WorldWideScience

Sample records for sooke basin shellfish

  1. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Shellfish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  2. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download this resource about how to identify shellfish on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  3. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  4. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  6. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  7. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  9. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  10. Shellfish Hemocyte Data from Flow Cytometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various immune function tests using shellfish hemolymph have been developed to determine shellfish health. These tests including viability, phagocytosis, adhesion,...

  11. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  12. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Shellfish as reservoirs of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hariharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview on bacterial pathogens associated with shellfish in Grenada and other countries including the authors’ experience. Although there have been considerable published work on vibrios, there is a lack of information on Salmonella serovars associated with various shellfish. In Grenada, for instance the blue land crabs collected from their habitats were found to harbor several Salmonella serovars. Also, it is notable that only minimal research has been done on shellfish such as conchs and whelks, which are common in the Caribbean and West Indies. Information on anaerobic bacteria, particularly, non-spore forming bacteria associated with shellfish, in general, is also scanty. This review re-examines this globally important topic based on the recent findings as well as past observations. Strategies for reduction of bacteria in oysters are briefly mentioned because of the fact that oysters are consumed commonly without complete cooking.

  14. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  15. Irradiation preservation of Korean shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.R.; Kim, S.I.; Lee, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Pacific oyster, hard clam and mussel were irradiated at doses up to 0.5 Mrad, the optimum dose rather than the maximum permissible was sought for in each species and post-irradiation storage characteristics studied at 0 0 and 5 0 C. No shellfish meat irradiated at doses as high as 0.5 Mrad produced any adverse odor. However the organoleptic quality of each sample irradiated at lower doses was superior to those irradiated at the higher during the early storage period. The optimum dose was determined to be 0.2 Mrad for Pacific oyster and mussel and 0.1 Mrad for hard clam. By irradiating at the optimum dose, the storage life of Pacific oyster could be extended from less than 14 days to 35 days at 0 0 C and from only 3 days to 21 days at 5 0 C. A similar storage extension was observed from 7 days to 14 days at 0 0 C and from 3 days to 12 days at 5 0 C. The hard clam meats were particularly susceptible to tissue softening by irradiation; an earlier onset and more extensive softening were observed with increasing dose. (author)

  16. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  17. [Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risk related to shellfish consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, J C

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are present in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Thus, the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish is a substantial source of foodborne poisoning, mostly epidemic and sometimes sporadic. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: thyphoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias) among very susceptible consumers (immunocompromised). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plancton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are cocentrated. Although acute or chronic effects of the chemical contamination of shellfish have not been clearly documented, the cadmium pollution of some shellfish harvesting waters raises a serious problem. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh (coliform count, Dinophysis toxins, heavy metals...). This surveillance allows the classification of growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, this surveillance is not always sensitive enough. Indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved

  18. Shellfish reef restoration pilots: Voordelta The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, H.; Kamermans, P.; Have, van der T.M.; Lengkeek, W.; Smaal, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Once, shellfish reefs - mainly flat oysters - covered about 20% of the North Sea floor, but diseases, pollution and overfishing have led to a significant decline. As part of the Haringvliet Dream Fund Project (www.haringvliet.nu), ARK
    Nature and World Wildlife Fund Netherlands are working on

  19. 76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... transmission of norovirus from infected or ill food workers in food manufacturing or retail establishments to... Molluscan Shellfish Contamination Levels During Food Preparation and Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish Consumption... and other factors influencing bivalve molluscan shellfish contamination levels during food preparation...

  20. Detection of salmonella in shellfish grown in polluted seawater

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Three bays along the South African coast were studied for the presence of Salmonella spp in seawater, effluent and storm water discharges into the bays and in shellfish harvested at the same sites. The microbial quality of water and shellfish...

  1. Accumulation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in the oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a significant threat to the safe consumption of shellfish in the southern Benguela ecosystem. The accumulation of DSP toxins was investigated in two cultivated bivalve species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the mussel Choromytilus meridionalis, suspended from a ...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams and mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.C.; Imagire, S.J.; Yasaei, P.; Ragelis, E.P.; Park, D.L.; Page, S.W.; Carlson, R.E.; Guire, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) compromise human health. The threat of this contamination results in enormous economic losses in the recreational and commercial exploitation of shellfish resources in the affected areas. Most states deal with the PSP problem either by prohibiting the collection of shellfish during certain time periods or by instituting monitoring programs. The only recognized method of analysis for PSP that is currently and routinely used in monitoring programs is the time-of-death mouse bioassay. Several attempts to develop simple and highly specific biochemical assays for the detection and quantitation of the PSP toxins have been reported. More recently, much improved immunoassays have been developed. To evaluate the validity and usefulness of the immunoassay for the determination of PSP toxins, the authors have used extracts of shellfish gathered from Maine and Connecticut to compare the results of the mouse bioassay and HPLC methods with the radioimmunoassay developed previously

  3. 50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eggs, unless otherwise specified. (4) You may not use explosives and chemicals, except that you may use...) Cook Inlet Area. (i) You may take shellfish for subsistence purposes only as allowed in this section (k...

  4. 36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from buying or selling subsistence-taken shellfish, their parts, or their eggs, unless otherwise... currently identified under Federal subsistence management jurisdiction. (3) Cook Inlet Area. (i) You may...

  5. Surveillance of Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Shellfish in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenyang Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV has been confirmed to be a zoonotic virus of worldwide distribution. HEV contamination in the water environment has not been well examined in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate HEV contamination in shellfish in a coastal area of China. Such contamination would be significant for evaluating public health risks. Methods: samples of three species shellfish were collected from thirteen points of estuarine tidal flats around the Bohai Gulf and screened for HEV RNA using an in-house nested RT-PCR assay. The detected HEV-positive samples were further verified by gene cloning and sequencing analysis. Results: the overall HEV-positive detection rate is approximately 17.5% per kilogram of shellfish.  HEV was more common among S. subcrenata (28.2%, followed by A. granosa (14.3% and R. philippinarum (11.5%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 13 HEV strains detected revealed that gene fragments fell into two known 4 sub-genotypes (4b/4d groups and another unknown group. Conclusions: 13 different sub-genotype 4 HEVs were found in contaminated shellfish in the Bohai Gulf rim. The findings suggest that a health risk may exist for users of waters in the Bonhai area and to consumers of shellfish.  Further research is needed to assess the sources and infectivity of HEV in these settings, and to evaluate additional shellfish harvesting areas.

  6. [Cross reactivity between fish and shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Borrego, J; Martínez Cuevas, J F; Tejero García, J

    2003-01-01

    In Spain, fish allergy represents 18 % of all cases of food allergy in children while reactions caused by crustacea and mollusks account for 3.8 % and 1.6 % respectively. Cross-reactivity is defined as the recognition of distinct antigens by the same IgE antibody, demonstrable by in vivo and in vitro tests, which clinically manifests as reactions caused by antigens homologous to different species. Subclinical sensitization can also occur, giving rise to patients sensitized to particular fish or shellfish but who do not present symptoms on consumption.Cod and shrimp have been the models used to study allergy to fish and crustacea respectively. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are proteins that control calcium flow in the muscular sarcoplasm of these animals, called parvalbumins, with a molecular weight of approximately 12 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.75, resistant to the action of heat and enzymatic digestion. Recently, recombinant carp parvalbumin has been reproduced, confirming that this allergen contains 70 % of the IgE epitopes present in natural extract of cod, tuna and salmon, which makes it a valid tool in the diagnosis of patients with fish allergy. Moreover, this recombinant allergen could constitute the basis for the development of immunotherapy against food allergy. In the case of shellfish, a non-taxonomic group that includes crustacea and mollusks, the major allergen is tropomyosin, an essential protein in muscle contraction both in invertebrates and vertebrates. In invertebrates, tropomyosins, which have a molecular weight of between 38 and 41 kD, show great homology in their amino acid sequence and are the panallergens responsible for cross-reactions between crustacea, insects, mites, nematodes, and different classes of mollusks. It is estimated that 50 % of individuals allergic to some type of fish are at risk for reacting to a second species, while those allergic to some type of

  7. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, J.C.; Beghian, L.E.; Metcalf, T.G.; Kaylor, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is shown capable of serving as an effective sanitizing treatment improving the sanitary quality of shellfish and providing an increased margin of safety for shellfish consumers. 60Co irradiation of the hard-shelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, significantly reduced virus carriage numbers without unduly affecting shellfish survival rates or desirable organoleptic qualities. A D10 value of 2 kGy was determined for depletion of hepatitis A virus in clams and oysters as measured by in situ hybridization fluorescent foci and cytopathology enumeration methods. A D10 value of 2.4 kGy was determined for depletion of rotavirus SA11 in clams and oysters as measured by a plaque forming unit enumeration method. Study results showed ionizing radiation capable of providing an extra, highly effective safeguard of shellfish sanitary quality when combined with traditional depuration treatment. Data drawn from other studies is introduced which shows D10 values as low as 1.0 kGy effectively eliminate Vibrio cholerae, and V. parahemolyticus, from shellfish

  8. Shellfish Culture at the Milford Laboratory: hatchery production, stock enhancement and aquaculture research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide shellfish in support of Milford Lab efforts, external research projects and regional shellfish restoration. Conduct aquaculture experiments aimed at...

  9. Prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysakh Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala. Materials and Methods: The shellfish samples after processing was concentrated using proteinase K. RNA was isolated from the concentrated samples using phenol chloroform method. Rota viral RNA was detected using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Results: A low prevalence of 2.5% (5/200 was obtained during the study. Rotavirus was detected in 2 out of 60 brown mussels (3.33%, 2 out of 70 yellow clams (2.86% and 1 out of 70 black clams (1.43%. Conclusion: Low prevalence of Rotavirus was obtained in our study. A more extensive study need to be conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric virus in shellfish.

  10. Detection of hepatitis A in shellfish in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitouni, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Our study was aimed at developing a method of extraction and concentration of hepatitis A. We used two methods T1 and T2 described previously in the literature. 23 samples shellfish from different area of Tunisia were included in this study. Technique T2 based only on glycine revealed the highest yield. The reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction was performed in this study in order to investigate HAV in our samples. The results of molecular analyses of shellfish showed that 8.6% of the samples were contaminated. (Author)

  11. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  12. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, J S; Larsen, L E; Schultz, A C

    2014-09-01

    Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were tested for porcine pathogens and indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). All samples tested negative for HEV, RV and Salmonella, whereas E. coli and the highly stable porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected in eight and 12 samples, respectively. This is the first study to report the detection of PCV2 in commercial mussels. Based on the detection of PCV2 in clean areas with low prevalence of the normally applied fecal indicator E. coli, testing for PCV2 may be a more sensitive and robust specific porcine waste indicator in shellfish harvesting areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  14. Establishing a National Shellfish Sanitation Program in The Gambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanbi Wetlands and other estuaries of Gambia support shellfisheries for oysters, Crassostrea tulipa, and the senile ark, Senelia senilis, conducted by the TRY Oyster Women's ... Since August 2010, water was sampled bimonthly for total (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC) at stations near shellfish harvesting areas. Sanitary ...

  15. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Reguera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP, even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1. They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins, and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  16. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  17. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Lars Erik; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were...

  18. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  19. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  20. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  1. Consumer Attitude Towards Shellfish In The Greek Market: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. BATZIOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the Greek shellfish industry has experienced significant changes affecting both the market demand and the availability of the end products. Although, shellfish and seafood in general have been promoted as healthy food by marketing boards and private seafood companies in many countries all over the world, no attention has been paid so far to analysing the Greek consumer’s purchasing behaviour and attitudes towards the shellfish market. This paper presents the results of the first survey in this field of research, which was carried out in northern Greece (area of Katerini and Greater Thessaloniki from January to March 2002. A randomly selected sample of 400 consumers filled in a questionnaire, which covered basic marketing aspects of shellfish consumption such as choice, purchase, reasons for consuming shellfish, confidence in shellfish hygiene certification, media influence, etc. Data analysis includes descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square (― 2 tests (crosstabulation to examine possible relations between consumers’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics and shellfish marketing aspects. Analyses of the results have shown that the majority of Greek consumers prefer the exploitable to cultured shellfish and in general do not eat shellfish often. They prefer the traditional fish shops for purchasing shellfish and consume them mainly in summer. The strongest reason to buy shellfish is their taste, while freshness is considered as the most important criterion when deciding to buy shellfish. Moreover, the vast majority of the consumers prefer a certification of quality, trust the confirmation provided by the veterinary authorities, but do not prefer ready-to-eat shellfish. Results revealed that consumers’ behaviour and attitudes vary considerably according to their demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The results of this study could prove to be helpful for decision makers towards a more rational

  2. Native Shellfish in Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    California Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). California Fish and Game 63:43-51. Griffin, K. 1997. Commercial oyster cultivation and eelgrass...A.M. 2007. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-06. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of...non-native Pacific oyster, but more than $40 million is from native crabs , clams, and mussels. Recreationally, personal harvest of shellfish is a

  3. Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nádia S; Cruz, Marco G N; Gomes, Maria Teresa S R; Rudnitskaya, Alisa

    2018-05-01

    Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins have been developed. Four toxins typically encountered in Portuguese waters, namely saxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, gonyautoxin GTX5 and C1&C2, were selected for the study. A series of miniaturized sensors with solid inner contact and plasticized polyvinylchloride membranes containing ionophores, nine compositions in total, were prepared and their characteristics evaluated. Sensors displayed cross-sensitivity to four studied toxins, i.e. response to several toxins together with low selectivity. High selectivity towards paralytic shellfish toxins was observed in the presence of inorganic cations with selectivity coefficients ranging from 0.04 to 0.001 for Na + and K + and 3.6*10 -4 to 3.4*10 -5 for Ca 2+ . Detection limits were in the range from 0.25 to 0.9 μmolL -1 for saxitoxin and decarbamoyl saxitoxin, and from 0.08 to 1.8 μmolL -1 for GTX5 and C1&C2, which allows toxin detection at the concentration levels corresponding to the legal limits. Characteristics of the developed sensors allow their use in the electronic tongue multisensor system for simultaneous quantification of paralytic shellfish toxins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating shellfish gathering ( Lucina pectinata) in a tropical mangrove system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, S. F.; Barros, F.

    2010-10-01

    Fish resources are important sources of income and protein to traditional inhabitants of coastal zones. In Garapuá village, the shellfish Lucina pectinata is the main resource exploited in mangroves. This study tests whether if in less explored areas (far from the village) L. pectinata individuals have higher densities and greater lengths, and if there was a decrease in cpue's over the last years. Samples were taken monthly in two habitats (mangrove channels and mangrove roots) in six mangrove areas by random squares. The results indicated that closer areas showed significantly lower densities than areas far from the village. Densities were significantly higher in mangrove roots (quizangas) than at channels. There was a significant increase in monthly L. pectinata cpue, from 18.2 dz./shellfish gatherers/day in 2001 to 19.3 in 2007, showing that this stock does not seem to be overexploited. However, (i) a long-term monitoring of Garapuá shellfish gatherers to evaluate if the stock will support an increasing pressure and (ii) several manipulative experiments to better understand ecological processes are suggested.

  5. VISION, STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR SHELLFISH FARMING DEVELOPMENT IN THE KRKA RIVER ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Maguš

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the vision, strategic guidelines/measures and the action plan for shellfish farming development in the Krka river estuary. They came as a result from several discussions that were held with shellfish farmers of the estuary area in year 2008 while writing the Integrated Plan for Shellfish Farming for Krka Estuary Area, which was realized in the framework of the Green Business Support Programme (UNDP COST Project — Conservation, and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Dalmatian Coast through Greening Coastal Development. For a short–term, a considerable impetus for the development of shellfish farming in the Krka river estuary could be the construction of common distribution and purification center, building of warehouse for shellfish farming equipment, and providing work space for the preparation of the equipment as well as the space for waste disposal; for a long–term it could be building of shellfish hatchery at the location of Martinska marine station.

  6. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20–300 ng/mL, incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.

  7. Does traditional shellfishing affect foraging by waders? The case of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Peste, Filipa; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-03-01

    Estuarine intertidal flats are often exploited by humans and waders since they provide food, particularly shellfish. This raises important conservation issues. Waders can be affected by shellfishing activities in multiple ways, such as a reduction of the available shellfish, disturbance by the presence of shellfishers on their feeding areas, and changes in micro-habitat, due to sediment reworking. In this study we quantified the impact of traditional shellfishing on waders in the Tagus estuary. Particular attention was given to hand-raking of clams Scrobicularia plana, which constitutes most of the consumed food by waders. Shellfishers did not cause a relevant depletion of clams for waders; they removed less than 0.3% of its total production and focused on size classes that were usually not taken by birds. Hand-raking caused temporary changes in the vertical distribution and availability of invertebrate prey in the sediment. However, this did not affect the bird's feeding rates, presumably because prey availability remained above the threshold at which intake rates are expected to decline. The presence of shellfishers in the birds foraging areas potentially affects waders by keeping them away from foraging areas, but even the most affected species lost less than 10% of their foraging grounds due to this factor. Overall, we conclude that the current low harvesting levels of shellfishing are compatible with the preservation of the estuary as a key site for waders. Nevertheless, simulations showed that traditional shellfishing could have much greater potential to affect waders through disturbance than through prey removal. The results for the Tagus show that even small harvest rates, representing a negligible loss of food for waders and potentially considered sustainable by shellfish managers, could have a great impact on waders due to increased disturbance. This effect of disturbance likely occurs in most estuaries and should be taken into consideration when planning

  8. Characterization of the NIST shellfish Standard Reference Material 4358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, S.; Inn, K.G.W.; Filliben, J.; Gaast van der, H.; Men, L.C.; Calmet, D.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Povinec, P.; Takata, Y.; Wisdom, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new shellfish Standard Reference Material 4358 was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology through an international interlaboratory comparison that involved twelve laboratories-participants from nine countries. The results from the participants were statistically evaluated, and the most robust certified values were based on the median of laboratories’ reported means and the uncertainties derived using the bootstrap method. Massic activity certified values were established for fourteen radionuclides, five activity ratios, and informational massic activity values for eight more radionuclides and two activity ratios. (author)

  9. Lipophilic Toxins in WA - Clear and present danger: monitoring and management of lipophilic shellfish toxins in Washington State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lipophilic shellfish toxins comprise an extensive suite of compounds including those associated with the human syndromes known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...

  10. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  11. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  12. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  13. International Standardisation of a Method for Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses in Molluscan Shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, David; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The viruses primarily associated with shellfish-borne illness are norovirus, causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Recent years have seen a proliferation of publications on methods for detection of these viruses in shellfish using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, currently...

  14. Shellsim: A Generic Model of Growth and Environmental Effects Validated Across Contrasting Habitats in Bivalve Shellfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, A.; Pascoe, P.L.; Parry, H.; Brinsley, M.; Black, K.; McGonigle, C.; Smaal, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous shellfish models have, in general, been calibrated for 1 location, unable to simulate growth across habitats that contrast in seston abundance and composition, as may vary between turbid, eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. Here, we describe the generic shellfish model ShellSIM,

  15. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  16. Recent trends in paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound, relationships to climate, and capacity for prediction of toxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie K. Moore; Nathan J. Mantua; Barbara M. Hickey; Vera L. Trainer

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial trends in paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in Puget Sound shellfish and their relationships with climate are investigated using long-term monitoring data since 1957. Data are selected for trend analyses based on the sensitivity of shellfish species to PSTs and their depuration rates, and the frequency of sample collection at individual sites....

  17. Selective accumulation may account for shellfish-associated viral illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W; Calci, K R

    2000-04-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F(+) coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F(+) coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters.

  18. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  19. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  20. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  1. Surveillance of hepatitis A and E viruses contamination in shellfish in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsai, A; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Wongchinda, N; Siripanyaphinyo, U; Virulhakul, P; Puthavathana, P; Myint, K S; Gannarong, M; Ittapong, R

    2011-12-01

    To survey for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) contamination in edible bivalve shellfish. A total of 213 shellfish (52 oysters, 69 cockles and 92 mussels) collected from a culture farm and two retailed markets were investigated for HAV and HEV contamination by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using HA2-HA1 (capsid region) and HE366-HE363 (ORF2/3 overlapping region) primers, respectively. It was found that 3.8% of the shellfish and 2.9 and 6.5% of the cockle and mussel, respectively, showed positive for HAV detection. Nucleotide sequencing of all the 8 HAV-positive shellfish revealed 97-100% similarity to HAV subgenotype IA. Interestingly, viruses were found more frequently in the gills than in digestive tissue (4.5%vs 0.5%, P = 0.045). All the shellfish were negative for HEV. Significant contamination of HAV in edible bivalve shellfish was observed. Beside digestive tissue, gills are one of the important samples for viral genome detection. HAV-contaminated shellfish can play a role as reservoirs and/or vehicles in faecal-oral transmission in Thailand, and further monitoring of such a contamination is required. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Risk assessment of alien species found in and around the oyster basins of Yerseke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Cuperus, J.; Weide, van der B.E.

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the Office of Research and Risk Assessments (BuRO) of the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safey Authority (NVWA), IMARES conducted a species inventory in the Oyster basins in Yerseke and the surrounding area in the Eastern Scheldt, known to be subject to shellfish related

  3. Sensory and Physical Assessment of Microbiologically Safe Culinary Processes for Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, Renee Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Numerous food-borne illnesses are associated with fish and shellfish annually due to consumers choosing to eat seafood raw or undercooked and consumers not properly handling and preparing seafood. The 2009 FDA Food Code suggests intact fish and shellfish should be cooked to an internal temperature of 63°C to target Salmonella spp. Selected fish and shellfish were cooked to 64°C ± 1 and 74°C ± 1 and evaluated for consumer acceptability, characteristics of doneness at temperature endpoints...

  4. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  5. Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, George J.

    This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

  6. Effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on benthic communities and sediment chemistry 2009-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on the ecology of biological communities and chemistry of benthic sediments were investigated through a series of...

  7. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  8. Assessment of Current Guidelines for Culinary Preparation Methods of Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kostal, Jeri Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Consumers regularly decide to consume fish and shellfish raw or undercooked, which can cause foodborne illness due to product contamination or unsafe handling by the consumer.  In order to be considered safe for consumption, intact fish and shellfish should be prepared to an internal temperature of 63"C, according to the 2009 FDA Food Code, with Salmonella spp. as the target organism.  Focus groups (5 groups, 32 participants) were conducted to determine consumer beliefs and concerns regarding...

  9. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  10. Recent innovation in microbial source tracking using bacterial real-time PCR markers in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauffret, A.; Mieszkin, S.; Morizur, M.; Alfiansah, Y.; Lozach, S.; Gourmelon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DNA extraction from intravalvular liquid is promising for microbial source tracking in oysters. ► Host-associated bacterial markers in shellfish digestive tissues were difficult to assess with real-time PCR. ► DNA extracts from shellfish flesh appeared to have low inhibitor levels but low marker levels. ► Protocol transfer from one shellfish species to another does not appear possible. -- Abstract: We assessed the capacity of real-time PCR markers to identify the origin of contamination in shellfish. Oyster, cockles or clams were either contaminated with fecal materials and host-associated markers designed from Bacteroidales or Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S RNA genes were extracted from their intravalvular liquid, digestive tissues or shellfish flesh. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the oyster intravalvular liquid with FastDNA spin kit for soil enabled the selected markers to be quantified in 100% of artificially contaminated samples, and the source of contamination to be identified in 13 out of 38 naturally contaminated batches from European Class B and Class C areas. However, this protocol did not enable the origin of the contamination to be identified in cockle or clam samples. Although results are promising for extracts from intravalvular liquid in oyster, it is unlikely that a single protocol could be the best across all bacterial markers and types of shellfish

  11. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  12. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  13. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238 U ( 226 Ra), 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 40 K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg −1 . The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg −1 for 238 U ( 226 Ra), 0.16 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 18 Bq kg −1 for 40 K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg −1 , 0.16 Bq kg −1 and 23 Bq kg −1 . Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226 Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228 Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40 K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values. - Highlights: ► Activity concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides were assessed for shellfish. ► 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K intake via shellfish showed several times higher than world averages. ► Committed effective doses due to the ingestions of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K are the first report in Malaysia. ► Estimated committed effective dose also showed higher values than the world average

  14. Disease Resistant Fish and Shellfish Are within Reach: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Gjedrem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease in fish and shellfish is one of the main problems facing aquaculture production. Therefore, all attempts should be made to increase the rate of survival and, thus, reduce economic losses. Much has been done to develop vaccines and medical treatments to reduce mortality; and however, farming of aquatic species has a long way to go to optimize the environmental conditions for the animals and, thus, reduce stress and improve animal welfare. However, the good news is that there is the potential to increase disease resistance by selective breeding. By challenge-testing fingerlings from a number of families per generation, and including the rate of survival in the breeding goal, the results so far are very promising. By focusing on one disease at a time it is possible to increase the rate of survival by at least 12.5% per generation for most diseases studied. Unfortunately, selective breeding is only used to a small degree in aquatic species. In 2010, it was estimated that only 8.2% of aquaculture production was based on genetically improved stocks.

  15. A model for estimating pathogen variability in shellfish and predicting minimum depuration times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenemy, Paul; Kleczkowski, Adam; Lees, David N; Lowther, James; Taylor, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with shellfish consumption being identified as one potential norovirus entry point into the human population. Minimising shellfish norovirus levels is therefore important for both the consumer's protection and the shellfish industry's reputation. One method used to reduce microbiological risks in shellfish is depuration; however, this process also presents additional costs to industry. Providing a mechanism to estimate norovirus levels during depuration would therefore be useful to stakeholders. This paper presents a mathematical model of the depuration process and its impact on norovirus levels found in shellfish. Two fundamental stages of norovirus depuration are considered: (i) the initial distribution of norovirus loads within a shellfish population and (ii) the way in which the initial norovirus loads evolve during depuration. Realistic assumptions are made about the dynamics of norovirus during depuration, and mathematical descriptions of both stages are derived and combined into a single model. Parameters to describe the depuration effect and norovirus load values are derived from existing norovirus data obtained from U.K. harvest sites. However, obtaining population estimates of norovirus variability is time-consuming and expensive; this model addresses the issue by assuming a 'worst case scenario' for variability of pathogens, which is independent of mean pathogen levels. The model is then used to predict minimum depuration times required to achieve norovirus levels which fall within possible risk management levels, as well as predictions of minimum depuration times for other water-borne pathogens found in shellfish. Times for Escherichia coli predicted by the model all fall within the minimum 42 hours required for class B harvest sites, whereas minimum depuration times for norovirus and FRNA+ bacteriophage are substantially longer. Thus this study provides relevant information and tools to assist

  16. Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risks due to shellfish consumption; Epidemiologie des risques toxiques et infectieux lies a la consommation de coquillages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desenclos, J C

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are resent in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plankton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are concentrated. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh. This surveillance allows the classification o growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved surveillance, the development of more sensitive indicators, the responsibleness of the industry and the information of the public on the health hazards associated with shellfish consumption are the key issues for the improvement of shellfish-borne disease prevention. (author) 106 refs.

  17. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  18. Forecasting the Human Pathogen Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Tissue within Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, M. M.; DeRosia-Banick, K.

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium that occurs naturally in brackish and saltwater environments and may be found in higher concentrations in the warmest months. Vp is a growing threat to producing safe seafood. Consumption of shellfish with high Vp levels can result in gastrointestinal human illnesses. Management response to Vp-related illness outbreaks includes closure of shellfish growing areas. Water quality observations, Vp measurements, and model forecasts are key components to effective management of shellfish growing areas. There is a clear need for observations within the growing area themselves. These areas are offshore of coastal stations and typically inshore of the observing system moorings. New field observations in Long Island Sound (LIS) shellfish growing areas are described and their agreement with high-resolution satellite sea surface temperature data is discussed. A new dataset of Vp concentrations in shellfish tissue is used to determine the LIS-specific Vp vs. temperature relationship following methods in the FDA pre-harvest Vp risk model. This information is combined with output from a high-resolution hydrodynamic model of LIS to make daily forecasts of Vp levels. The influence of river inflows, the role of heat waves, and predictions for future warmer climates are discussed. The key elements of this observational-modeling approach to pathogen forecasting are extendable to other coastal systems.

  19. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science.

  20. Crab and shellfish occurrences in the newly-grown mangrove habitats in southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeesin, P.; Bautip, S.; Chesoh, S.

    2018-04-01

    Mangrove crabs and shellfish populating in Prince of Songkla University’s new grown mangrove forest were investigated from January 2011 to December 2011 and then repeated annually. A total of 12 species under 6 families of crab and 11 species under 5 families of shellfish were recorded. The most abundant family of crab was Sesarmidae (64.18 %), followed by Ocypodidae, Varunidae, Macrophthalmidae, Portunidae and Dotillidae. Episesarma mederi ( H. Milne Edwards, 1853) showed highest dominant species. In addition, the most dominant family of shellfish was Potamididae (13.79 %), followed by Melampidae, Assimineidae, Onchidiidae and Littorinidae. Sea snail (Cerithidae quadrata; Sowerby, 1866) presented the most dominant coastal mollusc species. Abundance and diversification crabs and mollusks show important component of food web of this type ecosystem. However, only trapped hold samples during low tide were collected but this preliminary finding enables reasonable specified regulation measures.

  1. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  2. Warm temperature acclimation impacts metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in commercial oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Seebacher, Frank; O'Connor, Wayne; Zammit, Anthony; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna

    2015-09-01

    Species of Alexandrium produce potent neurotoxins termed paralytic shellfish toxins and are expanding their ranges worldwide, concurrent with increases in sea surface temperature. The metabolism of molluscs is temperature dependent, and increases in ocean temperature may influence both the abundance and distribution of Alexandrium and the dynamics of toxin uptake and depuration in shellfish. Here, we conducted a large-scale study of the effect of temperature on the uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in three commercial oysters (Saccostrea glomerata and diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas, n = 252 per species/ploidy level). Oysters were acclimated to two constant temperatures, reflecting current and predicted climate scenarios (22 and 27 °C), and fed a diet including the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing species Alexandrium minutum. While the oysters fed on A. minutum in similar quantities, concentrations of the toxin analogue GTX1,4 were significantly lower in warm-acclimated S. glomerata and diploid C. gigas after 12 days. Following exposure to A. minutum, toxicity of triploid C. gigas was not affected by temperature. Generally, detoxification rates were reduced in warm-acclimated oysters. The routine metabolism of the oysters was not affected by the toxins, but a significant effect was found at a cellular level in diploid C. gigas. The increasing incidences of Alexandrium blooms worldwide are a challenge for shellfish food safety regulation. Our findings indicate that rising ocean temperatures may reduce paralytic shellfish toxin accumulation in two of the three oyster types; however, they may persist for longer periods in oyster tissue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  4. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

  5. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation. Progress report No. 1, October 1, 1985-July 25, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-01-01

    Objective is to investigate the feasibility of employing food irradiation technology to reduce or eliminate the threat of viral diseases contracted as a result of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish. Several recently published studies warn of the health risks associated with eating of raw shellfish - particularly American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and the hardshelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. This study addresses the possibility of reducing the incidence of molluscanborne diseases through the application of 60 Co gamma irradiation processing to effect the inactivation of pathogenic viruses in live, raw shwllfish. Dosimetry, D 10 doses, and organoleptic effects were studied

  6. Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Juan, Edith M

    2000-04-01

    Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins, obtained from Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in shellstocks of green mussels, was determined by subjecting the semi-purified toxin extract as well as the shellstocks of green mussels to high doses of ionizing radiation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The concentration of the PSP toxins was determined by the Standard Mouse Bioassay (SMB) method. The radiation assistance of the toxins was determined by plotting the PSP toxin concentration versus applied dose in a semilog paper. The D{sub 10} value or decimal reduction dose was obtained from the straight line which is the dose required to reduce the toxicity level by 90%. The effects of irradiation on the quality of green mussels in terms of its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were also conducted. The effect of irradiation on the fatty acid components of green mussels was determined by gas chromatography. Radiation resistance of the PSP toxins was determined to be lower in samples with initially high toxicity level as compared with samples with initially low toxicity level. The D{sub 10} values of samples with initially high PSP level were 28.5 kGy in shellstocks of green musssels and 17.5 kGy in the semi-purified toxin extract. When the PSP level was low initially, the D{sub 10} values were as high as 57.5 and 43.5 kGy in shellstocks of green mussels for the two trials, and 43.0 kGy in semi-purified toxin extract. The microbial load of the irradiated mussels was remarkably reduced. No differnce in color and odor characteristics were observed in the mussel samples subjected to varying doses of ionizing radiation. There was darkening in the color of mussel meat and its juice. The concentration of the fatty acid components in the fresh green mussels were considerably higher as compared with those present in the irradiated mussels, though some volatile fatty acids were detected as a result of irradiation. (Author)

  7. Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, Edith M.

    2000-04-01

    Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins, obtained from Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in shellstocks of green mussels, was determined by subjecting the semi-purified toxin extract as well as the shellstocks of green mussels to high doses of ionizing radiation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The concentration of the PSP toxins was determined by the Standard Mouse Bioassay (SMB) method. The radiation assistance of the toxins was determined by plotting the PSP toxin concentration versus applied dose in a semilog paper. The D 10 value or decimal reduction dose was obtained from the straight line which is the dose required to reduce the toxicity level by 90%. The effects of irradiation on the quality of green mussels in terms of its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were also conducted. The effect of irradiation on the fatty acid components of green mussels was determined by gas chromatography. Radiation resistance of the PSP toxins was determined to be lower in samples with initially high toxicity level as compared with samples with initially low toxicity level. The D 10 values of samples with initially high PSP level were 28.5 kGy in shellstocks of green musssels and 17.5 kGy in the semi-purified toxin extract. When the PSP level was low initially, the D 10 values were as high as 57.5 and 43.5 kGy in shellstocks of green mussels for the two trials, and 43.0 kGy in semi-purified toxin extract. The microbial load of the irradiated mussels was remarkably reduced. No differnce in color and odor characteristics were observed in the mussel samples subjected to varying doses of ionizing radiation. There was darkening in the color of mussel meat and its juice. The concentration of the fatty acid components in the fresh green mussels were considerably higher as compared with those present in the irradiated mussels, though some volatile fatty acids were detected as a result of irradiation. (Author)

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns of paralytic shellfish toxins and their relationships with environmental variables in British Columbia, Canada from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, Stephen; Krstic, Nikolas; McIntyre, Lorraine; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Henderson, Sarah B

    2017-07-01

    Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables. The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produces the most potent paralytic shellfish toxin, saxitoxin (STX). Data on all STX measurements were obtained from 49 different shellfish monitoring sites along the coast of British Columbia for 2002-2012, and monthly toxicity events were identified. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis to group sites that had events in similar areas with similar timing. Machine learning techniques were used to model the complex relationships between toxicity events and environmental variables in each group. The Strait of Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver Island had unique toxicity regimes. Out of the seven environmental variables used, toxicity in each cluster could be described by multivariable models including monthly sea surface temperature, air temperature, sea surface salinity, freshwater discharge, upwelling, and photosynthetically active radiation. The sea surface salinity and freshwater discharge variables produced the strongest univariate models for both geographic areas. Applying these methods in coastal regions could allow for the prediction of shellfish toxicity events by environmental conditions. This has the potential to optimize biotoxin monitoring, improve public health surveillance, and engage the shellfish industry in helping to reduce the risk of PSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-09

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  10. The first closure of shellfish harvesting due to domoic acid in Puget ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the early 1990s, blooms containing multiple. Pseudo-nitzschia species have been observed in Puget Sound and low levels of DA have been detected in shellfish, but highly toxic, nearly monospecific blooms had not been observed. We speculate that a more toxic 'oceanic' strain may recently have been advected from ...

  11. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated shellfish and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Linke, B.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A multilateral study on common shrimps, Norway lobster and paprika powder. The use of ESR spectroscopy in shellfish and some types of spice for the detection of previous irradiation is possible even on a routine basis. The radicals producing the specific ESR signals observed could at least in part be identified (CO 2 radicals in shellfish, cellulose radicals in paprica) and the overall rate of correct classifications was seen to be very high for this multicentre study. The multicentre study has further been able to prove that previous reservations about ESR as a method of detection are no longer justified. The authors hold that there is no reason in principle why ESR should not be on the list of officially recommended methods for the examination of shellfish and spices according to paragraph35 LMBG. Nevertheless, the two groups of food at issue here need to be investigated in more detail in a number of further research projects, some of which are mentioned in the following: -investigations on further species of shellfish so as to obtain a broad range of spectra for routine controls; - structural identification of radiation-specific radicals generated in addition to the CO 2 radical; - investigations into the influences of origin, time of fishing and stage of development on the ESR spectra of fishes; - examinations of further spices; - elucidation of links between cellulose contents and radical concentration. (orig./vhe) [de

  12. 77 FR 36260 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Project AGENCY: National Oceanic..., as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be submitted on or... for a new collection of information. The Puget Sound estuary provides one of the most valuable...

  13. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  14. 76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    .... vulnificus control plan; 11. In conjunction with FDA, conduct of retail and processing plant product sampling... levels of Vibrios; and; 12. In conjunction with FDA, conduct of a retail shellfish study to look at the...; funding support to research the influence of water and air temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients on...

  15. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Heide, van der T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g. seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associated communities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy

  16. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; van der Heide, T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; van der Reijden, K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g.seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associatedcommunities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy of

  17. Biodiversity and food web indicators of community recovery in intertidal shellfish reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; van der Heide, T.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; van der Reijden, K.J.; Borst, A.C.W.; Olff, H.

    In conservation strategies of marine ecosystems, priority is given to habitat-structuring foundation species (e.g. seagrasses, mangroves and reef-building corals, shellfish) with the implicit goal to protect or restore associated communities and their interactions. However, the number and accuracy

  18. Detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by nested reverse transcription-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, L.; Medici, de D.; Morace, G.; Fiore, A.; Scalfaro, C.; Beneduce, F.; Toti, L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the detection of HAV in shellfish, based on the use of guanidinium isothiocyanate-contg. soln. for RNA extn. and purifn. steps, followed by nested PCR, is hereby proposed. Tests were carried out on mollusc samples spiked with HAV strain FG. Results showed that in samples subjected only

  19. Communicating Environmental Risks: Local Newspaper Coverage of Shellfish Bacterial Contamination in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Suldovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal resources play a vital role in Maine’s cultural and economic wellbeing, contributing an estimated 168 billion dollars to the Maine economy. There are numerous risks to the sustainability of Maine’s shellfishing industry and working waterfront, including pathogenic bacterial pollution. In this study, we ask a broad fundamental question central to science and environmental journalism: how do newspapers cover localized environmental risks and what are the implications of those approaches? Utilizing the northeastern US state of Maine’s shellfishing industry as an exemplar environmental issue, this study examines how Maine’s two most read newspapers, the Bangor Daily News and the Portland Press Herald, report on bacterial contamination and shellfish. This study examines the themes that are present in the newspaper articles published about shellfish between 2003 and 2014 and analyses the types of sources journalists used within their coverage of these issues. Overall, we identified seven key themes: economic concerns, environmental impacts, political and regulatory issues, issues of public health and safety, reference to cultural values, technical and infrastructural issues, and aesthetic concerns. The most commonly cited individuals in the articles were government officials and scientists. The least cited groups were clammers and shellfishermen, general citizens, advocacy groups, and worm diggers. Implications for local coverage of environmental risks in Maine, science communication, and sustainability science are discussed.

  20. Stable isotope database - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Fish and Shellfish Surveys (F123) Data (1948-1992) (NODC Accession 0014195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data from field sampling of marine fish and shellfish. The data derive from analyses of midwater or bottom tow catches and provide...

  2. Oil spill off the coast of Guimaras Island, Philippines: Distributions and changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Añasco, Nathaniel C; Iwai, Takenori; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-11-30

    The sinking of the Solar 1 tanker caused serious heavy oil pollution around Guimaras Island, Philippines. In the present study, variations of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs (alkPAHs) in some shellfish were investigated around Guimaras Island and other small islands from 3months to 5years after the spill. The total PAHs and alkPAHs in shellfish were detected in high concentrations at 448 and 33,666ng/g dry weight, respectively, in November 2006. The concentrations of alkPAHs gradually decreased, while the parent PAHs in shellfish degraded more slowly than the alkPAHs, which was likely due to the persistent characteristics of PAHs. The risks based on European Union regulations were insignificant in 2008, but total PAHs in shellfish were still over 8 times higher at the investigated sites in November 2011 than that before the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Critical Review on the Public Health Impact of Norovirus Contamination in Shellfish and the Environment: A UK Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Francis; Sharp, Jasmine H; Taft, Helen; LeVay, Lewis; Harris, John P; McDonald, James E; Tuson, Karen; Wilson, James; Jones, David L; Malham, Shelagh K

    2017-06-01

    We review the risk of norovirus (NoV) infection to the human population from consumption of contaminated shellfish. From a UK perspective, risk is apportioned for different vectors of NoV infection within the population. NoV spreads mainly by person-to-person contact or via unsanitary food handling. NoV also enters the coastal zone via wastewater discharges resulting in contamination of shellfish waters. Typically, NoV persists in the marine environment for several days, with its presence strongly linked to human population density, wastewater discharge rate, and efficacy of wastewater treatment. Shellfish bioaccumulate NoV and current post-harvest depuration is inefficient in its removal. While NoV can be inactivated by cooking (e.g. mussels), consumption of contaminated raw shellfish (e.g. oysters) represents a risk to human health. Consumption of contaminated food accounts for 3-11% of NoV cases in the UK (~74,000 cases/year), of which 16% are attributable to oyster consumption (11,800 cases/year). However, environmental and human factors influencing NoV infectivity remain poorly understood. Lack of standard methods for accurate quantification of infective and non-infective (damaged) NoV particles represent a major barrier, hampering identification of an appropriate lower NoV contamination limit for shellfish. Future management strategies may include shellfish quality assessment (at point of harvest or at point of supply) or harvesting controls. However, poor understanding of NoV inactivation in shellfish and the environment currently limits accurate apportionment and risk assessment for NoV and hence the identification of appropriate shellfish or environmental quality standards.

  4. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.; Astrup, J.; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  5. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were sign...

  6. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E; Astrup, J; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  7. Paralytic shellfish poison algal biotoxins: Sardinia report 2002-2011 and non-compliance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppa Lorenzoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several microalgae of the genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenelle can produce an algal biotoxin, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP that can be accumulated in the shellfish edible tissues making them hazardous to the consumer’s health. In this paper we report i the results of PSP toxins survey carried out by mouse bioassays (mouse test AOAC 958.08 on 7457 samples of bivalve molluscs farmed in Sardinia and in other European countries and marketed in Sardinia region from 2002 to 2011, and ii the management of positive cases. Based on our experience it is very important to strictly apply the planned activities in order to prevent any risk and to protect the consumer’s and producer’s health.

  8. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John F.; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  9. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed....... importance because of the increased use of chemical methods instead of mouse bioassay for the detection of DSP toxicity....

  10. Modeling of Faecal Contamination in Water from Catchment to Shellfish Growing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Perenne, Nicolas; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique

    2009-01-01

    During rainstorms, watersheds can introduce large amounts of faecal pollution into the rivers and sea, leading to shellfish contamination. In this study, we assessed Escherichia coli fluxes from a catchment, and their impact on estuarine water quality, using two assembled models. For the catchment, the agro-hydrological model SWAT was implemented integrating land uses, soil, topography, rainfall and other climatic data on Daoulas watershed (France). Initially, the SWAT model was calibrated an...

  11. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-01-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently ...

  12. Microplastics in the context of regulation of commercial shellfish aquaculture operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Rosalind A; DeNike, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Shellfish aquaculture in the Salish Sea (encompassing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, and the Georgia Strait) is a major source of clams, oysters, and mussels in the United States and Canada. Plastic gear is necessary for the viability of many of these operations. During the past few years, shellfish farm permits issued in Washington State have been challenged on various bases that have included allegations that the plastic gear is releasing microplastics, commonly defined as particles less than 5 mm in diameter. Published survey data on sources of marine plastic debris demonstrate the very limited contribution of aquaculture gear. Both permits and industry codes of practice provide procedures to minimize loss of gear to the marine environment. Plastic gear is also designed specifically to maintain its integrity and not degrade in the marine environment. Plastic degradation is greatest on beaches with high UV exposure, whereas aquaculture gear is mostly underwater and/or covered by biofoulants. Available data for microplastics in water, sediment, and biota of the Salish Sea do not suggest significant release of microplastics from shellfish aquaculture operations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:522-527. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  14. Time-series prediction of shellfish farm closure: A comparison of alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish farms are closed for harvest when microbial pollutants are present. Such pollutants are typically present in rainfall runoff from various land uses in catchments. Experts currently use a number of observable parameters (river flow, rainfall, salinity as proxies to determine when to close farms. We have proposed using the short term historical rainfall data as a time-series prediction problem where we aim to predict the closure of shellfish farms based only on rainfall. Time-series event prediction consists of two steps: (i feature extraction, and (ii prediction. A number of data mining challenges exist for these scenarios: (i which feature extraction method best captures the rainfall pattern over successive days that leads to opening or closure of the farms?, (ii The farm closure events occur infrequently and this leads to a class imbalance problem; the question is what is the best way to deal with this problem? In this paper we have analysed and compared different combinations of balancing methods (under-sampling and over-sampling, feature extraction methods (cluster profile, curve fitting, Fourier Transform, Piecewise Aggregate Approximation, and Wavelet Transform and learning algorithms (neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, and Bayesian Network to predict closure events accurately considering the above data mining challenges. We have identified the best combination of techniques to accurately predict shellfish farm closure from rainfall, given the above data mining challenges.

  15. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Rapid, Early Warning Approaches to Track Shellfish Toxins Associated with Dinophysis and Alexandrium Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa K. Hattenrath-Lehmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP, respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2. Multiple species of wild shellfish were also collected during Dinophysis blooms and used to compare toxin content using two different extraction techniques (single dispersive and double exhaustive and two different toxin analysis assays (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP2A for the measurement of DSP toxins. DSP toxins measured in the HP20 resin were significantly correlated (R2 = 0.7–0.9, p < 0.001 with total DSP toxins in shellfish, but were detected more than three weeks prior to detection in deployed mussels. Both resins adsorbed measurable levels of PSP toxins, but neither quantitatively tracked Alexandrium cell densities, toxicity in plankton or toxins in shellfish. DSP extraction and toxin analysis methods did not differ significantly (p > 0.05, were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98–0.99; p < 0.001 and provided complete recovery of DSP toxins from standard reference materials. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa were found to accumulate DSP toxins above federal and international standards (160 ng g−1 during Dinophysis blooms while Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and soft shell clams (Mya

  17. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  18. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Beneficial of Coriander Leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) to Reduce Heavy Metals Contamination in Rod Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarti, S.; Pertiwi, C. N.; Hanani, A. Z.; Mujamil, S. I.; Putra, K. A.; Herlambang, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in certain levels of food can disrupt human health. Heavy metals have toxic properties, cannot be overhauled or destroyed by living organisms, can accumulate in the body of organisms including humans, either directly or indirectly. Heavy metal Hg, Cd, Cr is a very toxic metals (can result in death or health problems that are not recovered in a short time), while heavy metal Co, Pb, Cu toxicity is moderate (can lead to both recoverable and non-recoverable health problems in a relatively long time). Hence the heavy metal contaminating the food must be eliminated or reduced to a safe level. One effort was use coriander leaves to reduce the contamination of heavy metals in fish/shellfish. The objective of the research was to prove the extract of coriander leaves can reduce heavy metal contamination of Pb, Hg and Cu in rod shellfish (lorjuk). The treatment of this research was long soaking in coriander leaves extract that were 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The results showed that the longer time of soaking can decrease Pb level from 4.4 ± 0.424 ppb to 1.7 ± 0.5 ppb, Hg level from 4.11± 0.07 to 1.12± 0.6 ppb, and Cu level from 433.7 ± 0.1 ppb to 117 ± 0.78 ppb. Protein content not significant decrease in rod shellfish (lorjuk) after 90 minutes soaking time, that was from 28.56 ± 0.403% to 26,625 ± 0.19%.

  20. Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui; Costa, Pedro Reis

    2014-01-01

    Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1+2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses' excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  2. Sterol composition of shellfish species commonly consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Phillips

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shellfish can be a component of a healthy diet due to a low fat and high protein content, but the cholesterol content of some species is often cited as a reason to limit their consumption. Data on levels of non-cholesterol sterols in commonly consumed species are lacking. Objective: Shellfish were sampled and analyzed to update sterol data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Design: Using a nationwide sampling plan, raw shrimp and sea scallops, canned clams, and steamed oysters, blue crab, and lobster were sampled from 12 statistically selected supermarkets across the United States in 2007-08. For each species, four composites were analyzed, each comprised of samples from three locations; shrimp and scallops from six single locations were also analyzed separately. Using validated analytical methodology, 14 sterols were determined in total lipid extracts after saponification and derivatization to trimethylsilyethers, using gas chromatography for quantitation and mass spectrometry for confirmation of components. Results: Crab, lobster, and shrimp contained significant cholesterol (96.2–27 mg/100 g; scallops and clams had the lowest concentrations (23.4–30.1 mg/100 g. Variability in cholesterol among single-location samples of shrimp was low. The major sterols in the mollusks were brassicasterol (12.6–45.6 mg/100 g and 24-methylenecholesterol (16.7–41.9 mg/100 g, with the highest concentrations in oysters. Total non-cholesterol sterols were 46.5–75.6 mg/100 g in five single-location scallops samples, but 107 mg/100 g in the sixth, with cholesterol also higher in that sample. Other prominent non-cholesterol sterols in mollusks were 22-dehydrocholesterol, isofucosterol, clionasterol, campesterol, and 24-norcholesta-5,22-diene-3β-ol (4–21 mg/100 g. Conclusions: The presence of a wide range of sterols, including isomeric forms, in shellfish makes the analysis

  3. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  4. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these

  5. Variation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in shellfishes on the coast of Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes collected from the coast around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) from 1975 to 2005 were analyzed for environmental radiological monitoring. The measured concentrations of 238 Pu were under the detection limits and these concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu showed no significant short-term increase tendency. It was confirmed that 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes around the TRP were derived from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Also the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration was dependent on the shellfish species (bivalve and abalone). It was presumed that the different of feeding behavior of bivalve and abalone caused the difference of the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration. (author)

  6. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  7. LiveOcean: A Daily Forecast Model of Ocean Acidification for Shellfish Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCready, P.; Siedlecki, S. A.; McCabe, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The coastal estuaries of the NE Pacific host a highly productive shellfish industry, but in the past decade they have suffered from many years in which no natural set of oysters occurred. It appears that coastal waters with low Aragonite saturation state may be the cause. This "acidified" water is the result of (i) upwelling of NE Pacific water from near the shelf break that is already low in pH, and (ii) further acidification of that water by productivity and remineralization on the shelf, and (iii) increasing atmospheric CO2. As part of a coordinated research response to this issue, we have developed the LiveOcean modeling system, which creates daily three-day forecasts of circulation and biogeochemical properties in Oregon-Washington-British Columbia coastal and estuarine waters. The system includes realistic tides, atmospheric forcing (from a regional WRF model), ocean boundary conditions (from HYCOM), and rivers (from USGS and Environment Canada). The model is also used for Harmful Algal Bloom prediction. There has been extensive validation of hindcast runs for currents and hydrography, and more limited validation of biogeochemical variables. Model results are pushed daily to the cloud, and made available to the public through the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS). NVS also includes automated model-data comparisons with real-time NDBC and OOI moorings. Future work will focus on optimizing the utility of this system for regional shellfish growers.

  8. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  11. Apparent bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxins by finfish in Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J P; Jaja-Chimedza, A; Dávalos-Lind, L; Lind, O

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the well-characterized health threats associated with contamination of fish and shellfish by algal toxins in marine fisheries, the toxicological relevance of the bioaccumulation of toxins from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), as the primary toxigenic algae in freshwater systems, remains relatively unknown. Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico) is a small, tropical lake system specifically characterized by a year-round dominance of the known toxigenic cyanobacterial genus, Cylindrospermopsis, and by low, but detectable, levels of both a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). In the present study, we evaluated, using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), levels of both toxins in several species of finfish caught and consumed locally in the region to investigate the bioaccumulation of, and possible health threats associated with, these toxins as potential foodborne contaminants. ELISA detected levels of both CYN and PSTs in fish tissues from the lake. Levels were generally low (≤ 1 ng g(-1) tissue); however, calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) indicate that toxin levels exceed the rather low levels in the water column and, consequently, indicated bioaccumulation (BAF >1). A reasonable correlation was observed between measured bioaccumulation of CYN and PSTs, possibly indicating a mutual source of both toxins, and most likely cells of Cylindrospermopsis, the dominant cyanobacteria in the lake, and a known producer of both metabolites. The potential roles of trophic transport in the system, as well as possible implications for human health with regards to bioaccumulation, are discussed.

  12. Identification of Salmonella serovars isolated from live molluscan shellfish and their significance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; Hernandez-Cordova, Gustavo; Lozano, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar; Espinosa, Joaquin

    2003-02-01

    A study on the presence of Salmonella spp. in live molluscs was performed, which included a description of the different serovars isolated and their relationship to the marine environment. A total of 2,980 samples of shellfish from Galicia (N.W. Spain) were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. between September 1998 and August 2001. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 1.8% and showed a slight rise during the 3 years of the study. Mussels and oysters presented a higher incidence than clams and cockles, possibly because of their distinct growing habitat. A seasonal pattern was noted for the isolation of Salmonella spp.: 54% of the isolations were detected from September to November. That nearly 67% of the total Salmonella was isolated from shellfish with fecal coliform levels fecal coliforms do not necessarily indicate the absence of Salmonella. A total of nine serovars were found in the 54 Salmonella isolated. Salmonella Senftenberg was the most frequent (50%), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (18%) and Salmonella Agona (17%). Salmonella Senftenberg was detected frequently during the year, whereas the remaining serovars were detected only on occasional contamination events.

  13. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. 137Cs levels in fish and shellfish in the Filipino diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Enriquez, E.B.; Yulo-Nazarea, M.T.; Asada, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Among the artificially produced radionuclides, 137 Cs is considered the most significant contributor to radiation dose due to consumption of marine products. 137 Cs is present in the marine environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and nuclear accidents. 137 Cs was analyzed in predominant fisn and shellfish species in the Filipino diet and in seawater collected from major fishing grounds. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs in thirteen fish species which are commonly eaten by Filipinos was 0.53 ± 0.47 Bq kg -1 wet edible fraction (E.F.). In molluscs, the mean activity concentration measured was 0.24 ± 0.20 Bq kg -1 wet E.F. A similar value of 0.23 ± 0.12 Bq kg -1 was observed in crustaceans. A mean activity concentration of 4.76 ± 2.66 was observed in seawater which suggests approximate concentration factors of 100 for 137 Cs in fish and 40 for 137 Cs in shellfish. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies

  16. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, T.; Ezaki, T.; Moriguchi, J.; Fukui, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Ukai, H.; Sakurai, H.; Aoshima, K.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), α 1 -microglobulin (α 1 -MG), β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ≥ 4 μg/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 μg/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 μg/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in α 1 -MG and NAG (β 2 -MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake

  17. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

    2006-06-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  18. Estuarine shellfish

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mhamal, N.; Kavlekar, D

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.7_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.7_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  19. Identification of Mercury in Tembang Fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari Coastal Beach, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani Erlani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury was one of heavy metals that became pollutant. High level of mercury in aquatic environment could cause adverse effects on living organisms in that environment, even endanger human health in using the water and consuming the organism. This reasearch was a descriptive survey that was supported by laboratory test result in order to know mercury (Hg level in Tembang fish (Sardinella gibbosa and Shellfish (Marcia hiantina in Losari coastal beach, Makassar. The result of mercury examination at Center Health Laboratory Makasar was obtained that mercury levels in Tembang Fish were 0.0150 mg/kg, 0.0133 mg/kg and 0.0126 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Tembang fish was 0.0409 mg/kg. Meanwhile, based on examination results of mercury level in Shellfish at Center Health Laboratory, Makasar, were obtained 0.0228 mg/kg, 0.0266 mg/kg, and 0.1105 mg/kg. Thus, the average of mercury level in Shellfish was 0.1599 mg/kg. Moreover, mercury level in either Tembang fish or Shellfish in ​​Losari coastal beach Makassar had fulfilled the requirement based on SNI 7387/2009 regarding Maximum Limit of Heavy Metal of Mercury.

  20. Determinants of the consumption of fish and shellfish in Denmark: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    Consumers differ considerably in the degree to which they eat fish and shell-fish relative to other meat types. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) was used to explain intention to buy three specific sea-food categories ­ fish, frozen fish and shelled shrimps. The impact...

  1. PCDD and PCDF exposures among fishing community through intake of fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Nasir, Nurul Nadiah Mohamad; Shamsudin, Norashikin; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-07-21

    Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community. The risk of fish and shellfish consumption and exposure to PCDD/PCDF among fishermen living in coastal areas of the Straits were evaluated based on a cross-sectional study involving face to face interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and administration of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Skin examination was done by a dermatologist after the interview session. Determination of 17 congeners of PCDD/PCDF in 48 composite samples of fish and shellfish was performed based on HRGC/HRMS analysis. The total PCDD/PCDF in the seafood samples ranged from 0.12 to 1.24 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (4.6-21.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). No significant difference found for the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF between the same types of seafood samples obtained from the three different regions. The concentrations of the most potent congener, 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the seafood samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 pg WHO-TEQ/g FW (1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A positive moderate correlation was found between the fat contents and concentrations of PCDD/PCDF determined in the seafood samples. The total PCDD/PCDF in all seafood samples were below the 1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, with the exception of grey eel-catfish. The respondents had consumed fish and shellfish with the amounts ranging between 2.02 g and 44.06 g per person per day. The total PCDD/PCDF exposures through consumption of fish and shellfish among the respondents were between 0.01 and 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg BW/day. With regard to the two PCDD/PCDF-related skin diseases, no chloracne case was found among the respondents, but 2.2% of the respondents were diagnosed to have

  2. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  3. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  4. Radionuclides in shellfishes collected on and off the coast of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Minowa, Haruka; Satou, Yukihiko; Kojima, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    Huge amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and the sea by the disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, TEPCO. Some elements tend to concentrate in certain species by food chain in marline lives. We collected several species of shellfishes in the coast and offshore area of Fukushima Prefecture, and analysed them by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Japanese Grata Limpet, Japanese oyster, Common Blue Mussel, Arthritic Whelks, and Purple sea urchin was collected. The shells and bodies were dried up, and were measured with a high-pure Ge detector. The activity concentration (Bq/kg) was calculated by the activity divided by the raw weight. Certain amounts of radiocaesiums ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs) were detected in all of the bodies. And "1"1"0"mAg was detected in limpet, oyster, and whelks. The concentrations of the radionuclides were ranged from not-detectable level (∼ 0.1 Bq/kg) to 300 Bq/kg. Although oyster and mussel were collected at the same place, oyster included "1"1"0"mAg and mussel did not. While whelks and sea urchin was caught at the same offshore area, whelks had relative high "1"1"0"mAg and sea urchin did not. The ratios of "1"1"0"mAg to "1"3"7Cs were three to ten for limpet and whelks, and the ratios were different for each species. Some shellfishes were confirmed to concentrate "1"1"0"mAg in their bodies. Not only radiocaesiums but also radiosilver should be noticed to monitor fishes. (author)

  5. Screening and evaluation of local bacteria isolated from shellfish as potential probiotics against pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, M Y; Wagaman, Hazimah; Yin, Tan Ai; Ina-salwany, M Y; Daud, H M; Karim, Murni

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to isolate, screen and evaluate potential candidates of local bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and slipper cupped oysters Crassostrea iredalei as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. A total of 144 of bacteria were successfully isolated from the intestine and stomach of 20 tails of healthy adult tiger shrimp P. monodon, while 136 were successfully isolated from the digestive tract, gills and inner shells of 10 healthy adult C. iredalei. The number of potential isolates was narrowed down to two from tiger shrimp, and one from slipper cupped oyster after in vitro screening assays. The three isolates, labeled as G11, I24 and S66, were identified as Virgibacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and Exiquobacterium sp., respectively, using 16S rDNA gene analysis. The antagonistic ability of the isolates towards Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in stagnant and liquid modes via spot lawn and broth co-culture assay, respectively. In these assays, all the potential probionts were inhibitory to both pathogenic vibrios. In the in-vivo assay, Artemia was used as host and treated with different concentrations of potential probionts (10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1)), and challenged with V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi at 105 CFU ml(-1), respectively. Artemia treated with probiont G11 at all concentrations and challenged with V. alginolyticus had increased survival (70 ? 80 %), which was significantly higher as compared with group with only the pathogen (20 %). Meanwhile, probiont I24 increased the survival of Artemia by 70 % at a concentration of 10(8) CFU ml(-1) after being challenged with V. alginolyticus and Artemia treated with 10(6) CFU ml(-1) of probiont S66 had increased survival of 90% after being challenged with V. harveyi. Thus, the three isolates might have potential applications as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture against vibriosis. ?

  6. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods: A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of >1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion: This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized.

  7. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  8. Prevalence and characterization of Shiga Toxin-producing and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balière eCharlotte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study, the presence of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC was investigated in shellfish (n=238, seawater (n=12 and surface sediment (n=39 collected from three French coastal shellfish-harvesting areas and freshwaters (n=216 in their watersheds. PCR detection of Shiga toxin- (stx1/stx2 and intimin- (eae genes following enrichment from these samples revealed the presence of least one of the stx genes in 30.3% of shellfish batches, 85.9% of freshwater, 41.7% of seawater, and 28.2% of sediment samples, while the eae gene was observed in 74.8%, 100%, 100%, and 43.6% of shellfish batches, freshwater, seawater, and sediment samples, respectively. Twenty-eight STEC and 89 EPEC strains were isolated and analyzed in order to determine their serotype, phylogroup, and genetic relatedness and to evaluate the presence of the saa and ehxA genes encoding the STEC autoagglutinating adhesin and the enterohemolysin A, respectively. Finally, the ability to form biofilms and antimicrobial susceptibility were investigated for a selection of strains. Eighteen serotypes were identified among the STEC isolates and 57 among the EPEC isolates. A high diversity was observed within these strains, as 79 different PFGE patterns and 48 distinguishable sequence types were identified. Strains were found to belong mainly to phylogroups B1 and B2 and virulence was observed to be low as more than 85% of the strains possessed only stx1, stx2 or eae genes. One STEC and several EPEC strains belonged to three of the five highly pathogenic serogroups (i.e., O26, O103, and O145. The subset of strains tested for their capacity to form biofilms was mainly strongly to moderately adherent and more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18°C than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these

  9. Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, J E; Naustvoll, L-J; Friocourt, Y; Mengelers, M J B; Christensen, J H

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect food and feed safety, including the occurrence of natural toxins in primary crop and seafood production; however, to date, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change effects on mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains cultivated in the terrestrial area of north west Europe, and on the frequency of harmful algal blooms and contamination of shellfish with marine biotoxins in the North Sea coastal zone. The study focused on contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol, and on abundance of Dinophysis spp. and the possible relationship with diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The study used currently available data and models. Global and regional climate models were combined with models of crop phenology, mycotoxin prediction models, hydrodynamic models and ecological models, with the output of one model being used as input for the other. In addition, statistical data analyses using existing national datasets from the study area were performed to obtain information on the relationships between Dinophysis spp. cell counts and contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins as well as on frequency of cereal cropping. In this paper, a summary of the study is presented, and overall conclusions and recommendations are given. Climate change projections for the years 2031-2050 were used as the starting point of the analyses relative to a preceding 20-year baseline period from which the climate change signal was calculated. Results showed that, in general, climate change effects lead to advanced flowering and harvest of wheat, and increased risk of contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol. Blooms of dinoflagellates were estimated to occur more often. If the group of Dinophysis spp. behaves similarly to other flagellates in the future then frequency of harmful algal blooms of Dinophysis spp. may also increase, but consequences for contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish

  10. Digest of data from the measurement of radioactivity in the Irish Marine Environment 1982-1984. Part I: Fish and Shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, John

    1985-11-01

    Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurement are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was directed at the measurement of radioactivity, in particular radiocaesium, in fish and shellfish from the Irish Sea where the polluting effect of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield is greatest. The measured levels of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the popular species of fish and shellfish allow the estimation of the population dose to the Irish public as a result of eating seafood contaminated with radiocaseium. This report attempts to set out, in summarised form, a comprehensive review of sampling, analytical and dose assessment details for the three-year period 1982 to 1984. Levels of K-40, the naturally occurring radionuclide, in the fish and shellfish samples are also reported. (author)

  11. EPA oyster project: nitrogen in water. - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  12. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Coupled with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for Simultaneous Quantification of Eight Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianli; Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yanglan; Shi, Xizhi; Zhao, Zhiyong; Nie, Dongxia; Zhou, Changyan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins (GTX1–4) and the N-sulfo carbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, in sea shellfish. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with C18 silica and acidic alumina. Qualitative and quantitative detection for the target toxins were conducted under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by using the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode after chromatographic separation on a TSK-gel Amide-80 HILIC column with water and acetonitrile. Matrix-matched calibration was used to compensate for matrix effects. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9900), average recovery (81.52–116.50%), sensitivity (limits of detection (LODs): 0.33–5.52 μg·kg−1; limits of quantitation (LOQs): 1.32–11.29 μg·kg−1) and precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 19.10%). The application of this proposed approach to thirty shellfish samples proved its desirable performance and sufficient capability for simultaneous determination of multiclass PSP toxins in sea foods. PMID:28661471

  13. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Linglin; Shuai Jiangbing; Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia; Li Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG) 5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG) 5 -PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG) 5 -PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  14. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n = 7154 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (n = 2658 were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4–5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis.

  15. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Doucette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracids (AZA are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.

  16. Detection of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Growing along the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Gu, Run-Run; Shen, Xiao-Sheng; Chen, Yuan-Ge; Tian, Liang-Liang; Zhou, Wei-Feng; Cai, You-Qiong

    2017-10-17

    This study was conducted to monitor the densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 300 samples of nine shellfish species harvested from the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (N 23° to 34°, E 116° to 124°), People's Republic of China, between May and October 2015. Total V. parahaemolyticus densities were measured, and V. parahaemolyticus isolates were biochemically identified with probes for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin gene (trh). We found that 202 of the 300 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus from all the sites: 58 of the 100 samples from the Fujian province, 71 of the 100 samples from the Zhejiang province, and 73 of the 100 samples from the Jiangsu province. In most (170) of the 300 samples, V. parahaemolyticus densities were 0.3 to 10 most probable number (MPN)/g; five lots exceeded 110 MPN/g, and two lots were estimated at 110 MPN/g. Among the 202 V. parahaemolyticus strains, only one was trh positive. Densities of V. parahaemolyticus in these shellfish were temperature dependent, with highest densities in June and July. Among the nine mollusk species, V. parahaemolyticus was most abundant in the agemaki clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The highest and lowest V. parahaemolyticus prevalences were found in oriental cyclina (Cyclina sinensis, 93.8%) and mussels (Mytilus edulis, 28.1%), respectively. Overall, although V. parahaemolyticus is widely distributed in marine environments, the density of V. parahaemolyticus was low and the prevalence of the main virulence factor was very low in shellfish along the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, which is important from a public health perspective. Data presented here will be useful for correlational research and can be utilized for developing risk management plans that establish food safety guidelines for V. parahaemolyticus in Chinese shellfish.

  17. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BMAA in shellfish from two Portuguese transitional water bodies suggests the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as a potential BMAA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Rydberg, Sara Jonasson

    2014-07-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases have been intensely studied since 2005 when the toxin was discovered to be produced by worldwide-distributed cyanobacterial species inhabiting terrestrial, marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems. Recently, BMAA production was also associated with one eukaryotic group, namely, diatoms, raising questions about its production by other phytoplanktonic groups. To test for BMAA bioavailability in ecosystems where abundant phytoplanktonic blooms regularly occur, samples of filter-feeding shellfish were collected in two Portuguese transitional water bodies. BMAA content in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) collected weekly between September and November 2009 from Ria de Aveiro and at least once a month from May to November from Ria Formosa, fluctuated from 0.079±0.055 to 0.354±0.066μg/g DW and from below the limit of detection to 0.434±0.110μg/g DW, respectively. Simultaneously to BMAA occurrence in cockles, paralytic shellfish toxins were detected in shellfish as a result of Gymnodinium catenatum blooms indicating a possible link between this marine dinoflagellate and BMAA production. Moreover, considerable high BMAA levels, 0.457±0.186μg/g DW, were then determined in a laboratory grown culture of G. catenatum. This work reveals for the first time the presence of BMAA in shellfish from Atlantic transitional water bodies and consubstantiate evidences of G. catenatum as one of the main sources of BMAA in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Simple Model to Rank Shellfish Farming Areas Based on the Risk of Disease Introduction and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Pearce, F M; Gubbins, M J; Oidtmann, B C; Peeler, E J

    2017-08-01

    The European Union Council Directive 2006/88/EC requires that risk-based surveillance (RBS) for listed aquatic animal diseases is applied to all aquaculture production businesses. The principle behind this is the efficient use of resources directed towards high-risk farm categories, animal types and geographic areas. To achieve this requirement, fish and shellfish farms must be ranked according to their risk of disease introduction and spread. We present a method to risk rank shellfish farming areas based on the risk of disease introduction and spread and demonstrate how the approach was applied in 45 shellfish farming areas in England and Wales. Ten parameters were used to inform the risk model, which were grouped into four risk themes based on related pathways for transmission of pathogens: (i) live animal movement, (ii) transmission via water, (iii) short distance mechanical spread (birds) and (iv) long distance mechanical spread (vessels). Weights (informed by expert knowledge) were applied both to individual parameters and to risk themes for introduction and spread to reflect their relative importance. A spreadsheet model was developed to determine quantitative scores for the risk of pathogen introduction and risk of pathogen spread for each shellfish farming area. These scores were used to independently rank areas for risk of introduction and for risk of spread. Thresholds were set to establish risk categories (low, medium and high) for introduction and spread based on risk scores. Risk categories for introduction and spread for each area were combined to provide overall risk categories to inform a risk-based surveillance programme directed at the area level. Applying the combined risk category designation framework for risk of introduction and spread suggested by European Commission guidance for risk-based surveillance, 4, 10 and 31 areas were classified as high, medium and low risk, respectively. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  20. Testing the potential effects of shellfish farming on swimming activity and spatial distribution of sole (Solea solea) in a mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Laffargue, Pascal; Begout, Marie-laure; Lagardere, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring coastal fish nursery habitats by extensive shellfish fanning in the French part of the Bay of Biscay could influence fish physiology and behaviour and affect the ecological performance of the species. The influence of oyster-trestle cultivation installations on sole (Solea solea) swimming behaviour was investigated using an experimental pond mesocosm. A pen was constructed with three interconnected zones (two with bags of live oysters or oyster shells on trestles, and one free z...

  1. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  2. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some results of recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption by age and region of U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.; Baes, C.F. III; Miller, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since ingestion of foods is considered a major source of pollutant intake by man, the knowledge of detailed food consumption patterns is necessary to determine health risks and compliance with regulatory standards. As currently available literature lacks data necessary for complete evaluation of aquatic foods via human consumption of fish and shellfish, a review of recent surveys of fish consumption in the U.S. was performed. The data in these surveys were subjected to statistical analysis to determine percentage distributions of individuals eating different quantities of marine and freshwater fish and shellfish. Included are surveys on consumption of sportfish from the Columbia River and Lake Michigan areas and a comprehensive study of fish consumption in the nine census regions of the U.S. The results of these studies indicate that the quantity, as reported, of each type of fish eaten increases as a function of the age of consumers. Regional differences are most apparent in the use of shellfish and freshwater fish. About 94% of children and 96-100% of adults eat some kind of fish with a per capita average of 4.97 kg/yr. Since this quantity is on an actual consumption basis, as as opposed to 'as purchased', the per capita consumption rate is lower than usually reported in the literature. (author)

  4. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The distribution, contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and shellfish from the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Ragab, Safaa; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2016-12-01

    Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, lipid and water contents were determined in the soft tissues of different shellfish species collected along the Red Sea shoreline. Metal contents showed a descending order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Al > V > Pb > Cd > Hg. The leachable concentrations found in the sediments gathered from the studied locations gave another descending order: Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > V > Cu > Cd. The determined leachable heavy metal contents in the sediment did not exceed the NOAA and CCME (Anonymous 1999) sediment quality guidelines. Accordingly, the sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea area did not pose any adverse impacts on the biological life. According to the hazard quotient (HQ) calculations for heavy metal contents in the soft tissue of shellfish, mercury did not pose any risk on human health; whereas, the other determined heavy metals gave HQ values of 1 < HQ < 10 and showed a possibility of risk on the long term. Cu is above the desirable levels in mussels. The RQ calculations of toddlers and adults reflected that Cu was the only heavy metal that had an adverse effect on toddlers' health. Based on the human organizations (EPA, BOE, MAFF, and NHMRC) that proposed safety concentrations of heavy metals, the studied shellfish were somewhat safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depuration of shellfish by irradiation: Final technical report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.E.; Mallett, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin.

  8. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  9. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Cyanotoxins in the Mediterranean: New Data from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugliè, Antonella; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riccardi, Elena; Bruno, Milena; Pigozzi, Silvia; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Satta, Cecilia Teodora; Stacca, Daniela; Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Farina, Pasqualina; Padedda, Bachisio Mario; Pulina, Silvia; Sechi, Nicola; Milandri, Anna

    2017-11-16

    Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses indicated the highest toxicity for A. pacificum strains (total PSTs up to 17.811 fmol cell-1). The PSTs were also assessed in a strain of A. tamarense. The results encourage further investigation to increase the knowledge of toxic species still debated in the Mediterranean. This study also reports new data on microcystins (MCs) and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from a Sardinian artificial lake (Lake Bidighinzu). The presence of MCs and BMAA was assessed in natural samples and in cell cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BMAA positives were found in all the analysed samples with a maximum of 17.84 µg L-1. The obtained results added further information on cyanotoxins in Mediterranean reservoirs, particularly BMAA, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  10. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin

  11. Mining the transcriptomes of four commercially important shellfish species for single nucleotide polymorphisms within biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrami, David L J; Shah, Abhijeet; Telesca, Luca; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional profiling not only provides insights into patterns of gene expression, but also generates sequences that can be mined for molecular markers, which in turn can be used for population genetic studies. As part of a large-scale effort to better understand how commercially important European shellfish species may respond to ocean acidification, we therefore mined the transcriptomes of four species (the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the great scallop Pecten maximus and the blunt gaper Mya truncata) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Illumina data for C. gigas, M. edulis and P. maximus and 454 data for M. truncata were interrogated using GATK and SWAP454 respectively to identify between 8267 and 47,159 high quality SNPs per species (total=121,053 SNPs residing within 34,716 different contigs). We then annotated the transcripts containing SNPs to reveal homology to diverse genes. Finally, as oceanic pH affects the ability of organisms to incorporate calcium carbonate, we honed in on genes implicated in the biomineralization process to identify a total of 1899 SNPs in 157 genes. These provide good candidates for biomarkers with which to study patterns of selection in natural or experimental populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioaccessibility of metals in fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed harvested in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-08-01

    Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods collected by harvested by the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) from 21 First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, in 2008-2009. A significant and negative correlation was observed between Hg concentration and Hg bioaccessibility. Metal bioaccessibility tended to be high; median values ranging between 52% (Mn) and 83% (Cu). The notable exceptions were observed for As in wild game organs (7-19%) and rabbit meat (4%) as well as Hg in salmon eggs (10%). Results of Principal Components Analysis confirmed the unique pattern of bioaccessibility of As and Hg in traditional foods, suggesting that, unlike other metals, As and Hg bioaccessibility are not simply controlled by food digestibility under the operating conditions of the in vitro model. These data provide useful information for dietary contaminant risk assessment and intake assessments of essential trace elements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  14. Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 μg okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 μg OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 μg OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 μg OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 μg OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

  15. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation: Final report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie 60 Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Depuration of shellfish by irradiation: Final technical report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L.E.; Mallett, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation: Final report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-11-01

    Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie /sup 60/Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  20. Abundance and distribution of microplastics within surface sediments of a key shellfish growing region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmiruk, T N; Kazmiruk, V D; Bendell, L I

    2018-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microplastics within 5 sediment size classes (>5000 μm, 1000-5000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 250-0.63 μm and Microplastics were found at all sampling locations indicating widespread contamination of this region with these particles. Three types of microplastics were recovered: microbeads, which occurred in the greatest number (up to 25000/kg dry sediment) and microfibers and microfragments, which were much less in number compared with microbeads and occurred in similar amounts (100-300/kg dry sediment). Microbeads were recovered primarily in the microplastics were spatially dependent with principal component analysis (PCA) indicating that 84 percent of the variation in abundance and distribution was due to the presence of high numbers of microbeads at three locations within the study region. At these sites, microbeads expressed as a percent component of the sediment by weight was similar to key geochemical components that govern trace metal behavior and availability to benthic organisms. Microbeads have been shown to accumulate metals from the aquatic environment, hence in addition to the traditional geochemical components such as silt and organic matter, microplastics also need to be considered as a sediment component that can influence trace metal geochemistry. Our findings have shown that BC's premier oyster growing region is highly contaminated with microplastics, notably microbeads. It would be prudent to assess the degree to which oysters from this region are ingesting microplastics. If so, it would have direct implications for Canada's oyster farming industry with respect to the health of the oyster and the quality of product that is being farmed and sets an example for other shellfish growing regions of the world.

  1. Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

  2. Tracing the origin of paralytic shellfish toxins in scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in the northern Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Gao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Some dinoflagellate species within the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium are well-known producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which led to many poisoning incidents around the world. In the northern Yellow Sea, an important mariculture zone for scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, PST have been frequently detected from scallops. However, there is little knowledge concerning PST-producing microalgae in this region so far. In cruises carried out in 2011 and 2012, scallop and phytoplankton samples were collected from the northern Yellow Sea. PST were detected from scallops by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Toxin content and profile were remarkably different among the four tissues, i.e. viscera, adductor muscle, mantle and gonad, suggesting apparent toxin transfer and transformation in scallops. Viscera always had the highest content of PST dominated by low-potency N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, which closely resembled the toxin profiles of net-concentrated phytoplankton samples in spring. Based on the morphological features, cells of Alexandrium spp. in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were picked out and a partial sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) was amplified using a single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cells of both toxic A. tamarense species complex and non-toxic A. affine were identified from the phytoplankton samples based on the partial LSU rDNA sequence information. According to these findings, it is implied that A. tamarense species complex is the major toxic species related to PST contamination in scallops of the northern Yellow Sea. The presence of both toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium spp. in this region requires for a species-specific method to monitor the distribution and dynamics of A. tamarense species complex.

  3. Matrix effect on paralytic shellfish toxins quantification and toxicity estimation in mussels exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M J; Vale, C; Mota, A M; Rodrigues, S M; Costa, P R; Simões Gonçalves, M L S

    2010-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins were quantified in whole tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to blooms of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum in Portuguese coastal waters. A validated liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, involving pre-chromatographic oxidation was used to quantify carbamoyl, N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins. In order to test for any matrix effect in the quantification of those toxins, concentrations obtained from solvent and matrix matched calibration curves were compared. A suppression of the fluorescence signal was observed in mussel extract or fraction in comparison to solvent for the compounds dcGTX2 + 3, GTX2 + 3 and GTX1 + 4, while an enhancement was found for C1 + 2, dcSTX, STX, B1, dcNEO and NEO. These results showed that a matrix effect varies among compounds. The difference of concentrations between solvent and matrix matched calibration curves for C1 + 2 (median = 421 ng g⁻¹) exceeded largely the values for the other quantified compounds (0.09-58 ng g⁻¹). Those differences were converted into toxicity differences, using Oshima toxicity equivalence factors. The compounds C1 + 2 and dcNEO were the major contributors to the differences of total toxicity in the mussel samples. The differences of total toxicity were calculated in ten mussel samples collected during a 10-week blooming period in Portuguese coastal lagoon. Values varied between 53 and 218 µg STX equivalents kg⁻¹. The positive differences mean that the estimated toxicity using solvent calibration curves exceed the values taking into account the matrix. For the toxicity interval 200-800 µg STX equivalents kg⁻¹ an increase was found between 44 and 28%.

  4. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning.

  5. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  6. Screening for the presence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish samples using the neuro-2a bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Bovee, Toine F H; Wang, Si; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klijnstra, Mirjam D; Portier, Liza; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Gerssen, Arjen

    2018-02-01

    The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples. In the present study, the standard extraction procedure for LMBs was adjusted by introducing an additional clean-up step with n-hexane. Recovery losses due to this extra step were less than 10%. This wash step was a crucial addition in order to eliminate false-positive outcomes due to matrix effects. Next, the applicability of this assay was assessed by testing a broad range of shellfish samples contaminated with various LMBs, including diarrhetic shellfish toxins/poisons (DSPs). For comparison, the samples were also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Standards of all regulated LMBs were tested, including analogues of some of these toxins. The neuro-2a cells showed good sensitivity towards all compounds. Extracts of 87 samples, both blank and contaminated with various toxins, were tested. The neuro-2a outcomes were in line with those of LC-MS/MS analysis and support the applicability of this assay for the screening of samples for LMBs. However, for use in a daily routine setting, the test might be further improved and we discuss several recommended modifications which should be considered before a full validation is carried out.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Han

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1 and 10,000 MPN g(-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures.

  8. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  9. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were significantly lower in claims. Concentrations of Vibrio cholerae rose by approximately 1 log in oysters stored as shellstock after 7 days at 2 degrees C, and Lac+ vibrios increased 2 logs at 8 degrees C. Total counts of bacteria, fungi, coliforms, fecal streptococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and clostridia were significantly higher in shucked oysters than in those stored as shellstock. Fecal coliforms were statistically the same, but V. cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and the Lac+ vibrios were higher in oysters stored as shellstock. The concentrations of all microbial groups were higher in fully processed oysters than in shucked meats, with the exception of the vibrios, which showed no significant difference among the treatments. The results showed that although traditional methods of storing shellfish resulted in an overall increase in the microbial load, vibrio levels increased only in oysters stored as shellstock. Although fecal coliform and total bacterial counts did not correlate with those for vibrios in fresh oysters, strong correlations were observed in oysters stored for 7 days, suggesting that these indicators may be useful in monitoring oyster quality when meats are stored for a limited time as shellstock.

  10. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  11. Differential Mobility Spectrometry for Improved Selectivity in Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel G.

    2017-08-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans. PST quantitation by LC-MS is challenging because of their high polarity, lability as gas-phase ions, and large number of potentially interfering analogues. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) has the potential to improve the performance of LC-MS methods for PSTs in terms of selectivity and limits of detection. This work describes a comprehensive investigation of the separation of 16 regulated PSTs by DMS and the development of highly selective LC-DMS-MS methods for PST quantitation. The effects of all DMS parameters on the separation of PSTs from one another were first investigated in detail. The labile nature of 11α-gonyautoxin epimers gave unique insight into fragmentation of labile analytes before, during, and after the DMS analyzer. Two sets of DMS parameters were identified that either optimized the resolution of PSTs from one another or transmitted them at a limited number of compensation voltage (CV) values corresponding to structural subclasses. These were used to develop multidimensional LC-DMS-MS/MS methods using existing HILIC-MS/MS parameters. In both cases, improved selectivity was observed when using DMS, and the quantitative capabilities of a rapid UPLC-DMS-MS/MS method were evaluated. Limits of detection of the developed method were similar to those without DMS, and differences were highly analyte-dependant. Analysis of shellfish matrix reference materials showed good agreement with established methods. The developed methods will be useful in cases where specific matrix interferences are encountered in the LC-MS/MS analysis of PSTs in complex biological samples.

  12. Development of a toxicity model for paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel: uptake and release of toxins in Green Bay mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbada, Rhett Simon DC.; Ranada, Ma. Llorina O.; De Leon, Aileen L.; Bulos, Adelina M.; Sta, Maria; Efren, J.; De Vera, Azucena; Balagtas, Angelina; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the expressed need to study shellfish toxicity and elucidate the kinetics of saxitoxin in green mussels Perna viridis), uptake/depuration rates of saxitoxin were studied in Juag Lagoon, Sorsogon and Sorsogon Bay. Both areas experience recurring blooms of Pyrodinium bahamanse var compressum (PbC) making them excellent study sites. Two sampling stations were selected, to which, mussels were introduced. Algal cell density and mussel toxicity were measured by receptor binding assay (RBA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from May to December 2007. During this period, two bloom events occurred, wherein, a decrease in cell density by two orders of magnitude (30,000 to 600 cells·1 +1 ) caused an order of magnitude decrease in toxicity (600 to 30 μg STX eq./100 g shellfish meat). A time lag between peaks of cell density and the corresponding toxicity was revealed. Vegetative cells were present throughout the sampling period, and a uniform horizontal and vertical distribution of cells was observed between the stations. Cell densities were significantly correlated with both RBA and HPLC estimates of STX content in mussels (Pearson r values of 0.7486 and 0.4325 for RBA and HPLC, respectively). In Sorsogon Bay, six sampling stations were also chosen, from which, water and mussels were being collected. Preliminary data showed that the cellular toxin content was primarily STX, making up to 90-100% of total toxin quantified. The average toxicity was estimated at 52.81fmol/cell. The effect of physiological factors to overall shellfish toxicity, though not directly characterized, may be deduced from these studies. (author)

  13. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  14. Matrix effect and correction by standard addition in quantitative liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Tsukada, Katsuo

    2002-01-11

    An evaluation of the feasibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospheric pressure ionization was made for quantitation of four diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-6 and yessotoxin in scallops. When LC-MS was applied to the analysis of scallop extracts, large signal suppressions were observed due to coeluting substances from the column. To compensate for these matrix signal suppressions, the standard addition method was applied. First, the sample was analyzed and then the sample involving the addition of calibration standards is analyzed. Although this method requires two LC-MS runs per analysis, effective correction of quantitative errors was found.

  15. Optimization of PMAxx pretreatment to distinguish between human norovirus with intact and altered capsids in shellfish and sewage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Walter; Khezri, Mohammad; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Aznar, Rosa; Sánchez, Gloria

    2018-02-02

    Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0.5% of Triton, and double photoactivation) were applied to mussels, oysters and cockles artificially inoculated with thermally-inactivated (99°C for 5min) HuNoV GI and GII. This pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI in cockles and HuNoV GII in mussels by >3 log. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI and GII between 1 and 1.5 log in oysters. Thermal inactivation of HuNoV GI and GII in PBS, sewage and bioaccumulated oysters was also evaluated by the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment. Results showed significant differences between reductions observed in the control and PMAxx-treated samples in PBS following treatment at 72 and 95°C for 15min. In sewage, the RT-qPCR signal of HuNoV GI was completely removed by the PMAxx pretreatment after heating at 72 and 95°C, while the RT-qPCR signal for HuNoV GII was completely eliminated only at 95°C. Finally, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment was applied to naturally contaminated sewage and oysters, resulting in most of the HuNoV genomes quantified in sewage and oyster samples (12 out of 17) corresponding to undamaged capsids. Although this procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment represents a step forward to better interpret the quantification of intact HuNoVs in complex matrices, such as sewage and shellfish, and it could certainly be included in the procedures based on RT-qPCR. Copyright

  16. Concentrations of 210Po in fish and shellfish from southern region of Japan and evaluation of 210Po intake from seafood for Japanese people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Nakao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po in fish and shellfish, mostly collected from southern region of Japan were analyzed. Values ranged from 0.2 to 229 Bq/kg fresh weight and higher concentrations were observed in samples analyzed with viscera. Intake of 210 Po through fish and shellfish was evaluated at different Japanese cities based on statistical consumption data. Phytoplankton, Heterosigma akashiwo was collected during a harmful algal bloom and 210 Po was analyzed. The phytoplankton occupied only 4.4% of 210 Po in seawater and a large fraction of 210 Po was observed in the particulate form. (orig.)

  17. [Modeling the occurrence of shellfish poisoning outbreaks caused by Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) through electromagnetic signal triggering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Pulo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in bivalves attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms at the NW Portuguese coast was previously associated with periods of low solar activity (measured by the radio flux [R]), or low geomagnetic A(a) index. It was also observed that reduction of R preceded the occurrence of toxin accumulation, while A(a) index increase could be related to its absence during periods of low activity. For modeling toxin accumulation, the monthly decrease in R was studied along the decade 2003-2012. A match that helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 was obtained by plotting the formula: ΔR = (R(n-1) - R(n))/(R(n) - 65)2, where 65 represented the lowest radio activity known to date. The complex denominator was required to take into account the sunspot cycle. A 1-2 month lag was observed between maximal relative decline and maximal PSTs accumulation. PSTs in bivalves from the Portuguese south coast were related with natural electromagnetic cycles for the first time, and were not statistically associated with low R. A statistically significant association with low A(a) index also was not achieved, due to the low number of occurrences, although the 25-75 percentile was restricted to low Aa indexes in a similar way to that found for the NW coast. PSTs accumulation outside solar minima could be triggered by a steep decline in the A(a) index (ΔA), but no lag was observed in this case. While ΔR amplitude helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 at the NW coast, the amplitude of ΔA was not related to the severity of the accumulation. Other kind of local electromagnetic signaling was investigated resorting to the occurrence of seismologic phenomena, because these events can trigger electric activities. No statistical association was found between seism number or magnitude and PSTs at the south coast, located near the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates, and marked by moderate

  18. Distribution and sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shellfish of the Egyptian Red Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Nemr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes were analyzed in shellfish collected from 13 different sites along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. All samples were analyzed for n-alkanes (C8–C40 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA list of PAHs. n-Alkanes in shellfish samples from 13 locations were found to be in the range of 71.0–701.1 ng/g with a mean value of 242.2 ± 192.1 ng/g dry wt. Different indices were calculated for the n-alkanes to assess their sources. These were carbon preference index (CPI, average chain length (ACL, terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR, natural n-alkane ratio (NAR and proxy ratio (Paq. Most of the collected samples of n-alkanes were discovered to be from natural sources. Aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs from 13 sites varied between 1.3 and 160.9 ng/g with an average of 47.9 ± 45.5 ng/g dry wt. Benzo(apyrine (BaP, a cancer risk assessment, was calculated for the PAHs and resulted in ranges between 0.08 and 4.47 with an average of 1.25 ng/g dry wt.

  19. Particle size fractionation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs): seasonal distribution and bacterial production in the St Lawrence estuary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, S; Levasseur, M; Doucette, G; Cantin, G

    2002-10-01

    We determined the seasonal distribution of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and PST producing bacteria in > 15, 5-15, and 0.22-5 microm size fractions in the St Lawrence. We also measured PSTs in a local population of Mytilus edulis. PST concentrations were determined in each size fraction and in laboratory incubations of sub-samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), including the rigorous elimination of suspected toxin 'imposter' peaks. Mussel toxin levels were determined by mouse bioassay and HPLC. PSTs were detected in all size fractions during the summer sampling season, with 47% of the water column toxin levels associated with particles smaller than Alexandrium tamarense ( 15 microm size fraction, we estimated that as much as 92% of PSTs could be associated with particles other than A. tamarense. Our results stress the importance of taking into account the potential presence of PSTs in size fractions other than that containing the known algal producer when attempting to model shellfish intoxication, especially during years of low cell abundance. Finally, our HPLC results confirmed the presence of bacteria capable of autonomous PST production in the St Lawrence as well as demonstrating their regular presence and apparent diversity in the plankton. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Distribution of heavy metals in internal organs and tissues of Korean molluscan shellfish and potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-09-01

    Molluscan shellfish (gastropods and bivalves) were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury by direct Hg analyzer and for other metals, such as cadmium, lead, chromium, silver, nickel, copper and zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs and whole tissues were determined and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. Heavy metals were accumulated significantly higher (P hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in all internal-organ samples were above the regulatory limit of Korea and the mean level in whole tissue samples of the selected gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell, exceeded the limit (except in a few cases). The sum of the estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb and Hg for each part of all tested species accounted for 1.59-16.94, 0.02-0.36, and 0.07-0.16% respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The hazard index for each part of gastropods and bivalves was below 1.0, however, the maximum HI for internal organs of all analysed species was quite high (0.71). These results suggest that consumption of flesh after removing the internal organs of some molluscan shellfish (all gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell) is a suitable way for reducing Cd exposure.

  1. Two quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eischeid, Anne C; Kim, Bang-hyun; Kasko, Sasha M

    2013-06-19

    Food allergen detection methods must be able to specifically detect minute quantities of an allergenic food in a complex food matrix. One technique that can be used is real-time PCR. For the work described here, real-time PCR assays were developed to detect penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens. The method was tested using shrimp meat and crab meat spiked into several types of foods, including canned soups, deli foods, meat, seafood, and prepared seafood products. Foods were spiked with either shrimp or crab at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10⁶ parts per million (ppm) and analyzed either raw or cooked by a variety of methods. Real-time PCR data were used to generate linear standard curves, and assays were evaluated with respect to linear range and reaction efficiency. Results indicate that both assays performed well in a variety of food types. High reaction efficiencies were achieved across a linear range of 6-8 orders of magnitude. Limits of detection were generally between 0.1 and 1 ppm. Cooking methods used to simulate thermal processing of foods had little effect on assay performance. This work demonstrates that real-time PCR can be a valuable tool in the detection of crustacean shellfish.

  2. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  3. Near-Real-Time Surveillance of Illnesses Related to Shellfish Consumption in British Columbia: Analysis of Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Victoria; McIntyre, Lorraine; Kent, Debra; Leong, Dennis; Henderson, Sarah B

    2018-02-23

    Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) is one of five such services in Canada, and it is the only one nested within a public health agency. This study aimed to demonstrate how DPIC data are used for routine public health surveillance in near-real-time using the case study of its alerting system for illness related to consumption of shellfish (ASIRCS). Every hour, a connection is opened between the WBM software Visual Dotlab Enterprise, which holds the DPIC database, and the R statistical computing environment. This platform is used to extract, clean, and merge all necessary raw data tables into a single data file. ASIRCS automatically and retrospectively scans a 24-hour window within the data file for new cases related to illnesses from shellfish consumption. Detected cases are queried using a list of attributes: the caller location, exposure type, reasons for the exposure, and a list of keywords searched in the clinical notes. The alert generates a report that is tailored to the needs of food safety specialists, who then assess and respond to detected cases. The ASIRCS system alerted on 79 cases between January 2015 and December 2016, and retrospective analysis found 11 cases that were missed. All cases were reviewed by food safety specialists, and 58% (46/79) were referred to designated regional health authority contacts for follow-up. Of the 42% (33/79) cases that were not referred to health authorities, some were

  4. CRISTISPIRA IN NORTH AMERICAN SHELLFISH. A NOTE ON A SPIRILLUM FOUND IN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1921-08-31

    Ten varieties of North American shellfish were examined for the occurrence of Cristispira in their styles. A cristispira was found in various numbers in Ostrea virginiana, Venus mercenaria, and Modiola modiolus, but none in Ensis americana, Mya arenaria, Mactra solidissima, Pecten irradians, Mytilus edulis, Fulgur canaliculatus, or Nassa obsoleta. Of 298 oysters, only 128 showed the crystalline styles, in which cristispiras were present in 99. Active cristispiras were found in 59 styles only and degenerated forms in the remaining 40. In 110 clams (Venus mercenaria) 70 styles were found, and only 8 of these contained cristispiras; 5 yielded active and the other 3 degenerated cristispiras. In 97 modiolas there were 73 styles, only 4 of which contained cristispiras. The physical properties of the crystalline styles of these shellfish varied considerably. The styles of the oysters were moderately soft, and when exposed to the air or mixed with sea water they underwent liquefaction, forming a clear, viscid material. The styles from clams and modiolas were opaque and were more firm, not easily crushed even in a mortar. The styles of the scallops were the most solid of all the styles examined. It happened that the softer the styles, the more frequent was the occurrence of the cristispira; in fact, no cristispira was detected in styles other than those of oysters, clams, and modiolas, of which oysters had the softest styles and the largest percentage of cristispira invasion. The following observations were made regarding the structure of the cristispira found in oysters. The body is a long, flexible cylinder, with blunt extremities, towards which the diameter gradually diminishes. In motion the body rapidly stretches and contracts, forming in the contracted state several serpentine undulations. A membranous appendage (Gross' crista) winds about the body throughout its entire length. The inner margin is in connection with the body, the outer margin is free and is distinctly

  5. Clean and safe supply of fish and shellfish to clear the HACCP regulation by use of clean and cold deep ocean water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Takahashi, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazunori

    2005-07-01

    For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water (DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for salmon, cod, and sea urchin in Town ‘Rausu’ in Hokkaido, Japan. DOW below 2.9’C of an amount of nearly 5 000m3 is planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land. DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of 2005.

  6. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  7. Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  8. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  9. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with the paralytic shellfish poisoning dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David H; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Negri, Andrew P; Blackburn, Susan I; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2004-03-01

    Gymnodinium catenatum is one of several dinoflagellates that produce a suite of neurotoxins called the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning in temperate and tropical waters. Previous research suggested that the bacteria associated with the surface of the sexual resting stages (cyst) were important to the production of PST by G. catenatum. This study sought to characterise the cultivable bacterial diversity of seven different strains of G. catenatum that produce both high and abnormally low amounts of PST, with the long-term aim of understanding the role the bacterial flora has in bloom development and toxicity of this alga. Sixty-one bacterial isolates were cultured and phylogenetically identified as belonging to the Proteobacteria (70%), Bacteroidetes (26%) or Actinobacteria (3%). The Alphaproteobacteria were the most numerous both in terms of the number of isolates cultured (49%) and were also the most abundant type of bacteria in each G. catenatum culture. Two phenotypic (functional) traits inferred from the phylogenetic data were shown to be a common feature of the bacteria present in each G. catenatum culture: firstly, Alphaproteobacteria capable of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, and secondly, Gammaproteobacteria capable of hydrocarbon utilisation and oligotrophic growth. In relation to reports of autonomous production of PST by dinoflagellate-associated bacteria, PST production by bacterial isolates was investigated, but none were shown to produce any PST-like toxins. Overall, this study has identified a number of emergent trends in the bacterial community of G. catenatum which are mirrored in the bacterial flora of other dinoflagellates, and that are likely to be of especial relevance to the population dynamics of natural and harmful algal blooms.

  10. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Aranda, Juan; Cortez Diaz, Mirella

    2003-01-01

    Serious problems of environmental contamination due to the activity of the man exist at the present time. Where the greater impact is the produced one by heavy metals that go to the sea. Where the shellfish can collect some of them, the highly toxic ones, since these are bioaccumulation of these metals. Therefore one becomes necessary to count with the reliable analytical procedures to determine these elements. The purpose of this work is to present the determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish, by spectroscopy of atomic absorption with graphite furnace. For each determined element, solutions of nickel and phosphate like matrix modifiers were used respectively The validation was made using a Reference Certified Material, Oyster ' Tissue 156 (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The sample previously was digested in triplicate by two consecutive days, with nitric acid in a pressure digestion system DAB 11. For each element it was evaluated: limit of detection and quantification, sensitivity, repeatability, linear, slope rank and uncertainty. In addition, the obtained results were compared with the certified values of the certified material of reference using like statistical tools the tests of Student and Fisher. In both tests the calculated values were smaller to the shown ones in table, for degrees of freedom with 95% of confidence. Thus it was verified that it does not exist significant differences between the precision and the average values of the results obtained with respect to the values of the certified material. In addition, the obtained parameters are appropriate for the determination of these trace elements in this type of environmental sample (author)

  11. Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil E; Baden, Susanne P

    2018-02-01

    The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  13. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  14. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  15. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  16. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  17. Marine Fish and Shellfish Survey data from otter trawls in the Chukchi Sea from the OCEAN HOPE 3 and OSHORO MARU from 16 August 1990 to 31 July 1992 (NODC Accession 9400061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Fish and Shellfish Survey data were collected from otter trawls in the Chukchi Sea from the OCEAN HOPE. Data were collected by the University of Alaska from...

  18. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  19. Optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and development of solid-phase extraction for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Elizabeth; Stobo, Lesley; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The combination of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been proposed for use in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, methods for the detection of multiple PSP toxins [saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNEO), gonyautoxins 1-5 (GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5), decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX2 and dcGTX3), and the N-sulfocarbamoyl C toxins (C1 and C2)] were optimized using single (MS) and triple quadrupole (MS/MS) instruments. Chromatographic separation of the toxins was achieved by using a TSK-gel Amide-80 analytical column, although superior chromatography was observed through application of a ZIC-HILIC column. Preparative procedures used to clean up shellfish extracts and concentrate PSP toxins prior to analysis were investigated. The capacity of computationally designed polymeric (CDP) materials and HILIC solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to retain highly polar PSP toxins was explored. Three CDP materials and 2 HILIC cartridges were assessed for the extraction of PSP toxins from aqueous solution. Screening of the CDPs showed that all tested polymers adsorbed PSP toxins. A variety of elution procedures were examined, with dilute 0.01% acetic acid providing optimum recovery from a CDP based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as the monomer. ZIC-HILIC SPE cartridges were superior to the PolyLC equivalent, with recoveries ranging from 70 to 112% (ZIC-HILIC) and 0 to 90% (PolyLC) depending on the PSP toxin. It is proposed that optimized SPE and HILIC-MS methods can be applied for the quantitative determination of PSP toxins in shellfish.

  20. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens essential oils: Composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities against bacteria isolated from fish and shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Snuossi, M.; Trabelsi, N.; Taleb, S. B.; Dehmeni, A.; Flamini, G.; De Feo, V.

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leav...

  1. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  2. Seasonal variability of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum associated to lipophilic shellfish toxins in a strongly stratified Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Varela, Daniel; Contreras, Cristóbal; de La Iglesia, Pablo; Fernández, Pamela; Hipp, Byron; Hernández, Cristina; Riobó, Pilar; Reguera, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Diogène, Jorge; García, Carlos; Lagos, Néstor

    2014-03-01

    The fine scale vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum (potential producers of lipophilic shellfish toxins, LSTs) and its relation with LSTs in shellfish was studied in Reloncaví fjord, a strongly stratified system in Southern Chile. Samples were taken over two years from late spring to early autumn (2007-2008 period) and from early spring to late summer (2008-2009 period). Dinophysis spp., in particular Dinophysis acuminata, were always detected, often forming thin layers in the region of the salinity driven pycnocline, with cell maxima for D. acuminata of 28.5×103 cells L-1 in March 2008 and 17.1×103 cells L-1 in November 2008. During the 2008-2009 sampling period, blooms of D. acuminata co-occurred with high densities of cryptophyceans and the ciliate Mesodinium spp. The highest levels of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2; 2.2 ng L-1) were found in the plankton in February 2009, associated with moderate densities of D. acuminata, Dinophysis tripos and Dinophysis subcircularis (0.1-0.6×103 cells L-1). However, only trace levels of PTX-2 were observed in bivalves at that time. Dinophysistoxin (DTX-1 and DTX-3) levels in bivalves and densities of Dinophysis spp. were not well correlated. Low DTX levels in bivalves observed during a major bloom of D. acuminata in March 2008 suggested that there is a large seasonal intraspecific variability in toxin content of Dinophysis spp. driven by changes in population structure associated with distinct LST toxin profiles in Reloncaví fjord during the study period. A heterogeneous vertical distribution was also observed for P. reticulatum, whose presence was restricted to summer months. A bloom of this species of 2.2×103 cells L-1 at 14 m depth in February 2009 was positively correlated with high concentrations of yessotoxins in bivalves (51-496 ng g-1) and plankton samples (3.2 ng L-1). Our results suggest that a review of monitoring strategies for Dinophysis spp. in strongly stratified fjord systems

  3. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez Diaz, Mirella del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals are a big source of environmental contamination and are also highly toxic to humans. Since shellfish are bio-accumulators of these metals, proper techniques for quantifying them should be available. This work aims to develop an analytical method for the quantitative determination of heavy metals in biological materials (shellfish), specifically arsenic and cadmium at the trace level, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, for which nickel and phosphate solutions were used to modify the modifiers. Prior to the analysis, the sample was diluted with nitric acid in a DAB II pressure digestion system order to destroy the organic matter. The instrument conditions were initially set (wavelength, slit, integration peaks, graphite tube, etc.), then the work range was defined for each element and the most appropriate operational parameters were studied, such as: temperature, ramp times, hold times and internal gas flow, in the different stage of the electrothermal treatment (drying, calcination, atomization) for the furnace program. Once the above mentioned conditions were set and since this was a biological sample, a matrix chemical modifier had to be used, in order to make the elements that accompany the element being studied more volatile. In this way the chemical and spectral interferences decrease together with the high background absorption of the matrix. Therefore, different matrix modifiers were studied for the definition of each analyte. The method validation was done using Certified Oyster Tissue Reference Material N o 1566a from the National Institute of Standards and Technology applying different tests in order to eliminate outliers. Repeatability, uncertainty, sensitivity, lineal range, working range, detection limit and quantification limit were evaluated for each element, and the results were compared with the values for the certified material. The Fisher and Student tests were the statistical tools used. The experimental values

  4. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  10. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  11. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake and release of paralytic shellfish toxins by the clam Ruditapes decussatus exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum and subsequent depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Grilo, Rita Velez; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2012-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed with the clam Ruditapes decussatus, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum and the non-toxic algae Isochrysis galbana (14 days) and subsequently only with I. galbana (15 days). Individual paralytic shellfish toxins were determined by LC-FLD in G. catenatum cells, whole clam tissues, and particulate organic matter (POM) produced by clams. The toxins dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3 in the algae were less abundant than C1 + 2 and B1, but were predominant in clams during both the exposure and depuration phases. The toxin dcNEO was only detected in clams during a short period, indicating conversion from other compounds. The toxin composition of the POM indicated the export of dcSTX as faeces or pseudo-faeces along the entire experiment (2.5-14 nmol mg(-1)), B1 was present in a short period of the exposure and C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 absent. A mass balance calculation indicated that approximately 95% of C1 + 2 and 85% of B1 supplied to the clams were converted into other toxins or lost in solution. Conversely, the net gain of 512, 61 and 31 nmol for dcSTX, dcGTX2 + 3 and dcNEO, respectively, suggests the conversion from other assimilated compounds by clams during exposure and depuration phases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins by moving magnetic particles in a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narceda, Ronald Jefferson A.; Montojo, Ulysses M.; Cayme, Mirriam F.; Borja, Valeriano M.

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  15. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Costa, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lídia; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 μg STXeq kg −1 semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were15.2 and 12.2 μg STXeq kg −1 , respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish.

  16. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Costa, Pedro, E-mail: prcosta@ipimar.pt [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Patricia [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia [Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lidia [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. 5 Outubro, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal); Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mario [Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pousao-Ferreira, Pedro [IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. 5 Outubro, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 {mu}g STXeq kg{sup -1} semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were15.2 and 12.2 {mu}g STXeq kg{sup -1}, respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish.

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01, was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%, of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%, with no more than an elementary school education (77% and married (64.6%. In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system.

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotransformation modulation and genotoxicity in white seabream upon exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins produced by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Reis; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lídia; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2012-01-15

    Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 μg STXeq kg⁻¹ semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were 15.2 and 12.2 μg STXeq kg⁻¹, respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Depuration kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Mota, Ana M; S Simões Gonçalves, Maria de Lurdes

    2010-12-01

    The kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis, previously exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum, was studied under depuration laboratory conditions and over a declining bloom of the dinoflagellate in the field. The variation of the levels observed throughout the laboratory experiment was characterized by a fast depuration of B1, C1 + 2, dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, possibly due to the gut evacuation of unassimilated toxins or microalgae cells, or loss during digestive mechanisms. Subsequent enhancements were observed for all compounds with emphasis to dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, pointing to biotransformation of the assimilated toxins. Then levels decreased gradually. A first-order depuration kinetic model fitted well to the decrease of B1, C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 concentrations, but not for dcSTX. Mussels exposed to a declining bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum exhibited a loss of toxins following the same pattern. Despite the low abundance of this dinoflagellate, a similar kinetic model was applied to the field data. The depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the field experiment (0.153 ± 0.03 day(-1)) significantly exceeded the value calculated in the laboratory (0.053 ± 0.01 day(-1)), while smaller differences were obtained for B1 (0.071 ± 0.02 and 0.048 ± 0.01 day(-1)) and similar values for C1 + 2 (0.082 ± 0.03 and 0.080 ± 0.03 day(-1)). The slower depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the heavily contaminated mussels at the laboratory may be related to a more effective contribution of C1 + 2 biotransformation.

  1. Amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxin detection in seawater using pure or amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles and SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Csilla; Glamuzina, Branko; Pozniak, Iva; Weber, Karina; Cialla, Dana; Popp, Jürgen; Cîntă Pînzaru, Simona

    2014-12-01

    Domoic acid (DA) biotoxin responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) has been unambiguously detected in seawater in a broad range of concentration, with both pure and amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles employed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To achieve this, a comprehensive SERS study on DA dissolved in distilled water has been conducted. SERS of DA dissolved in seawater in concentrations ranging from 3.3 × 10(-4) to 3.3 × 10(-8) mol l(-1) exhibited specific signal, completely different to those of the corresponding DA aqueous solutions, due to the seawater interference in the overall SERS effect. In order to assess the capability of the technique as a cheaper alternative for rapid and unambiguous detection of the DA biotoxin in seawater, three detection schemes have been proposed. DA was detectable at 0.33 nmoll(-1) concentration (0.33) dissolved in distilled water and 0.033 nmol l(-1) (0.033 ppb) in seawater respectively, much lower than the admitted level by the current regulation. A solvent specific interaction of DA with the NPs was concluded, since DA aqueous solution added to Ag nanoparticles provided different SERS signal compared to that of DA directly dissolved in seawater. Employing amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles with 4-aminothiophenol as SERS tag, SERS signal of DA on amino-AgNPs revealed significant specificity associated with the aromatic primary amine interaction of the SERS tag with DA, thus allowing DA detection in seawater at 4.16 × 10(-4) mol l(-1) concentration, much higher than in the case of pure NPs. To highlight the findings, a brief literature review to date on the DA biotoxin detection was also provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First report of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mollusks from Buenos Aires province (Argentina associated with dinophysis spp.: evidence of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and their acylderivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A Sar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010, the toxin-producing dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 were detected in Mar Azul during routine plankton monitoring in Buenos Aires Province coastal waters, Argentina. Wild clams Mesodesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus from Mar Azul intertidal beach, which are part of the diet for local inhabitants and tourists, tested positive with the offcial lipophilic mouse bioassay. This paper focuses on the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfsh Poison (DSP toxins in these samples using a HPLC-FLD pre column derivatization procedure. The data showed that shellfish were contaminated with complex DSP toxin profiles composed of Okadaic Acid (OA, Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Acyl-Dinophysistoxin-1 (Acyl-DTX-1 and Acyl-Okadaic Acid (Acyl-OA. The DSP toxins found in this study produce diarrhea symptoms consistent with those experienced by patients who had ingested cooked shellfish in January. This is the first report of Acyl-derivatives in South American Atlantic shellfish samples and of OA in Argentinean shellfish samples.Primer reporte de toxinas diarreicas de moluscos en bivalvos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina asociado con Dinophysis spp.: evidencia de Ácido Okadaico, Dinophysistoxina-1 y sus acyl-derivados. En enero de 2010, los dinoflagelados productores de toxinas Dinophysis acuminata y D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 fueron detectados en Mar Azul durante un monitoreo rutinario de fitoplancton realizado en aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mesodesma mactroides (almeja amarilla y Donax hanleyanus (berberecho del intermareal de Mar Azul, que son parte de la dieta de los habitantes del lugar y de turistas, dieron resultado positivo para toxinas lipofílicas mediante bioensayo ratón. Este trabajo está focalizado en la detección de Toxinas Diarreicas de Moluscos (DSP en muestras colectadas durante el evento de toxicidad usando un HPLC-FLD con procedimiento de derivatizaci

  4. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  5. Optimizing a method for detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish and study the effect of gamma radiation on the viral genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, Islem

    2008-01-01

    Our work was aimed at detecting the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in bivalve mollusc collected from five shellfish harvesting areas and from a coastal region in Tunisia using RT-Nested-PCR and studying the effect of gamma radiation on HAV genome. Two methods used to recover HAV from mollusc flesh and two methods of extraction of virus RNA were compared in order to determine the most sensitive method. Glycine extraction and extraction of virus RNA using proteinase K were more convenient and then used in this study for detection of HAV in shellfish. The results of molecular analyses: RT-Nested-PCR using primers targeted at the P1 region revealed that 28 % of the samples were positive for HAV. Doses of gamma irradiation ranging between 5 to 30 kGy were used to study the effect of this radiation on HAV genome after the contamination of mollusc flesh with suspension of HAV (derived from stool specimens). HAV specific genomic band was observed for doses between 5 to 20 kGy. We didn't detect HAV genome with doses 25 and 30 kGy. (Author)

  6. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  7. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  8. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  9. Molluscan shellfish farming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, B. E

    2002-01-01

    .... Some of the other chapters, describing the cultivation of bivalve larvae, on-growing of hatchery-reared oyster and clam spat, and site selection were co-authored and based on the authors' experiences...

  10. Luminescence detection of shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Carmichael, L.A.; Spencer, J.Q.; Naylor, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) has been active in the development and application of luminescence techniques in the detection of irradiated foods, in support of UK legislation. Thermoluminescence (TL), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and photo-transfer luminescence (PTTL) are radiation-specific phenomena which arise due to energy stored by trapped charge carriers following irradiation. The energy released following stimulation is accompanied by detectable luminescence. The TL method involves preparation of pure silicate extracts from the sample and subsequent TL analysis, whereas PSL uses stimulation by electromagnetic radiation (visible, or near visible wavelengths) thus avoiding heating the sample. (author)

  11. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  12. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  13. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with fish and shellfish for restaurant use. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: buying and storing fish and…

  14. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  15. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  16. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  17. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  18. Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen ( 15 N / 14 N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon ( 13 C / 12 C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Detection of Salmonella in Shellfish Using SYBR Green™ I-Based Real-Time Multiplexed PCR Assay Targeting invA and spvB

    KAUST Repository

    Gangwar, Maulshree; Waters, Alicia M.; Bej, Gautam A.; Bej, Asim K.; Mojib, Nazia

    2012-01-01

    A SYBR Green™ I-based real-time multiplexed PCR assay was developed targeting invA and spvB for the detection of Salmonella strains in shellfish after both hns and invA genes were identified in all Salmonella strains. Simultaneously, the 16S rRNA gene was used as a PCR internal amplification control (IAC). All 89 Salmonella strains tested in this study exhibited amplification of invA, whereas only 21 (23. 6 %) were PCR positive for spvB. The sensitivity of detection of all three targeted genes was 1 ng, which is equivalent to approximately 105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica. The analysis showed specific PCR products that were identified by reproducible melt temperature profiles (invA, 84. 27 ± 1. 7 °C; spvB, 88. 76 ± 1. 0 °C; and 16S rRNA gene, 87. 16 ± 0. 8 °C). The sensitivity of detection was 10 pg purified DNA (invA) or 105 CFU in 1 mL pure culture of S. enterica ATCC 14028. The above molecular detection method for Salmonella strains was successfully applied to the oyster homogenates (food matrix). An initial inoculum of 106 and 102 CFU Salmonella in 1 ml seeded oyster tissue homogenate was detected by multiplexed PCR for all three genes after 5 and 24 h of enrichment, respectively. Natural oysters isolated from Gulf of Mexico during the winter months exhibited negative PCR amplification results suggesting the absence of Salmonella. In contrast to conventional PCR, real-time multiplex PCR assay developed in this study is rapid and sensitive and will help Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference undertake appropriate measures to monitor Salmonella in oysters, thereby preventing disease outbreaks and consequently protecting consumer health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Resource use of an aquacultured shellfish in the reverse estuary Bahía San Quintín, Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, G. M.; Emery, K.; Camacho-Ibar, V.; Pace, M.; McGlathery, K.; Sandoval Gil, J.; Hernandez-Lopez, J.

    2016-02-01

    Shellfish aquaculture is prominent in many coastal and estuarine environments. Filter feeding by cultured shellfish connects the benthic and pelagic environments in coastal ecosystems. Bahía San Quintín is a reverse estuary in Baja California, Mexico, where Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are cultivated. While oysters likely feed heavily on phytoplankton especially during upwelling periods, we hypothesized that other forms of organic matter available in high quantities such as seagrass (Zostera marina) and macroalgae (Ulva spp.) must also be used by the oysters, especially in the most inshore portions of the bay. We measured the carbon and hydrogen stable isotope composition of oysters and their potential food resources at upper, mid, and lower bay sites during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons and applied a Bayesian mixing model to evaluate resource use. Hydrogen isotopes provided a large separation between potential food resources. Although we did not find any strong seasonal effects due to upwelling, there was a strong spatial gradient in resource use. Phytoplankton were most important at the lower (oceanic) site (median resource use for two sampling times, 68 and 79 %) and decreased up the estuary as macroalgae became more important (43 and 56 % at the upper site). At all sites for both sampling times, seagrass was an unimportant resource for oysters. The contrast between high phytoplankton use at the lower site and increased macroalgal use at the upper site is likely due to available resource biomass. Our results illustrate the adaptability of oysters to varying resource availability and the possibility of a higher system carrying capacity than that based on phytoplankton alone given multiple potential food sources.

  1. Detection of Salmonella in Shellfish Using SYBR Green™ I-Based Real-Time Multiplexed PCR Assay Targeting invA and spvB

    KAUST Repository

    Gangwar, Maulshree

    2012-09-23

    A SYBR Green™ I-based real-time multiplexed PCR assay was developed targeting invA and spvB for the detection of Salmonella strains in shellfish after both hns and invA genes were identified in all Salmonella strains. Simultaneously, the 16S rRNA gene was used as a PCR internal amplification control (IAC). All 89 Salmonella strains tested in this study exhibited amplification of invA, whereas only 21 (23. 6 %) were PCR positive for spvB. The sensitivity of detection of all three targeted genes was 1 ng, which is equivalent to approximately 105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of Salmonella enterica. The analysis showed specific PCR products that were identified by reproducible melt temperature profiles (invA, 84. 27 ± 1. 7 °C; spvB, 88. 76 ± 1. 0 °C; and 16S rRNA gene, 87. 16 ± 0. 8 °C). The sensitivity of detection was 10 pg purified DNA (invA) or 105 CFU in 1 mL pure culture of S. enterica ATCC 14028. The above molecular detection method for Salmonella strains was successfully applied to the oyster homogenates (food matrix). An initial inoculum of 106 and 102 CFU Salmonella in 1 ml seeded oyster tissue homogenate was detected by multiplexed PCR for all three genes after 5 and 24 h of enrichment, respectively. Natural oysters isolated from Gulf of Mexico during the winter months exhibited negative PCR amplification results suggesting the absence of Salmonella. In contrast to conventional PCR, real-time multiplex PCR assay developed in this study is rapid and sensitive and will help Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference undertake appropriate measures to monitor Salmonella in oysters, thereby preventing disease outbreaks and consequently protecting consumer health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. [Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, P

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution.

  3. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  4. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  5. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  6. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  7. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  8. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  9. Physical, chemical, marine fish, shellfish, and other data from bottle casts and bottom trawls from the JEFF AND TINA as part of the EPA/FLOWER GARDENS project from 1980-10-11 to 1981-07-27 (NODC Accession 8200169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, marine fish, shellfish, and other data from bottle casts and bottom trawls from the JEFF AND TINA from 11 October 1980 to 27 July 1981. Data were...

  10. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  11. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  12. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4jf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year-1 (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial

  13. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk to European green crab invasion [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/32t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distrubution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation

  14. Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

    2012-10-01

    The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in

  15. Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasena, W M; Ackman, R G; Gill, T A

    1999-09-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. A combination of hydrogen and air flow-rates of 50 ml/min and 1.5-2.0 l/min respectively, along with a scan time of 40 s/rod and detector current of 3.0 A (ampere) or above were found to yield the best results for the detection of PSP compounds. Increasing the detector current level to as high as 3.3 A gave about 130 times more FTID response than did flame ionization detection (FID), for PSP components. Quantities of standards as small as 1 ng neosaxitoxin (NEO), 5 ng saxitoxin (STX), 5 ng B1-toxins (B1), 2 ng gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3, 6 ng GTX 1/4 and 6 ng C-toxins (C1/C2) could be detected with the FTID. The method detection limits for toxic shellfish tissues using the FTID were 0.4, 2.1, 0.8 and 2.5 micrograms per g tissue for GTX 2/3, STX, NEO and C toxins, respectively. The FTID response increased with increasing detector current and with increasing the scan time. Increasing hydrogen and air flow-rates resulted in decreasing sensitivity within defined limits. Numerous solvent systems were tested, and, solvent consisting of chloroform: methanol-water-acetic acid (30:50:8:2) could separate C toxins from GTX, which eluted ahead of NEO and STX. Accordingly, TLC/FTID with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) seems to be a promising, relatively inexpensive and rapid method of screening plant and animal tissues for PSP toxins.

  16. Whole genome mRNA transcriptomics analysis reveals different modes of action of the diarrheic shellfish poisons okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin-1 versus azaspiracid-1 in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bovee, Toine F H; Portier, Liza; de Haan, Laura; Peijnenburg, Ad; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2018-02-01

    A study with DNA microarrays was performed to investigate the effects of two diarrhetic and one azaspiracid shellfish poison, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) respectively, on the whole-genome mRNA expression of undifferentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells. Previously, the most responding genes were used to develop a dedicated array tube test to screen shellfish samples on the presence of these toxins. In the present study the whole genome mRNA expression was analyzed in order to reveal modes of action and obtain hints on potential biomarkers suitable to be used in alternative bioassays. Effects on key genes in the most affected pathways and processes were confirmed by qPCR. OA and DTX-1 induced almost identical effects on mRNA expression, which strongly indicates that OA and DTX-1induce similar toxic effects. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicates that both compounds induce hypoxia related pathways/processes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The gene expression profile of AZA-1 is different and shows increased mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and glycolysis, suggesting a different mode of action for this toxin. Future studies should reveal whether identified pathways provide suitable biomarkers for rapid detection of DSPs in shellfish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of banned veterinary drugs and herbicide residues in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Lin, Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seafood safety is a crucial public health concern for consumers. In this study, we applied a validated method to analyze the residue of banned veterinary drugs in shellfish, namely chloramphenicol, malachite green, leucomalachite green, and nitrofuran metabolites; additionally, the QuEChERS method was employed to detect 76 herbicides by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. In total, 42 shellfish samples, which included hard clams, freshwater clams, and oysters, were collected from aquafarms and production areas in Taiwan during 2012. Our results revealed 3.8 ng/g of chloramphenicol in one hard clam, 19.9–32.1 ng/g of ametryn in two hard clams, 16.1–60.1 ng/g of pendimethalin in four hard clams, and 17.0 ng/g of mefenacet in one oyster, indicating that 19.1% of the samples contained residues from banned veterinary drugs and pesticides. These data can be used to monitor the residue of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic organisms and as a reference for food safety. - Highlights: • A certified method was employed for analyzing residues of banned veterinary drugs and herbicides in shellfish samples. • The trace levels of chloramphenicol, ametryn, pendimethalin were detected in hard clam samples. • For ensuring food safety, continual monitoring of aquatic products is necessary.

  18. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  19. Controlling factors of harmful microalgae distribution in water column, biofilm and sediment in shellfish production area (South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabes) from southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil-Baklouti, Amira; Feki-Sahnoun, Wafa; Hamza, Asma; Abdennadher, Moufida; Mahfoudhi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Jarboui, Othman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of harmful microalgae coupled with environmental factors in the most important area for natural stocks of the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus in southern Tunisia. Sampling was performed monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 in five stations through the Tunisian National Monitoring Stations Network of Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins along the southern coasts of Sfax (Gulf of Gabes). The presence of harmful microalgae species was explored in three compartments: water column, biofilm and sediment. Our results revealed fourteen species were identified belonging to dinoflagellates and diatoms with higher densities during the summer period. The co-inertia plot analysis exhibited that the seasonal fluctuations of these species were controlled by the temperature as well as the nutrients (particularly nitrogenous). Ternary diagrams showed that biofilm was the most colonized compartment by toxic benthic dinoflagellates species, namely Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum rathymum, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Coolia monotis. In addition, these species were recorded simultaneously in the water column and the sediment, a fact that could be explained by the resuspension of these benthic dinoflagellates from the biofilm by hydrodynamics. The data suggest that harmful microalgae could be the source of toxins in the studied stations, which provide support to the implication of these results on the future sampling strategy of harmful microalgae in shellfish collecting areas in Tunisia.

  20. Detection of adenoviruses in shellfish by means of conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture PCR (ICC/PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, C; Sincero, T C M; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2005-01-01

    We tested three PCR based methodologies to detect adenoviruses associated with cultivated oysters. Conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/PCR) were first optimized using oysters seeded with know amounts of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). The maximum sensitivity for Ad5 detection was determined for each method, and then used to detect natural adenovirus contamination in oysters from three aquiculture farms in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, over a period of 6 months. The results showed that the nested-PCR was more sensitive (limit of detection: 1.2 PFU/g of tissue) than conventional-PCR and ICC-PCR (limit of detection for both: 1.2 x 10(2)PFU/g of tissue) for detection of Ad5 in oyster extracts. Nested-PCR was able to detect 90% of Ad5 contamination in harvested oyster samples, while conventional-PCR was unable to detect Ad5 in any of the samples. The present work suggests that detection of human adenoviruses can be used as a tool to monitor the presence of human viruses in marine environments where shellfish grow, and that nested-PCR is the method of choice.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Urban Wastewater and Wild Shellfish Isolates of Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae from La Rance Estuary (Brittany, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Baron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The early 2000s marked the end of the Golden age of the antibiotics and the beginning of the awareness on the potential threat to human health due to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. As a base-line study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 99 strains of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated from wastewater and shellfish in 2000/2001 within La Rance estuary (Brittany, France. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, imipenem, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The only resistances were to streptomycin, sulfonamides and ampicillin: 54.6% of the isolates had acquired resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent among them and only six isolates from cockles were multidrug resistant. On the basis of the distribution of a limited selection of resistance associated genes, our study shows that V. cholerae can constitute an environmental reservoir for these genes. However, none of our isolates harbored integron. This result casts doubt on the capacity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae to acquire resistance-associated genes in such context, and on its potential role of indicator of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the aquatic environment.

  2. First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John P; Lind, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus over a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum: the prevalence of decarbamoylsaxitoxin in the marine food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs in Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus over a bloom of the toxigenic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. High levels of toxins, up to 4800 μg STXeq kg–1, were registered at the peak of the bloom (5.0 103 cells l–1. The suite of individual PSTs was examined. Decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX and B1 constituted nearly 90% of toxins (on a molar basis determined in mackerel. This profile of toxins markedly differs from the known profile of toxins produced by G. catenatum strains isolated from the Portuguese coast, which is dominated by N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins, in particular the C1+2 toxins. The prevalence of the potent dcSTX in the pelagic environment and its transfer through the marine food web is highlighted in this study. Atlantic horse mackerel is identified as a high potential vector of PSTs along the Portuguese coast. This fish species has a central position in the marine food web, being an important predator of zooplankton and at the same time an important diet item of top predators. This study reveals bioaccumulation values that are important for evaluating potential impacts of blooms of PST-producing dinoflagellates on marine ecosystems or their components, such as fish.

  4. Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment.

  5. The identification of critical groups and its application to fish and shellfish consumers in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Hewett, C.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Control of radioactive waste disposal to the environment, based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), necessitates an identification of the critical group of members of the public exposed from a given practice. Criteria for identification of critical groups based mainly on ICRP recommendations are discussed. Methods existing up to 1974 are briefly reviewed in the light of these criteria. Two more recent methods are described and compared on the basis of previous data; these methods, which are complementary, are based on homogeneity considerations and satisfy the criteria generally rather better than do the earlier methods. The application of the newer techniques to recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea is described, in relation to discharges from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The results of this survey are presented, and estimates are given of the effective dose equivalent to members of these critical groups in recent years, to show the effect of liquid discharges from Windscale in terms of public radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Detection, occurrence and monthly variations of typical lipophilic marine toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in the coastal seawater of Qingdao City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Zhaoyong; Chen, Junhui; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Rutan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoru

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, related research has mainly examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in contaminated bivalves or toxic algae, whereas the levels of LMTs in seawater remain largely unexplored. Okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX), and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) are three typical LMTs produced by certain marine algae that are closely linked to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In this study, a new method of solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was developed to determine the presence of OA, YTX, and PTX2 in seawater simultaneously. Satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability (RSDseawater. OA and PTX2 were detected in all the seawater samples collected from eight locations along the coastline of Qingdao City, China on October 23, 2012, with concentration ranges of OA 4.24-9.64ngL(-1) and PTX2 0.42-0.74ngL(-1). Monthly concentrations of OA and PTX2 in the seawater of four locations were determined over the course of a year, with concentration ranges of OA 1.41-89.52ngL(-1) and PTX2 below detectable limit to 1.70ngL(-1). The peak values of OA and PTX2 in coastal seawater were observed in August and July, respectively. Our results suggest that follow-up research on the fate modeling and risk assessment of LMTs in coastal seawater should be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  8. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  9. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  10. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  11. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  12. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  13. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  14. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  15. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  16. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  17. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  18. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  19. Tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons in gastropod species from Vietnam analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chin Jen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among marine toxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs are known as notorious neurotoxins that induce serious food poisoning incidents in the Southeast Asia region. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TTX and PSP toxins are important issues of seafood safety. Paralytic toxicity was observed in mice exposed to 34 specimens from five species of gastropods using a PSP bioassay. Five species of gastropods, Natica vitellus, Natica tumidus, Oliva hirasei, Oliva lignaria, and Oliva annulata, were collected from the coastal seawaters in Nha Trang City, Vietnam, between August 2007 and October 2007. The average lethal potency of gastropod specimens was 90 ± 40 (mean ± standard deviation mouse units (MU for N. vitellus, 64 ± 19 MU for N. tumidus, 42 ± 28 MU for O. hirasei, 51 ± 17 MU for O. lignaria, and 39 ± 18 MU for O. annulata. All toxic extracts from the sample species were clarified using a C18 Sep-Pak solid-phase extraction column and a microcentrifuge filter prior to analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection indicated that the toxins of the olive shell (O. hirasei, O. lignaria, and O. annulata were mainly composed of saxitoxin (STX (73–82%, gonyautoxin (GTX 2, 3 (12–22%, and minor levels of TTX (5–6%. The toxins of N. vitellus and N. tumidus were mainly composed of STX (76–81% and GTX 1, 4 (19–24%. Furthermore, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to verify the identity of the PSPs and TTX. Our evidence shows that these gastropods have novel toxin profiles.

  20. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Finiguerra

    Full Text Available The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST. Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI or wild-type isoforms (PWI, while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI. There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR, ingestion rate (I, and gross growth efficiency (GGE for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  1. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae. PMID:28974018

  2. Presenting information on regulation values improves the public’s sense of safety: Perceived mercury risk in fish and shellfish and its effects on consumption intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mai; Yamaguchi, Tomiko

    2017-01-01

    Risk communication aims to promote health and understanding through information exchange; however, explanations regarding the basis of regulation values for the public are insufficient. Moreover, it is unclear how information presentation affects the public’s sense of safety and their consumption intentions. We first investigated the relationship between perception of mercury-risk in fish and shellfish and individual attributes and knowledge. We then examined how presenting information on regulation values and primary factors regarding perception affected sense of safety toward regulations and food-consumption intentions. An online survey was conducted with Japanese individuals (N = 1148). Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three groups based on the presentation level of regulation values. People who frequently consumed tuna had a high perception of dread risk of mercury. This suggests that the dread risk perception of mercury does not determine tuna-type consumption behavior; rather, individuals’ consumption behavior determines dread risk perception of mercury. Among those with high tuna-type consumption, those receiving information that a safety factor of 10 times had been considered showed a significantly greater sense of safety than did the group that was not presented with information on regulation values (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.04 (1.18–3.53), p values showed a weak but significantly positive correlation with excessive intake of tuna-type fish (odds ratio: 2.95 (0.93–9.32), p values increases sense of safety; however, it may also lead to excessive intake. PMID:29267301

  3. Monitoring of Dinophysis species and diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Flødevigen Bay, Norway: inter-annual variability over a 25-year time-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naustvoll, L-J; Gustad, E; Dahl, E

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of phycotoxins in bivalve mussels associated with mussels feeding on toxic phytoplankton is a well-known phenomenon in Norway. Regular monitoring for 25 years has revealed that accumulation of Diarrhetic Shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in mussels is the main phycotoxin problem along the Norwegian coast. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible trends over time of Dinophysis spp. and DSP as well as possible correlation between abundance of Dinophysis spp. and toxin accumulation in mussels, as based on intensive and regular monitoring at the southern coast of Norway at Flødevigen Bay. The main source organism causing a risk of DSP in Norway is Dinophysis acuta. However, it cannot be excluded that other Dinophysis spp., e.g. D. acuminata and D. norvegica, may contribute to the total accumulation of toxins. The variability in the occurrence of these species is high at both short- and long-term; between days and between years. There are, however, some important overall patterns in the occurrence of the species during the last decades. Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica have mainly been abundant from March to December, whereas D. acuta has typically occurred in late summer and autumn (August-December). For all three species we have observed a narrowing of the peak season since 2002 at the same time as they have become less abundant. Coincident with these changes, the problem of the accumulation of DSP toxins in mussels along the southern coast of Norway has declined significantly, but it is still mainly restricted to the autumn. Why the cell concentration of Dinophysis spp. has declined after 2002 is not obvious, but this has occurred in a period with relatively high summer temperatures. The relatively simultaneous changes in physical, chemical and biological factors of the pelagic ecosystem along the southern coast of Norway indicate that complicated ecological interactions may be involved.

  4. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima, and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58% and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%. Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  5. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-09-30

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima ( P. lima ), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%-100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima . The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9-34.0 and 15.2-27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70-79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  6. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  7. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated shellfish and spices; Elektronenspinresonanz-spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Identifizierung bestrahlter Krustentiere und Gewuerze: Durchfuehrung eines Ringversuches an Nordseekrabben, Kaisergranat und Paprikapulver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helle, N. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Linke, B. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Boegl, K.W. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Schreiber, G.A. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A multilateral study on common shrimps, Norway lobster and paprika powder. The use of ESR spectroscopy in shellfish and some types of spice for the detection of previous irradiation is possible even on a routine basis. The radicals producing the specific ESR signals observed could at least in part be identified (CO{sup 2} radicals in shellfish, cellulose radicals in paprica) and the overall rate of correct classifications was seen to be very high for this multicentre study. The multicentre study has further been able to prove that previous reservations about ESR as a method of detection are no longer justified. The authors hold that there is no reason in principle why ESR should not be on the list of officially recommended methods for the examination of shellfish and spices according to paragraph35 LMBG. Nevertheless, the two groups of food at issue here need to be investigated in more detail in a number of further research projects, some of which are mentioned in the following: - investigations on further species of shellfish so as to obtain a broad range of spectra for routine controls; - structural identification of radiation-specific radicals generated in addition to the CO{sup 2} radical; - investigations into the influences of origin, time of fishing and stage of development on the ESR spectra of fishes; - examinations of further spices; - elucidation of links between cellulose contents and radical concentration. (orig./vhe) [Deutsch] Die Identifizierung bestrahlter Krustentiere und einiger bestrahlter Gewuerze mit Hilfe der ESR-Spektroskopie ist auch in der Routine moeglich. Die fuer die beobachteten spezifischen ESR-Signale verantwortlichen Radikale konnten zumindest teilweise identifiziert werden (CO{sup 2-} - Radikal bei Krustentieren, Cellulose-Radikal bei Paprika) und im Ringversuch wurde eine sehr hohe Quote richtiger Identifizierungen erreicht. Der Ringversuch hat zudem bewiesen, dass die bisher zur ESR-Methode geaeusserten prinzipiellen Bedenken

  8. Paralytic shellfish toxin profile in strains of the dinoflagellate Gymnodium cataenatum and the scallop Argopecten ventricosus G.B. Sowerby II from Bahia Concepción, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Band Schmidt, Christine Johanna; Bustillos Guzmán, José J.; Gárate Lizárraga, Ismael; Lechuga Deveze, Carlos; Reinhardt, K.; Luckas, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is a paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) producer that was described for the first time from the Gulf of California in 1943. During the last decade, its distribution along the Mexican Pacific coastline has increased. In Bahía Concepción, a coastal lagoon on the western side of the Gulf of California, G. catenatum has been linked to significant PSP concentrations found in mollusks. In this study, we describe the saxitoxin profile of 16 strains of G. catenatum, and cat...

  9. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized

  10. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  11. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  12. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  13. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia): coalification and thermal history.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A.; Zhykalyak, M.V.; Bueker, C.; Panova, E.A.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and

  14. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  15. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, I.; Gonzalez-Costas, J.M.; Bendicho, C.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO 3 or the mixture HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H 2 O 2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H 2 O 2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H 2 O 2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H 2 O 2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 μg g -1

  16. Complex profiles of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds in Gymnodinium catenatum identified by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-06-27

    The presence of hydrophobic analogues of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) was studied in a Portuguese strain of Gymnodinium catenatum by conventional pre-column oxidation HPLC after a prolonged acetonitrile gradient coupled with fluorescence detection. Prior separation of hydrophobic PSTs analogues from hydrophilic analogues was done by solid-phase extraction (SPE) partitioning on a C18 cartridge. Several unknown oxidation products, with emission spectra similar to known PSTs, appeared after periodate or hydrogen peroxide oxidation. The compounds producing these oxidation products could be grouped into three major sub-groups according to SPE partitioning. The first one eluting with 10 and 20% MeOH, produced the first set of oxidation products observed after the saxitoxin oxidation product. The second one eluting with 30-100% MeOH produced the second set of oxidation products. The third one eluted with acidified 90% MeOH produced the third and last set of oxidation products. Additionally, the oxidation products corresponding to decarbamoyl gonyautoxins and decarbamoyl saxitoxins were also abundant, resulting from ester cleavage of the benzoate side chain of these compounds during the oxidation. Analysis of these fractions by LC-MS demonstrated the second sub-group was constituted by analogues of the 11-hydroxysulfated GC1/GC2, while the third sub-group was constituted by analogues of GC3, which lack the 11-hydroxysulfate. In addition to GC1/GC2 and GC3, novel analogues differing by 16u could be related, respectively, to the N1-hydroxyl analogues of GC1-GC3, designated GC4-GC6. A novel family of GC analogues, differing, by 16u from GC1-GC6, were hypothesized to possess an extra hydroxyl in the benzoate side chain, existing in both N1-hydroxylated and non-N1-hydroxylated variants, and tentatively designated GC1a-GC6a. The first sub-group was hypothesized to constitute an additional novel family of GC analogues with a hydroxysulfate group instead of the

  17. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus on Georges Bank: Implications for an offshore roe-on and whole scallop fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Vanegas, Camilo; Conrad, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    To protect public health from the potential risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, from the Atlantic offshore U.S. waters of Georges Bank, harvesting of roe-on or whole scallops is banned. Only adductor muscles may be sold if harvested from Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, or the PSP closure areas as far west as 71° West Longitude. Given the limited toxicity data available for sea scallops from this region both prior to and subsequent to implementation of this management strategy, this study sought a more extensive spatial and temporal evaluation of sea scallop gonad and viscera toxicities that would inform management decisions related to the roe-on and whole scallop fishery. Both overall toxicity and toxin composition were measured for sea scallop gonads and viscera collected from 232 stations in 2007 and 23 in 2010. Overall toxicity was assessed using two screening methods: field-deployable Jellett Rapid Tests (JRT) and quantitative, laboratory-based receptor binding assays (in 2007). Additionally, a quantitative liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) method was used to determine toxin composition and overall toxicity (in 2010). The at-sea qualitative JRT screening tool results, whereby a positive indicated the sample contained at least 40 μg saxitoxin (STX) equivalents 100 g-1, were often inconsistent with results obtained using the quantitative methods. Sea scallop viscera toxicity represented the majority of toxin load in the organism and was often in excess of the regulatory guidance level. Sea scallop gonads accounted for a small percentage of total toxicity, but at times reached unsafe levels. Toxin composition in both the gonads and viscera was dominated by STX and gonyautoxin 2/3, as has been reported in previous studies. No predictive indices of gonad toxicity were found. Results at this time do not support a roe-on or whole scallop fishery on Georges Bank. While access restrictions to

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  20. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  1. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Mei Sim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the world, river basins often interwoven into two or more states or prefectures and because of that, disputes over water are common. Nevertheless, not all shared river basins are associated with water conflicts. Rivers in Japan and Malaysia play a significant role in regional economic development. They also play a significant role as water sources for industrial, domestic, agricultural, aquaculture, hydroelectric power generation, and the environment. The research aim is to determine the similarities and differences between the Sagami and Muda River Basins in order to have a better understanding of the governance needed for effectively implementing the lessons drawn from the Sagami River Basin for improving the management of the Muda River Basin in Malaysia. This research adopts qualitative and quantitative approaches. Semi-structured interviews were held with the key stakeholders from both basins and show that Japan has endeavored to present policy efforts to accommodate the innovative approaches in the management of their water resources, including the establishment of a river basin council. In Malaysia, there is little or no stakeholder involvement in the Muda River Basin, and the water resource management is not holistic and is not integrated as it should be. Besides that, there is little or no Integrated Resources Water Management, a pre-requisite for sustainable water resources. The results from this comparative study concluded that full support and participation from public stakeholders (meaning the non-government and non-private sector stakeholders is vital for achieving sustainable water use in the Muda River Basin. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM approaches such as the introduction of payments for ecosystems services and the development of river basin organization in the Muda River Basin should take place in the spirit of political willingness.

  2. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  3. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  4. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  5. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  6. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  7. K Basins Field Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Field Verification Program establishes a uniform and systematic process to ensure that technical information depicted on selected engineering drawings accurately reflects the actual existing physical configuration. This document defines the Field Verification Program necessary to perform the field walkdown and inspection process that identifies the physical configuration of the systems required to support the mission objectives of K Basins. This program is intended to provide an accurate accounting of the actual field configuration by documenting the as-found information on a controlled drawing

  8. Identification of basin characteristics influencing spatial variation of river flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Stein, A.

    2006-01-01

    The selection of basin characteristics that explain spatial variation of river flows is important for hydrological regionalization as this enables estimation of flow statistics of ungauged basins. A direct gradient analysis method, redundancy analysis, is used to identify basin characteristics,

  9. Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream Flow Records. ... river gauge stations in the basin using the empirical orthogonal function analysis ... the study basin to be grouped into four homogenous hydrological zones that ...

  10. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  11. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  12. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin ... accompanied by passive subsidence. ... margins, whereas the concentration of fine-grained clastic sediments and ..... concentrated at the marginal areas of the basin. .... faults favoured the accumulation of alluvial fan.

  13. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basins display marked similarities in their lithology, depositional setting and stratigraphic architecture. (Naqvi and Rogers 1987). This note sum- marises the stratigraphy, stratal architecture, sed- imentology and geochronology of the Vindhyan. Supergroup occurring in the Son valley region. (figure 1). 2. The Vindhyan basin.

  14. Attractors and basins of dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Dénes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several programs for studying dynamical systems, but none of them is very useful for investigating basins and attractors of higher dimensional systems. Our goal in this paper is to show a new algorithm for finding even chaotic attractors and their basins for these systems. We present an implementation and examples for the use of this program.

  15. K-Basin isolation barrier seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents various aspects of the design, analysis, procurement, and fabrication of the hydraulic seal on the isolation barriers to be installed in the 100-K Area spent nuclear fuel basin. The isolation barrier is used to keep water in the basin in the event of an earthquake

  16. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  17. 105-KE basin pilot run relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the bases for selecting the exact in-facility location for installation of process equipment to support pilot testing activities in the 105-KE Basin at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The 105-KE Basin was constructed during the early 1950s, as an integralcomponent of the 105-K East reactor building. Similar basins were provided in all Hanford weapons production reactor buildings to receive fuel elements discharged from the reactors and stage them for rail transport to 200 Area fuel reprocessing plants. The 105-KE reactor began operation in 1955. It was shut down in 1971. However, the 105-KE Basin was reactivated several years later to store spent fuel from the N-Reactor basin and permit its continued operation during outages at the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant in the 200E Area

  18. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  19. An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, J.W.; Haase, C.S.; Lozinsky, R.P. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Development of valid hydrogeologic models of New Mexico`s ``critical groundwater basins`` has been a long-term objective of the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR), a division of New Mexico Tech. The best possible information on basin hydrogeology is needed not only for incorporation in numerical models of groundwater-flow systems, which are necessary for proper management of limited water resources, but also for addressing public concerns relating to a wide range of important environmental issues. In the latter case, a hydrogeologist must be prepared to provide appropriate explanations of why groundwater systems behave physically and chemically as they do in both natural and man-disturbed situations. The paper describes the regional geologic setting, the geologic setting of the Albuquerque Basin, basin- and valley-fill stratigraphy, and the hydrogeologic model of the Albuquerque Basin. 77 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Klamath River Basin water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2018-05-29

    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  1. Study of polonium and lead in shellfish (Mytilus Edulis) from NORM discharge area of Aberdeen Bay and Ythan Estuary of Scotland and radiological impact to the local people and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyajit Ghose; Brian Heaton

    2005-01-01

    can be made it is essential that the release rates of the nuclides from the discharges are known. If polonium becomes available in the marine environment from these discharges they will contribute to the impact on the environment. In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local people and the environment, a comprehensive study was set up in order to determine the full extent of TENORM and NORM outputs and the impact that these radionuclides were having on the environment. The main aim of this study concerned the quantification of the levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb in shellfish species and other environmental samples taken from around Aberdeen, and use them as bio-indicators for the analysis of Polonium-210 and Lead-210 with particular emphasis on the seasonal variation in Mytilus edulis at one site of Ythan estuary. There was a supplementary programme undertaken to some dose assessment work relevant to human consumption of shellfish. Additionally, the study of the distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Pb between the filtered, particulate phases, sediment and mussels can provide interesting in formation about their behaviour in this aquatic system. Experimental Radiochemical separation and α Spectrometer with Dual surface barrier detector was used to count the polonium a particles. A Perspex disc holder for polonium deposition was specially designed to be held in a stirrer and to fit inside a 150-200 ml breaker. The holder provides positive protection to one face of the silver disc. Silver disc with a thickness of 0.2 mm and 25 mm in diameter was used for 210 Po spontaneous deposition. Results: The measured 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in filtrate water, sediment, particulate matter and mussel samples are reported. Some results are presented in Figure 1 and Table 1. Correlations between 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in mussel and related environmental samples, mussel wet weight and size are presented. The Condition

  2. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam, Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae, in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gárate-Lizárraga

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence and toxic profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST in the chocolata clam Megapitaria squalida were investigated. From December 2001 to December 2002, 25 clams were obtained monthly from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Additionally, net (20 µm and bottle phytoplankton samples were also collected to identify toxic species. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Toxicity in the clam was low and varied from 0.14 to 5.46 µg/STXeq/100 g. Toxicity was detected in December, March, April, June, and August. Toxin profile was composed mainly by STX, GTX2, GTX3, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, C2, dcSTX and B1. Gymnodinium catenatum was the only PST-producing dinoflagellate identified in the phytoplankton samples throughout the study period. G. catenatum was observed mainly in net samples from December 2001 to December 2002; however, in bottle samples, G. catenatum was only observed in five months. Highest abundance (2 600 cells l-1 was observed in March and the lowest (160 cells l-1 in June. G. catenatum mainly formed two-cell chains and rarely four or eight. The presence of PST in net phytoplankton samples support the fact that G. catenatum is the main source of PST in the clams. This study represents the first report of PST toxins in the chocolata clam from Bahía de La PazSe investigó la ocurrencia así como los perfiles de toxinas paralíticas (PST en la almeja chocolata Megapitaria squalida (Sowerby, 1835, de la cual se recolectaron mensualmente 25 ejemplares de diciembre del 2001 a diciembre del 2000 en La Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Simultáneamente, se obtuvieron muestras de fitoplancton de botella y de red (20 µM para identificar especies tóxicas, así como para detectar la presencia de toxinas paralíticas. Las toxinas se analizaron por HPLC con una oxidación post-columna y detección fluorescente. La toxicidad en las almejas fue baja y varió de 0.14 a 5.46 µg/STXeq/100 g y se

  3. Estimating the contribution of N-sulfocarbamoyl paralytic shellfish toxin analogs GTX6 and C3+4 to the toxicity of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) over a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Rodrigues, Susana Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Gymnodinium catenatum, a dinoflagellate species with a global distribution, is known to produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The profile of toxins of G. catenatum is commonly dominated by sulfocarbamoyl analogs including the C3+4 and GTX6, which to date has no commercial certified reference materials necessary for their quantification via chemical methods, such as liquid chromatography. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of C3+4 and GTX6 and their contribution to shellfish toxicity. C3+4 and GTX6 were indirectly quantified via pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after hydrolysis conversion into their carbamate analogs. Analyses were carried out in mussel samples collected over a bloom of G. catenatum (>63×10 3 cellsl -1 ) in Aveiro lagoon, NW Portuguese coast. Concentration levels of sulfocarbamoyl toxin analogs were two orders of magnitude higher than decarbamoyl toxins, which were in turn one order of magnitude higher than carbamoyl toxins. Among the sulfocarbamoyl toxins, C1+2 were clearly the dominant compounds, followed by C3+4 and GTX6. The least abundant sulfocarbamoyl toxin was GTX5. The most important compounds in terms of contribution for sample toxicity were C1+2, which justified 26% of the PSP toxicity. The lesser abundant dcSTX constitutes the second most important compound with similar % of toxicity to C1+2, C3+4 and GTX6 were responsible for approximately 11% and 13%, respectively. The median of the sum of C3+4 and GTX6 was 27%. These levels reached a maximum of 60% as was determined for the sample collected closest to the G. catenatum bloom. This study highlights the importance of these low potency PSP toxin analogs to shellfish toxicity. Hydrolysis conversion of C3+4 and GTX6 is recommended for determination of PSP toxicity when LC detection methods are used for PSP testing in samples exposed to G. catenatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and single-laboratory validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of microcystins and nodularin in natural water, cyanobacteria, shellfish and algal supplement tablet powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Waack, Julia; Lewis, Adam; Edwards, Christine; Lawton, Linda

    2018-02-01

    A simple, rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and optimised for the quantitation of microcystins and nodularin in wide variety of sample matrices. Microcystin analogues targeted were MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LA, MC-LY, MC-LF, LC-LW, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Asp3] MC-LR, [Dha7] MC-LR, MC-HilR and MC-HtyR. Optimisation studies were conducted to develop a simple, quick and efficient extraction protocol without the need for complex pre-analysis concentration procedures, together with a rapid sub 5min chromatographic separation of toxins in shellfish and algal supplement tablet powders, as well as water and cyanobacterial bloom samples. Validation studies were undertaken on each matrix-analyte combination to the full method performance characteristics following international guidelines. The method was found to be specific and linear over the full calibration range. Method sensitivity in terms of limits of detection, quantitation and reporting were found to be significantly improved in comparison to LC-UV methods and applicable to the analysis of each of the four matrices. Overall, acceptable recoveries were determined for each of the matrices studied, with associated precision and within-laboratory reproducibility well within expected guidance limits. Results from the formalised ruggedness analysis of all available cyanotoxins, showed that the method was robust for all parameters investigated. The results presented here show that the optimised LC-MS/MS method for cyanotoxins is fit for the purpose of detection and quantitation of a range of microcystins and nodularin in shellfish, algal supplement tablet powder, water and cyanobacteria. The method provides a valuable early warning tool for the rapid, routine extraction and analysis of natural waters, cyanobacterial blooms, algal powders, food supplements and shellfish tissues, enabling monitoring labs to supplement traditional microscopy techniques and report toxicity results within a short timeframe of sample receipt. The new

  5. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  6. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  7. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  8. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  9. Deleware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  12. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  15. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  16. Bottom water circulation in Cascadia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.; Paul Johnson, H.; Hammond, Douglas E.

    2009-10-01

    A combination of beta spiral and minimum length inverse methods, along with a compilation of historical and recent high-resolution CTD data, are used to produce a quantitative estimate of the subthermocline circulation in Cascadia Basin. Flow in the North Pacific Deep Water, from 900-1900 m, is characterized by a basin-scale anticyclonic gyre. Below 2000 m, two water masses are present within the basin interior, distinguished by different potential temperature-salinity lines. These water masses, referred to as Cascadia Basin Bottom Water (CBBW) and Cascadia Basin Deep Water (CBDW), are separated by a transition zone at about 2400 m depth. Below the depth where it freely communicates with the broader North Pacific, Cascadia Basin is renewed by northward flow through deep gaps in the Blanco Fracture Zone that feeds the lower limb of a vertical circulation cell within the CBBW. Lower CBBW gradually warms and returns to the south at lighter density. Isopycnal layer renewal times, based on combined lateral and diapycnal advective fluxes, increase upwards from the bottom. The densest layer, existing in the southeast quadrant of the basin below ˜2850 m, has an advective flushing time of 0.6 years. The total volume flushing time for the entire CBBW is 2.4 years, corresponding to an average water parcel residence time of 4.7 years. Geothermal heating at the Cascadia Basin seafloor produces a characteristic bottom-intensified temperature anomaly and plays an important role in the conversion of cold bottom water to lighter density within the CBBW. Although covering only about 0.05% of the global seafloor, the combined effects of bottom heat flux and diapycnal mixing within Cascadia Basin provide about 2-3% of the total required global input to the upward branch of the global thermohaline circulation.

  17. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  18. Estimating Stream Discharge of Aboine River Basin of Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    of inter-basin parameters showed that the Aboine drainage basin is basically a flat surface. This ... on the fluvial system and also for predicting the basin output variables. Surface .... outflows of rainwater from the basin as has been done by ...

  19. A proposal for an administrative set up of river basin management in the Sittaung River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Zaw Lwin; Ni, Bo; Tun, Sein; Nesheim, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a proposal for how an administrative approach based on River Basin Management can be implemented in Myanmar. The Sittaung River Basin has been used as an example area to investigate how the basin can be administered according to the IWRM principles of cooperation between the different sectors and the administrative units, including stakeholder involvement. Ministry of Natural Resource and Environmental Conservation, Myanmar Norwegian Ministry of For...

  20. Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin (Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Martínez-Moreno, Francisco José; Calvo-Rayo, Raquel; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins. The Alhabia basin, situated in the central part of the Internal Zones, is located at the intersection of the Alpujarran Corridor, the Tabernas basin, both trending E-W, and the NW-SE oriented Gádor-Almería basin. The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. The basin is limited to the North by the Sierra de Filabres and Sierra Nevada antiforms that started to develop in Serravallian times under N-S shortening and to the south by Sierra Alhamilla and Sierra de Gádor antiforms. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults. In this setting, NE-SW extension, orthogonal to the shortening direction, was accommodated by normal faults on the SW edge of Sierra Alhamilla. The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection. This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

  1. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  2. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  3. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  4. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.

    1995-09-22

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  5. K-Basins S/RIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES(ampersand)H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  6. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  7. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  8. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    and made recommendations for an intergrated water plan for the Basin and included a specific Early Action Plan. Concerning flood damage reduction, the...transportation and by agriculture as a source of income and occupation. The river served as a source of transportation for trade and commerce and also as a... trade patterns, and labor market areas. The Susquehanna River Basin is largely comprised of BEA economic areas 011, 012, 013, and 016. Figure II shows the

  9. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  10. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10 6 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10 6 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  12. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  13. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.

    2004-01-01

    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  14. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  15. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  16. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  17. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  18. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  19. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  20. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  1. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new...... data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted...... to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior...

  2. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  4. Corrosion in ICPP fuel storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant currently stores irradiated nuclear fuel in fuel storage basins. Historically, fuel has been stored for over 30 years. During the 1970's, an algae problem occurred which required higher levels of chemical treatment of the basin water to maintain visibility for fuel storage operations. This treatment led to higher levels of chlorides than seen previously which cause increased corrosion of aluminum and carbon steel, but has had little effect on the stainless steel in the basin. Corrosion measurements of select aluminum fuel storage cans, aluminum fuel storage buckets, and operational support equipment have been completed. Aluminum has exhibited good general corrosion rates, but has shown accelerated preferential attack in the form of pitting. Hot dipped zinc coated carbon steel, which has been in the basin for approximately 40 years, has shown a general corrosion rate of 4 mpy, and there is evidence of large shallow pits on the surface. A welded Type 304 stainless steel corrosion coupon has shown no attack after 13 years exposure. Galvanic couples between carbon steel welded to Type 304 stainless steel occur in fuel storage yokes exposed to the basin water. These welded couples have shown galvanic attack as well as hot weld cracking and intergranular cracking. The intergranular stress corrosion cracking is attributed to crevices formed during fabrication which allowed chlorides to concentrate

  5. Satellite altimetry over large hydrological basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    The use of satellite altimetry for hydrological applications, either it is basin management or hydrological modeling really started with the 21st century. Before, during two decades, the efforts were concentrated on the data processing until a precision of a few decimeters could be achieved. Today, several web sites distribute hundreds of series spread over hundeds of rivers runing in the major basins of the world. Among these, the Amazon basin has been the most widely studied. Satellite altimetry is now routinely used in this transboundary basin to predict discharges ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. In a few years, satellite altimetry should evolve dramatically. This year, we should see the launchs of Jason-3 and that of Sentinel-3A operating in SAR mode. With SAR, the accuracy and resolution of a growing number of measurements should be improved. In 2020, SWOT will provide a full coverage that will join in a unique framework all the previous and forthcoming missions. These technical and thematical evolutions will be illustrated by examples taken in the Amazon and Congo basin.

  6. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D basin model of the Paris basin is presented in order to simulate through geological times fluid, heat and solute fluxes. This study emphasizes: i) the contribution of basin models to the quantitative hydrodynamic understanding of behaviour of the basin over geological times; ii) the additional use of Atmospheric General Circulation model (AGCM) to provide palaeo-climatic boundaries for a coupled flow and mass transfer modelling, constrained by geochemical and isotopic tracers and; iii) the integration of different types of data (qualitative and quantitative) to better constrain the simulations. Firstly, in a genetic way, basin model is used to reproduce geological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the course of the 248 My evolution of the Paris basin that ought to explain the present-day hydraulic properties at the regional scale. As basin codes try to reproduce some of these phenomena, they should be able to give a plausible idea of the regional-scale permeability distribution of the multi-layered system, of the pre-industrial hydrodynamic conditions within the aquifers and of the diagenesis timing and type of hydrodynamic processes involved. Secondly, climate records archived in the Paris basin groundwater suggest that climate and morphological features have an impact on the hydrogeological processes, particularly during the last 5 My. An Atmospheric General Circulation model is used with a refined spatial resolution centred on the Paris basin to reproduce the climate for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky) and the middle Pliocene (3 My). These climates will be prescribed, through forcing functions to the hydrological code with the main objective of understanding the way aquifers and aquitards react under different climate conditions, the period and the duration of these effects. Finally, the Paris basin has been studied for a number of years by different scientific communities, thus a large amount of data has been collected. By

  7. Performance analysis of double basin solar still with evacuated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitesh N Panchal; Shah, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Solar still is a very simple device, which is used for solar distillation process. In this research work, double basin solar still is made from locally available materials. Double basin solar still is made in such a way that, outer basin is exposed to sun and lower side of inner basin is directly connected with evacuated tubes to increase distillate output and reducing heat losses of a solar still. The overall size of the lower basin is about 1006 mm x 325 mm x 380 mm, the outer basin is about 1006 mm x 536 mm x 100 mm Black granite gravel is used to increase distillate output by reducing quantity of brackish or saline water in the both basins. Several experiments have conducted to determine the performance of a solar still in climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23 degree 59' and longitude of 72 degree 38'), Gujarat, like a double basin solar still alone, double basin solar still with different size black granite gravel, double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and different size black granite gravel. Experimental results show that, connecting evacuated tubes with the lower side of the inner basin increases daily distillate output of 56% and is increased by 60%, 63% and 67% with average 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm size black granite gravel. Economic analysis of present double basin solar still is 195 days. (authors)

  8. Tulare Lake Basin Hydrology and Hydrography: A Summary of the Movement of Water and Aquatic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the historic and current hydrology of the Tulare Lake Basin (Basin) describing past, present and potential future movement of water out of the Basin, and potential movement of bioiogical organisms and toxicants within and outside of the Basin.

  9. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  10. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Environmental education for river-basin planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S K

    1980-08-01

    Harmonious intervention in land use, a result of environmental education and good planning, can increase the social and economic benefits without precluding development. Modern river basin planning began as a US innovation in 1874 over the subject of water regulation in the west. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was devised as a state tool for comprehensive river basin planning and development. The TVA example was not repeated in the other 10 US basins by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, although the concept of unified development has survived as a three-part relationship of physical,biological, and human forces in which any malfunctioning of one subsystem affects the others. This is evident in problems of water transfer from agricultural to industrial functions and changes to drainage patterns. The potential damage from ignoring these relationships can be avoided with true interdisciplinary communications. 24 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  12. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, W.R.; Laney, T.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, open-quotes Guide for Operational Configuration Management Programclose quotes

  13. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon....... It is known that inversion of these basins occurred in two phases: an initial one of transpressional shortening involving reverse activation of former normal faults and a subsequent one of uplift of the earlier developed inversion axis and a shift of sedimentary depocentres, and that this is a response...... to changes in the regional intraplate stress field. This European intraplate deformation is considered in thecontext of a new model of the present-day stress field of Europe (and the North Atlantic) caused by lithospheric potential energy variations. Stresses causingbasin inversion of Europe must have been...

  14. Engineering assessment of 105 K basin monorails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frier, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The engineering assessment of the 105 K Basins monorails was performed to provide the engineering analysis to justify the existing basin north-south monorail capacity. The existing monorails have a capacity of 2400 lbs posted on the north-south monorails. The engineering assessment concluded that the monorail, hanger system, and trolleys all rate for a 2000 lb capacity. Based upon a 2,500 lb trolley load, the monorails, the hanger system, and the double trolley hoist system will rate for 2,500 lbs. The single trolley hoist system for handling the fuel canisters and the trolley systems used in the various transfer areas are limited by manufacturers to 2,000 lbs. Therefore, it is concluded from this engineering assessment that the 2,400 lb capacity posting for the north-south basin monorails is appropriate

  15. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  16. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  17. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  18. Acid/Caustic Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.

    1986-12-01

    There are six Acid/Caustic Basins at SRP, all of which are located in the reactor and separations areas. These basins are unlined earthen depressions with nominal dimensions of 15.2 m in length x 15.2 m in width x 2.1 m in depth. They were used to provide mixing and partial neutralization of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions from water treatment facilities before these solutions were discharged to tributaries of local streams. Closure options considered for the Acid/Caustic Basins are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via general pathways for the three postulated closure options. A cost estimate for each closure was also made

  19. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  20. Mapping Monthly Water Scarcity in Global Transboundary Basins at Country-Basin Mesh Based Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Dagmawi Mulugeta; Weijun, He; Zaiyi, Liao; Liang, Yuan; Zhengwei, Huang; Min, An

    2018-02-01

    Currently fresh water scarcity is an issue with huge socio-economic and environmental impacts. Transboundary river and lake basins are among the sources of fresh water facing this challenge. Previous studies measured blue water scarcity at different spatial and temporal resolutions. But there is no global water availability and footprint assessment done at country-basin mesh based spatial and monthly temporal resolutions. In this study we assessed water scarcity at these spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results showed that around 1.6 billion people living within the 328 country-basin units out of the 560 we assessed in this study endures severe water scarcity at least for a month within the year. In addition, 175 country-basin units goes through severe water scarcity for 3-12 months in the year. These sub-basins include nearly a billion people. Generally, the results of this study provide insights regarding the number of people and country-basin units experiencing low, moderate, significant and severe water scarcity at a monthly temporal resolution. These insights might help these basins' sharing countries to design and implement sustainable water management and sharing schemes.

  1. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  2. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  3. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  4. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  5. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The Vøring and the Faroe-Shetland basins are offshore deep sedimentary basins which are situated on the outer continental margin of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Both basins are underlain by thinned continental crust whose structure is still debated. In particular the nature of the lower continental crust and the origin of high velocity bodies located at the base of the lower crust are a subject of discussion in recent literature. Regional interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, combined with well data, suggest that both basins share several common features: (i) Pre-Cretaceous faults that are distributed across the entire basin width. (ii) Geometries of pre-Jurassic strata reflecting at least two extensional phases. (iii) Three common rift phases, Late Jurassic, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. (iv) Large pre-Cretaceous fault blocks that are buried by several kilometres of Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. (iii). (v) Latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene inversion. (vi) Occurrence of partial mantle serpentinization during Early Cretaceous times, as proposed by other studies, seems improbable. The detailed analysis of the data, however, revealed significant differences between the two basins: (i) The Faroe-Shetland Basin was a fault-controlled basin during the Late Jurassic but also the Late Cretaceous extensional phase. In contrast, the Vøring Basin is dominated by the late Jurassic rifting and subsequent thermal subsidence. It exhibits only minor Late Cretaceous faults that are localised above intra-basinal and marginal highs. In addition, the Cretaceous strata in the Vøring Basin are folded. (ii) In the Vøring Basin, the locus of Late Cretaceous rifting shifted westwards, affecting mainly the western basin margin, whereas in the Faroe-Shetland Basin Late Cretaceous rifting was localised in the same area as the Late Jurassic phase, hence masking the original Jurassic geometries. (iii) Devono-Carboniferous and Aptian/Albian to Cenomanian rift phases

  6. Colorado River basin sensitivity to disturbance impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing

  7. MONOMIALS AND BASIN CYLINDERS FOR NETWORK DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; Dinwoodie, Ian H

    We describe methods to identify cylinder sets inside a basin of attraction for Boolean dynamics of biological networks. Such sets are used for designing regulatory interventions that make the system evolve towards a chosen attractor, for example initiating apoptosis in a cancer cell. We describe two algebraic methods for identifying cylinders inside a basin of attraction, one based on the Groebner fan that finds monomials that define cylinders and the other on primary decomposition. Both methods are applied to current examples of gene networks.

  8. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  9. Ripple Ring Basins on Ganymede and Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The unusual morphology of the Valhalla multiple or ripple-ring basin in Callisto was totally unexpected in light of the morphologies of large impact structures on the terrestrial planets. Two other ripple-ring basins (RRB's), Asgard and a smaller structure near the crater Adlinda are also described. Several additional RRB's were found on Callisto, an example of which is shown. A previously unrecognized RRB on Ganymede was also found. An image and geologic sketch map of this RRB are shown. Morphometric and positional data for all known RRB's are given.

  10. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    form and process of drainage basins that may be widely ... ferruginous tropical soil on basement complex rock (Areola ... landuse pattern control the infiltration loss, the distribution of ... the water intercepted by Ogbere drainage basin to longer ...

  11. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  12. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  13. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  14. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  15. Early sedentary economy in the basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, C

    1979-01-12

    Artifactual and nonartifactual evidence from the lacustrine shores of the Chalco-Xochimilco Basin suggest the existence of fully sedentary human communities in the Basin of Mexico from at least the sixth millennium B.C.

  16. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    In order to delineate a mine site for ferromanganese nodules, extensive surveys were conducted in Central Indian Ocean Basin. Mapping of the basin by multibeam swath bathymetry (Hydrosweep) has revealed many new bottom relief features...

  17. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  18. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  19. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  20. A framework model for water-sharing among co-basin states of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, N. K.; Azad, Shambhu

    2018-05-01

    A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South-Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model's allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where

  1. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  2. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  3. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  4. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  5. 305 Building K basin mockup facility functions and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document develops functions and requirements for installation and operation of a cold mockup test facility within the 305 Building. The test facility will emulate a portion of a typical spent nuclear fuel storage basin (e.g., 105-KE Basin) to support evaluation of equipment and processes for safe storage and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel currently within the K Basins

  6. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area

  7. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin

  8. Riddled Basins of Attraction for Synchronized Type-I Intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancher, Martin; Nordahn, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Chaotic mortion resticted to an invariant subspace of total phase space may be associated with basins of attraction that are riddled with holes belonging to the basin of another limiting state. We study the emergence of such basins of two coupled one-dimensional maps, each exhibiting type...

  9. Detailed bathymetric surveys in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; George, P.; Jaisankar, S.

    Over 420,000 line kilometers of echo-sounding data was collected in the Central Indian Basin. This data was digitized, merged with navigation data and a detailed bathymetric map of the Basin was prepared. The Basin can be broadly classified...

  10. Quantification and Postglacial evolution of an inner alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos Basin, Hohe Tauern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is the quantification of sediment storage and the reconstruction of postglacial landscape evolution within the glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos Basin (subcatchment size: 4.1 km 2 ; basin floor elevation: 1920 m) in the central Gradenbach catchment (Schober Range, Hohe Tauern, Austrian Alps). Following the approach of denudation-accumulation-systems, most reliable results are obtained (1) if sediment output of a system can be neglected for an established period of time, (2) if sediment storage can be assessed with a high level of accuracy, (3) if the onset of sedimentation and amounts of initially stored sediments are known, and (4) if sediment contributing areas can be clearly delimited. Due to spatial scale and topographic characteristics, all mentioned aspects are fulfilled to a high degree within the studied basin. Applied methods include surface, subsurface and temporal investigations. Digital elevation data is derived from terrestrial laserscanning and geomorphologic mapping. The quantification of sediment storage is based on core drillings, geophysical methods (DC resistivity, refraction seismic, and ground penetrating radar), as well as GIS and 3D modelling. Radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses are additionally used to reconstruct the postglacial infilling progress of the basin. The study reveals that a continuous postglacial stratigraphic record is archived in the basin. As proposed by Lieb (1987) timing of basin deglaciation could be verified to late-Egesen times by means of radiocarbon ages (oldest sample just above basal till: 10.4 ka cal. BP) and first palynologic results. Lateglacial oscillations seem to have effectively scoured the basin, leaving only a shallow layer of basal till. The analysis of postglacial sedimentation in the basin is further improved by the existence of a former lake in the basin lasting for up to 7500 years until approx. 3.7 ka cal. BP. Both, the stratigraphic (fine, partly

  11. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  12. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  13. Rifte Guaritas basin compartmentation in Camaqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissler, A; Rolim, S; Philipp, R.

    2010-01-01

    The study contributes to the knowledge of the tectonic evolution of the Guaritas rift basin in Camaqua. Were used aero magnetic geophysical data for modeling the geometry and the depth of the structures and geological units. The research was supported in processing and interpretation of Aster images (EOS-Terra), which were extracted from geophysical models and digital image

  14. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  15. Climate change adaptation in European river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, P.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Grin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region

  16. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  17. 105-KE Basin Pilot Run design plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies all design deliverables and procedures applicable to the 105-KE Basin Pilot Run. It also establishes a general design strategy, defines interface control requirements, and covers planning for mechanical, electrical, instrument/control system, and equipment installation design

  18. Downstreamness: A concept to analyse basin closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasing water demands have led to the development of infrastructure for freshwater storage and irrigation. Especially in water-scarce regions, this development has led to a growing number of concerns about basin closure. These concerns ask for a structured approach

  19. Integrated studies of Azraq Basin in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Shahbaz; B. Sunna

    2000-01-01

    Many historical indications of the eastern Mediterranean Basin exhibit climatic changes or alterations effecting the status of water resources, hence, effecting human-kind and the quality of life. It is essential to deeply understand the nature of climates and geological structures employing state of the art techniques to assess rainfall, runoff, and floods that...

  20. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  1. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...

  2. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), hydrologic studies are being performed to provide an evaluation of groundwater systems within the Columbia River Basalt Group. These studies are focused on the Hanford Site, which is located within the Pasco Basin in south-central Washington. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin involve the areal and vertical characterization of hydraulic head, hydrologic properties, and hydrochemical content for the various basalt groundwater systems. Currently, in excess of 150 test intervals have been tested for hydraulic properties, while in excess of 80 horizons have been analyzed for hydrochemical characteristics at about 30 borehole sites within the Pasco Basin. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. Results from numerical modeling are used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. In the Pasco Basin, geologic structures influence groundwater flow patterns within basalt aquifer systems. Potentiometric data and hydrochemical evidence collected from recent studies indicate that geologic structures act as areal hydrologic barriers and in some instances, regions of enhanced vertical conductivity. 8 figures

  3. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...

  4. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  5. Policy and Practice – River Basins

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ms Suruchi Bhadwal

    nature of rivers in the northern belt- inextricably linked. Exacerbated water stress in some areas. Increasing demands – food and drinking water needs. Socioeconomics. CC Impacts. Glacier-fed basins in the. North. Glacier melt and river flooding,. GLOFs, landslides. Unique socio-cultural settings and political differences.

  6. Hydrogeophysical investigation of Southern Anambra Basin Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical relationship between the Dar Zarrouk parameters and the hydraulic characteristics were used to assess the hydrogeological condition of the basin. These have led to inferences about the aquifer hydraulic conductivities and transmissivities and K product across the area. Consequently favourable areas have ...

  7. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Pyritized ooids in association with turbidites were observed in a box core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea Basin. Ooids having a shallow water origin were transported to the present depth by turbidity currents or slumping...

  8. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km, and that the crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. From the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities,we obtained similar results...

  9. Raptors of the Izdrevaya River Basin, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compiles the results of episodic visits of the aurhoes to the basin of the Izdrevaya river during 2012–2016. The main goals of those visits were: to figure out the species composition of nesting fauna of birds of prey, estabishing the manner of nesting pairs’ distribution and designing a system of nestboxes for different species of birds of prey and owls. 8 species of Falconiformes are present in the Izdrevaya river basin, 4 of which are nesting, and 3 species of Strigiformes, 2 of which are nesting. The Black Kite (Milvus migrans has maximum density in the Izdrevaya river basin – 51.83 ind./100km2 (n=93. The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo is the second in number after the Black Kite, its density being 8.88 ind/100km2 of the total area. The Ural Owl (Strix uralensis, encountered only on two territories in 2012, inhabited 4 nestboxes in 2013 as the result of biotechnical measures taken, and its number increased to 8 pairs successfully breeding in the nextboxes in 2016. Main negative factors for birds of prey in the Izdrevaya river basin were established: electrocution on power lines, illegal logging, illegal construction of dams and the construction of waste-sorting plant with a range of solid municipal waste.

  10. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold

    2008-01-01

    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  11. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  12. Strike-slip tectonics and Quaternary basin formation along the Vienna Basin fault system inferred from Bouguer gravity derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcher, B. C.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Decker, K.; HöLzel, M.; Wagreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Vienna Basin at the transition between the Alpine and Carpathian belt hosts a number of large Pleistocene sub-basins forming along an active continental scale strike-slip fault (Vienna Basin strike-slip fault). We utilize first-order derivatives from industrial Bouguer gravity data to unravel

  13. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  14. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume II. Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and high variable precipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  15. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  16. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  17. Two characteristics of planar intertwined basins of attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Changming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new mathematical definition of intertwined basins of attraction is proposed. ► Basins are intertwined iff a limit set of stable manifold contains at least two points. ► Basins are intertwined iff the closure of stable manifold is not arc-connected. ► The intertwining property is preserved by topologically equivalent dynamical systems. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the intertwined basins of attraction for planar dynamical systems. We prove that the intertwining property is preserved by topologically equivalent systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for a planar system having intertwined basins are given.

  18. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  19. In situ characterization of Hanford K Basins fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-06

    Irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel is stored underwater in the Hanford K East and K West Basins. In K East Basin, fuel is stored in open canisters and defected fuel is free to react with the basin water. In K West Basin, the fuel is stored in sealed canisters filled with water containing a corrosion inhibitor (potassium nitrite). To gain a better understanding of the physical condition of the fuel in these basins, visual surveys using high resolution underwater cameras were conducted. The inspections included detailed lift and look examinations of a number of fuel assemblies from selected canisters in each basin. These examinations formed the bases for selecting specific fuel elements for laboratory testing and analyses as prescribed in the characterization plan for Hanford K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  20. Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R; Head, James W; Solomon, Sean C; Robinson, Mark S; Chapman, Clark R; Denevi, Brett W; Fassett, Caleb I; Murchie, Scott L; Strom, Robert G

    2009-05-01

    MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed a ~715-kilometer-diameter impact basin, the second-largest well-preserved basin-scale impact structure known on the planet. The Rembrandt basin is comparable in age to the Caloris basin, is partially flooded by volcanic plains, and displays a unique wheel-and-spoke-like pattern of basin-radial and basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and graben. Stratigraphic relations indicate a multistaged infilling and deformational history involving successive or overlapping phases of contractional and extensional deformation. The youngest deformation of the basin involved the formation of a approximately 1000-kilometer-long lobate scarp, a product of the global cooling and contraction of Mercury.

  1. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  2. Constraining Basin Depth and Fault Displacement in the Malombe Basin Using Potential Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, S. C. M.; Elifritz, E. A.; Méndez, K.; Johnson, S.; Mynatt, W. G.; Mayle, M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbwa, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Malombe Basin is part of the Malawi Rift which forms the southern part of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. At its southern end, the Malawi Rift bifurcates into the Bilila-Mtakataka and Chirobwe-Ntcheu fault systems and the Lake Malombe Rift Basin around the Shire Horst, a competent block under the Nankumba Peninsula. The Malombe Basin is approximately 70km from north to south and 35km at its widest point from east to west, bounded by reversing-polarity border faults. We aim to constrain the depth of the basin to better understand displacement of each border fault. Our work utilizes two east-west gravity profiles across the basin coupled with Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) derived from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey. The first gravity profile was done across the northern portion of the basin and the second across the southern portion. Gravity and magnetic data will be used to constrain basement depths and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Additionally, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to understand the topographic expression of the fault scarps. Estimates for minimum displacement of the border faults on either side of the basin were made by adding the elevation of the scarps to the deepest SPI basement estimates at the basin borders. Our preliminary results using SPI and SRTM data show a minimum displacement of approximately 1.3km for the western border fault; the minimum displacement for the eastern border fault is 740m. However, SPI merely shows the depth to the first significantly magnetic layer in the subsurface, which may or may not be the actual basement layer. Gravimetric readings are based on subsurface density and thus circumvent issues arising from magnetic layers located above the basement; therefore expected results for our work will be to constrain more accurate basin depth by integrating the gravity profiles. Through more accurate basement depth estimates we also gain more accurate displacement

  3. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  4. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  5. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement of the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers

  6. Miocene block uplift and basin formation in the Patagonian foreland: The Gastre Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, A.; D'Elia, L.; Franzese, J. R.; Veiga, G. D.; Hernández, M.

    2013-08-01

    The intraplate fault-block mountains and intermontane deposits of the Gastre Basin, which are recorded more than 550 km east of the Andean trench in central Patagonia, Argentina, are analyzed. The Gastre Basin is one of the largest Patagonian intermontane basins, limited by uplifted blocks strongly oblique to the Andean chain. It was originated by reverse faulting and inversion of pre-existing normal faults associated with a Mesozoic rift basin and defined by older crustal heterogeneities. The deformational event occurred during the middle Miocene, related to a short contractional episode (16.1-14.86 Ma), probably in response to an eastward migration of the Andean fold and thrust belt. During Pliocene to Quaternary times, neither younger fault-block uplifts nor reconfigurations of the basin occurred. Similarities between the study area and other parts of the Patagonian foreland - such as the presence of Miocene reverse or inversion tectonics, as well as the accommodation of the Miocene sedimentary successions - suggest that the Gastre Basin is part of a major late early to middle Miocene broken foreland system (i.e. the Patagonian broken foreland) that exhumed discrete fault-block mountains and generated contemporary basins along more than 950 km parallel to the Andean trench (i.e. between 40°00' and 48°00' south latitude). Based on recent studies on the southern Andean Margin, this continental-scale contractional episode may be the result of a flat-slab subduction segment. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis is very difficult to support when analyzing such a large flat subduction segment along the entire Patagonian trench. This suggests the need to consider alternative flat-slab trigger mechanisms or other factors in the generation of broken foreland systems.

  7. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  8. Frequency and sources of basin floor turbidites in alfonso basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Products of slope failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar E.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Douglas, Robert G.

    2007-07-01

    Alfonso Basin is a small margin basin formed by extensional tectonics in the actively rifting, seismically active Gulf of California. The basin is centered at 24°40' N and 110° 38' W, and is a closed depression (maximum depth 420 m) with an effective sill depth of about 320 m (deepest sill), a width of 20 km and length of 25 km. Basin floor area below a depth of 350 m is about 260 km 2. The climate is arid to semiarid but was wetter during the early (ca. 10,000-7000 Calendar years Before Present [BP]) and middle Holocene (ca. 7000-4000 Cal. Years BP). Basin-wide turbidity currents reach the floor of Alfonso Basin at centennial to millennial intervals. The peninsular drainages tributary to the basin are small and have maximum flood discharges of the order of 10 4m 3. The basin-floor turbidites thicker than 1 cm have volumes of the order of 10 6m 3 to 10 8m 3 and require a much larger source. The largest turbidite seen in our cores is ca. 1 m thick in the central basin floor and was deposited 4900 Calendar Years Before Present (BP). Two smaller major events occurred about 1500 and 2800 Cal. Years BP. Seismicity over the past century of record shows a clustering of larger epicenters along faults forming the eastern Gulf side of Alfonso Basin. In that period there have been four earthquakes with magnitudes above 7.0 but all are distant from the basin. Frequency of such earthquakes in the basin vicinity is probably millennial. It is concluded that the basin-wide turbidites thicker than 1 cm must be generated by slope failures on the eastern side of the basin at roughly millennial intervals. The thin flood turbidites have a peninsular source at centennial frequencies.

  9. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  10. Protecting air basins from harmful discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovskiy, S S

    1983-01-01

    The work is a brief description of the content of the reports delivered at the seminar entitled Protecting the Air Basin from Harmful Discharges of the Machine Building Enterprises, which took place at the All Union Exhibit of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR (VDNKh) in 1982. Representatives of different ministries and agencies, scientific research institutes (NII), planning and design and other specialized organizations, institutes of higher learning (vuz) and enterprises from different branches of industry took part in the work of the seminar. The seminar noted measures to eliminate deficiencies which occur in individual enterprises of the branch and measures to improve the work to improve protection of the air basin from harmful discharges of machine building enterprises.

  11. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  12. Basins of attraction in human balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria A.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Spano, Mark L.

    2017-12-01

    Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, human motion is neither a simple nor a linear process. The objective of this research is to identify and to learn more about what factors affect balance using nonlinear dynamical techniques, such as basin boundaries. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates for leans using only ankle movements as well as for unrestricted leans. Algorithms to describe the basin boundary were created and compared based on how well each method encloses the experimental data points as well as captures the differences between the two leaning conditions.

  13. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: geise.zerfass@petrobras.com.br [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: fchemale@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: karen.costa@usp.br [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: koji@usp.br [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-07-01

    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  14. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  15. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  16. LERF Basin 44 Process Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a plan to process a portion of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 44 wastewater through the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this process test is to determine the most effective/efficient method to treat the wastewater currently stored in LERF Basin 44. The process test will determine the operational parameters necessary to comply with facility effluent discharge permit limits (Ecology 1995) and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) acceptance criteria (BHI-00139), while achieving ALARA goals and maintaining the integrity of facility equipment. A major focus of the test plan centers on control of contamination due to leaks and/or facility maintenance. As a pre-startup item, all known leaks will be fixed before the start of the test. During the course of the test, a variety of contamination control measures will be evaluated for implementation during the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. Of special interest will be techniques and tools used to prevent contamination spread during sampling and when opening contaminated facility equipment/piping. At the conclusion of the test, a post ALARA review will be performed to identify lessons learned from the test run which can be applied to the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. The volume of wastewater to be treated during this test run is 500,000 gallons. This volume limit is necessary to maintain the ETF radiological inventory limits per the approved authorization basis. The duration of the process test is approximately 30 days

  17. K Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1999-02-10

    The results of the characterization efforts completed for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins were Collected and summarized in this single referencable document. This summary provides a ''road map'' for what was done and the results obtained for the fuel characterization program initiated in 1994 and scheduled for completion in 1999 with the fuel oxidation rate measurement under moist inert atmospheres.

  18. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. DROUGHT ANALYSIS IN OZANA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  20. Amazonis and Utopia Planitiae: Martian Lacustrine basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.; Rice, James W., Jr.; Dohm, James M.; Chapman, Mary G.

    1992-01-01

    Amazonis and Utopia Planitiae are two large (greater than 10(exp 6) sq. km) basins on Mars having morphological features commonly associated with former lakes. The investigation of these areas is an extension of our previous paleolake studies in the Elysium basin. Using Viking images, we are searching for familiar geologic forms commonly associated with standing bodies of water on Earth. Like Elysium, the two basins exhibit terraces and lineations resembling shorelines, etched and infilled floors with channel-like sinuous markings in places, inflow channels along their borders, and other geomorphic indicators believed to be related to the presence of water and ice. In some areas these features are better displayed than in others where they may be very tenuous; their value as indicators can be justified only by their association with related features. Even though these postulated paleolakes are very young in the Martian stratigraphic sequence, their shoreline features are poorly preserved and they are probably much older than large Pleistocene lakes on Earth.

  1. Mackenzie Basin impact study: Interim report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MIBS) is a six-year study undertaken to assess the potential impacts on the Mackenzie River Basin region and its inhabitants. The study framework, structure, organization, methods, and data are described. Highlights of work to date are reviewed. The MBIS employs scenarios of future warmer climates and changes in population and economic conditions. Research is coordinated by an interagency working committee and research activities cover 28 areas including permafrost, hydrology, sea ice, boreal ecosystems, freshwater fish, wildlife, forestry, agriculture, tourism, community studies, and defense. Six issues have been identified: interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities, infrastructure and buildings, and sustainability of ecosystems. An integrated assessment approach is used in the MBIS, combining scientific and indigenous traditional knowledge and attempting to include all interactions that occur between sectors. Two methods are being developed: socio-economic integration using a resource accounting framework, and an integrated land assessment framework. Four scenarios of warmer climates have been developed, all showing increased precipitation for the basin as a whole. Moderate growth in the resource sector is predicted. Preliminary results of some research are reported, including a lengthened open-water season in the Beaufort Sea accompanied by a greater extent of open water. 44 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  3. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  4. Enhanced recovery of Arcobacter spp. using NaCl in culture media and re-assessment of the traits of Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus isolated from marine water and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Massó, Nuria; Andree, Karl B; Furones, M Dolors; Figueras, M José

    2016-10-01

    The genus Arcobacter is a relatively poorly known group of bacteria, and the number of new species and sequences from non-culturable strains has increased considerably in recent years. This study investigates whether using media that contain NaCl might help to improve the recovery of Arcobacter spp. from marine environments. To this aim, 62 water and shellfish samples were analysed in parallel, with both a commonly used culture method (enrichment in Arcobacter-CAT broth followed by culture on Blood Agar) and a new one that supplements the Arcobacter-CAT enrichment broth with 2.5% NaCl (w/v) followed by culturing on Marine Agar. The new method yielded ca. 40% more positive samples and provided a higher diversity of known (11 vs. 7) and unknown (7 vs. 2) Arcobacter species. Among the 11 known species recovered, Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus were isolated only by this new method. No more strains of these species have been isolated since their original descriptions, both of which were based only on a single strain. In view of that, the phenotypic characteristics of these species are re-evaluated in the present study, using the new strains. Strains of A. halophilus had the same phenotypic profile as the type strain. However, some strains of A. marinus differed from the type strain in that they did not hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate, becoming, therefore, the first Arcobacter species to show a varying ability to hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate. This study shows to what extent a simple variation to the culture media can have a big influence on positive samples and on the community of species recovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  6. Geochemistry of the Late Paleozoic cherts in the Youjiang Basin: Implications for the basin evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the major and rare earth element compositions of siliceous deposits from the Upper Devonian Liujiang Formation, Lower Carboniferous Luzhai Formation, Lower–Middle Permian Sidazhai Formation and Tapi Formation, which are widely distributed as bedded cherts in the interplatform basinal successions of the Youjiang Basin. The Liujiang Formation and Luzhai Formation cherts generally have high Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.38–0.94 and are non-hydrothermal cherts. These cherts are generally characterized by moderately negative Ce anomalies and high Y/Ho values relatived to PAAS, indicating that the Youjiang Basin might have evolved into an open rift basin during the Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Ziyun generally have high Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.60–0.78, suggesting negligible contribution from a hydrothermal component. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Hechi and the Tapi Formation cherts from Malipo generally have low Al/(Al+Fe+Mn values (0.09–0.41, indicating an intense hydrothermal input. Relatived to the Sidazhai Formation cherts, the Tapi Formation cherts have higher Ce/Ce* values (0.68±0.19 and lower Y/Ho values (41.83±13.27, which may be affected by the terrigenous input from the Vietnam Block. The Sidazhai Formation cherts from Ziyun and Hechi exhibit negative Ce anomalies (0.43±0.12, 0.33±0.17, respectively with high Y/Ho values (57.44±16.20, 46.02±4.27, respectively, resembling the geochemical characteristics of open-ocean basin cherts. These cherts were deposited on a passive continental margin adjacent to the Babu branch ocean, which may have contributed to upwelling. Detailed spatial studies on geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic cherts can unravel the evolution of the Youjiang Basin.

  7. Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, N.; Hughes, D.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Mvandaba, V.

    2018-06-01

    In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often inadequate in many sub-basins, necessitating the incorporation of the uncertainty related to the estimation process. This paper reports on the impact of the uncertainty related to the parameterization of the Pitman monthly model and water use data on the estimates of the water resources of the Luvuvhu, a sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin. The study reviews existing information sources associated with the quantification of water balance components and gives an update of water resources of the sub-basin. The flows generated by the model at the outlet of the basin were between 44.03 Mm3 and 45.48 Mm3 per month when incorporating +20% uncertainty to the main physical runoff generating parameters. The total predictive uncertainty of the model increased when water use data such as small farm and large reservoirs and irrigation were included. The dam capacity data was considered at an average of 62% uncertainty mainly as a result of the large differences between the available information in the national water resources database and that digitised from satellite imagery. Water used by irrigated crops was estimated with an average of about 50% uncertainty. The mean simulated monthly flows were between 38.57 Mm3 and 54.83 Mm3 after the water use uncertainty was added. However, it is expected that the uncertainty could be reduced by using higher resolution remote sensing imagery.

  8. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  9. Use of hydrological modelling and isotope techniques in Guvenc basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinbilek, D.

    1991-07-01

    The study covers the work performed under Project No. 335-RC-TUR-5145 entitled ''Use of Hydrologic Modelling and Isotope Techniques in Guvenc Basin'' and is an initial part of a program for estimating runoff from Central Anatolia Watersheds. The study presented herein consists of mainly three parts: 1) the acquisition of a library of rainfall excess, direct runoff and isotope data for Guvenc basin; 2) the modification of SCS model to be applied to Guvenc basin first and then to other basins of Central Anatolia for predicting the surface runoff from gaged and ungaged watersheds; and 3) the use of environmental isotope technique in order to define the basin components of streamflow of Guvenc basin. 31 refs, figs and tabs

  10. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  11. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  12. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  13. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion...... and subsequent closure. The observed volcano-sedimentary and structural features suggest a change in the local structural style from thick-skinned inversion to thin-skinned thrusting, in order to accommodate the crustal shortening during basin closure. Furthermore, it is suggested that there is a genetic...

  14. Final design review report for K basin dose reduction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the K East Basin concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. This report documents a final design review for cleaning/coating basin walls and modifying other basin components where appropriate. The conclusion of this review was that the documents developed constitute an acceptable design for the Dose Reduction Project

  15. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  16. Interim essential and support drawing list for K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents a list of essential and support drawings that have been identified as required to achieve the mission objectives of K Basin and are an integral part of the in-progress K Basins system baselining effort. The drawings listed in the appendix are those drawings required to safely operate K Basins. These drawings will be authenticated through the field verification and design reconstitution programs to ensure that these identified drawings are consistent with design requirements

  17. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  18. Slope effects on SWAT modeling in a mountainous basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí

    2013-01-01

    The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a distributed basin model that includes the option of defining spatial discretization in terms of terrain slope. Influence of terrain slope in runoff results from mountain basins is a determining factor in its simulation results; however, its use as a criterion for basin discretization and for the parameter calibration has not yet been analyzed. In this study, this influence is analyzed for calibrations using two different cases. Ten discretization...

  19. Cretaceous sedimentology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    The Barmer Basin, western India, is a well-known and prospected petroleum system. However, the Lower Cretaceous Ghaggar-Hakra Formation has not been recognised as basin fill and not documented prior to this study. The formation outcrops in rotational fault blocks at the Sarnoo Hills and surrounding areas, on the eastern Barmer Basin margin. The thesis here describes and analyses the nature and evolution of the formation at both outcrop and within the subsurface, producing facies and depositio...

  20. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.