatures. Different analytical techniques (e.g. transmission electron, scanning electron and infrared microscopy; energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy; and charge measurement) were employed to characterize the chemistry and morphology of the additives and their tribology performance. The oil containing only 0.01 wt% diesel soot clearly improved wear resistance over 60 °C. In particular, at 100 °C the wear rate decreased by approximately 90% compared to the function of base oil. In the same test conditions, diesel soot exhibited better anti-wear performance than nano-graphite at high temperatures. The potential measure showed that the nano-graphite had positive charge and the diesel soot had negative charge. Electrochemical action may play an important role in the lubricant mechanisms of diesel soot and graphite as oil additives. (paper)

  20. Structural effects on the oxidation of soot particles by O2: Experimental and theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2013-09-01

    Soot particles are composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have either planar or curved structures. The oxidation behaviors of soot particles differ depending on their structures, arrangement of PAHs, and the type of surface functional groups. The oxidation rate of curved PAHs in soot is thought to be higher than that of planar ones. To understand the role that PAH structure plays in soot reactivity towards O2, experimental studies are conducted on two types of commercially produced soot, Printex-U and Fullerene soot, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The relative concentrations of active sites, oxygenated functional groups, aliphatics and aromatics present in soots are evaluated. The activation energies for soot oxidation at different conversion levels are determined. The average activation energies of the two soots are found to differ by 26kJ/mol. To understand the reason for this difference, quantum calculations using density functional (B3LYP) and Hartree-Fock theories are conducted to study the reaction pathways of the oxidation by O2 of planar and curved PAHs using 4-pyrenyl and 1-corannulenyl as their model molecules, respectively. The energetically preferred channels for curved PAH oxidation differ from the planar one. The addition of O2 on a radical site of a six-membered ring to form a peroxyl radical is found to be barrierless for both the model PAHs. For peroxyl decomposition, three pathways are suggested, each of which involve the activation energies of 108, 170 and 121kJ/mol to form stable molecules in the case of planar PAH, and 94, 155 and 125kJ/mol in the case of curved PAH. During the oxidation of a five-membered ring, to form stable molecules, the activation energies of 90kJ/mol for the curved PAH and 169kJ/mol for the planar PAH relative to the energy of the peroxyl radical are required. The low activation barriers of

  1. Influence of thermal radiation on soot production in Laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, R.; Nmira, F.; Consalvi, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of radiative heat transfer on soot production in laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames. Twenty-four C1-C3 hydrocarbon-air flames, consisting of normal (NDF) and inverse (IDF) diffusion flames at both normal gravity (1 g) and microgravity (0 g), and covering a wide range of conditions affecting radiative heat transfer, were simulated. The numerical model is based on the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model, a semi-empirical two-equation acetylene/benzene based soot model and the Statistical Narrow Band Correlated K (SNBCK) model coupled to the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to compute thermal radiation. Predictions relative to velocity, temperature, soot volume fraction and radiative losses are on the whole in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that, for all the flames considered, thermal radiation is a crucial process with a view to providing accurate predictions for temperatures and soot concentrations. It becomes increasingly significant from IDFs to NDFs and its influence is much greater as gravity is reduced. The radiative contribution of gas prevails in the weakly-sooting IDFs and in the methane and ethane NDFs, whereas soot radiation dominates in the other flames. However, both contributions are significant in all cases, with the exception of the 1 g IDFs investigated where soot radiation can be ignored. The optically-thin approximation (OTA) was also tested and found to be applicable as long as the optical thickness, based on flame radius and Planck mean absorption coefficient, is less than 0.05. The OTA is reasonable for the IDFs and for most of the 1 g NDFs, but it fails to predict the radiative heat transfer for the 0 g NDFs. The accuracy of radiative-property models was then assessed in the latter cases. Simulations show that the gray approximation can be applied to soot but not to combustion gases. Both the non-gray and gray soot versions of the Full Spectrum Correlated k (FSCK

  2. A comparison of chemical structures of soot precursor nanoparticles from liquid fuel combustion in flames and engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bireswar; Datta, Amitava; Datta, Aparna; Saha, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the chemical structures of soot precursor nanoparticles from the liquid fuel flame and engine exhaust has been performed in this work to establish an association between the particles from both the sources. Different ex-situ measurement techniques have been used to characterize the nanoparticles in samples collected from the laboratory petrol/air and iso-octane/air flames, as well as from a gasoline engine. The TEM images of the sampled material along with the EDS spectra corroborate the existence of carbonaceous nanoparticles. The nature of the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the samples from the iso-octane flame environment further confirms the sampled materials to be soot precursor nanoparticles. The DLS size distribution of the particles shows them to be below 10 nm size. FTIR spectrum of the precursor nanoparticles collected form the non-sooting zone of the flame and that of fully grown soot particles show few similarities and dissimilarities among them. The soot particles are found to be much more aromatized as compared to its precursor nanoparticles. The presence of carbonyl functional group (C=O) at around 1,720 cm −1 has been observed in soot precursor nanoparticles, while such oxygenated functional groups are not prominent in soot structure. The absorption (UV and IR) and fluorescence spectra of the carbonaceous material collected from the gasoline engine exhaust show many resemblances with those of soot precursor nanoparticles from flames. These spectroscopic resemblances of the soot precursor nanoparticles from the flame environment and engine exhaust gives the evidence that the in-cylinder combustion is the source of these particles in the engine exhaust.

  3. Improved soot blowing, based on needs, using the mechanical characteristics of the steam pipe - stage 2; Foerbaettrad behovsstyrd sotning med hjaelp av vaermeoeverfoerande tubens mekaniska egenskaper - etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Fredoe, Claes; Gabrielsson, Lars; Eriksson, Daniel

    2011-10-15

    The detection of contamination of the boiler tubes through the tube mechanical properties has been studied. The project has carried out measurements and detection of three different boilers with different conditions in terms of sooting philosophy, combustion method and sooting method. The assembly of the detecting strain gauge takes place on a clip which is screwed and glued onto the tube.

  4. Simulation of temporal and spatial soot evolution in an automotive diesel engine using the Moss–Brookes soot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical models were validated against experimental data of two diesel engines. ► Soot model constant values were calibrated to predict in-cylinder soot processes. ► Effects of split-main injection parameters on soot distributions were determined. ► Soot cloud was distributed towards cylinder wall when using large dwell period. ► Greater soot deposition expected with large dwell period and retarded injection. - Abstract: In this reported work, computational study on the formation processes of soot particles from diesel combustion is conducted using an approach where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is coupled with a chemical kinetic model. A multi-step soot model which accounts for inception, surface growth, coagulation and oxidation was applied. Model constant values in the Moss–Brookes soot formation and Fenimore–Jones soot oxidation models were calibrated, and were validated against in-cylinder soot evolution and exhaust soot density of both heavy- and light-duty diesel engines, respectively. Effects of various injection parameters such as start of injection (SOI) timing, split-main ratio and dwell period of the split-main injection strategy on in-cylinder temporal/spatial soot evolution in a light-duty diesel engine were subsequently investigated. The spatial soot distributions at each crank angle degree after start of injection were found to be insensitive to the change of values in SOI and split-main ratio when close-coupled injection was implemented. Soot cloud was also observed to be distributed towards the cylinder wall when a large separation of 20° was used, even with an advanced SOI timing of −6° after top dead centre (ATDC). The use of large separation is hence not desired for this combustion system as it potentially leads to soot deposition on surface oil film and greater tailpipe soot emissions.

  5. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  6. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Comparison of predicted and measured variations of indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.; Winqvist, K.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of the variations of indoor radon concentration were calculated using a model relating indoor radon concentration to radon entry rate, air infiltration and meteorological factors. These calculated variations have been compared with seasonal variations of 33 houses during 1-4 years, with winter-summer concentration ratios of 300 houses and the measured diurnal variation. In houses with a slab in ground contact the measured seasonal variations are quite often in agreement with variations predicted for nearly pure pressure difference driven flow. The contribution of a diffusion source is significant in houses with large porous concrete walls against the ground. Air flow due to seasonally variable thermal convection within eskers strongly affects the seasonal variations within houses located thereon. Measured and predicted winter-summer concentration ratios demonstrate that, on average, the ratio is a function of radon concentration. The ratio increases with increasing winter concentration. According to the model the diurnal maximum caused by a pressure difference driven flow occurs in the morning, a finding which is in agreement with the measurements. The model presented can be used for differentiating between factors affecting radon entry into houses. (author)

  8. Soot and Spectral Radiation Modeling for a High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreryo-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Simulations are performed of a transient high-pressure turbulent n-dodecane spray flame under engine-relevant conditions. An unsteady RANS formulation is used, with detailed chemistry, a semi-empirical two-equation soot model, and a particle-based transported composition probability density function (PDF) method to account for unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. Results from the PDF model are compared with those from a locally well-stirred reactor (WSR) model to quantify the effects of turbulence-chemistry-soot interactions. Computed liquid and vapor penetration versus time, ignition delay, and flame lift-off height are in good agreement with experiment, and relatively small differences are seen between the WSR and PDF models for these global quantities. Computed soot levels and spatial soot distributions from the WSR and PDF models show large differences, with PDF results being in better agreement with experimental measurements. An uncoupled photon Monte Carlo method with line-by-line spectral resolution is used to compute the spectral intensity distribution of the radiation leaving the flame. This provides new insight into the relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation, and the importance of turbulent fluctuations on radiative heat transfer.

  9. Comparing predicted estrogen concentrations with measurements in US waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostich, Mitch; Flick, Robert; Martinson, John

    2013-01-01

    The range of exposure rates to the steroidal estrogens estrone (E1), beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the aquatic environment was investigated by modeling estrogen introduction via municipal wastewater from sewage plants across the US. Model predictions were compared to published measured concentrations. Predictions were congruent with most of the measurements, but a few measurements of E2 and EE2 exceed those that would be expected from the model, despite very conservative model assumptions of no degradation or in-stream dilution. Although some extreme measurements for EE2 may reflect analytical artifacts, remaining data suggest concentrations of E2 and EE2 may reach twice the 99th percentile predicted from the model. The model and bulk of the measurement data both suggest that cumulative exposure rates to humans are consistently low relative to effect levels, but also suggest that fish exposures to E1, E2, and EE2 sometimes substantially exceed chronic no-effect levels. -- Highlights: •Conservatively modeled steroidal estrogen concentrations in ambient water. •Found reasonable agreement between model and published measurements. •Model and measurements agree that risks to humans are remote. •Model and measurements agree significant questions remain about risk to fish. •Need better understanding of temporal variations and their impact on fish. -- Our model and published measurements for estrogens suggest aquatic exposure rates for humans are below potential effect levels, but fish exposure sometimes exceeds published no-effect levels

  10. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  11. Continuous measurement of uranium concentrations with the laser spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Cremers, D.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to the continuous determination of uranium concentrations between 0.1 and 300 g/L in flowing solutions. The technique is rapid, noninvasive, and unaffected by radioactivity. A concentration of 10 g/L was measured with 0.8% precision in 3 min. Substances that absorb at the laser wavelength, suspended materials, and variations in the acidity of the solution have little or no effect on the results. High concentrations of zirconium, cadmium, aluminum, or stainless steel in solution do not interfere

  12. 柴油燃烧火焰中碳烟生成的特性试验%Experimental Study of the Soot Production in the Diesel Combustion Flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹嘉伟; 何志霞; 玄铁民; 王谦; 钟汶君; 李达

    2017-01-01

    Soot distribution in China stage Ⅴ No.0 diesel combustion flame was measured respectively by twodimensional light extinction using pulse LED and flame lift-off length using intensified charge-coupled device camera.All tests were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber mounted a single-hole nozzle with a diameter of 0.18 mm.The air density in the chamber kept to be 20 kg/m3 during tests.Effects of injection pressure,oxygen concentration and ambient temperature on the soot concentration distribution and the soot onset time were investigated.The results show that the proposed methods have good feasibility for the China stage Ⅴ diesel combustion flame.The soot KL value and the soot onset time increase with the decreases of injection pressure,oxygen concentration and ambient temperature.%基于装配单孔喷嘴孔径为0.18mm的定容燃烧弹系统,采用脉冲LED二维消光法,以国Ⅴ的0号柴油为研究对象,对其在给定工况下喷雾燃烧火焰中形成的碳烟进行了定量测试,同时采用增强器电荷耦合相机同步测量了火焰浮起长度.试验过程中,保持定容燃烧弹内气体密度恒为20 kg/m3,研究了不同喷油压力、氧体积分数和环境温度对碳烟分布、初始形成时刻的影响,结果表明:采用的二维消光法对国Ⅴ柴油有较好的适用性;国Ⅴ柴油喷雾燃烧中碳烟的KL值、生成的初始时刻随着喷油压力升高而降低,随着氧体积分数升高而升高,随着环境温度的升高而升高.

  13. Measurements in Concentrated Sun using a Remote Controlled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Floroian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, using the concentrated sunlight is a big issue because the amount of energy is very high and the light is concentrated in a very small area. The main problem in this situation is the heating, and in order to make safe measurements a remote controlled robot is needed. After that, a remote controlled robot will assume the duty of protect the measured sample and to expose it for a precise time to the concentrated sun in order to reduce heating of the sample. For easy operating, and for automatize the process, all the duties, starting with initial conditions, continuing with triggering the measurements, and conditioning the signals and finalizing with data saving must be assured by the robot.

  14. Measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Gorjanacz, Z.; Nemeth, Cs.; Szabo, T.; Varhegyi, A.; Hakl, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces (the schools and kindergartens and the ventilated workplaces) are presented. t can be stated that the one month long measurements means very high variation (as it is obvious in the cases of the hospital cave and the uranium tailing pond). Consequently, in workplaces where the expectable changes of radon concentration considerable with the seasons should be measure for 12 months long. If it is not possible, the chosen six months period should contain summer and winter months as well. The average radon concentration during working hours can be differ considerable from the average of the whole time in the cases of frequent opening the doors and windows or using artificial ventilation. (authors)

  15. TXRF 'measurements' of concentration distribution below the detection limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Mrowczynski, S.; Pajek, M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that a shape of the concentration distribution of the element in a set of samples, as measured by the TXRF method, can be determined even for the concentrations below the detection limit (DL). This can be done, when the measurements reporting the concentration below DL level are included properly in the analysis of the results. The method developed for such correction is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that this correction is particularly important when the studied concentrations are close to the DL level of the method, which is a common case for TXRF. In the paper a precision of the developed correction is discussed in details, by using the results of numerical simulations of experiments for different concentration distributions and number of performed measurements. It is demonstrated that the factor, which limits the accuracy of the correction, is the number of measurements, not the correction procedure itself. The applicability and importance of the developed correction is demonstrated for routine TXRF analysis of different types of samples of bio-medical interest. (author)

  16. Numerical investigation of soot formation and oxidation processes under large two-stroke marine diesel engine-like conditions using integrated CFD-chemical kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    n-heptane mechanism and a revised multi-step soot model using laser extinction measurements of diesel soot obtained at different ambient pressure levels in an optical accessible, constant volume chamber experiment. It is revealed that ignition delay times and liftoff lengths generated using the new......In this reported work, multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies of diesel combustion and soot formation processes in a constant volume combustion chamber and a marine diesel engine are carried out. The key interest here is firstly to validate the coupling of a newly developed skeletal...... using the revised soot model agrees reasonably well with the measurements in terms of peak values. The numerical model is subsequently applied to investigate the flame development, soot/nitrogen monoxide formation and heat transfer in a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine...

  17. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  18. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  19. Measurement of radon concentration in water with Lucas cell detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the measurement of radon concentration in water is presented based on flushing a water sample with air in a closed loop with the Lucas cell as alpha radiation detector. The main feature of the method is washing radon away from the larger sample of water (0.75 l) to a small volume of air, approximately 0.5 l, thanks to which a high radon concentration in air and a considerable sensitivity of measurement is achieved. Basic relations and results of measurements of a model of a gauge is given. The estimated measuring sensitivity (S) is 8.5 (cpm)/(Bq/l). The random error due to the statistical fluctuations of count rate at radon concentrations 1,10, 100, 1000, 10000 Bq/l is 11, 3.6, 1.1, 0.4, 0.1% correspondingly at a counting (measuring) time of 10 min. The minimum detectable radon concentration in water is 0.11 Bq/l. (author)

  20. A comparative study on the sooting tendencies of various 1-alkene fuels in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2018-02-19

    Alkenes are important components in transportation fuels, and are known to have increased sooting tendencies compared to analogous saturated hydrocarbons with the same carbon number. This work aims to understand the sooting tendencies of various 1-alkenes through experiments and numerical simulations for counterflow diffusion flames. Soot and PAH formation tendencies of 1-alkene fuels, including ethylene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), 1-butene (1-C4H8), 1-pentene (1-C5H10), 1-hexene (1-C6H12) and 1-octene (1-C8H16), were experimentally studied using laser induced-incandescence (LII) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques, respectively. From the LII results, 1-C4H8 was found to be the most sooting fuel, followed by C3H6 > 1-C5H10 > 1-C6H12 > 1-C8H16 > C2H4. The LIF data with a detection wavelength of 500 nm indicated the PAH formation tendencies followed the order of 1-C4H8 > 1-C5H10 ∼1-C6H12 > C3H6 > 1-C8H16 > C2H4, which were different from the order of sooting tendencies. Numerical simulations with a comprehensive chemical kinetic model including PAH growth chemistry for the tested 1-alkene fuels were conducted to elucidate the aromatic formation pathways and rationalize the experimentally observed trends. The numerical results highlighted the importance of intermediate species with odd carbon numbers in aromatic species formation, such as propargyl, allyl, cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Their concentration differences, which could be traced back to the parent fuel molecules through rate of production analysis, rationalize the experimentally observed differences in soot and PAH formation tendencies.

  1. Quantitative effects of rapid heating on soot-particle sizing through analysis of two-pulse LII

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre

    2017-02-27

    During the rapid laser pulse heating and consecutive cooling in laser-induced incandescence (LII), soot particles may undergo thermal annealing and sublimation processes which lead to a permanent change in its optical properties and its primary particle size, respectively. Overall, effects of these two processes on soot and LII model-based particle sizing are investigated by measuring the two-color time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signal decay from in-flame soot after two consecutive laser pulses at 1064-nm wavelength. Experiments are carried out on a non-premixed laminar ethylene/air flame from a Santoro burner with both low and moderate laser fluences suitable for particle sizing. The probe volume is set to a radial position close to the flame axis where the soot particles are known to be immature or less graphitic. With the first pulse, soot is pre-heated, and the LII signal after the consecutive second pulse is used for analysis. The two-color incandescence emission technique is used for the pyrometric determination of the LII-heated peak soot temperature at the second pulse. A new LII simulation tool is developed which accounts for particle heating via absorption and annealing, and cooling via sublimation, conduction, and radiation with various existing sub-models from the literature. The same approach of using two laser pulses is implemented in the simulations. Measurements indicate that thermal annealing and associated absorption enhancement becomes important at laser fluences above 0.17 J/cm2 for the immature in-flame soot. After a heating pulse at 0.33 J/cm2, the increase of the soot absorption function is calculated as 35% using the temperature measured at the second pulse and an absorption model based on the Rayleigh approximation. Present annealing model, on the other hand, predicts graphitization of soot even in the absence of laser heating at typical flame temperatures. Recorded experimental LII signal decays and LII-heated peak soot temperature

  2. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  3. Two-dimensional quantification of soot and flame-soot interaction in spray combustion at elevated pressures - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T.

    2008-07-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell near top dead centre conditions typically found in a Diesel engine. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 MPa and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 MPa and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 ms and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions, gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.4 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 ms and 16 ms after start of injection, irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  4. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  5. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  6. Influence of fuel properties on fundamental spray characteristics and soot emissions using different tailor-made fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Heuser, Benedikt; Jakob, Markus; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TMFB show clear potential to reduce soot emissions under mixing-controlled combustion. • The larger lift-off-length of 2-MTHF and 1-octanol promotes soot emissions reduction. • Oxidation process governs the improved soot emissions of DNBE. - Abstract: This work evaluates the potential of some new biomass-derived fuels as candidates for compression ignition operation. Thus, fundamental spray characteristics related to fuel vaporization and fuel/air mixing process for 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, Di-n-butyl ether and 1-octanol has been studied and compared with conventional EN590 Diesel fuel. For this purpose, OH"∗ chemiluminescence and shadowgraphy measurements in a high pressure chamber as well as 1D simulations with a spray model have been carried out at different operating conditions representative of the NEDC driving cycle. Finally, measured soot emissions in the single-cylinder engine were presented and discussed. Results from the high pressure chamber presented very good agreement in terms of liquid length and vapor penetration with simulation results. Thus, some analytical expressions related to macroscopic spray characteristics have been proposed and validated experimentally for all four fuels. Finally, the single-cylinder engine results confirmed the relevant role of soot formation on final emissions for 1-octanol and 2-MTHF. In addition, DNBE showed greater soot oxidation potential than diesel and other TMFB candidates.

  7. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  8. Ice Nucleation of Soot Particles in the Cirrus Regime: Is Pore Condensation and Freezing Relevant for Soot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Z. A.; Mahrt, F.; David, R.; Marcolli, C.; Lohmann, U.; Fahrni, J.; Brühwiler, D.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) onto soot particles from previous studies have produced inconsistent results of temperature and relative humidity conditions required for freezing depending on the source of soot particle investigated. The ability of soot to act as HIN depended on the type of soot and size of particle. Often homogenous freezing conditions or water saturation conditions were required to freeze soot particles, rendering HIN irrelevant. Using synthesised mesoporous silica particles, we show pore condensation and freezing works with experiments performed in the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC). By testing a variety of soot particles in parallel in the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC), we suggest that previously observed HIN on soot particles is not the responsible mechanism for ice formation. Laboratory generated CAST brown and black soot, commercially available soot and acid treated soot were investigated for their ice nucleation abilities in the mixed-phase and cirrus cloud temperature regimes. No heterogeneous ice nucleation activity is inferred at T > -38 °C (mixed-phase cloud regime), however depending on particle size and soot type, HIN was observed for T nucleation of ice in the pores or cavities that are ubiquitous in soot particles between the primary spherules. The ability of some particles to freeze at lower relative humidity compared to others demonstrates why hydrophobicity plays a role in ice nucleation, i.e. controlling the conditions at which these cavities fill with water. Thus for more hydrophobic particles pore filling occurs at higher relative humidity, and therefore freezing of pore water and ice crystal growth. Future work focusses on testing the cloud processing ability of soot particles and water adsorption isotherms of the different soot samples to support the hydrophobicity inferences from the ice nucleation results.

  9. T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-07-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders.

  10. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  11. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  12. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  13. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  14. Market power in electricity markets: Beyond concentration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.; Bushnell, J.; Knittel, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    The wave of electricity market restructuring both within the US and abroad has brought the issue of horizontal market power to the forefront of energy policy. Traditionally, estimation and prediction of market power has relied heavily on concentration measures. In this paper, the authors discuss the weaknesses of concentration measures as a viable measure of market power in the electricity industry, and they propose an alternative method based on market simulations that take advantage of existing plant level data. The authors discuss results from previous studies they have performed, and present new results that allow for the detection of threshold demand levels where market power is likely to be a problem. In addition, the authors analyze the impact of that recent divestitures in the California electricity market will have on estimated market power. They close with a discussion of the policy implications of the results

  15. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  16. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  17. Measurement of mean radon concentrations in the Tokai districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Ikebe, Yukimasa; Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an electrostatic integrating radon monitor designed for the environmental radon monitoring and longterm measurements of mean radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor air. The position of the collecting electrode within the monitor was determined based on the calculation of the internal electric field. The radon exchange rate between the monitor and the outside air through the filter was 0.75 h -1 . The exchange rate can make the radon concentration inside the monitor to follow thoroughly the outside concentration. Since the electrostatic collection of RaA + ( 218 Po + ) atoms depends on the humidity of the air, the inside of the monitor was dehumidified with a diphosphorus pentaoxide (P 2 O 5 ) drying agent which is powerful and dose not absorb radon gas. From the relationship between track density and radon exposure, the calibration factor was derived to be 0.52 ± 0.002 tracks cm -2 (Bq m -3 h) -1 . The detection limit of mean radon level is 1.2 Bq m -3 for an exposure time fo 2 months. The mean radon concentrations in various environments were measured through the year using the monitors this developed. The annual mean outdoor radon level in the Tokai districts was 7.0 Bq m -3 . The mean radon concentrations was found to vary from 3.5 to 11.7 Bq m -3 depending upon the geographical conditions even in this relatively small region. The annual indoor radon concentrations at Nagoya and Sapporo ranged from 6.4 to 11.9 Bq m -3 and from 15.5 to 121.1 Bq m -3 , respectively, with the type of building material and the ventilation rate. The mean radon concentrations in tightly built houses selected at Sapporo are about 10 times as high as those in drafty houses at Nagoya. (author)

  18. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  19. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  20. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting {alpha} particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 {approx} 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m{sup 3} and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor.

  1. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting α particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Pb and 214 Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 ∼ 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m 3 . With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m 3 and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m 3 suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor

  2. Measurement of the concentration of radon in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, J.B.Th.; Bierhuizen, H.W.J.; Hoek, L.P. van; Ros, D.; Weber, J.

    1975-01-01

    A simple transportable air monitoring apparatus was developed for controlling the radon contamination of air in laboratory rooms. It is not highly accurate but is sufficient to register the order of magnitude of the radon concentration. Air is pumped through a filter for one or two hours and an alpha decay curve of the dust on the filter is determined. Scintillation counting forty minutes after sampling indicates the radon activity. The calibration method of measuring the equilibrium of daughter product concentrations is discussed extensively

  3. Measurement of Alpha Emitters Concentration in Imported Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser Allah, Z.K.; Musa, W.A.; AL-Rawi, A.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aime of this study was to measured the alpha emitters concentration of (15) different kinds of imported cigarettes. the nuclear reaction used U-235(n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons from (Am B e)neutron source with thermal flux of(5*10 3 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The Results obtained showed the values of the Uranium concentration, and varies from (0.041 ppm) in five stares kind to (2.374ppm) in Machbeth (chocolate) 100's kind. All the result obtained are within the limit levels as given by UNSCAR data

  4. Monitoring and measurement of oxygen concentrations in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels of interest for LMFBR applications is reviewed. Additional data are presented to support the validity of the vanadium-equilibration method as a reference for determination of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels equal to or less than 15 ppM. Operating experience with electrochemical oxygen meters that have a thoria-yttria electrolyte and a Na--Na 2 O reference electrode is described. Meter lifetimes in excess of one year have generally been achieved for operating temperatures of 352 and 402 0 C, and fairly stable emfs have been observed for periods of several months. 7 fig, 21 references

  5. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  6. On the Response of Nascent Soot Nanostructure and Oxidative Reactivity to Photoflash Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are a kind of major pollutant from fuel combustion. To enrich the understanding of soot, this work focuses on investigating detailed influences of instantaneous external irradiation (conventional photoflash exposure on nanostructure as well as oxidation reactivity of nascent soot particles. By detailed soot characterizations flash can reduce the mass of soot and soot nanostructure can be reconstructed substantially without burning. After flash, the degree of soot crystallization increases while the soot reactive rate decreases and the activation energy increases. In addition, nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of soot in air and Ar after flash are different due to their different thermal conductivities.

  7. Soot oxidation over NOx storage catalysts. Activity and deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, K.; Makkee, M.

    2006-01-01

    Soot oxidation activity and deactivation of NO x storage and reduction (NSR) catalysts containing Pt, K, and Ba supported on Al 2 O 3 , are studied under a variety of reaction conditions. K-containing catalysts decrease soot oxidation temperature with O 2 alone and the presence of Pt further enhance the activity due to synergetic effect. The active species responsible for synergism on Pt/K-Al 2 O 3 are unstable and cannot be regenerated. Soot oxidation temperature decreases by about 150 o C with NO+O 2 exhaust feed gas and under lean conditions NSR system acts as catalysed soot filter (CSF). The reactions that are mainly responsible for decreasing soot oxidation temperature are: (1) soot oxidation with NO 2 followed by NO recycles to NO 2 , and (2) soot oxidation with O 2 assisted by NO 2 . Only a part of the stored NO x that is decomposed at high temperatures under lean conditions is found to be useful for soot oxidation. NO x storage capacity of NSR catalysts decreases upon ageing under soot oxidising conditions. This will lead to a decreased soot oxidation activity on stored nitrate decomposition. Pt/K-Al 2 O 3 catalyst is more active, but least stable compared with Pt/Ba-Al 2 O 3 . (author)

  8. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 deg. C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  9. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  10. Method and device for measuring the smoke concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennemo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The patent deals with a method and a device for measuring the smoke concentration in air. In a smoke chamber are located two electrodes, connected to a voltage source for forming a circuit in which a DC current flows. A radioactive radiation source to ionize the air molecules is located in the vicinity of the smoke chamber, so that the number of ionized air molecules which are formed is dependent upon the radiation intensity of the ion source and the concentration of smoke particles in the smoke chamber. The charging voltage will further imply that a cloud of high ion concentration is built up close to the surface of the electrodes. The ion cloud will be discharged capacitively upon a plurality of short voltages pulses applied to the electrodes to thereby result in current pulses substantially greater than the DC current flowing through the chamber. 8 figs

  11. Investigation of soot by two-color four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B; Stampanoni-Panariello, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A novel, non-intrusive technique has been used for the temporally resolved investigation of the interaction of laser radiation and soot in a flame. While there is a fairly good agreement between measurement and simulation remaining discrepancies indicate some shortcomings of the model employed. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Diagnostics of and measures against radon concentrations in a dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1994-02-01

    Results are presented of measurements in a test-dwelling in the period april 1993 - november 1993. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the possibilities of using a blower door (a fan in a wall of the dwelling) for specifying sources of radon in the dwelling, employing the diagnostic method developed at the KVI (Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen, Netherlands). Special attention is paid to the measurement of two input variables for the diagnostic method: transparency of the walls of the dwelling and the strength of static sources. Also measures aimed at reducing radon concentrations in the dwelling are discussed. The main conclusions are that (a) the pressure-variation method is a valid procedure to measure the transparency of walls and floors; (b) the blower door is a suitable technique for arriving at a correct diagnosis; and (c) over-pressurizing the crawl-space is the most effective measure in reducing the radon concentration of the crawl-space. More research on air flows in the soil is recommended. 21 figs., 28 tabs., 7 refs

  13. Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring the low concentrations of liquid water and ice in relatively dry soil samples. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquidwater and ice contents of Lunar and Martian soils, the apparatus could also be applied similarly to terrestrial desert soils and sands. The apparatus is a special-purpose impedance spectrometer: Its design is based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and, hence, the magnitude of impedance decreases) with increasing water content.

  14. Apparatus for measuring the concentration of a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manin, Ange.

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus described for measuring the concentration of a gas in an atmosphere is of the kind which has an ionization chamber with an internal radioactive source and associated electronics enabling the ionization current crossing the chamber to be measured. It includes at least one cylindrical metal grid forming an electrode brought to a high voltage in relation to a cylindrical collection electrode fitted to the axis of the grid coated with a radioactive deposit and, around this grid, a screen acting as a protective envelope. The radioactive deposit is tritiated titanium [fr

  15. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  16. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  17. Empirical soot formation and oxidation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussouara Karima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling internal combustion engines can be made following different approaches, depending on the type of problem to be simulated. A diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a combustion, model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion, and soot pollutant formation. The models of turbulent combustion of diffusion flame, apply to diffusion flames, which one meets in industry, typically in the diesel engines particulate emission represents one of the most deleterious pollutants generated during diesel combustion. Stringent standards on particulate emission along with specific emphasis on size of emitted particulates have resulted in increased interest in fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of soot particulate formation and oxidation in internal combustion engines. A phenomenological numerical model which can predict the particle size distribution of the soot emitted will be very useful in explaining the above observed results and will also be of use to develop better particulate control techniques. A diesel engine chosen for simulation is a version of the Caterpillar 3406. We are interested in employing a standard finite-volume computational fluid dynamics code, KIVA3V-RELEASE2.

  18. Candle Soot-Driven Performance Enhancement in Pyroelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Singh, V. P.; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    We observed substantial enhancement in pyroelectric output with the help of candle soot coating on the surface of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Candle soot of varying thicknesses was coated by directly exposing pyroelectric material to the candle flame. The open-circuit pyroelectric voltage and closed-circuit pyroelectric current were recorded while applying infrared heating across the uncoated and candle soot-coated samples for different heating and cooling cycles. In comparison to the uncoated sample, the maximum open-circuit voltage improves seven times for the candle soot-coated sample and electric current increases by eight times across a resistance of 10Å. Moreover, the harvested energy is enhanced by 50 times for candle soot-coated sample. Results indicate that candle soot coating is an effective and economic method to improve infrared sensing performance of pyroelectric materials.

  19. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  20. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    The radon content of drinking water samples was determined with Alpha Guard Pro equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua Kit). The samples were collected from water taps in dwellings located at various cities in Greece and Cyprus. In addition, surface water samples from rivers, lakes and seas as well as potable underground and hot spring water samples from Greece and Cyprus were also collected. For a precise determination of radon concentration in water samples, special procedures were followed both for sampling and transportation, as well as for measurement. Intercomparison experiments were designed and implemented before and during the study. Radon concentrations in drinking water samples in Greece ranged between 1.1 ± 0.5 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in Cyprus ranged between 1.3 ± 0.8 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L. Three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidikis (Northern Greece) exhibited high concentrations of 120±20 Bq/L, 320±40 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. This city is identified as a high radon potential area. One water sample located in Lesvos Island (North-East part of Greece) exhibited radon concentration 140±20 Bq/L. Additional six samples displayed high concentrations in potable hot spring water samples. These samples which were collected from the city of Loutraki (Peloponnesus) ranged between 220-230 Bq/L. In addition, two samples characterized as 'medicinal drinking water' gave concentrations between 320 Bq/L and 340 Bq/L. For underground water samples the radon concentrations ranged between 1.2±0.7 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L, while for surface water samples the range was 2.7±0.8 Bq/L to 24±6 Bq/L. The observed concentrations of radon gas in potable water samples in Greece were found to be largely low. In Cyprus, they were all well below 15 Bq/L

  1. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  2. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  3. Integrating measurements of indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.H.; Iida, T.; Hashiguchi, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, indoor surveys in Europe and Asia revealed that the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny can equal or even exceed that of radon and its progeny. For measuring thoron and its progeny, several methods had been reported. However, convenient, low-cost and time-integrating measuring methods which are suitable for large-scale surveys are still unavailable. To solve this problem, three integrating measuring methods with allyl diglycol carbonate plastic (CR-39) as detectors have recently been. The results indicated that they are suitable for estimating the indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations when the public exposure to thoron and its progeny is taken into account. Cup monitor - Former types of passive integrating 222 Rn and 220 Rn cup monitors had been reported. Recently, in order to improve the sensitivity of thoron detection, the air exchange rate between the inner and outer cup was enhanced, and the radius of the hemisphere was reduced to 37.5 mm. Furthermore, the procedure of detector exchange was made to be more convenient. Equilibrium-equivalent 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations monitor (EEC monitor) - The measuring system is composed of a monitor head and a diaphragm pump. The total weight of the system is less than 1.5 kg, which makes it portable. The construction of the monitor head and the measuring principle were also reported by the authors. Thoron progeny deposition rate monitor - The monitor is simply constituted a piece of CR-39 covered with thin sheets of absorbers. The thickness of the absorbers are adjusted to let only the α particles emitted from 212 Pb impinge on the detector. The concentrations of thoron progeny are estimated from the deposition rates, assuming that the deposition velocities of thoron progeny are constant in general dwellings. The improved cup monitor has higher sensitivity than former monitors, with a calibration factor of 1.59x10 -3 tracks·cm -2 (Bq·m -3 ·h) -1 for thoron. The accuracy of the ECC

  4. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Mixing on Soot Size Distribution in Premixed Ethylene Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zepeng

    2016-01-01

    As a byproduct of incomplete combustion, soot attracts increasing attentions as extensive researches exploring serious health and environmental effects from soot particles. Soot emission reduction requires a comprehensive understanding

  5. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2012-10-18

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Zhang, Yu; Boehman, André Louis

    2012-01-01

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Soot volume fraction in a piloted turbulent jet non-premixed flame of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, N.H.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Chan, Q.N. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Roekaerts, D. [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been used to measure soot volume fraction in a well-characterised, piloted, turbulent non-premixed flame known as the ''Delft Flame III''. Simulated Dutch natural gas was used as the fuel to produce a flame closely matching those in which a wide range of previous investigations, both experimental and modelling, have been performed. The LII method was calibrated using a Santoro-style burner with ethylene as the fuel. Instantaneous and time-averaged data of the axial and radial soot volume fraction distributions of the flame are presented here along with the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and intermittency. The PDFs were found to be well-characterised by a single exponential distribution function. The distribution of soot was found to be highly intermittent, with intermittency typically exceeding 97%, which increases measurement uncertainty. The instantaneous values of volume fraction are everywhere less than the values in strained laminar flames. This is consistent with the soot being found locally in strained flame sheets that are convected and distorted by the flow. (author)

  8. Measurements of serum-free thyroid hormone concentrations by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Norimichi; Hagiwara, Kohji; Taguchi, Hideo; Murakami, Shigeki; Taguchi, Shizuko

    1987-01-01

    An ultrafiltration method (UF) for measuring free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) using the Diaflow YM membrane (Centricon-10) is described. The results are compared with those by equilibrium dialysis (ED) and also by mathematical calculations derived from T 4 , T 3 , and binding protein concentrations. The precision with the UF method was excellent. The normal ranges of FT 4 and FT 3 by the three methods are all comparable. There was a high degree of correlation of FT 4 or FT 3 results by UF with those by ED and by calculation (r = 0.940 - 0.974, n = 161, P 4 and FT 3 by all methods agreed well for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and for patients with low T 4 -binding globulin. The mean FT 3 in pregnancy was lower than the normal value for all methods, and FT 4 concentrations by UF and calculation also decreased in late pregnancy. The mean FT 4 by UF and ED in low T 3 syndrome were significantly higher than in the normal controls, while the calculated FT 4 was lower. The FT 3 in low T 3 syndrome distributed normal to subnormal in all methods. These results indicate that a) the UF method is a reliable reference method for measuring FT 4 and FT 3 concentrations; b) the UF results agree well with those by ED and also with theoretically derived values in subjects with thyroid diseases and TBG abnormalities; c) for patients with low T 3 syndrome, the FT 4 results obtained by UF and ED are similarly discrepant from the calculated results, implying the existence of binding inhibitor(s) which affect both UF and ED measurements. (author)

  9. Chemical composition and heterogeneous reactivity of soot generated in the combustion of diesel and GTL (Gas-to-Liquid) fuels and amorphous carbon Printex U with NO2 and CF3COOH gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, A.; Salgado, S.; Martín, P.; Villanueva, F.; García-Contreras, R.; Cabañas, B.

    2018-03-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH) with soot produced by diesel and GTL (gas-to-liquid) fuels were investigated using a Knudsen flow reactor with mass spectrometry as a detection system for gas phase species. Soot was generated with a 4 cylinder diesel engine working under steady-state like urban operation mode. Heterogeneous reaction of the mentioned gases with a commercial carbon, Printex U, used as reference, was also analyzed. The initial and the steady-state uptake coefficients, γ0 and γss, respectively, were measured indicating that GTL soot reacts faster than diesel soot and Printex U carbon for NO2 gas reactant. According to the number of reacted molecules on the surface, Printex U soot presents more reducing sites than diesel and GTL soot. Initial uptake coefficients for GTL and diesel soot for the reaction with CF3COOH gas reactant are very similar and no clear conclusions can be obtained related to the initial reactivity. The number of reacted molecules calculated for CF3COOH reactions shows values two orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding to NO2 reactions, indicating a greater presence of basic functionalities in the soot surfaces. More information of the surface composition has been obtained using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) before and after the reaction of soot samples with gas reactants. As conclusion, the interface of diesel and GTL soot before reaction mainly consists of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-compounds as well as ether functionalities. After reaction with gas reactant, it was observed that PAHs and nitro-compounds remain on the soot surface and new spectral bands such as carbonyl groups (carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters and ketones) are observed. Physical properties of soot from both fuels studied such as BET surface isotherm and SEM analysis were also developed and related to the observed reactivity.

  10. assessment of Seawater Intrusion in Concrete by Measuring Chlorine Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Osman, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The object of this work is to measure water intrusion in concrete using a new methodology based on neutron activation technique. The applied method depends on measuring the activated gamma energy lines emitted from 38 Cl using a gamma spectrometer with Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. Concrete samples with different percentages of silica fume (SF), up to 20 % submerged in seawater for different period of time were used to perform the investigation. Samples of concrete taken from different positions along the direction of water intrusion in concrete block were irradiated by thermal neutrons using the irradiation cell of 252 Cf neutron source and one of the vertical channels of search reactor at Delft University. The measured 38 Cl concentrations of the irradiated samples were used to plot groups of water profiles distribution in concrete samples with different SF % and submerged in seawater for different periods. These profiles were compared with the others which use here measured by neutron back emitted method where a satisfactory agreement was observed between the two. Further, the displayed measured results; show that the diffusivity for all water contents decreases with increasing the silica fume percentage up to 15 %. However, for concrete samples with silica fume 20 % the observed phenomenon is reversed due to the deterioration of concrete physical and mechanical properties

  11. Si-Traceable Scale for Measurements of Radiocarbon Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Long, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon (^{14}C) dating of organic materials is based on measuring the ^{14}C/^{12}C atomic fraction relative to the nascent value that existed when the material was formed by photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This field of measurement has numerous applications including source apportionment of anthropogenic and biogenic fuels and combustion emissions, carbon cycle dynamics, archaeology, and forensics. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most widely used method for radiocarbon detection because it can measure extremely small amounts of radiocarbon (background of nominally 1.2 parts-per-trillion) with high relative precision (0.4 %). AMS measurements of radiocarbon are typically calibrated by reference to standard oxalic-acid (C_2H_2O_4) samples of known radiocativity that are derived from plant matter. Specifically, the internationally accepted absolute dating reference for so-called "modern-equivalent" radiocarbon is 95 % of the specific radioactivity in AD 1950 of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oxalic acid standard reference material and normalized to δ^{13}C_{VPDB} = 19 per mil. With this definition, a "modern-equivalent" corresponds to 1.176(70) parts-per-trillion of ^{14}C relative to total carbon content. As an alternative radiocarbon scale, we propose an SI-traceable method to determine ^{14}C absolute concentration which is based on linear Beer-Lambert-law absorption measurements of selected ^{14}C^{16}O_2 ν_3-band line areas. This approach is attractive because line intensities of chosen radiocarbon dioxide transitions can be determined by ab initio calculations with relative uncertainties below 0.5 %. This assumption is justified by the excellent agreement between theoretical values of line intensities and measurements for stable isotopologues of CO_2. In the case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements of ^{14}C^{16}O_2 peak areas, we show that absolute, SI-traceable concentrations of

  12. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  13. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Braz, Delson; Jesus, Edgar Francisco de; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Pitassi, Gabriel; Leite, Carlos Barros; Cardoso, Katia

    2009-01-01

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222 Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  14. A model study of aggregates composed of spherical soot monomers with an acentric carbon shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Zhang, Yongming; Zhang, Qixing

    2018-01-01

    Influences of morphology on the optical properties of soot particles have gained increasing attentions. However, studies on the effect of the way primary particles are coated on the optical properties is few. Aimed to understand how the primary particles are coated affect the optical properties of soot particles, the coated soot particle was simulated using the acentric core-shell monomers model (ACM), which was generated by randomly moving the cores of concentric core-shell monomers (CCM) model. Single scattering properties of the CCM model with identical fractal parameters were calculated 50 times at first to evaluate the optical diversities of different realizations of fractal aggregates with identical parameters. The results show that optical diversities of different realizations for fractal aggregates with identical parameters cannot be eliminated by averaging over ten random realizations. To preserve the fractal characteristics, 10 realizations of each model were generated based on the identical 10 parent fractal aggregates, and then the results were averaged over each 10 realizations, respectively. The single scattering properties of all models were calculated using the numerically exact multiple-sphere T-matrix (MSTM) method. It is found that the single scattering properties of randomly coated soot particles calculated using the ACM model are extremely close to those using CCM model and homogeneous aggregate (HA) model using Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Our results are different from previous studies. The reason may be that the differences in previous studies were caused by fractal characteristics but not models. Our findings indicate that how the individual primary particles are coated has little effect on the single scattering properties of soot particles with acentric core-shell monomers. This work provides a suggestion for scattering model simplification and model selection.

  15. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  16. Measurement limits to 134Cs concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.K.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.H.; Park, J.N.; Kang, Y.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, S.J.; Park, J.Y.; Ryu, S.Y.; Kim, H.-Ch.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori nuclear power plant in Korea, focusing on the measurement limits to the 134 Cs. In order to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs, we have used the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) precipitation method to get rid of the 40 K existing in natural radioactivity, which reduces the MDA activity about 10 times smaller than those without the AMP precipitation method. The MDA results for the 134 Cs were found to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044 Bq/kg-dry weight. In order to diminish the background, we also have measured a part of the soil samples in Yangyang, a small town in the east coast of Korea. However, it turns out that in order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight. - Highlights: → We study the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori NPT in Korea. → We use the AMP precipitation method to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs. → The results of the MDA for the 134 Cs turn out to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044. → In order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples, the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight.

  17. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  18. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  19. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  20. Tracking and shape errors measurement of concentrating heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquand, Mathieu; Caliot, Cyril; Hénault, François

    2017-09-01

    In solar tower power plants, factors such as tracking accuracy, facets misalignment and surface shape errors of concentrating heliostats are of prime importance on the efficiency of the system. At industrial scale, one critical issue is the time and effort required to adjust the different mirrors of the faceted heliostats, which could take several months using current techniques. Thus, methods enabling quick adjustment of a field with a huge number of heliostats are essential for the rise of solar tower technology. In this communication is described a new method for heliostat characterization that makes use of four cameras located near the solar receiver and simultaneously recording images of the sun reflected by the optical surfaces. From knowledge of a measured sun profile, data processing of the acquired images allows reconstructing the slope and shape errors of the heliostats, including tracking and canting errors. The mathematical basis of this shape reconstruction process is explained comprehensively. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the measurement accuracy of this "backward-gazing method" is compliant with the requirements of solar concentrating optics. Finally, we present our first experimental results obtained at the THEMIS experimental solar tower plant in Targasonne, France.

  1. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  2. Soot Formation and Destruction in High-Pressure Flames with Real Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-18

    Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Diesel Spray Combustion Using a Single- Nozzle Injector in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber, Combustion...enable the design of more efficient diesel engines. Higher efficiency will help reduce the logistical demand transportation fuels place on the entire...understanding of the soot formation processes at elevated pressure (e.g., 30 atm) will enable the design of more efficient diesel engines. Higher

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  4. Measurement of PCB concentrations in waters using a biomonitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The book describes a PCB biomonitoring programme which was developed for measuring instantaneous PCB concentrations and permits the compilation of PCB action cadastres for different types of waters and subsequent derivation of current trends. Six representative congeners were selected as a basis for the quantitative routine analysis. The fish species bream (abramis brama) and roach (rutilus rutilus) were used as indicators in the PCB biomonitoring programme on account of their distribution and ecological demands. The age and growth rate of each fish destined for analysis was determined so as to ensure that only healthy fish would be used. In both fish species the dorsal musulature with its low scatter of test results and consistent PCB pattern (internal quantification) proved a representative body region. (orig.) [de

  5. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected...... by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  6. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  7. Reflectance spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring soot pollution in an urban suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaroni, H; Chudnovsky, A; Ben-Dor, E

    2010-02-01

    This study examines whether converting the fossil fuel of the Tel Aviv power station from oil to gas influences air pollution in the local urban environment. To this end, the spectral properties of accumulated dust on tree leaves and paper bags were assessed before (2004) and after (2006) the conversion. The sampling site was a garden in a neighborhood located 2700m downwind of the power station. In addition, air pollution concentrations and particulate matter parameters recorded by a local meteorological station were analyzed (PM(10), NO(x), NO(2), NO, and SO(2)). Although differences in the average monthly concentration of pollution parameters are mostly insignificant between the two periods, the accumulated particulate matter exhibits considerably different spectral patterns. All first period samples exhibit a distinctly concave slope in the spectral region between 400 and 1400nm, indicative of high amounts of soot, most likely due to the combustion products of fuel oil exhausted by the power plant. In contrast, the second period samples exhibit spectra that indicate reduced soot content and even appear slightly convex, evidencing the presence of dust of mineral origin, a feature likely masked by the soot in the first period. Thus, the spectral data support that the power plant conversion results in less pollution. More generally, this study corroborates that VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy characterizes key properties of the particulate layer accumulating on sampled surfaces and thus, is a powerful method for monitoring the urban environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of fuel mixing effects on soot structures in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2011-03-26

    Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar diffusion flames were performed to identify the effect of fuel mixing on soot formation in a counterflow burner. In this experiment, the volume fraction, number density, and particle size of soot were investigated using light extinction/scattering systems. The experimental results showed that the synergistic effect of an ethylene-propane flame is appreciable. Numerical simulations showed that the benzene (C6H6) concentration in mixture flames was higher than in ethylene-base flames because of the increase in the concentration of propargyl radicals. Methyl radicals were found to play an important role in the formation of propargyl, and the recombination of propargyl with benzene was found to lead to an increase in the number density for cases exhibiting synergistic effects. These results imply that methyl radicals play an important role in soot formation, particularly with regard to the number density. © 2011 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Reductions of PAH and Soot by Center Air Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to reduce the amount of pollutant PAH and soot in the flame, we examined the burner system equipped with a center air injection. For this purpose, by using PAH-LIF and soot LII, we evaluated relative PAH and soot amounts in both the triple port burner and the conventional co-axial burner (double port burner to discuss effects of center air injection on the formation of PAH and soot. The fuel was propane. In the triple port burner, two different blue flames are observed near the burner rim, followed by bright luminous flames with soot. The flame length is longer when the fuel flow velocity is increased. On the other hand, the flame length is shorter with an increase in internal air flow velocity. As for PAH and soot, these amounts of the triple port burner are much smaller than those of the double port burner. For the triple port burner, due to the center air injection, the fuel consumption occurs in both inner and outer flames. On the other hand, for the double port burner, the oxygen is supplied from one side air, and as a result, the fuel consumption rate is relatively lower. Hence, by the center air injection, the fuel consumption is largely accelerated, resulting in the reduction of PAH and soot.

  10. CFD studies of soot production in a coflow laminar diffusion flame under conditions of micro-gravity in fire safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Mbainguebem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work which is in the fire safety framework is focused on a numerical study of the production of soot in a laminar diffusion flame, under different conditions of micro-gravity in unsteady regime. It is intended to evaluate the temperature and rate at which the production of soot is predominant, to quantify their concentrations and volume fraction in dispersion. It has been accomplished by modification of the ReactingFOAM application source code of the OpenFOAM-2.3.0 by introducing for the first time, the equations of concentration transport and of volume fractions of soot. The results of the different values of gravity obtained are compared with the normal value of gravity and we ascertain that the results obtained were satisfactory and show the ability of the code to predict the speed and temperature of the formation of soot, their concentrations and their volume fractions. The maximum peak of the volume fraction varies from 7 × 10−8 to 4.5 × 10−6. The maximum temperature, which was 2423 K before changing the code, is about 2410 K after implementation of our modifications due to the taking into account of the numerical model.

  11. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  12. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao; Vallinayagam, R; Vedharaj, S; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  13. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2017-10-10

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  14. Description and measurement of concentration problems in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1985-05-01

    Depressed patients commonly complain of concentration problems, yet these have seldom been the focus of systematic investigation. A structured interview about concentration problems was administered to a group of relatively severely depressed patients. Problems in reading and watching television were the most common, and were highly correlated with each other. Direct report of the number of concentration lapses on a reading task was the most generally satisfactory task-performance correlate of complaints of reading/TV concentration problems. Evidence both from this task and from the interview suggests that depressive concentration problems may often be due to 'mind-wandering'. The correlations with concentration problems with the severity and endogeneity of depression and with state anxiety were generally similar.

  15. Towards predictive simulations of soot formation: from surrogate to turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquart, Guillaume [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-03-28

    The combustion of transportation fuels leads to the formation of several kinds of pollutants, among which are soot particles. These particles, also formed during coal combustion and in fires, are the source of several health problems and environmental issues. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena leading to the formation of soot particles remains incomplete, and as a result, the predictive capability of our numerical tools is lacking. The objective of the work was to reduce the gap in the present understanding and modeling of soot formation both in laminar and turbulent flames. The effort spanned several length scales from the molecular level to large scale turbulent transport.

  16. Soot Particle Size Distribution Functions in a Turbulent Non-Premixed Ethylene-Nitrogen Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Boyette, Wesley

    2017-02-21

    A scanning mobility particle sizer with a nano differential mobility analyzer was used to measure nanoparticle size distribution functions in a turbulent non-premixed flame. The burner utilizes a premixed pilot flame which anchors a C2H4/N2 (35/65) central jet with ReD = 20,000. Nanoparticles in the flame were sampled through a N2-filled tube with a 500- μm orifice. Previous studies have shown that insufficient dilution of the nanoparticles can lead to coagulation in the sampling line and skewed particle size distribution functions. A system of mass flow controllers and valves were used to vary the dilution ratio. Single-stage and two-stage dilution systems were investigated. A parametric study on the effect of the dilution ratio on the observed particle size distribution function indicates that particle coagulation in the sampling line can be eliminated using a two-stage dilution process. Carbonaceous nanoparticle (soot) concentration particle size distribution functions along the flame centerline at multiple heights in the flame are presented. The resulting distributions reveal a pattern of increasing mean particle diameters as the distance from the nozzle along the centerline increases.

  17. Soot Particle Size Distribution Functions in a Turbulent Non-Premixed Ethylene-Nitrogen Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Boyette, Wesley; Chowdhury, Snehaunshu; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    A scanning mobility particle sizer with a nano differential mobility analyzer was used to measure nanoparticle size distribution functions in a turbulent non-premixed flame. The burner utilizes a premixed pilot flame which anchors a C2H4/N2 (35/65) central jet with ReD = 20,000. Nanoparticles in the flame were sampled through a N2-filled tube with a 500- μm orifice. Previous studies have shown that insufficient dilution of the nanoparticles can lead to coagulation in the sampling line and skewed particle size distribution functions. A system of mass flow controllers and valves were used to vary the dilution ratio. Single-stage and two-stage dilution systems were investigated. A parametric study on the effect of the dilution ratio on the observed particle size distribution function indicates that particle coagulation in the sampling line can be eliminated using a two-stage dilution process. Carbonaceous nanoparticle (soot) concentration particle size distribution functions along the flame centerline at multiple heights in the flame are presented. The resulting distributions reveal a pattern of increasing mean particle diameters as the distance from the nozzle along the centerline increases.

  18. Measurement of local interfacial area concentration in boiling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoung, Ho Kang; Byong, Jo Yun; Goon, Cherl Park

    1995-01-01

    An accurate prediction of two-phase flow is essential to many energy systems, including nuclear reactors. To model the two-phase flow, detailed information on the internal flow structure is required. The void fraction and interfacial area concentration are important fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. The interfacial area concentration is defined as the available interfacial area per unit volume of the two-phase mixture in calculations of the interfacial transport of mass, momentum, and energy. Although a number of studies have been made in this area, the interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow has not been sufficiently investigated either experimentally or analytically. Most existing models for interfacial area concentration are limited to area-averaged interfacial area concentration in a flow channel. And the studies on local interfacial area concentration are limited to the case of air-water two-phase flow. However, the internal flow structure of steam-water two-phase flow having various bubble sizes could be quite different from that of air-water two-phase flow, the reliability of which weak in practical applications. In this study, the local interfacial area concentration steam-water two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally in a circular boiling tube having a heating rod in the center, and for the low flow with liquid superficial velocity <1 m/s

  19. A small porous-plug burner for studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Schrader, P. E.; Catalano, A. L.; Johansson, K. O.; Bohlin, G. A.; Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Kliewer, C. J.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and built a small porous-plug burner based on the original McKenna burner design. The new burner generates a laminar premixed flat flame for use in studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation. The size is particularly relevant for space-constrained, synchrotron-based X-ray diagnostics. In this paper, we present details of the design, construction, operation, and supporting infrastructure for this burner, including engineering attributes that enable its small size. We also present data for charactering the flames produced by this burner. These data include temperature profiles for three premixed sooting ethylene/air flames (equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.1); temperatures were recorded using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging. We include calculated temperature profiles, and, for one of these ethylene/air flames, we show the carbon and hydrogen content of heavy hydrocarbon species measured using an aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization (VUV-AMS) and soot-volume-fraction measurements obtained using laser-induced incandescence. In addition, we provide calculated mole-fraction profiles of selected gas-phase species and characteristic profiles for seven mass peaks from AMS measurements. Using these experimental and calculated results, we discuss the differences between standard McKenna burners and the new miniature porous-plug burner introduced here.

  20. Soot Aerosol Particles as Cloud Condensation Nuclei: from Ice Nucleation Activity to Ice Crystal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirim, Claire; Ikhenazene, Raouf; Ortega, Isamel Kenneth; Carpentier, Yvain; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand; Ouf, François-Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of solid-state particles (soot) from engine exhausts due to incomplete fuel combustion is considered to influence ice and liquid water cloud droplet activation [1]. The activity of these aerosols would originate from their ability to be important centers of ice-particle nucleation, as they would promote ice formation above water homogeneous freezing point. Soot particles are reported to be generally worse ice nuclei than mineral dust because they activate nucleation at higher ice-supersaturations for deposition nucleation and at lower temperatures for immersion freezing than ratios usually expected for homogeneous nucleation [2]. In fact, there are still numerous opened questions as to whether and how soot's physico-chemical properties (structure, morphology and chemical composition) can influence their nucleation ability. Therefore, systematic investigations of soot aerosol nucleation activity via one specific nucleation mode, here deposition nucleation, combined with thorough structural and compositional analyzes are needed in order to establish any association between the particles' activity and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, since the morphology of the ice crystals can influence their radiative properties [3], we investigated their morphology as they grow over both soot and pristine substrates at different temperatures and humidity ratios. In the present work, Combustion Aerosol STandart soot samples were produced from propane using various experimental conditions. Their nucleation activity was studied in deposition mode (from water vapor), and monitored using a temperature-controlled reactor in which the sample's relative humidity is precisely measured with a cryo-hygrometer. Formation of water/ice onto the particles is followed both optically and spectroscopically, using a microscope coupled to a Raman spectrometer. Vibrational signatures of hydroxyls (O-H) emerge when the particle becomes hydrated and are used to characterize ice

  1. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  2. Investigating Soot Morphology in Counterflow Flames at Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Hafiz Muhammad Fahid

    2018-01-01

    Practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and diesel engines operate at high pressures to increase their efficiency. Pressure significantly increases the overall soot yield. Morphology of these ultra-fine particles determines their airborne

  3. Numerical Investigation of Soot Formation in Non-premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin

    2017-05-01

    Soot is a carbon particulate formed as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels. Due to the health hazard posed by the carbon particulate, government agencies have applied strict regulations to control soot emissions from road vehicles, airplanes, and industrial plants. Thus, understanding soot formation and evolution is critical. Practical combustion devices operate at high pressure and in the turbulent regime. Elevated pressures and turbulence on soot formation significantly and fundamental understanding of these complex interactions is still poor. In this study, the effects of pressure and turbulence on soot formation and growth are investigated numerically. As the first step, the evolution of the particle size distribution function (PSDF) and soot particles morphology are investigated in turbulent non-premixed flames. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code is developed and used. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of an n-heptane turbulent non-premixed flame. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Secondly, the effect of the flow and mixing fields on soot formation at atmospheric and elevated pressures is investigated in coflow laminar diffusion flames. The experimental observation and the numerical prediction of the spatial distribution are in good agreement. Based on the common scaling methodology of the flames (keeping the Reynolds number constant), the scalar dissipation rate decreases as pressure increases, promoting the formation of PAH species and soot. The decrease of the scalar dissipation rate significantly contributes to soot formation occurring closer to the nozzle and outward on the flames wings as pressure

  4. Electron Tomography of Nanoparticle Clusters: Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes and Radiative Forcing of Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanPoppel, Laura H.; Friedrich, Heiner; Spinsby, Jacob; Chung, Serena H.; Seinfeld, John H.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in nature. Their large surface areas and consequent chemical reactivity typically result in their aggregation into clusters. Their chemical and physical properties depend on cluster shapes, which are commonly complex and unknown. This is the first application of electron tomography with a transmission electron microscope to quantitatively determine the three-dimensional (3D) shapes, volumes, and surface areas of nanoparticle clusters. We use soot (black carbon, BC) nanoparticles as an example because it is a major contributor to environmental degradation and global climate change. To the extent that our samples are representative, we find that quantitative measurements of soot surface areas and volumes derived from electron tomograms differ from geometrically derived values by, respectively, almost one and two orders of magnitude. Global sensitivity studies suggest that the global burden and direct radiative forcing of fractal BC are only about 60% of the value if it is assumed that BC has a spherical shape.

  5. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  6. Understanding Combustion and Soot Formation in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    distributions of PLII signals help understand the soot distributions within diesel/ biodiesel flames. In addition, planar laser-induced Figure 1. Transported ...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 9/14/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll This project investigated biodiesel ...emissions testing. 1 FINAL REPORT Project title: Understanding combustion and soot formation in biodiesel fuelled diesel engines Lead Institute and

  7. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the stringent emission regulations on soot, diesel vehicles manufacturers more and more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF. These systems need to be regenerated periodically by burning soot that has been accumulated during the loading of the DPF. Design of the DPF requires rate of soot oxidation. This paper describes the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of diesel soot with air under isothermal conditions. Kinetics data were collected in a specially designed mini-semi-batch reactor. Under the high air flow rate assuming pseudo first order reaction the activation energy of soot oxidation was found to be, Ea = 160 kJ/ mol. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 14th June 2010, Revised: 18th July 2010, Accepted: 9th August 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 95-101. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101][DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/796]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  8. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm

  9. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  10. Concentration Polarization to Measure Nano-pore Accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Olthuis, Wouter; Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Abelmann, Leon; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Nieuwelink, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the deactivation process in porous catalysts is of tremendous economic significance. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the concentration polarization method to obtain the pore accessibility distribution at single particle level for the first time. By using this technique we could

  11. Characteristics of non-premixed oxygen-enhanced combustion: II. Flame structure effects on soot precursor kinetics resulting in soot-free flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, S.A.; Axelbaum, R.L. [Department of Energy, Environmental, Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Yablonsky, G. [Department of Energy, Environmental, Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parks College, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A detailed computational study was performed to understand the effects of the flame structure on the formation and destruction of soot precursors during ethylene combustion. Using the USC Mech Version II mechanism the contributions of different pathways to the formation of benzene and phenyl were determined in a wide domain of Z{sub st} values via a reverse-pathway analysis. It was shown that for conventional ethylene-air flames two sequential reversible reactions play primary roles in the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) chemistry, namely (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3}= pC{sub 3} H{sub 4}+H, (2) pC{sub 3} H{sub 4}= C{sub 3} H{sub 3}+ H with the corresponding overall endothermic reaction of propargyl formation (3) C{sub 2} H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3}= C{sub 3} H{sub 3}+2H. The contributions of these reactions to propyne (pC{sub 3}H{sub 4}) and propargyl formation and propargyl self-combination leading to benzene and phenyl were studied as a function of physical position, temperature, Z{sub st}, and H concentration. In particular, the role of H radicals on soot precursor destruction was studied in detail. At low Z{sub st}, Reactions 1 and 2 contribute significantly to propyne and propargyl formation on the fuel side of the radical pool at temperatures greater than approx. 1600 K. At higher local temperatures near the radical pool where the concentration of H is significant, the reverse reactions begin to dominate resulting in soot precursor destruction. As Z{sub st} is increased, these regions merge and only net propargyl consumption is observed. Based on the equilibrium constant of Reaction 3, a Z{sub st} value was estimated above which the rate of propargyl formation as a soot precursor is greatly reduced (Z{sub st} = 0.3). This condition compares well with the experimental results for permanently blue counterflow flames in the literature. (author)

  12. Intake condition requirements for biodiesel modulated kinetic combustion concept to achieve a simultaneous NOx and soot removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keunsoo; Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Yonggyu; Lee, Sunyoup; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MK LTC combustion was investigated under various intake conditions. • BD20 MK combustion achieved NO x and soot removal at achievable intake conditions. • The BD20 best point showed lower ISFC and COV IMEP than the diesel best point. • Higher intake pressure showed higher efficiency at all intake oxygen concentrations. • Simultaneous NO x and soot removal required 200 kPa intake pressure at a medium load. - Abstract: The fuel oxygen contained in oxygenated fuels can help reduce harmful engine-out emissions and improve the combustion process in compression-ignition engines. The use of soybean methylene ether biodiesel in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) regime has the potential to suppress soot formation and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions even further, which eventually alleviates the burden of the after-treatment system. In the present study, the effects of the intake pressure and injection timing on the combustion and emissions of the modulated kinetic (MK) combustion concept with ultra-low sulfur diesel and 20% biodiesel blended fuel (BD20) were investigated in a single-cylinder CI engine. The intake pressure was varied from 100 kPa to 250 kPa for the intake oxygen concentration range of 11–17%. The engine test results indicate that simultaneous reductions in both the NO x and soot emissions were realized under the MK LTC combustion regime. At the best operating point, BD20 achieved the simultaneous NO x and soot removal at a lower intake pressure and lower EGR level than diesel, which led to better fuel economy. In addition, BD20 achieved acceptable levels of combustion stability and noise level

  13. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  14. In-cylinder Combustion and Soot Evolution in the Transition from Conventional CI mode to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2018-01-09

    The present study intends to explore the in-cylinder combustion and evolution of soot emission during the transition from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC) at low load conditions. In-cylinder combustion images and engine-out emissions were measured in an optical engine fueled with low octane heavy naphtha fuel (RON = 50). Full cycle engine simulations were performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code CONVERGETM, coupled with gas phase chemical kinetics, turbulence, and particulate size mimic soot model. The simulations were performed under low load conditions (IMEP ~ 2 to 3 bar) at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The start of injection (SOI) was advanced from late (-10 CAD aTDC) to early fuel injection timings (-40 CAD aTDC) to realize the combustion transition from CI combustion to PPC. The simulation results of combustion and emission are compared with the experimental results at both CI and PPC combustion modes. The results of the study show a typical low-temperature stratified lean combustion at PPC mode, while high-temperature spray-driven combustion is evident at CI mode. The in-cylinder small intermediates species such as acetylene (C2H2), propargyl (C3H3), cyclopentadienyl (C5H5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly suppressed at PPC mode. Nucleation reaction of PAHs collision contributed to main soot mass production. The distribution of soot mass and particle number density was consistent with the distribution of high-temperature zones at CI and PPC combustion modes.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of cerium oxide for potential use in diesel soot combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatiana.ivanova@lut.fi, E-mail: ivanova.tatyana.v@gmail.com; Toivonen, Jenni; Maydannik, Philipp S.; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Sillanpää, Mika [ASTRaL Team, Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Homola, Tomáš; Cameron, David C. [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-15

    The particulate soot emission from diesel motors has a severe impact on the environment and people's health. The use of catalytic convertors is one of the ways to minimize the emission and decrease the hazard level. In this paper, the activity of cerium oxide for catalytic combustion of diesel soot was studied. Thin films of cerium dioxide were synthesized by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)cerium [Ce(thd){sub 4}] and ozone as precursors. The characteristics of the films were studied as a function of deposition conditions within the reaction temperature range of 180–350 °C. Thickness, crystallinity, elemental composition, and morphology of the CeO{sub 2} films deposited on Si (100) were characterized by ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The growth rate of CeO{sub 2} was observed to be 0.30 Å/cycle at temperatures up to 250 °C with a slight increase to 0.37 Å/cycle at 300 °C. The effect of CeO{sub 2} films grown on stainless steel foil supports on soot combustion was measured with annealing tests. Based on the analysis of these, in catalytic applications, CeO{sub 2} has been shown to be effective in lowering the soot combustion temperature from 600 °C for the uncoated substrates to 370 °C for the CeO{sub 2} coated ones. It was found that the higher deposition temperatures had a positive effect on the catalyst performance.

  16. Effect of soot on oil properties and wear of engine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D A; Lewis, R

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the work outlined in this paper was to increase the understanding of the wear mechanisms that occur within a soot contaminated contact zone, to help in future development of a predictive wear model to assist in the automotive engine valve train design process. The paper builds on previous work by the author, through testing of different lubricants and increased levels of soot contamination. Wear testing has been carried out using specimens operating under realistic engine conditions, using a reciprocating test-rig specifically designed for this application, where a steel disc is held in a heated bath of oil and a steel ball is attached to a reciprocating arm (replicating a sliding elephant's foot valve train contact). Detailed analysis of the test specimens has been performed using scanning electron microscopy to identify wear features relating to the proposed wear mechanisms. Analysis of worn engine components from durability engine tests has also been carried out for a comparison between specimen tests and engine testing. To assist the understanding of the wear test results obtained, the physical properties of contaminated lubricants were investigated, through viscosity, traction and friction measurements. The results have revealed how varying lubrication conditions change the wear rate of engine components and determine the wear mechanism that dominates in specific situations. Testing has also shown the positive effects of advanced engine lubricants to reduce the amount of wear produced with soot present

  17. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  18. Experimental determination of soot refractive index in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouf, F.X.; Vendel, J.; Ouf, F.X.; Coppalle, A.; Weil, M.E.; Yon, J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical properties of soot particles produced during combustion is a complex subject but of a great interest within the framework of the study of the safety of an installation, with respect to the fire hazard. These characteristics are, in this case, particularly useful in order to predict the behaviour of containment barriers in situation of fire, but also in order to estimate the contribution of these particles to radiative transfers. The aim of this study is to determine the radiative properties of soot particles produced during combustion. A specific device, which establishes extinction and vertical-vertical scattering coefficients, has been developed and has allowed to determine the refractive index of soot particles in the infrared. This determination also needed the establishment of size distribution and morphological properties of soot aggregates. We present in this document the experimental device developed, and the validation of this device on latex spheres which optical properties are well known. First results of extinction coefficients will be presented and will underline the similar optical behaviour of different soot aggregates. Values of refractive index will be detailed and discussed, and a direct application of these values will be carried out in order to determine the soot volume fraction. A comparison with reference method will underline the efficiency of our method. We will conclude on the validity of the information brought by this device and on the prospects of this study. A discussion is included, on the utility of mean values of refractive index and on the determination of total emissivity of soot particles. (authors)

  19. Cosmic: Carbon Monoxide And Soot In Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikofski, M. A.; Blevins, L. G.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Mulholland, G. W.; Sacksteder, Kurt (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of fire related deaths are caused by the inhalation of toxins such as CO and soot that are produced when fires become underventilated.(1) Although studies have established the importance of CO formation during underventilated burning,(2) the formation processes of CO (and soot) in underventilated fires are not well understood. The goal of the COSMIC project is to study the formation processes of CO and soot in underventilated flames. A potential way to study CO and soot production in underventilated flames is the use of inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). An IDF forms between a central air jet and a surrounding fuel jet. IDFs are related to underventilated flames because they may allow CO and soot to escape unoxidized. Experiments and numerical simulations of laminar IDFs of CH4 and C2H4 were conducted in 1-g and micro-g to study CO and soot formation. Laminar flames were studied because turbulent models of underventilated fires are uncertain. Microgravity was used to alter CO and soot pathways. A IDF literature survey, providing background and establishing motivation for this research, was presented at the 5th IWMC.(3) Experimental results from 1-g C2H4 IDFs and comparisons with simulations, demonstrating similarities between IDFs and underventilated fires, were presented at the 6th IWMC.(4) This paper will present experimental results from micro-g and 1-g IDFs of CH4 and C2H4 as well as comparisons with simulations, further supporting the relation between IDFs and underventilated flames.

  20. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  1. The contribution of tyre and brake abrasion to soot levels in streets; Beitrag des Reifen- und Bremsenabriebs zur Russemission an Strassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauterberg-Wulff, A.

    1998-09-01

    After the coming into force of the new soot emission thresholds as of July 1998, excess values are measured along many city streets. The author investigated whether tyre and brake abrasion contributes to soot emissions in addition to diesel soot. For this purpose, characteristic material and physical parameters of particles of diesel soot, tyre and brake material were investigated by thermography, AAS, and SEM. With the aid of a receptor-oriented approach, the contribution of these particles to soot levels measured in a highway tunnel and a Berlin city street could be assessed. The contribution of local traffic was calculated from the difference between soot levels along the road and in a background station. The measurements inside the tunnel served to determine emissin factors for diesel soot and abrasion particles from tyres and brakes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Inkrafttreten des endgueltigen Russ-Immissionswertes der 23. Verordnung zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz im Juli 1998 ist an zahlreichen innerstaedtischen Strassen mit einer Ueberschreitung dieser Werte zu rechnen. Zur Beantwortung der Frage, inwieweit neben Dieselruss auch Reifen- und Bremsenabrieb zur verkehrsbedingten Russimmission beitragen, wurden charakteristische stoffliche und physikalische Eigenschaften von Dieselruss, Reifenabrieb und Bremsenabrieb mit der Thermographie, der AAS und der Rasterelektronenmikroskopie untersucht. Mit Hilfe dieses rezeptororientierten Ansatzes konnte der Beitrag dieser Partikel zur Russimmission in einem Autobahntunnel und an einer Hauptverkehrsstrasse in Berlin bestimmt werden, wobei zuerst der Beitrag des lokalen Verkehrs zur Russimmission aus der Differenz zwischen der Russimmission an der Strassen- und einer Hintergrundstation berechnet wurde. Mit Hilfe der Messungen im Tunnel konnten Emissionsfaktoren fuer Dieselruss und fuer Reifen- und Bremsenabriebpartikel bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  2. Ice nucleation activity of diesel soot particles at cirrus relevant temperature conditions: Effects of hydration, secondary organics coating, soot morphology, and coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; China, Swarup; Liu, Shang; Nandasiri, Manjula; Sharma, Noopur; Wilson, Jacqueline; Aiken, Allison C.; Chand, Duli; Laskin, Alexander; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2016-04-01

    Ice formation by diesel soot particles was investigated at temperatures ranging from -40 to -50°C. Size-selected soot particles were physically and chemically aged in an environmental chamber, and their ice nucleating properties were determined using a continuous flow diffusion type ice nucleation chamber. Bare (freshly formed), hydrated, and compacted soot particles, as well as α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA)-coated soot particles at high relative humidity conditions, showed ice formation activity at subsaturation conditions with respect to water but below the homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. However, SOA-coated soot particles at dry conditions were observed to freeze at homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. Overall, our results suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of freshly emitted diesel soot particles are sensitive to some of the aging processes that soot can undergo in the atmosphere.

  3. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of 'MTBE soot' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than 'diesel soot' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  4. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2014-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of \\'MTBE soot\\' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than \\'diesel soot\\' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  5. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, J.; Oelßner, W.; Decker, M.; Gerlach, G.; Guth, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO2. In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements.

  6. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zosel, J; Oelßner, W; Decker, M; Gerlach, G; Guth, U

    2011-01-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO 2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO 2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO 2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO 2 . In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements. (topical review)

  7. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  8. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration

  9. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of non-unity Lewis number of gas-phase species in turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mueller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence statistics from two three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of planar n-heptane/air turbulent jets are compared to assess the effect of the gas-phase species diffusion model on flame dynamics and soot formation. The Reynolds number based on the initial jet width and velocity is around 15, 000, corresponding to a Taylor scale Reynolds number in the range 100 ≤ Reλ ≤ 150. In one simulation, multicomponent transport based on a mixture-averaged approach is employed, while in the other the gas-phase species Lewis numbers are set equal to unity. The statistics of temperature and major species obtained with the mixture-averaged formulation are very similar to those in the unity Lewis number case. In both cases, the statistics of temperature are captured with remarkable accuracy by a laminar flamelet model with unity Lewis numbers. On the contrary, a flamelet with a mixture-averaged diffusion model, which corresponds to the model used in the multi-component diffusion three-dimensional DNS, produces significant differences with respect to the DNS results. The total mass of soot precursors decreases by 20-30% with the unity Lewis number approximation, and their distribution is more homogeneous in space and time. Due to the non-linearity of the soot growth rate with respect to the precursors' concentration, the soot mass yield decreases by a factor of two. Being strongly affected by coagulation, soot number density is not altered significantly if the unity Lewis number model is used rather than the mixture-averaged diffusion. The dominant role of turbulent transport over differential diffusion effects is expected to become more pronounced for higher Reynolds numbers. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Effects of non-unity Lewis number of gas-phase species in turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2016-02-13

    Turbulence statistics from two three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of planar n-heptane/air turbulent jets are compared to assess the effect of the gas-phase species diffusion model on flame dynamics and soot formation. The Reynolds number based on the initial jet width and velocity is around 15, 000, corresponding to a Taylor scale Reynolds number in the range 100 ≤ Reλ ≤ 150. In one simulation, multicomponent transport based on a mixture-averaged approach is employed, while in the other the gas-phase species Lewis numbers are set equal to unity. The statistics of temperature and major species obtained with the mixture-averaged formulation are very similar to those in the unity Lewis number case. In both cases, the statistics of temperature are captured with remarkable accuracy by a laminar flamelet model with unity Lewis numbers. On the contrary, a flamelet with a mixture-averaged diffusion model, which corresponds to the model used in the multi-component diffusion three-dimensional DNS, produces significant differences with respect to the DNS results. The total mass of soot precursors decreases by 20-30% with the unity Lewis number approximation, and their distribution is more homogeneous in space and time. Due to the non-linearity of the soot growth rate with respect to the precursors\\' concentration, the soot mass yield decreases by a factor of two. Being strongly affected by coagulation, soot number density is not altered significantly if the unity Lewis number model is used rather than the mixture-averaged diffusion. The dominant role of turbulent transport over differential diffusion effects is expected to become more pronounced for higher Reynolds numbers. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Measurement of radon concentration in Taiz city dwellings-yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon gas considered being a high part of natural radiation background. Emitting alpha particles; radon daughters may be deposited into the lungs and cause health hazards. For this reason, estimation of radon levels in dwellings was done in many countries. In our country, Radon group in the Department of physics, University of Aden has been studied radon level in Aden dwelling. The present study is about the radon level in Taiz City - Yemen. Passive diffusion dosimeters containing (SSNTD s ) Cr - 39 detectors were used in the present work. 125 dosimeters were distributed into dwellings of ten regions in Taiz City. Results obtained show that Rn 222 levels vary between 4 Bq/m 3 and 99 Bq/m 3 . The average concentration in Al-Hasseb district is 23 Bq/m 3 and in Algumhuri hospital district is 53 Bq/m 3 . In other regions it varies between the two values. Whereas the general average in the Taiz City is 34 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  14. A computational study of soot formation in opposed-flow diffusion flame interacting with vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Selvaraj, Prabhu; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    ethylene-air flame is simulated. A reduced mechanism with PAH pathways that includes until coronene and method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) has been employed to calculate the soot characteristics. Interaction of sooting flame with a

  15. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The immersion freezing behavior of size-segregated soot and kaolinite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Niedermeier, D.; Raddatz, M.; Wex, H.; Shaw, R. A.; Stratmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a crucial role for ice formation in mixed-phase and cirrus clouds and has an important impact on precipitation formation, global radiation balances, and therefore Earth's climate (Cantrell and Heymsfield, 2005). Mineral dust and soot particles are found to be a major component of ice crystal residues (e.g., Pratt et al., 2009) so these substances are potential sources of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). Experimental studies investigating the immersion freezing behavior of size-segregated soot and kaolinite particles conducted at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) are presented. In our measurements only one aerosol particle is immersed in an air suspended water droplet which can trigger ice nucleation. The method facilitates very precise examinations with respect to temperature, ice nucleation time and ice nucleus size. Considering laboratory studies, the picture of the IN ability of soot particles is quite heterogeneous. Our studies show that submicron flame, spark soot particles and optionally coated with sulfuric acid to simulate chemically aging do not act as IN at temperatures higher than homogeneous freezing taking place. Therefore soot particles might not be an important source of IN for immersion freezing in the atmosphere. In contrast, kaolinite being representative for natural mineral dust with a well known composition and structure is found to be very active in forming ice for all freezing modes (e.g., Mason and Maybank, 1958). Analyzing the immersion freezing behavior of different sized kaolinite particles (300, 500 and 700 nm in diameter) the size effect was clearly observed, i.e. the ice fraction (number of frozen droplets per total number) scales with particle surface, i.e. the larger the ice nucleus surface the higher the ice fraction. The slope of the logarithm of the ice fraction as function of temperature is similar for all particle sizes investigated and fits very well with the results of L

  17. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  18. Source Estimation of Wintertime Soot Particles for an Urban Site Varanasi (25.30 N, 83.00 E) in Central Indo-Gangetic Plain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Srivastava, M. K.; Dumka, U. C.; Singh, R. K.; Singh, R. S.; Tiwari, S.; Mehrotra, B. J.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon particles (BC: also called Soot) are formed by incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon based fuels (fossil fuel: coal, diesel, petrol, etc.) as well as due to burning of biomass and bio-fuels (wood, shrubs, dry leaves, etc.). Soot particles are warming agent to the atmosphere that gained wide attention in recent years due to their direct and indirect impacts on local, regional as well as global climate. The climatic effects due to soot are not well understood as indicated by large uncertainties in their climate forcing estimation, particularly in South and East Asian region, possibly due to unavailability of adequate database and information about the source. Measurement of wintertime BC mass concentrations for urban site in central IGP, `Varanasi' (25.30 N, 83.00 E), using a seven wavelength Aethalometer is reported in this work. Delta-C (=BC370 - BC880), which is an indicator of biomass/bio-fuels or residential coal burning is used to understand the source. Aethalometer based source apportionment model "Aethalometer model" was used to apportion the fossil fuel/traffic and wood/biomass burning mass concentration to the total BC mass. The preliminary results for representative month (January-2015) show that daily-average BC mass ranged from 4.47 to 20.70 μg m-3 (Average: 9.45 ± 4.15 μg m-3). The daily Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) and the ratio of BCff/BC and BCff/BCwb varied between 1.09 - 1.32, 0.67 - 0.92 and 2 - 40, respectively, due to the changes in BC emissions rates. The total BC, BC from fossil fuel (BCff) and BC from wood/biomass burning (BCwb) behaved in the remarkable diurnal pattern, behaving opposite to the mixing layer heights (MLHs). During daytime, MLHs are higher due to surface based solar warming and causes more volume of atmosphere for the BC dispersion. This phenomenon causes the surface measurement of lower BC mass during the daytime. The data is, however, still being processed for multi-year wintertime observations and the

  19. The measurement of radon concentration of soil in a civil construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Fan Guang

    2004-01-01

    Radon is one of radioactive resources which do harm to human body. Therefore, its concentration in the soil should be measured before the civil construction works. Code for Indoor Environmental Pollution Control of Civil Building Engineering (GB50325-2001) is the main norm used for soil radon concentration measurement. By using FD-3017 RaA radon measuring equipment, the soil radon concentration in a civil building engineering site has been measured, the result shows that the concentration is lower than the regional average value, radon protective measures should not be installed in that site. (authors)

  20. System for measuring of air concentration in air-steam mixture during the transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, Gennady A.; Gakal, Pavlo G.; Epifanov, Konstantin S.; Osokin, Gennady V.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Description of system for air concentration measuring in air-steam mixture during the transients is represented. Air concentration measuring is based on discrete sampling method. The measuring system consists of sampler, transport pipeline, distributor and six measuring vessels. From the sampler air-steam mixture comes to distributor through transport pipeline and fills consecutively the measuring vessels. The true air concentration in place of measurement was defined based on measured air concentration in samples taken from measuring vessels. For this purpose, the mathematical model of transients in measuring system was developed. Air concentration transient in air-steam mixture in place of measurement was described in mathematical model by air concentration time-dependent function. The function parameters were defined based on air concentration measured in samples taken from measuring vessels. Estimated error of air concentration identification was about 10%. Measuring system was used in experiments on EREC BKV-213 test facility intended for testing of VVER-440/V-213 reactor barbotage-vacuum system

  1. Modelling soot formation from wall films in a gasoline direct injection engine using a detailed population balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Mosbach, Sebastian; Schmutzhard, Sebastian; Shuai, Shijin; Huang, Yaqing; Kraft, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soot formation from a wall film in a GDI engine is simulated. • Spray impingement and wall film evaporation models are added to SRM Engine Suite. • Soot is modelled using a highly detailed population balance model. • Particle size distributions are measured experimentally. • Evolution of wall region is shown in equivalence ratio-temperature diagrams. - Abstract: In this study, soot formation in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is simulated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM Engine Suite) which contains a detailed population balance soot model capable of describing particle morphology and chemical composition. In order to describe the soot formation originating from the wall film, the SRM Engine Suite is extended to include spray impingement and wall film evaporation models. The cylinder is divided into a wall and a bulk zone to resolve the equivalence ratio and temperature distributions of the mixture near the wall. The combustion chamber wall is assumed to exchange heat directly only with the wall zone. The turbulent mixing within each zone and between the two zones are simulated with different mixing models. The effects of key parameters on the temperature and equivalence ratio in the two zones are investigated. The mixing rate between the wall and bulk zone has a significant effect on the wall zone, whilst the mixing rate in the wall zone only has a negligible impact on the temperature and equivalence ratio below a certain threshold. Experimental data are obtained from a four-cylinder, gasoline-fuelled direct injection spark ignition engine operated stoichiometrically. An injection timing sweep, ranging from 120 CAD BTDC to 330 CAD BTDC, is conducted in order to investigate the effect of spray impingement on soot formation. The earliest injection case (330 CAD BTDC), which produces significantly higher levels of particle emissions than any other case, is simulated by the current model. It is found that the in-cylinder pressure

  2. Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified

  3. New Nanotech from an Ancient Material: Chemistry Demonstrations Involving Carbon-Based Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon soot has been known since antiquity, but has recently been finding new uses as a robust, inexpensive nanomaterial. This paper describes the superhydrophobic properties of carbon soot films prepared by combustion of candle wax or propane gas and introduces some of the optical absorption and fluorescence properties of carbon soot particles.…

  4. 3-D simulation of soot formation in a direct-injection diesel engine based on a comprehensive chemical mechanism and method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Dang, Shuai; Song, Ya-Na; Gong, Jing-Song

    2012-02-01

    Here, we propose both a comprehensive chemical mechanism and a reduced mechanism for a three-dimensional combustion simulation, describing the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in a direct-injection diesel engine. A soot model based on the reduced mechanism and a method of moments is also presented. The turbulent diffusion flame and PAH formation in the diesel engine were modelled using the reduced mechanism based on the detailed mechanism using a fixed wall temperature as a boundary condition. The spatial distribution of PAH concentrations and the characteristic parameters for soot formation in the engine cylinder were obtained by coupling a detailed chemical kinetic model with the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. Comparison of the simulated results with limited experimental data shows that the chemical mechanisms and soot model are realistic and correctly describe the basic physics of diesel combustion but require further development to improve their accuracy.

  5. Extension of weighted sum of gray gas data to mathematical simulation of radiative heat transfer in a boiler with gas-soot media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site.

  6. Investigating the impact of in-vehicle transients on diesel soot emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a simulation of the vehicle system, and its use for investigating highly-dynamic engine-in-vehicle operation and its effect on diesel engine emissions. Running an engine in the test cell under conditions experienced in the vehicle enables acquiring detailed insight into dynamic interactions between power train sub-systems, and the impact of it on fuel consumption and transient emissions. This type of data may otherwise be difficult and extremely costly to obtain from a vehicle prototype test. In particular, engine system response during critical transients and the effect of transient excursions on emissions are investigated using advanced, fast-response test instrumentation and emissions analyzers. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study different power train configurations. In particular, the paper describes the engine-in-the-loop study of a V-8, 6l engine coupled to a virtual 4´4 off road vehicle. This engine is considered as a high-performance option for this truck and the real prototype of the complete vehicle does not exist yet. The results shed light on critical transients in a conventional powertrain and their effect on NOx and soot emissions. Measurements demonstrate very large spikes of particulate concentration at the initiation of vehicle acceleration events. Characterization of transients and their effect on particulate emission provides a basis for devising engine-level or

  7. Dynamics of flow–soot interaction in wrinkled non-premixed ethylene–air flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.

    2015-08-17

    A two-dimensional simulation of a non-premixed ethylene–air flame was conducted by employing a detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism considering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an aerosol-dynamics-based soot model using a method of moments with interpolative closure, and a grey gas and soot radiation model using the discrete transfer method. Interaction of the sooting flame with a prescribed decaying random velocity field was investigated, with a primary interest in the effects of velocity fluctuations on the flame structure and the associated soot formation process for a fuel-strip configuration and a composition with mature soot growth. The temporally evolving simulation revealed a multi-layered soot formation process within the flame, at a level of detail not properly described by previous studies based on simplified soot models utilizing acetylene or naphthalene precursors for initial soot inception. The overall effect of the flame topology on the soot formation was found to be consistent with previous experimental studies, while a unique behaviour of localised strong oxidation was also noted. The imposed velocity fluctuations led to an increase of the scalar dissipation rate in the sooting zone, causing a net suppression in the soot production rate. Considering the complex structure of the soot formation layer, the effects of the imposed fluctuations vary depending on the individual soot reactions. For the conditions under study, the soot oxidation reaction was identified as the most sensitive to the fluctuations and was mainly responsible for the local suppression of the net soot production. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  8. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100...

  9. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  10. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  11. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  12. Potassium and soot interaction in fast biomass pyrolysis at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Hofmann Larsen, Flemming; Shchukarev, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    2 reactivity was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The XPS results showed that potassium incorporation with oxygen-containing surface groups in the soot matrix did not occur during high temperature pyrolysis. The potassium was mostly found as water-soluble salts such as KCl, KOH, KHCO3 and K2CO...... potassium amount was incorporated in the soot matrix during pyrolysis. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the carbon chemistry of biomass soot also affected the CO2 reactivity. The less reactive pinewood soot was more graphitic than herbaceous biomass soot samples with the disordered carbon structure...

  13. Visualizing the mobility of silver during catalytic soot oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Christensen, Jakob M.; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic activity and mobility of silver nanoparticles used as catalysts in temperature programmed oxidation of soot:silver (1:5 wt:wt) mixtures have been investigated by means of flow reactor experiments and in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). The carbon oxidation...

  14. Sooting behavior of oxygenated fuels in a diffusion burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Baert, R.S.G.; Edenhofer, R.; Dirks, H.; Lucka, K.; Köhne, H.

    2009-01-01

    Different strategies are being investigated towards reducing engine-out emission levels of soot and NOx of modern Diesel engines. A fuel-based strategy currently under investigation, entails the use of low cetane number (CN; i.e.low reactive) oxygenates. Previous research has shown that low CN

  15. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  16. Automatic measuring device for atomic oxygen concentrations (1962); Dispositif de mesure automatique de concentrations d'oxygene atomique (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J; Deiss, M; Mercier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Within the framework of the activities of the Autonomous Reactor Electronics Section we have developed a device, which renders automatic one type of measurement carried out in the Physical Chemistry Department at the Saclay Research Centre. We define here: - the physico-chemical principle of the apparatus which is adapted to the measurement of atomic oxygen concentrations; - the physical principle of the automatic measurement; - the properties, performance, constitution, use and maintenance of the automatic measurement device. It is concluded that the principle of the automatic device, whose tests have confirmed the estimation of the theoretical performance, could usefully be adapted to other types of measurement. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des activites de la Section Autonome d'Electronique des Reacteurs, il a ete realise et mis au point un dispositif permettant de rendre automatique un type de mesures effectuees au Departement de Physico-Chimie du C.E.N. SACLAY. On definit ici: - le principe physico-chimique de l'appareillage, adapte a la mesure de concentrations de l'oxygene atomique; - le principe physique de la mesure automatique; - les qualites, performances, constitution, utilisation, et maintenance du dispositif de mesure automatique. Il est porte en conclusion, que le principe du dispositif automatique realise, dont les essais ont sensiblement confirme l'evaluation des performances theoriques, pourrait etre utilement adapte a d'autres types de mesures courantes. (auteurs)

  17. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  18. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  20. Modelling studies of the oxidation and auto-ignition of alkanes, aromatics, and their mixtures at high pressure between 600 and 1500 K: reduction of detailed mechanisms: measurements of the building up of soot; Etudes par modelisation de l'oxydation et de l'autoinflammation d'alcanes et d'aromatiques purs et de melanges a haute pression entre 600 et 1500 K: reduction de mecanismes detailles: mesure de la formation des suies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylam, A.

    2005-11-15

    The understanding and control of many combustion phenomena requires an interactive work between experiments and modelling. The presentation of the two coupled approaches is a prerequisite to demonstrate the complexity of the phenomena (Chapters I and II). This complexity often precludes from fully elucidating the details of the chemistry of hydrocarbon oxidations. Such a failure has been shown by an attempt to improve the mechanism of oxidation of iso-octane (Chapter III). Hundreds of species and thousands of reactions come into play during the oxidation of an hydrocarbon and they all must be included into the detailed mechanisms. The need for smaller mechanisms logically has led to devise a technique of reduction (Chapter IV). Predictive thermo-kinetic mechanisms have been built, reduced, and validated with new experimental data and data collected from previous work or published elsewhere (Chapter V). Laser diagnostic techniques have been used to measure soot particles and PAH inside a methane flame (Chapter VI). (author)

  1. Modelling thermal radiation and soot formation in buoyant diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarco Bull, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The radiative heat transfer plays an important role in fire problems since it is the dominant mode of heat transfer between flames and surroundings. It controls the pyrolysis, and therefore the heat release rate, and the growth rate of the fire. In the present work a numerical study of buoyant diffusion flames is carried out, with the main objective of modelling the thermal radiative transfer and the soot formation/destruction processes. In a first step, different radiative property models were tested in benchmark configurations. It was found that the FSCK coupled with the Modest and Riazzi mixing scheme was the best compromise in terms of accuracy and computational requirements, and was a good candidate to be implemented in CFD codes dealing with fire problems. In a second step, a semi-empirical soot model, considering acetylene and benzene as precursor species for soot nucleation, was validated in laminar co flow diffusion flames over a wide range of hydrocarbons (C1-C3) and conditions. In addition, the optically-thin approximation was found to produce large discrepancies in the upper part of these small laminar flames. Reliable predictions of soot volume fractions require the use of an advanced radiation model. Then the FSCK and the semi-empirical soot model were applied to simulate laboratory-scale and intermediate-scale pool fires of methane and propane. Predicted flame structures as well as the radiant heat flux transferred to the surroundings were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. Finally, the interaction between radiation and turbulence was quantified. (author)

  2. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  3. Influence of turbulence-chemistry interaction for n-heptane spray combustion under diesel engine conditions with emphasis on soot formation and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Michele; Farrace, Daniele; Wright, Yuri M.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2014-03-01

    The influence of the turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) for n-heptane sprays under diesel engine conditions has been investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The conditional moment closure approach, which has been previously validated thoroughly for such flows, and the homogeneous reactor (i.e. no turbulent combustion model) approach have been compared, in view of the recent resurgence of the latter approaches for diesel engine CFD. Experimental data available from a constant-volume combustion chamber have been used for model validation purposes for a broad range of conditions including variations in ambient oxygen (8-21% by vol.), ambient temperature (900 and 1000 K) and ambient density (14.8 and 30 kg/m3). The results from both numerical approaches have been compared to the experimental values of ignition delay (ID), flame lift-off length (LOL), and soot volume fraction distributions. TCI was found to have a weak influence on ignition delay for the conditions simulated, attributed to the low values of the scalar dissipation relative to the critical value above which auto-ignition does not occur. In contrast, the flame LOL was considerably affected, in particular at low oxygen concentrations. Quasi-steady soot formation was similar; however, pronounced differences in soot oxidation behaviour are reported. The differences were further emphasised for a case with short injection duration: in such conditions, TCI was found to play a major role concerning the soot oxidation behaviour because of the importance of soot-oxidiser structure in mixture fraction space. Neglecting TCI leads to a strong over-estimation of soot oxidation after the end of injection. The results suggest that for some engines, and for some phenomena, the neglect of turbulent fluctuations may lead to predictions of acceptable engineering accuracy, but that a proper turbulent combustion model is needed for more reliable results.

  4. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  5. Soot and NOx simultaneous reduction by use of CO2 mixed fuel; Ekika CO2 yokai nenryo ni yoru diesel kikan no susu, NOx no doji teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, J; Yokoyama, T; Ikeda, M; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Ifuku, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We propose the new fuel injection system by use of diesel fuel dissolved with CO2 to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. In this paper spray combustion characteristics of CO2 mixed fuel is reported. It is revealed that flame temperature and KL factor at the CO2 mixed fuel combustion are lower than at the only n-tridecane combustion due to separation or partly flashing of CO2component. And the result of exhaust gas measurement shows the capability that CO2 mixed fuel is able to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  7. An investigation of late-combustion soot burnout in a DI diesel engine using simultaneous planar imaging of soot and OH radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John E. Dec; Peter L. Kelly-Zion

    1999-10-01

    Diesel engine design continues to be driven by the need to improve performance while at the same time achieving further reductions in emissions. The development of new designs to accomplish these goals requires an understanding of how the emissions are produced in the engine. Laser-imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing this information, and the understanding of diesel combustion and emissions formation has been advanced considerably in recent years by their application. However, previous studies have generally focused on the early and middle stages of diesel combustion. These previous laser-imaging studies do provide important insight into the soot formation and oxidation processes during the main combustion event. They indicate that prior to the end of injection, soot formation is initiated by fuel-rich premixed combustion (equivalence ratio > 4) near the upstream limit of the luminous portion of the reacting fuel jet. The soot is then oxidized at the diffusion flame around the periphery of the luminous plume. Under typical diesel engine conditions, the diffusion flame does not burn the remaining fuel and soot as rapidly as it is supplied, resulting in an expanding region of rich combustion products and soot. This is evident in natural emission images by the increasing size of the luminous soot cloud prior to the end of injection. Hence, the amount of soot in the combustion chamber typically increases until shortly after the end of fuel injection, at which time the main soot formation period ends and the burnout phase begins. Sampling valve and two-color pyrometry data indicate that the vast majority (more than 90%) of the soot formed is oxidized before combustion ends; however, it is generally thought that a small fraction of this soot from the main combustion zones is not consumed and is the source of tail pipe soot emissions.

  8. Incipient Soot Formation in Rich Partially Premixed Flames under High Pressure Conditions of Relevance to Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-09

    a Laminar Premixed Flame, Aerosol Reaction Engineering , Center for Aerosol science and Engineering (CASE) Workshop 2016, Saint Louis, Missouri, May...Publication Type: Conference Paper or Presentation Conference Name: Aerosol Reaction Engineering , Center for Aerosol science and Engineering (CASE...measurements of critical soot precursors up to 3-ring aromatics is available online to modelers to improve the chemical reaction mechanism [24]. To give a

  9. Possibilities of Simultaneous In-Cylinder Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions for Diesel Engines with Direct Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, U.; Eckert, P.; Spicher, U.

    2008-01-01

    Up to now, diesel engines with direct fuel injection are the propulsion systems with the highest efficiency for mobile applications. Future targets in reducing CO2 -emissions with regard to global warming effects can be met with the help of these engines. A major disadvantage of diesel engines is the high soot and nitrogen oxide emissions which cannot be reduced completely with only engine measures today. The present paper describes two different possibilities for the sim...

  10. Automated determination of size and morphology information from soot transmission electron microscope (TEM)-generated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng; Chan, Qing N.; Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yeoh, Guan H.; Medwell, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The thermophoretic sampling of particulates from hot media, coupled with transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, is a combined approach that is widely used to derive morphological information. The identification and the measurement of the particulates, however, can be complex when the TEM images are of low contrast, noisy, and have non-uniform background signal level. The image processing method can also be challenging and time consuming, when the samples collected have large variability in shape and size, or have some degree of overlapping. In this work, a three-stage image processing sequence is presented to facilitate time-efficient automated identification and measurement of particulates from the TEM grids. The proposed processing sequence is first applied to soot samples that were thermophoretically sampled from a laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame. The parameter values that are required to be set to facilitate the automated process are identified, and sensitivity of the results to these parameters is assessed. The same analysis process is also applied to soot samples that were acquired from an externally irradiated laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame, which have different geometrical characteristics, to assess the morphological dependence of the proposed image processing sequence. Using the optimized parameter values, statistical assessments of the automated results reveal that the largest discrepancies that are associated with the estimated values of primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and prefactor values of the aggregates for the tested cases, are approximately 3, 1, and 10 %, respectively, when compared with the manual measurements.

  11. Automated determination of size and morphology information from soot transmission electron microscope (TEM)-generated images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Chan, Qing N., E-mail: qing.chan@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yeoh, Guan H. [UNSW, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia); Medwell, Paul R. [The University of Adelaide, Centre for Energy Technology (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    The thermophoretic sampling of particulates from hot media, coupled with transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, is a combined approach that is widely used to derive morphological information. The identification and the measurement of the particulates, however, can be complex when the TEM images are of low contrast, noisy, and have non-uniform background signal level. The image processing method can also be challenging and time consuming, when the samples collected have large variability in shape and size, or have some degree of overlapping. In this work, a three-stage image processing sequence is presented to facilitate time-efficient automated identification and measurement of particulates from the TEM grids. The proposed processing sequence is first applied to soot samples that were thermophoretically sampled from a laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame. The parameter values that are required to be set to facilitate the automated process are identified, and sensitivity of the results to these parameters is assessed. The same analysis process is also applied to soot samples that were acquired from an externally irradiated laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame, which have different geometrical characteristics, to assess the morphological dependence of the proposed image processing sequence. Using the optimized parameter values, statistical assessments of the automated results reveal that the largest discrepancies that are associated with the estimated values of primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and prefactor values of the aggregates for the tested cases, are approximately 3, 1, and 10 %, respectively, when compared with the manual measurements.

  12. A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhao, F J; Sun, B; Davison, W; McGrath, S P

    2001-06-15

    Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion activities, or operationally defined fractions of metals. Here we introduce the new concept of effective concentration, CE, which includes both the soil solution concentration and an additional term, expressed as a concentration, that represents metal supplied from the solid phase. CE was measured using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) which, like a plant, locally lowers soil solution concentrations, inducing metal supply from the solid phase, as shown by a dynamic model of the DGT-soil system. Measurements of Cu as CE, soil solution concentration, by EDTA extraction and as free Cu2+ activity in soil solution were made on 29 different soils covering a large range of copper concentrations. Theywere compared to Cu concentrations in the plant material of Lepidium heterophyllum grown on the same soils. Plant concentrations were linearly related and highly correlated with CE but were more scattered and nonlinear with respect to free Cu2+ activity, EDTA extraction, or soil solution concentrations. These results demonstrate that the dominant supply processes in these soils are diffusion and labile metal release, which the DGT-soil system mimics. The quantity CE is shown to have promise as a quantitative measure of the bioavailable metal in soils.

  13. Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K.

    1992-10-01

    A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision

  14. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  15. Cluster-cluster aggregation kinetics and primary particle growth of soot nanoparticles in flame by light scattering and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stasio, Stefano; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2002-03-01

    The agglomeration kinetics of growing soot generated in a diffusion atmospheric flame are here studied in situ by light scattering technique to infer cluster morphology and size (fractal dimension D(f) and radius of gyration R(g)). SEM analysis is used as a standard reference to obtain primary particle size D(P) at different residence times. The number N(P) of primary particles per aggregate and the number concentration n(A) of clusters are evaluated on the basis of the measured angular patterns of the scattered light intensity. The major finding is that the kinetics of the coagulation process that yields to the formation of chain-like aggregates by soot primary particles (size 10 to 40 nm) can be described with a constant coagulation kernel beta(c,exp)=2.37x10(-9) cm3/s (coagulation constant tau(c) approximately = 0.28 ms). This result is in nice accord with the Smoluchowski coagulation equation in the free molecular regime, and, vice versa, it is in contrast with previous studies conducted by invasive (ex situ) techniques, which claimed the evidence in flames of coagulation rates much larger than the kinetic theory predictions. Thereafter, a number of numerical simulations is implemented to compare with the experimental results on primary particle growth rate and on the process of aggregate reshaping that is observed by light scattering at later residence times. The restructuring process is conjectured to occur, for not well understood reasons, as a direct consequence of the atomic rearrangement in the solid phase carbon due to the prolonged residence time within the flame. Thus, on one side, it is shown that the numerical simulations of primary size history compare well with the values of primary size from SEM experiment with a growth rate constant of primary diameter about 1 nm/s. On the other side, the evolution of aggregate morphology is found to be predictable by the numerical simulations when the onset of a first-order "thermal" restructuring mechanism is

  16. Measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Veena; Bijalwan, Pramesh; Rawat, Jasbir; Yadav, Manjulata; Ramola, R.C.; Mishra, Rosaline

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contribute more than 50% of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector based single entry Pin-Hole dosimeter while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition based DTPS/DRPS technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. On the formation and early evolution of soot in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of soot formation in an n-heptane/air turbulent nonpremixed flame has been performed to investigate unsteady strain effects on soot growth and transport. For the first time in a DNS of turbulent combustion, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are included via a validated, reduced chemical mechanism. A novel statistical representation of soot aggregates based on the Hybrid Method of Moments is used [M.E. Mueller, G. Blanquart, H. Pitsch, Combust. Flame 156 (2009) 1143-1155], which allows for an accurate state-of-the-art description of soot number density, volume fraction, and morphology of the aggregates. In agreement with previous experimental studies in laminar flames, Damköhler number effects are found to be significant for PAH. Soot nucleation and growth from PAH are locally inhibited by high scalar dissipation rate, thus providing a possible explanation for the experimentally observed reduction of soot yields at increasing levels of mixing in turbulent sooting flames. Furthermore, our data indicate that soot growth models that rely on smaller hydrocarbon species such as acetylene as a proxy for large PAH molecules ignore or misrepresent the effects of turbulent mixing and hydrodynamic strain on soot formation due to differences in the species Damköhler number. Upon formation on the rich side of the flame, soot is displaced relative to curved mixture fraction iso-surfaces due to differential diffusion effects between soot and the gas-phase. Soot traveling towards the flame is oxidized, and aggregates displaced away from the flame grow primarily by condensation of PAH on the particle surface. In contrast to previous DNS studies based on simplified soot and chemistry models, surface reactions are found to contribute barely to the growth of soot, for nucleation and condensation processes occurring in the fuel stream are responsible for the most of soot mass generation. Furthermore, the morphology of the soot aggregates is

  18. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  19. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  20. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  1. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  2. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical modeling of hexane soot structure and interactions with pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicki JD

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular simulations (energy minimizations and molecular dynamics of an n-hexane soot model developed by Smith and co-workers (M. S. Akhter, A. R. Chughtai and D. M. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc., 1985, 39, 143; ref. 1 were performed. The MM+ (N. L. Allinger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 395, 157; ref. 2 and COMPASS (H. Sun, J. Phys. Chem., 1998, 102, 7338; ref. 3 force fields were tested for their ability to produce realistic soot nanoparticle structure. The interaction of pyrene with the model soot was simulated. Quantum mechanical calculations on smaller soot fragments were carried out. Starting from an initial 2D structure, energy minimizations are not able to produce the observed layering within soot with either force field. Results of molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the COMPASS force field does a reasonably accurate job of reproducing observations of soot structure. Increasing the system size from a 683 to a 2732 atom soot model does not have a significant effect on predicted structures. Neither does the addition of water molecules surrounding the soot model. Pyrene fits within the soot structure without disrupting the interlayer spacing. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, such as pyrene, may strongly partition into soot and have slow desorption kinetics because the PAH-soot bonding is similar to soot–soot interactions. Diffusion of PAH into soot micropores may allow the PAH to be irreversibly adsorbed and sequestered so that they partition slowly back into an aqueous phase causing dis-equilibrium between soil organic matter and porewater.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Soot Formation in Laminar Axisymmetric Ethylene-Air Coflow Flames at Atmospheric and Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelgadir, Ahmed

    2015-03-30

    A set of coflow diffusion flames are simulated to study the formation, growth, and oxidation of soot in flames of diluted hydrocarbon fuels, with focus on the effects of pressure. Firstly, we assess the ability of a high performance CFD solver, coupled with detailed transport and kinetic models, to reproduce experimental measurements of a series of ethylene-air coflow flames. Detailed finite rate chemistry describing the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons is used. Soot is modeled with a moment method and the resulting moment transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian numerical scheme. Numerical and experimental results are compared for various pressures. Finally, a sensitivity study is performed assessing the effect of the boundary conditions and kinetic mechanisms on the flame structure and stabilization properties.

  4. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP and ENSCI (EN, and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 % in the stratosphere (troposphere. Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1 differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2 differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3 the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures

  5. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  6. Predicting and measurement of pH of seawater reverse osmosis concentrates

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The pH of seawater reverse osmosis plants (SWRO) is the most influential parameter in determining the degree of supersaturation of CaCO3 in the concentrate stream. For this, the results of pH measurements of the concentrate of a seawater reverse

  7. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and

  8. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  9. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  10. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  11. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  12. Exposition by inhalation to the formaldehyde in the air. Source, measures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the formaldehyde concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  13. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  15. Optimisation of elevated radon concentration measurement by using electro-chemical etching of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Fujimoto, K.; Tommasino, L.; Demajo, A.; Zunic, Z.; Celikovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, two methods for adjusting of passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeters (UFO detector) for enhanced radon concentration measurement are presented. Achieved upper limit of detection is 5.94 MBq m-3 d [sr

  16. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  17. Development of automatic high-concentration boron measurement technique; Konodo hoso jido sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Honda, S.; Ito, A. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The technology that can automatically measure the boron concentration in boric acid water was developed. A high-concentration boric acid solution must be held at a high temperature to prevent the deposition. Skill and precision ({plus_minus}0.2 to 0.3% for 10 to 2500 ppm as boron concentration, and {plus_minus}2 to 3% for 2500 to 25,000 ppm) are required to analyze the boric acid solution manually. In theory, the boron concentration in a wide range can be measured, and boron has a constant-temperature function. A density hydrometer method that facilitates the treatment and calibration in high precision and at low cost was chosen. The vibration period generated when vibration is given to the solution specimen put in a U-tube is higher as the density is lower. On the basis of this theory, the density of a specimen can be obtained according to the relation with the same data of the known-concentration boric acid water. The high-concentration boric acid water that cannot be measured by the existing boron densitometer can be measured directly. It can also be measured in a low-concentration area. The technique can be used in a laboratory as the simplified method that is replaced by the current manual analysis. The reduction effect of analytical chemical`s waste liquid can also be expected. In the electric power industry, automated equipment is required for high efficiency and labor saving. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen

  19. Estimation of release of tritium from measurements of air concentrations in reactor building of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate the releases from measured air concentrations of tritium at various locations in Reactor Building (RB). Design data of Kaiga Generating Station and sample measurements of tritium concentrations at various locations in RB and discharges for a period of fortnight were used. A comparison has also been made with actual measurements. It has been observed that there is good matching in estimated and actual measurements of tritium release on some days while on some days there is high difference

  20. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  1. Lanthanum-promoted copper-based hydrotalcites derived mixed oxides for NO{sub x} adsorption, soot combustion and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongpeng [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Yan, Xiaotong; Bi, Xinlin; Wang, Liguo [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhang, Zhaoliang, E-mail: chm_zhangzl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Jiang, Zheng; Xiao, Tiancun [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Umar, Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Tsinghua East Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The addition of La in Cu-based oxides increased the types of active oxygen. • NO{sub x} adsorption, soot oxidation and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal were enhanced. • The possible catalytic mechanism was studied via in situ FTIR analysis. • Soot oxidation was promoted by the NO{sub 2} intermediate. - Abstract: La-promoted Cu-based hydrotalcites derived mixed oxides were prepared and their catalytic activities for NO{sub x} adsorption, soot oxidation, and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, DTG, BET, FTIR, H2-TPR, TPD and TPO techniques. The oxides catalysts exhibited mesoporous properties with specific surface area of 45–160 m{sup 2}/g. The incorporation of La and Cu decreased the amount of basic sites due to the large decrease in surface areas. Under O{sub 2} atmosphere, La incorporation is dominant for soot oxidation activity, while Cu favors high selectivity to CO{sub 2} formation. A synergetic effect between La and Cu for catalyzed soot oxidation lies in the improved redox property and suitable basicity. The presence of NO in O{sub 2} significantly promoted soot oxidation on the catalysts with the ignition temperature decreased to about 300 °C. In O{sub 2}/NO atmosphere, NO{sub 2} acts as an intermediate which oxidizes soot to CO{sub 2} at a lower temperature with itself reduced to NO or N{sub 2}, contributing to the high catalytic performance in simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and soot.

  2. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  3. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  4. Differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for non-invasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-06-26

    A differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique is proposed for obtaining non-invasive (NI) measurements of the glucose concentration on the human fingertip. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of tissue phantom samples containing de-ionized water (DI), glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0~500 mg/dL and 2% lipofundin. The results show that the extracted optical rotation angle increases linearly with an increasing glucose concentration, while the depolarization index decreases. The practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index properties of the human fingertips of healthy volunteers.

  5. Chromatographic method of measurement of helium concentration in underground waters for dating in hydrological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Research methods which use natural environmental indicators are widely applied in hydrology. Different concentrations of indicators and their isotopic components in ground waters allow to determine the genesis of waters and are valuable source of information about the water flow dynamics. One of the significant indicator is helium. The concentration of 4 He (helium) in ground water is a fine indicator in water dating in a range from a hundreds to millions of years (Aeschbach-Hertig i in., 1999; Andrews i in., 1989; Castro i in., 2000; Zuber i in., 2007). 4 He is also used for dating young waters of age about 10 years (Solomon i in., 1996). Thesis consist the description of elaborated in IFJ PAN in Krakow chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground waters in aim of dating. Chapter 1 contain short introduction about ground water dating and chapter 2 description of helium property and chosen applications of helium for example in technology and earthquake predictions. Helium sources in ground waters are described in chapter 3. Helium concentration in water after infiltration (originated from atmosphere) to the ground water system depends mainly on the helium concentration coming from the equilibration with the atmosphere increased by additional concentration from '' excess air ''. With the increasing resistance time of ground water during the flow, radiogenic, non-atmospheric component of helium dissolves also in water. In chapter 4 two measurement methods of helium concentration in ground waters were introduced: mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic method. Detailed description of elaborated chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground water contain chapter 5. To verify developed method the concentration of helium in ground waters from the regions of Krakow and Busko Zdroj were measured. For this waters the concentrations of helium are known from the earlier mass spectrometric measurements. The results of

  6. Development of concentration measurement system in a mini-channel using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    A local NMR sensor to measure methanol concentration of fluid flowing in a mini-channel was developed. The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 0.60 mm inside diameter. Using the sensors, local methanol concentration of water-methanol mixture in the mini-channel of 3.0 mm width and 1.5 mm depth was measured. The effects of flow velocity in the channel and the gravity direction on the methanol concentration distribution in the channel were investigated experimentally. (author)

  7. ESR measurement of the concentration of vibrationally excited hydrogen and deuterium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, Yu.M.; Ivanov, A.V.; Il'in, S.D.; Kucheryavyi, S.I.; Rozenshtein, V.B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of vibrationally excited H 2 and D 2 molecules using an ESR microwave spectrometer. The essence of the method is the titration of H 2 (v = 1) and D 2 (v = 1) with D and H atoms and measurement of the concentrations of the titration products H and D, respectively. Stoichiometric titration coefficients were determined in the form of proportionality coefficients between the titration signals Δ[H], Δ[D] and the concentrations of H 2 (v = 1), D 2 (v = 1)

  8. Measurement of Radon concentration in groundwater by technique of nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Nguyen Manh Hung; Dang Duc Nhan

    2000-01-01

    A method for measuring radon concentration in groundwater using nuclear track detector LR-115 stripping is reported. The radon-monitoring device in groundwater is a small box with two pieces of nuclear track detector and all these materials is placed in a plastic bag made by polyethylene. It is very suitable to measure radon concentration in groundwater well in long term. Alpha tracks produced by radon and it daughter on nuclear track detector is counted automatically by spark counting method. The paper also presents some results of radon concentration in some groundwater well and mineral water sources. (author)

  9. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  10. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  11. Study of carrier concentration in single InP nanowires by luminescence and Hall measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Hultin, Olof; Heurlin, Magnus; Storm, Kristian; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The free electron carrier concentrations in single InP core–shell nanowires are determined by micro-photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence (CL) and Hall effect measurements. The results from luminescence measurements were obtained by solving the Fermi–Dirac integral, as well as by analyzing the peak full width at half maximum (FWHM). Furthermore, the platform used for Hall effect measurements, combined with spot mode CL spectroscopy, is used to determine the carrier concentrations at specific positions along single nanowires. The results obtained via luminescence measurements provide an accurate and rapid feedback technique for the epitaxial development of doping incorporation in nanowires. The technique has been employed on several series of samples in which growth parameters, such as V/III-ratio, temperature and dopant flows, were investigated in an optimization procedure. The correlation between the Hall effect and luminescence measurements for extracting the carrier concentration of different samples were in excellent agreement. (paper)

  12. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management.

  13. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  14. Application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to nanoscale heat transfer between a soot particle and the surrounding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Liu, F.; Smallwood, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) technique has been widely used to measure soot volume fraction and primary particle size in flames and engine exhaust. Currently there is lack of quantitative understanding of the shielding effect of aggregated soot particles on its conduction heat loss rate to the surrounding gas. The conventional approach for this problem would be the application of the Monte Carlo (MC) method. This method is based on simulation of the trajectories of individual molecules and calculation of the heat transfer at each of the molecule/molecule collisions and the molecule/particle collisions. As the first step toward calculating the heat transfer between a soot aggregate and the surrounding gas, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used in this study to calculate the heat transfer rate between a single spherical aerosol particle and its cooler surrounding gas under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and the accommodation coefficient. A well-defined and simple hard sphere model was adopted to describe molecule/molecule elastic collisions. A combination of the specular reflection and completely diffuse reflection model was used to consider molecule/particle collisions. The results obtained by DSMC are in good agreement with the known analytical solution of heat transfer rate for an isolated, motionless sphere in the free-molecular regime. Further the DSMC method was applied to calculate the heat transfer in the transition regime. Our present DSMC results agree very well with published DSMC data. (author)

  15. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  16. The measurement of thoron concentrations in Australia using the Japanese passive R-T dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.; Tokonami, S.; Doi, M.; Solomon, S.B.; Peggie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown higher gamma radiation levels and higher soil thorium concentrations in the Darling Scarp area to the east of the city of Perth in Western Australia. It was considered desirable to measure the concentrations of the 220 Rn (thoron) in houses built near such areas and compare these measurements with similar measurements at other sites within Australia. A monitor developed for surveying 220 Rn and 222 Rn levels in Japan was considered most suitable for this purpose. The monitor used for the survey was a passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter, similar in type to that used to measure thoron concentrations in traditional Japanese houses. Houses for this study were selected from areas in the Darling Scarp. To provide data on what might be considered typical thoron concentrations associated with other soil types within Australia, a small number of houses in areas on the coastal plain of Western Australia and from the coastal areas of Victoria were also monitored. The mean thoron concentration in homes on the Darling Scarp of 14.0 Bq.m -3 was higher than that in the coastal plain in Western Australia (3.0 Bq.m -3 ) but comparable to the measurements in Victoria (11.3 Bq.m -3 ). For the radon measurements in homes, the mean Scarp concentration was typically 49.2 Bq.m -3 while the WA coastal plain and in Victoria mean concentrations were 11.6 Bq.m -3 and 15.4 Bq.m -3 respectively. For outdoors in the Darling Scarp, the thoron mean was 76.3 Bq.m -3 while the radon level was 18.2 Bq.m -3 . These measurements would suggest that the source of the thoron in homes on the Scarp is from the underlying soil rather than from the building materials. (author)

  17. Studies on measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete structures with long-period grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Chiang, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Hsiang-Ping; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2006-03-01

    We report the development and demonstration of a simple and low-cost long-period grating (LPG) sensor for chloride ion concentration measurement in concrete structures. The LPG sensor is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We have measured chloride ion levels in a concrete sample immersed in salt water solution with different weight concentration ranging from 0 % to 20 %, and results showed that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6 % and the limit of detection for chloride ion is about 0.04 %. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we have coated gold nanoparticles on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled Au colloids on the grating portion of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increases in sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantage of this type of the sensor is relatively simple of construction and ease of use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo, and remote sensing, and has the potential use for disposable sensors.

  18. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruin, S. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); Sioutas, C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Fine, P.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction ({approx}6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  19. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruin, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  20. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles.

  1. Role of soot in the transport of chlorine in hydrocarbon-air diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, S.; Saito, K.; Stencel, J.M.; Majidi, V.; Owens, M.

    1991-01-01

    Soot is an inevitable product of incomplete combustion in many practical combustion systems such as automobiles, incinerators and furnaces. Recent studies on chlorinated hydrocarbon combustion have shown that soot and other praticulates (eg. fly ash) play an important role in secondary reactions leading to the formation of chlorine substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to attain very high destruction efficiencies the fundamental chemical and physical processes that are associated with combustion, and post-combustion cleanup must be well understood. In order to understand the effect of chlorine on the soot formed in a combustion system, fundamental studies using a coflow laminar hydrocarbon-air diffusion flame have been carried out. Phenomenological studies have revealed the effect of chlorine on the visible structure of the flame. Soot inception activation energies were estimated for methane, ethane and ethylene diffusion flames for the case of with and without chlorine addition. No significant difference in the activation energy was estimated for either case. The effect of chlorine on the soot escape rate of an acetylene diffusion flame was estimated. The soot formed in these diffusion flames was analyzed for chlorine using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and by laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). REsults from these techniques indicate the presence of chlorine in the soot formed. In this paper a chemical scheme to explain the chlorine found in the soot is proposed based on known theories of soot formation

  2. A computational study of soot formation in opposed-flow diffusion flame interacting with vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Selvaraj, Prabhu

    2017-01-05

    The flame-vortex interaction enables the study of basic phenomena that control the coupling between combustion and turbulence. Employing a gas phase reaction mechanism considering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a two dimensional counterflow ethylene-air flame is simulated. A reduced mechanism with PAH pathways that includes until coronene and method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) has been employed to calculate the soot characteristics. Interaction of sooting flame with a prescribed decaying random velocity field is being investigated. Counterflow nonpremixed flames at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered. Effects of vortices are studied on the flame structures and its sensitivity on the soot formation characteristics. As the vortex rolls up the flame, integrated soot volume fraction is found to be larger for the air-side vortex. A detailed analysis on the flame structure and its influence on the formation of soot were carried out. The results indicate that the larger PAH species contributes to the soot formation in the airside perturbation regimes, whereas the soot formation is dominated by the soot transport in fuel-side perturbation.

  3. Effect of Morphology and Composition on the Hygroscopicity of Soot Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L.; Slowik, J.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J.; Kolb, C.; Worsnop, D.; Rudich, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Freshly generated soot aerosols are initially hydrophobic and unlikely to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). However, during combustion many low vapor pressure gas products are formed that may then condense on existing soot aerosols. Additionally, soot particles may acquire coatings as they age, such as acids, salts, and oxygenated organics. An understanding of this aging process and its effect on soot hygroscopicity is necessary to address the potential of soot to act as a CCN. The transformation of soot from hydrophobic to hydrophilic is the focus of this work. An aim here is to determine the minimum coating required for hygroscopic growth. Soot particles produced by combustion of mixtures of fuel and air are size selected by a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and entrained in a laminar flow passing through a flow tube. The size selected soot particles are mixed with a controlled amount of the gas phase precursors to produce the coatings to be studied. Initial studies are focused on coatings of H2SO4, NH4NO3, and selected organics. The number of particles per unit volume of air is counted by a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and the particles are isokinetically sampled into an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Two distinct types of soot aerosols have been observed depending on the type of fuel and air mixture. With soot produced by the combustion of propane and air, the AMS shows a polydisperse particle size distribution with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 100 nm to 400 nm. The aerodynamic diameter is linearly related to the DMA-determined mobility diameter with the product density x shape factor = 1.2. The organic molecules in this soot are mostly PAH compounds. However, when kerosene is added to the propane flame, the soot particle morphology and composition is strikingly altered. While the DMA shows an essentially unchanged mobility diameter distribution, in the range 100 nm to 400, aerodynamic particle diameter is constant at about 100 nm

  4. Effect of NO2 and water on the catalytic oxidation of soot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2017-01-01

    The influence of adding NO2 to 10 vol% O2/N2 on non-catalytic soot oxidation and soot oxidation in intimate or loose contact with a catalyst has been investigated. In non-catalytic soot oxidation the oxidation rate is increased significantly at lower temperatures by NO2. For soot oxidation in tig...... exhibited a volcano-curve dependence on the heat of oxygen chemisorption, and among the tested pure metals and oxides Cr2O3 was the most active catalyst. Further improvements were achieved with a FeaCrbOx binary oxide catalyst....

  5. K-edge x-ray fluorescence analysis for actinide and heavy elements solution concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Advantages of using Co-57 as an exciter for K XRFA include: a compact design that requires no x-ray tubes; the exciter-detector assembly locates remote from support electronics; on-line, at-line, or off-line configurations for monitor/measurements; systems that can be run by semi-skilled technicians, once programmed; and operated via remote terminals with results sent to control rooms; heavy element concentrations that are measurable thru industrial pipes; independent of minor changes in solution matrix or source half life with concentration results reported in near-real-time; a dynamic range of measurable concentrations that is greater than 10 4 ; measurement times that are reasonable even at 1 gram/liter; and for nuclear safeguards, it provides the <0.5% accuracy required by DOE for the accountability of U, Pu, or both, once the system is calibrated

  6. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  7. The boron concentration measurement by the prompt gamma-ray analysis device at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, N.; Torii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kishi, T.; Takada, J.

    2000-01-01

    In determining the dose for BNCT, it is important to measure the boron concentration in blood as well as the thermal neutron fluence. To attain an accurate measurement of the boron concentration in the whole blood at about 30 ppm, the Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (PGA) is adopted to enable the measurement with a high degree of accuracy in short time, since the chemical analysis technique has some difficulties on it. In order to install the PGA device in a swimming pool type research reactor JRR-4, the super-mirror for obtaining the necessary neutron flux in the space over the pool surface was perpendicularly placed, because the reactor had no horizontal experiment tube for this kind of use. As the accurate measurement of the boron concentration in whole blood using PGA is enabled herewith, the first medical irradiation for BNCT at JRR-4 was carried out on October 25, 1999. (author)

  8. 41Ar-concentration measurements at the Finnish TRIGA Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, A.

    1970-01-01

    41 Ar-concentrations in the reactor hall and in the Ar-ventilation duct of FiR-1 (IRIGA Mark II, 250 kW) have been measured during normal operation conditions. Additional measurements have been performed varying Ar-ventilation and hall ventilation flow. A γ- and background compensated thin window proportional detector and a β-Geiger detector for 41 Ar-measurements are described. The hall concentration has also been estimated from background measurements with an unshielded Ge(Li)-detector. The saturation concentration in the reactor hall with and without the hall ventilation is about 1 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 and 3 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 , respectively. (author)

  9. Estimation of Uncertainty in Aerosol Concentration Measured by Aerosol Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Song, Yong Jae; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    FNC Technology Co., Ltd has been developed test facilities for the aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The aerosol generation system is connected to the aerosol mixing system which injects SiO{sub 2}/ethanol mixture. In the sampling system, glass fiber membrane filter has been used to measure average mass concentration. Based on the experimental results using main carrier gas of steam and air mixture, the uncertainty estimation of the sampled aerosol concentration was performed by applying Gaussian error propagation law. FNC Technology Co., Ltd. has been developed the experimental facilities for the aerosol measurement under high pressure and high temperature. The purpose of the tests is to develop commercial test module for aerosol generation, mixing and sampling system applicable to environmental industry and safety related system in nuclear power plant. For the uncertainty calculation of aerosol concentration, the value of the sampled aerosol concentration is not measured directly, but must be calculated from other quantities. The uncertainty of the sampled aerosol concentration is a function of flow rates of air and steam, sampled mass, sampling time, condensed steam mass and its absolute errors. These variables propagate to the combination of variables in the function. Using operating parameters and its single errors from the aerosol test cases performed at FNC, the uncertainty of aerosol concentration evaluated by Gaussian error propagation law is less than 1%. The results of uncertainty estimation in the aerosol sampling system will be utilized for the system performance data.

  10. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  11. Method to make accurate concentration and isotopic measurements for small gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. R.; Wahl, E.; Cunningham, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon isotopic ratio measurements of CO2 and CH4 provide valuable insight into carbon cycle processes. However, many of these studies, like soil gas, soil flux, and water head space experiments, provide very small gas sample volumes, too small for direct measurement by current constant-flow Cavity Ring-Down (CRDS) isotopic analyzers. Previously, we addressed this issue by developing a sample introduction module which enabled the isotopic ratio measurement of 40ml samples or smaller. However, the system, called the Small Sample Isotope Module (SSIM), does dilute the sample during the delivery with inert carrier gas which causes a ~5% reduction in concentration. The isotopic ratio measurements are not affected by this small dilution, but researchers are naturally interested accurate concentration measurements. We present the accuracy and precision of a new method of using this delivery module which we call 'double injection.' Two portions of the 40ml of the sample (20ml each) are introduced to the analyzer, the first injection of which flushes out the diluting gas and the second injection is measured. The accuracy of this new method is demonstrated by comparing the concentration and isotopic ratio measurements for a gas sampled directly and that same gas measured through the SSIM. The data show that the CO2 concentration measurements were the same within instrument precision. The isotopic ratio precision (1σ) of repeated measurements was 0.16 permil for CO2 and 1.15 permil for CH4 at ambient concentrations. This new method provides a significant enhancement in the information provided by small samples.

  12. Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots: A Stability Measure and Design Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Hendrick, Richard J; Webster, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.

  13. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  14. Measurements of the size dependence of the concentration of nonvolatile material in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, J. A.; Noone, K. J.; Hallberg, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schell, D.; Berner, A.; Solly, I.; Kruisz, C.; Reischl, G.; Arends, B. G.; Wobrock, W.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the size dependence of the mass concentration of nonvolatile material dissolved and suspended in fog droplets were obtained with three complementary approaches, covering a size range from c. 1 50µm diameter: a counterflow virtual impactor, an eight-stage aerosol impactor, and a two-stage fogwater impactor. Concentrations were observed to decrease with size over the entire range, contrary to expectations of increasing concentrations at larger sizes. It is possible that the larger droplets had solute concentrations that increased with increasing size, but that the increase was too weak for the measurements to resolve. Future studies should consider the hypothesis that the droplets were coated with a surface-active substance that hindered their uptake of water.

  15. The effect of the nuclear track detectors' position on the radon concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Kuerkcueoglu, M. E.; Haner, B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to determine the radon concentration values of the underground mines according to workers' health. For this purpose, to be able to measure radon concentrations by using passive nuclear etched track detectors, CR-39 detectors were placed into 66 points on the way of aeration galleries of Armutcuk, Amasra, Karadon, Kozlu and Uezuelmez bituminous coal mines which are known as the Carboniferous outcrops of the Western Black Sea Area in Turkey. In every measurement point, a pair of detectors, one of them is being perpendicular and the other one is parallel to air flow, were exposed to radon gases over 40 days for four seasons of the year 2008. The relationship between the readings of vertically and horizontally positioned detectors was investigated by evaluating the effect of the detectors' positions on the detected radon concentrations. It can be concluded that, the vertically positioned detectors, in general, recorded higher radon gases concentration values than that of the horizontally positioned ones.

  16. Measurement of radon progeny concentrations in air by alpha-particle spectrometey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1975-07-01

    A technique is presented for measuring air concentrations of the short-lived progeny of radon-222 by the use of alpha spectrometry. In this technique, the concentration of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. The influence of air sampling and counting intervals of time on the accuracy of the calculated concentrations is discussed in the report. A computer program is presented for use with this technique. It is written in the BASIC language. The program will calculate the air concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC, and will estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. (U.S.)

  17. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  19. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro; Osoda, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [ 15 O]H 2 O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [ 11 C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [ 11 C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4±6.4 and 19.7±4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients

  20. Development of a 10 Hz measurement system for atmospheric aerosol concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouarouri, Assia

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to develop an aerosol charger based on a corona discharge for atmospheric concentration measurements (10 3 -10 5 cm -3 ) within a response time of 100 ms. Two ion sources, point-to-hole and wire-to-slit have been characterized. The increase of the ion flow in the post-discharge by EHD ion confinement in both the discharge gap and the hole has been shown. At first, using an experimental survey driven in two mixing configurations, concentric and face-to-face, we have confirmed the aerosol diffusion charging law which depends on aerosol diameter and N i .t product, with N i , the ions concentration and t, the charging time. Thus, the originality of this charger relies on the very high heterogeneity of unipolar ion densities (N i 0 ≥10 9 cm -3 ) required to compensate the charging time of 50 ms. In these conditions, we have shown that aerosol diameter and the charging dynamic (which depends also on the diameter) control the aerosol trajectory. The chargers have, next, been compared in different operating conditions, mainly in terms of the maximal charging and the minimal losses. In the chosen charger (point-to-hole ion source and concentric mixing), the relations charge/mobility and losses according to diameter have been characterized. We have also shown the linearity of the charged particles current with the aerosol concentration which allows the current-concentration data inversion. The preliminary measurement system composed by the charger, the separator and the particle current measurements, satisfies the objectives of the study in terms of the concentration detection limit (10 3 cm -3 ) and the response time (100 ms). We have thus shown the feasibility of an atmospheric aerosol concentration measurement system at 10 Hz using a corona discharge charger provided that the separation power is improved. Furthermore, knowing that aerosol losses are negligible and the lower limit of the partial charging, the developed charger is adaptable with other

  1. Integrated Microanalytical System for Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Stéphane; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Lin, Lin; Buffle, Jacques; Guenat, Olivier; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    A complexing gel integrated microelectrode (CGIME) for direct measurements of free metal ion concentrations in natural waters has been developed. It is prepared by the successive deposition of microlayers of a chelating resin, an antifouling agarose gel and Hg on a 100-interconnected Ir-based microelectrode array. The trace metals of interest are in a first step accumulated on the chelating resin in proportion to their free ion concentration in solution, then released in acidic solution and d...

  2. The measurement of thoron (220Rn) concentration in indoor air continuously using pylon model WLx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnel Sofyan

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) in particular location can be higher than radon ( 220 Rn), however, its presence is always neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in calibration and discrimination between radon and thoron. From biokinetic and dosimetric model, it has been known that the dominant contribution of thoron to the effective dose is in the lungs. UNSCEAR estimates the doses contribution of thoron and its progenies is between 5-10% of the annual dose received by the general public and the risk level is 4.4 times greater than radon and progenies. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thoron concentration in indoor air and workplaces. Radon-thoron concentration in indoor air can be determined by direct methods using Pylon Model WLx device and passive methods using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). In this research the measurement of thoron was carried out continuously using Pylon Model WLx equipment that is sensitive to radon for 24, 65, 72, 116 and 154 hours in different rooms. The measurement result showed that the mean value of thoron working level (WL) concentration obtained in room-1 was 2.53 ± 0.67 Bq/m 3 with maximum and minimum of thoron concentrations were 3.37 and 2.22 Bq/m 3 respectively. From the measurement in different locations, it was obtained that the largest and smallest average concentrations of thoron progenies were 0.83 ± 0.23 Bq/m 3 and 0.29 ± 0.64 Bq/m 3 , while the maximum and minimum concentration values were 7.80 Bq/m 3 and 0.01 Bq/m 3 respectively. Pylon Model WLx device is not enables to be used for longer and large scale survey area concurrently, so the SSNTDs which is sensitive to the emission of alpha particles and can measure cumulative thoron concentrations is required. (author)

  3. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  4. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid; Kumar, Ashok [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Kim, Dong-Shik, E-mail: dong.kim@utoledo.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Very little information is available on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles produced in the combustion of different types and blends of biodiesel fuels. A variety of feedstock can be used to produce biodiesel, and it is necessary to better understand the effects of feedstock-specific characteristics on soot particle emissions. Characteristics of soot particles, collected from a laboratory combustion chamber, are investigated from the blends of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel with various proportions. Biodiesel samples were derived from three different feedstocks, soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Experimental results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions when using biodiesel compared with ULSD. For the pure biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles is greater than the average soot particles from the biodiesel blends. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of oxidized soot particles are presented to investigate how the addition of biodiesel fuels may affect structures of soot particles. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted for characterization of soot particles. Unsaturated methyl esters and high oxygen content of biodiesel are thought to be the major factors that help reduce the formation of soot particles in a laboratory combustion chamber. - Highlights: • The unsaturation of biodiesel fuel was correlated with soot characteristics. • Average diameters of biodiesel soot were smaller than that of ULSD. • Eight elements were detected as the marker metals in biodiesel soot particles. • As the degree of unsaturation increased, the oxygen content in FAMEs increased. • Biodiesel

  5. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  6. Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OH and HO2 concentrations were measured simultaneously at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in the summer of 2002 during the NAMBLEX (North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment field campaign. OH was measured by laser-induced fluorescence employing the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique, with a mean daytime detection limit of 2.7×105 molecule cm−3 (5 min acquisition period; signal-to-noise ratio = 1. HO2 was detected as OH following its chemical conversion through addition of NO, with a mean detection limit of 4.4×106 molecule cm−3. The diurnal variation of OH was measured on 24 days, and that of HO2 on 17 days. The local solar noon OH concentrations ranged between (3–8×106 molecule cm−3, with a 24 h mean concentration of 9.1×105 molecule cm−3. The local solar noon HO2 concentrations were (0.9–2.1×108 molecule cm−3 (3.5–8.2 pptv, with a 24 h mean concentration of 4.2×107 molecule cm−3 (1.6 pptv. HO2 radicals in the range (2–3×107 molecule cm−3 were observed at night. During NAMBLEX, a comprehensive suite of supporting measurements enabled a detailed study of the behaviour of HOx radicals under primarily clean marine conditions. Steady state expressions are used to calculate OH and HO2 concentrations and to evaluate the effect of different free-radical sources and sinks. The diurnally averaged calculated to measured OH ratio was 1.04±0.36, but the ratio displays a distinct diurnal variation, being less than 1 during the early morning and late afternoon/evening, and greater than 1 in the middle of the day. For HO2 there was an overprediction, with the agreement between calculated and measured concentrations improved by including reaction with measured IO and BrO radicals and uptake to aerosols. Increasing the concentration of IO radicals included in the calculations to above that measured by a DOAS instrument with an absorption path located mainly over the ocean, reflecting the

  7. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  8. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  9. On the deduction of chemical reaction pathways from measurements of time series of concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Michael; Arkin, Adam; Ross, John

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the deduction of reaction pathways in complex chemical systems from measurements of time series of chemical concentrations of reacting species. First we review a technique called correlation metric construction (CMC) and show the construction of a reaction pathway from measurements on a part of glycolysis. Then we present two new improved methods for the analysis of time series