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Sample records for sonochemistry ultrasonic acceleration

  1. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Practical sonochemistry power ultrasound uses and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, T J

    2002-01-01

    This updated version of Practical Sonochemistry for advanced students and teachers in chemistry and chemical engineering conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound. Equipment now on the market offers a wider range of frequencies with more reproducible experimentation and a variety of scale-up systems. The book provides detailed descriptions of newer ultrasonic equipment and its applications, and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance.Modern exercises familiarise readers with recent sonochemical operations

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Timothy; Reisse, Jacques; Suslick, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures ...

  4. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  5. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Accelerated ultrasonic fatigue testing applications and research trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In Sik; Shin, Choongshig; Kim, Jong Yup; Jeon, Yongho [Ajou Univ., Gyeonggi (Somalia)

    2012-06-15

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of aerospace components has emerged much attention due to their long service life. In this study, a piezoelectric ultrasonic fatigue testing (UFT) system has been developed by Mbrosiatec Co., Ltd. to study the high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of Ti 6Al 4V alloy. Hourglass shaped specimens have been investigated in the range from 10'6' to 10'9' cycles at room temperature under completely reversed R=-1 loading conditions, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that failures occurred in the entire range up to the gigacycle regime, and the fractures have been found to be initiated from the surface, unlike in steels. However, it was found from the SEM microgprahs that microcracks transformed into intergranular fractures. Thus, it can be concluded from according to the results that this test method can be applicable to commercialized automotive and railroad parts that require high cycle fatigue strength.

  7. Accelerated ultrasonic fatigue testing applications and research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, In Sik; Shin, Choongshig; Kim, Jong Yup; Jeon, Yongho

    2012-01-01

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of aerospace components has emerged much attention due to their long service life. In this study, a piezoelectric ultrasonic fatigue testing (UFT) system has been developed by Mbrosiatec Co., Ltd. to study the high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of Ti 6Al 4V alloy. Hourglass shaped specimens have been investigated in the range from 10'6' to 10'9' cycles at room temperature under completely reversed R=-1 loading conditions, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that failures occurred in the entire range up to the gigacycle regime, and the fractures have been found to be initiated from the surface, unlike in steels. However, it was found from the SEM microgprahs that microcracks transformed into intergranular fractures. Thus, it can be concluded from according to the results that this test method can be applicable to commercialized automotive and railroad parts that require high cycle fatigue strength

  8. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  10. An ultrasonic-accelerated oxidation method for determining the oxidative stability of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Orozco, Francisco D; Sousa, Antonio C; Domini, Claudia E; Ugulino Araujo, Mario Cesar; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2013-05-01

    Biodiesel is considered an alternative energy because it is produced from fats and vegetable oils by means of transesterification. Furthermore, it consists of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAS) which have a great influence on biodiesel fuel properties and in the storage lifetime of biodiesel itself. The biodiesel storage stability is directly related to the oxidative stability parameter (Induction Time - IT) which is determined by means of the Rancimat® method. This method uses condutimetric monitoring and induces the degradation of FAAS by heating the sample at a constant temperature. The European Committee for Standardization established a standard (EN 14214) to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which requires it to reach a minimum induction period of 6h as tested by Rancimat® method at 110°C. In this research, we aimed at developing a fast and simple alternative method to determine the induction time (IT) based on the FAAS ultrasonic-accelerated oxidation. The sonodegradation of biodiesel samples was induced by means of an ultrasonic homogenizer fitted with an immersible horn at 480Watts of power and 20 duty cycles. The UV-Vis spectrometry was used to monitor the FAAS sonodegradation by measuring the absorbance at 270nm every 2. Biodiesel samples from different feedstock were studied in this work. In all cases, IT was established as the inflection point of the absorbance versus time curve. The induction time values of all biodiesel samples determined using the proposed method was in accordance with those measured through the Rancimat® reference method by showing a R(2)=0.998. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  12. Development of an on-line ultrasonic system to monitor flow-accelerated corrosion of piping in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.Y.; Bahn, C.B.; Lee, S.G.; Kim, J.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.T.; Luk, V.

    2004-01-01

    Designs of contemporary nuclear power plants (NPPs) are concentrated on improving plant life as well as safety. As the nuclear industry prepares for continued operation beyond the design lifetime of existing NPP, aging management through advanced monitoring is called for. Therefore, we suggested two approaches to develop the on-line piping monitoring system. Piping located in some position is reported to go through flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). One is to monitor electrochemical parameters, ECP and pH, which can show occurrence of corrosion. The other is to monitor mechanical parameters, displacement and acceleration. These parameters are shown to change with thickness. Both measured parameters will be combined to quantify the amount of FAC of a target piping. In this paper, we report the progress of a multidisciplinary effort on monitoring of flow-induced vibration, which changes with reducing thickness. Vibration characteristics are measured using accelerometers, capacitive sensor and fiber optic sensors. To theoretically support the measurement, we analyzed the vibration mode change in a given thickness with the aid of finite element analysis assuming FAC phenomenon is represented only as thickness change. A high temperature flow loop has been developed to simulate the NPP secondary condition to show the applicability of new sensors. Ultrasonic transducer is introduced as validation purpose by directly measuring thickness. By this process, we identify performance and applicability of chosen sensors and also obtain base data for analyzing measured value in unknown conditions. (orig.)

  13. Merging microfluidics and sonochemistry: towards greener and more efficient micro-sono-reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Cintas, Pedro; Gardeniers, Han J G E

    2012-11-18

    Microfluidics enable the manipulation of chemical reactions using very small amounts of fluid, in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers; so-called microstructured devices, from which the iconic image of chips emerges. The immediate attraction of microfluidics lies in its greenness: use of small quantities of reagents and solvents, and hence less waste, a precise control of reaction conditions, integration of functionality for process intensification, safer and often faster protocols, reliable scale-up, and possibility of performing multiphase reactions. Among the limitations found in microfluidics the facile formation of precipitating products should be highlighted, and in this context, the search for efficient mass and energy transfers is a must. Such limitations have been partially overcome with the aid of ultrasound in conventional flow systems, and can now be successfully used in microreactors, which provide new capabilities. Novel applications and a better understanding of the physical and chemical aspects of sonochemistry can certainly be achieved by combining microfluidics and ultrasound. We will review this nascent area of research, paying attention to the latest developments and showing future directions, which benefit both from the existing microfluidic technology and sonochemistry itself.

  14. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  15. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  16. Numerical modeling of ultrasonic cavitation in ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvisi, Michael L.; Elder, Ross M.

    2017-11-01

    Ionic liquids have favorable properties for sonochemistry applications in which the high temperatures and pressures achieved by cavitation bubbles are important drivers of chemical processes. Two different numerical models are presented to simulate ultrasonic cavitation in ionic liquids, each with different capabilities and physical assumptions. A model based on a compressible form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation (RPE) simulates ultrasonic cavitation of a spherical bubble with a homogeneous interior, incorporating evaporation and condensation at the bubble surface, and temperature-varying thermodynamic properties in the interior. A second, more computationally intensive model of a spherical bubble uses the finite element method (FEM) and accounts for spatial variations in pressure and temperature throughout the flow domain. This model provides insight into heat transfer across the bubble surface and throughout the bubble interior and exterior. Parametric studies are presented for sonochemistry applications involving ionic liquids as a solvent, examining a range of realistic ionic liquid properties and initial conditions to determine their effect on temperature and pressure. Results from the two models are presented for parametric variations including viscosity, thermal conductivity, water content of the ionic liquid solvent, acoustic frequency, and initial bubble pressure. An additional study performed with the FEM model examines thermal penetration into the surrounding ionic liquid during bubble oscillation. The results suggest the prospect of tuning ionic liquid properties for specific applications.

  17. Accelerated Aging of the Traditional Greek Distillate Tsipouro Using Wooden Chips. Part I: Effect of Static Maceration vs. Ultrasonication on the Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Taloumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a period of 30 days. During this period, leaching of polyphenols from the chips into the distillate was found to obey first-order kinetics, but no statistical differences were shown between the two treatments regarding the enrichment of the liquid in polyphenolic substances. The determination of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that aging with chestnut chips may provide Tsipouro with particularly strong radical scavenging and reducing effects, highlighting its importance as a material that could be used to turn distillates into foods with functional properties.

  18. Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence properties of NaCl:Mn, NaCL:Cu nano-particles produced using co-precipitation and sono-chemistry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabi, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedifar, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanosince and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeidi-Sogh, Z. [Institute of Nanosince and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A., E-mail: ramazmo@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanosince and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, E. [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanosince and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Harooni, S. [Institute of Nanosince and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-21

    The NaCl: Cu and NaCl: Mn nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by co-precipitation and sono-chemistry methods and their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied. By decreasing the particles size a considerable increase in sensitivity of the samples to high dose gamma radiation was observed. The NPs produced by sono-chemistry method have smaller size, homogeneous structure, more sensitivity to high gamma radiation and less fading than of those produced by co-precipitation method.

  19. The sonophysics and sonochemistry of liquid waste quantification and remediation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matula, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    'To perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, to elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, to examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and to monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, to design and to evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and to determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. This report summarizes work performed during year 2 of a 3-year project. The goals included performing near-IR spectroscopy of sonoluminescence. Cells have been designed for multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. The MBSL cells are designed around a 20 kHz acoustic horn with replaceable titanium tips from Sonics and Materials. The horn is pressure-fitted into a stainless steel cell via O-rings and a compression ring, to seal the cell up to 100 psi for pressure experiments. The cell is thermostated by circulating coolant in a jacket, as well as flowing the cell fluid (at 4L/min.) through a temperature control bath. Several ports are located on the cell for gas ports (one for headspace, another for bubbling), a pressure transducer, a thermocouple, a needle hydrophone, and a septum port for addition or withdrawal of samples. The total volume is approximately 80 mL with a 10 mL head space. Directly opposite the horn tip is a 2 cm quartz window against which a fiber optic bundle is placed. Light collected through the fiber optic is imaged onto one of several detection systems.'

  20. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  2. Modeling of sonochemistry in water in the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Olivier; Ouhabaz, Hind; Bedogni, Stefano

    2018-07-01

    CO 2 capture and utilization (CCU) is a process that captures CO 2 emissions from sources such as fossil fuel power plants and reuses them so that they will not enter the atmosphere. Among the various ways of recycling CO 2 , reduction reactions are extensively studied at lab-scale. However, CO 2 reduction by standard methods is difficult. Sonochemistry may be used in CO 2 gas mixtures bubbled through water subjected to ultrasound waves. Indeed, the sonochemical reduction of CO 2 in water has been already investigated by some authors, showing that fuel species (CO and H 2 ) are obtained in the final products. The aim of this work is to model, for a single bubble, the close coupling of the mechanisms of bubble dynamics with the kinetics of gas phase reactions in the bubble that can lead to CO 2 reduction. An estimation of time-scales is used to define the controlling steps and consequently to solve a reduced model. The calculation of the concentration of free radicals and gases formed in the bubble is undertaken over many cycles to look at the effects of ultrasound frequency, pressure amplitude, initial bubble radius and bubble composition in CO 2 . The strong effect of bubble composition on the CO 2 reduction rate is confirmed in accordance with experimental data from the literature. When the initial fraction of CO 2 in the bubble is low, bubble growth and collapse are slightly modified with respect to simulation without CO 2 , and chemical reactions leading to CO 2 reduction are promoted. However, the peak collapse temperature depends on the thermal properties of the CO 2 and greatly decreases as the CO 2 increases in the bubble. The model shows that initial bubble radius, ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude play a critical role in CO 2 reduction. Hence, in the case of a bubble with an initial radius of around 5 μm, CO 2 reduction appears to be more favorable at a frequency around 300 kHz than at a low frequency of around 20 kHz. Finally, the

  3. Ultrasonic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, E.; Crutzen, S.

    1974-12-01

    The unique and tamperproof identification technique developed at Ispra is based on ultrasonic Non-Destructive-Techniques. Reading fingerprints with ultrasonic requires high reproducibility of standard apparatus and transducers. The present report gives an exhaustive description of the ultrasonic technique developed for identification purposes. Different applications of the method are described

  4. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  5. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  6. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  7. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of polyimide ceria nanocomposites by development of molecular hook technology in nano-sonochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Poly(amic acid), the precursor of polyimide (PI), was used for the preparation of PI/CeO 2 nanocomposites (NC)s by ultrasonic assisted technique via insertion of the surface modified CeO 2 nanoparticles (NP)s into PI matrix. In the preparation stages, in the first, the modifications of CeO 2 NPs by using hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) as a binder were targeted using ultrasonic waves. In the second step, newly designed PI structure was formed from the sonochemical imidization process as a molecular hook. In this step two different reactions were occurred. The acetic acid elimination reaction in the main chain of macromolecule, and the acetylation reaction in the side chains of poly(amic acid) were accomplished. By acetylation process the hook structure was created for trapping of the modified nanoparticles. In the final step the preparation of PI NCs were achieved by sonochemical process. The structural and thermal properties of pure PI and PI/CeO 2 NCs were studied by several techniques such as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal analyses. FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra confirmed the success in preparation of PI matrix. The FE-SEM, TEM, and AFM analyses showed the uniform distribution of CeO 2 NPs in PI matrix. The XRD patterns of NCs show the presence of crystalline CeO 2 NPs in amorphous PI matrix. The thermal analysis results reveal that, with increases in the content of CeO 2 NPs in PI matrix, the thermally stability factors of samples were improved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  10. Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuyu; Tian Hua

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed

  11. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Plasma Formation during Acoustic Cavitation: Toward a New Paradigm for Sonochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Nikitenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent spectroscopic studies of single bubble (SBSL and multibubble (MBSL sonoluminescence reveal that the origin of extreme intrabubble conditions is related to nonequilibrium plasma formed inside the collapsing bubbles. Analysis of the relative populations of OH(A2Σ+ vibrational states observed during MBSL in water saturated with noble gases shows that in the presence of argon at low ultrasonic frequency weakly excited plasma is formed. At high-frequency ultrasound the plasma inside the collapsing bubbles exhibits Treanor behavior typical for strong vibrational excitation. Plasma formation during SBSL was observed in concentrated H2SO4 preequilibrated with Ar. The light emission spectra exhibit the lines from excited Ar atoms and ionized oxygen O2+. Formation of O2+ species is inconsistent with any thermal process. Furthermore, the SBSL spectra in H2SO4 show emission lines from Xe+, Kr+, and Ar+ in full agreement with plasma hypothesis. The photons and the “hot” particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable the excitation of nonvolatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products.

  13. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  14. Ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic flowmeter was assembled and tested. The theoretical basis of this prototype ultrasonic flowmeter is reviewed; the equipment requirements for a portable unit are discussed; the individual electronic modules contained in the prototype are described; the operating procedures and configuration are explained; and the data from preliminary calibrations are presented. The calibration data confirm that the prototype operates according to theoretical predictions and can indeed provide nonintrusive flow measurements to predicted accuracies for pipes larger than two inches, under single phase stable flow conditions

  15. Power dissipated measurement of an ultrasonic generator in a viscous medium by flowmetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier

    2008-09-01

    A new flowmetric method of the power dissipated by an ultrasound generator in an aqueous medium has been developed in previous works and described in a preceding paper [V. Mancier, D. Leclercq, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 14 (2007) 99-106]. The works presented here are an enlargement of this method to a high viscosity liquid (glycerol) for which the classical calorimetric measurements are rather difficult. As expected, it is shown that the dissipated power increases with the medium viscosity. It was also found that this flowmetric method gives good results for various quantities of liquid and positioning of the sonotrode in the tank. Moreover, the important variation of viscosity due to the heating of the liquid during experiments does not disturb flow measurements.

  16. Mechanisms of microstructure formation under the influence of ultrasonic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Milan

    Positive effects of ultrasound on crystallization have been known for almost 90 years. Application of ultrasound has been very successful in many industries, most notably in chemistry, creating a new branch of science - sonochemistry. However, ultrasonication has not found wide commercial application in the solidification processing. The reason for that is the complexity of underlying phenomena and the lack of predicting models which correlate processing parameters with the properties of a product. The purpose of this study is to give some contribution toward better understanding of mechanisms that lead to changes in the solidifying microstructure. It has been found that, under experimental conditions used in this work, cavitation-induced nucleation is the major contributor to the grain refinement. Ultrasonication at minimal supercoolings is expected to give maximal grain refinement. Dendrite fragmentation has not shown to be a significant contributor to the grain refinement. Dendrite fragmentation is maximal if done by bubbles that come in contact with the solidifying phase, or that are created there. Alloys/solutions with long solidification interval, or wide mushy zone, are expected to exhibit more dendrite fragmentation. Bubbles are recognized as a crucial feature in ultrasonication. Their size distribution in the liquid phase prior to ultrasonication dictates the cavitation threshold and intensity of cavitation. For the first time, radiation pressure has been recognized as potentially significant factor in grain refinement. In the experimental setup used in this study, acoustic pressure at the main (driving) frequency is not substantial to cause significant fragmentation, and only dendrites close to the sonotrode were fragmented. However, application of ultrasound with frequencies that are several times higher than the current industrial practice could substantially increase dendrite fragmentation. Appearance of fractional harmonics has also been recognized

  17. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  18. Sonochemistry: Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pestman, Jolanda M; Engberts, J B F N; Jong, Feike de

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used in chemistry to increase both reaction rates and yields of products. Most effects of ultrasound on chemical reactions are due to cavitation: the formation and collapse of small bubbles in the solvent. In this review, we first outline the physical background of cavitation, and

  19. An investigation of homogeneous and heterogeneous sonochemistry for the destruction of hazardous substances. Progress report, 1996 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, I.

    1997-01-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to acquire a deeper fundamental knowledge of acoustic cavitation and cavitation chemistry, and in doing so, to ascertain how ultrasonic irradiation can be more effectively applied to environmental problems. Four on-going projects will be described in this progress report, The first project is the destruction of carbofuran in a Near-Field Acoustical Processor (NAP), and the hydrodynamic characterization of the reactor. The second project is a comprehensive study of how ultrasonic frequency influences sonochemical reaction rates; the substrate it, the preliminary portion of this study has been hydrogen peroxide formation. The third project in progress is destruction of four polychlorinated biphenyls at 20 kHz. Work so far has been at 20 kHz, but the most significant portion of this project will involve a multi-frequency (ultrasonic frequency) study. Finally, the destruction of a pesticide, dichlorvos, during sonication at 500 kHz will be described. Preliminary work during the first year has emphasized determination of kinetics; further work (years 2--3) will be focused upon closing mass balances and identifying transformation products.'

  20. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  1. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  2. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  3. A Miniature Probe for Ultrasonic Penetration of a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Xiao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell.

  4. Ultrasonic testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic transmitter made of polarized ferroelectric ceramic material (lead zirconate titanate) is arranged in a strip carrier which allows it to be introduced between the fuel elements of a fuel subassembly in a water cooled nuclear reactor. The ultrasonic transmitter is insulated relative to the carrier. The echo of the ra dal ultrasonic pulse is recorded which changes as faulty water filled fuel elements are detected. (RW) [de

  5. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  6. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  7. Overview of the ultrasonic instrumentation research in the MYRRHA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, M.; Leysen, W.; Van Dyck, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA, a new generation IV fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled with lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback where needed. This paper we will give an overview of the R and D at SCK.CEN with respect to ultrasonic instrumentation in heavy liquid metals. High temperature ultrasonic transducers are deployed into the reactor to generate and receive the required ultrasonic signals. The ultrasonic waves are generated and sensed by means of a piezo-electric disc at the heart of the transducer. The acoustic properties of commonly used piezo-electric materials match rather well with the acoustic properties of heavy liquid metals, simplifying the design and construction of high bandwidth ultrasonic transducers for use in heavy liquid metals. The ultrasonic transducers will operate in a liquid metal environment, where radiation and high temperature limit the choice of materials for construction. Moreover, the high surface tension of the liquid metal hinders proper wetting of the transducer, required for optimal transmission and reception of the ultrasonic waves. In a first part of the paper, we will discuss the effect of these parameters on the performance of the overall ultrasonic system. In the second part of the paper, past, present and future ultrasonic experiments in LBE will be reviewed. We will show the results of an experiment where a transducer is scanned near the free surface of an LBE pool to render ultrasonic images of objects submerged in the heavy liquid metal. Additionally, the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment that measures the evolution of LBE wetting on different types of metals and various surface conditions will be reported. The evolution of wetting is an important

  8. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  9. Chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zuohui; Xue, Yongqiang; Ju, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems of high temperature and non-uniformity of coloring on stainless steel, a new chemical coloring process, applying ultrasonic irradiation to the traditional chemical coloring process, was developed in this paper. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and power density (sound intensity) on chemical coloring on stainless steel were studied. The uniformity of morphology and colors was observed with the help of polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance were investigated, and the effect mechanism of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical coloring was discussed. These results show that in the process of chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation, the film composition is the same as the traditional chemical coloring, and this method can significantly enhance the uniformity, the wear and corrosion resistances of the color film and accelerate the coloring rate which makes the coloring temperature reduced to 40°C. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical coloring can be attributed to the coloring rate accelerated and the coloring temperature reduced by thermal-effect, the uniformity of coloring film improved by dispersion-effect, and the wear and corrosion resistances of coloring film enhanced by cavitation-effect. Ultrasonic irradiation not only has an extensive application prospect for chemical coloring on stainless steel but also provides an valuable reference for other chemical coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic grinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shuji.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  12. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  13. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  16. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  17. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  18. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  19. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  20. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  1. Ultrasonic tests. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebbels, K.

    1980-01-01

    After a basic treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation, of the state-of-the-art methods and the technical background in the preceeding part, advanced ultrasonic NDT techniques are presented here. The discussion of new development includes - manipulation systems, - automation of ultrasonic testing methods, documentation and evaluation. In the middle of this part the main problem areas will be discussed: - detection of defects (e.g. in coarse grained structures and welds), - classification of defects (e.g. discrimination between crack-like and volumetric faults), - sizing of defects. Research in the field of acoustical holography, development of probes and phased arrays, electromagnetic acoustic transducers and signal enhancement are the main contributing parts to the report. (orig./RW)

  2. Ultrasonic weld testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-12-01

    The study was broken down into two phases. Phase I consisted of a laboratory investigation of test specimens to determine the reliability of the ultrasonic equipment and testing procedure. Phase II was a field study where the knowledge, skills and ab...

  3. Ultrasonic leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning ultrasonic microphone was used to detect the presence and locate the sources of hydraulic noises in piping systems in a reactor environment. The intensity changes of the noises correspond to changes of flow conditions within the system caused by throttled valves, flow rate changes, and leaks. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  5. Ultrasonic calibration assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for in-service inspection of nuclear reactor vessels have several problems associated with them which this invention seeks to overcome. The first is that of calibration or referencing a zero start point for the vertical axis of transducer movement to locate a weld defect. The second is that of verifying the positioning (vertically or at a predetermined angle). Thirdly there is the problem of ascertaining the speed per unit distance in the operating medium of the transducer beam prior to the actual inspection. The apparatus described is a calibration assembly which includes a fixed, generally spherical body having a surface for reflecting an ultrasonic beam from one of the transducers which can be moved until the reflection from the spherical body is the highest amplitude return signal indicating radial alignment from the body. (U.K.)

  6. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  7. Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.

    1978-01-01

    The differences in the Zn ultrasonic attenuation data of different workers are analyzed. The superconducting energy gaps deduced from our analysis of the ultrasonic-attenuation data of Cleavelin and Marshall are consistent with the gaps deduced from the knowledge of the Fermi surface and the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor

  8. Lumber defect detection by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonics, the technology of high-frequency sound, has been developed as a viable means for locating most defects In lumber for use in digital form in decision-making computers. Ultrasonics has the potential for locating surface and internal defects in lumber of all species, green or dry, and rough sawn or surfaced.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weld metal has always been regarded as a difficult proposition because of the large and variable ultrasonic attenuations and back scattering obtained from apparently similar weld deposits. The work to be described shows how the existence of a fibre texture within each weld deposit (as a result of epitaxial growth through successive weld beads) produces a systematic variation in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the velocity of sound, depending upon the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the fibre axis. Development work has shown that it is possible to adjust the welding parameters to ensure that the crystallographic texture within each weld is compatible with improved ultrasonic transmission. The application of the results to the inspection of a specific weld in type 316 weld metal is described

  10. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  11. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. Advanced ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) continuous monitoring and periodical inspections by advanced ultrasonic have been applied to evaluate defect evolution within a PWR reduced scale (1:5) pressure vessel subjected to cyclic mechanical fatigue test. This experimental activity has been carried out in the frame of the Primary Circuit Component Life Prediction programme. In the time period covered by this report actions were performed as following: (1) Ultrasonic examination by multifrequency acoustic holography to evaluate defect evolution subsequently repair and heat treatment of the R2 vessel carried out in March 1988. For the purpose, measurements were performed both at 0 and 200 bar of internal pressure. As uniformity of the procedures adopted, for calibration and testing, made the results comparable with the previous ones no evidence for significant growing of the examined defects has been found. (2) Acoustic emission monitoring has then been carried out during fatigue test from 416000 to 565000 fatigue cycles. Analysis of a large amount of data has been performed paying particular attention to the distinction between friction phenomena and crack growth in order to obtain a correct diagnosis of flaw evolution. The signal duration distribution and the correlation of AE appearance time versus load cycle phase were considered to characterise stick-slip processes. A general intensification of AE activity has been recorded during this last period of monitoring and previous known AE sources were confirmed together with the appearance of new AE sources some of them correlable with real defects

  14. System for ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Kristensen, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system for the recording of flaw images by ultrasonic examination according to the pulse-echo method includes at least one ultrasonic probe which can be moved in steps over the surface of an object along a rectilinear scanning path. Digital signals containing information on the successive positions of the sound beam, on echo amplitudes, and on the lengths of sound paths to reflectors inside the object, are processed and used for the accumulated storage of circular patterns of echo amplitude data in a matrix memory associated with a sectional plane through the object. A video screen terminal controls the system and transforms the accumulated data into displays of sectional flaw images of greatly improved precision and sharpness of definition. A gradual transfer of filtered data from a number of parallel sectional planes to three further matrix memories associated with projection planes at right angles to each other permits presentation in three dimensions of equally improved projection flaw images. (author) 2 figs

  15. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  16. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  17. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  18. Characterization for coating processes of imidazole powders using an ultrasonic atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Jun Ki [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mok Soon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Imidazole-curing accelerator powders were coated with stearic acid to increase the pot life of anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) formulations. To accomplish an efficient coating process, the coating was tested using an ultrasonic atomizer after mixing imidazole powders with a molten coating agent. Design of experiments analysis was organized to elucidate the effect of process parameters and to determine the most crucial parameter. The final formulation incorporating well-processed imidazole loaded powders indicated longer pot life, higher shear strength, and excellent highly accelerated stress test (HAST) reliability. Results show that the coating process using an ultrasonic atomizer is effective in increasing the pot life of ACA formulations

  19. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  20. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  1. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  2. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  3. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus is described for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet

  4. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  5. Ultrasonic imaging in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribay, G.; Paris, O.; Rambach, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The third and final protection barrier confining nuclear reactors is usually a concrete containment structure. Monitoring the structural integrity of these barriers is critical in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in France in collaboration with the French Atomic commission (CEA/LIST) has developed an ultrasonic phased-array technique capable of inspecting thick concrete walls. The non-destructive method is dedicated to detect cracks and bulk defects. Given the thickness of the structure (1.2 m) undergoing inspection and the heterogeneity of the concrete, the optimal frequency lies in the 50-300 kHz range. At these frequencies, the ultrasonic beam profiles are widespread (non-directive) with poor signal-to-noise ratio. Previous studies have shown the potential of using phased-array techniques (i.e., beam focusing and beam steering) in order to improve detection resolution and sizing accuracy. In this paper we present experimental studies performed with array up to 16 transducers working at 200 kHz. Experiments are carried out on representative concrete blocks containing artificial defects. One is a reinforced mock-up representative of the first reinforcing mesh of wall containment. Experimental results show that in spite of the reinforcement, artificial defects deep as half a meter can be detected. Reconstructed images resulting from phased array acquisitions on an artificial crack embedded in a concrete block are also presented and discussed. The presented method allows detecting oriented defects in concrete with improved signal to noise ratio and sensibility. A simulation model of the interaction of ultrasound with a heterogeneous medium like concrete is briefly commented. (authors)

  6. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  7. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  8. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  9. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  10. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Rožić; Marina Vukoje; Kristinka Vinković; Nives Galić; Mirela Jukić

    2017-01-01

    The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US) and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP) that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2) which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was...

  11. Detailed simulation of ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Douglas, S.R.; Dunford, D.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation of ultrasonic inspection of engineering components have been performed at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL for over 10 years. The computer model, called EWE for Elastic Wave Equations, solves the Elastic Wave Equations using a novel finite difference scheme. It simulates the propagation of an ultrasonic wave from the transducer to a flaw, the scatter of waves from the flaw, and measurement of signals at a receive transducer. Regions of different materials, water and steel for example, can be simulated. In addition, regions with slightly different material properties from the parent material can be investigated. The two major types of output are displays of the ultrasonic waves inside the component and the corresponding A-scans. EPRI and other organizations have used ultrasonic models for: defining acceptable ultrasonic inspection procedures, designing and evaluating inspection techniques, and for quantifying inspection reliability. The EWE model has been applied to the inspection of large pipes in a nuclear plant, gas pipeline welds and steam generator tubes. Most recent work has dealt with the ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. Pressure tube inspections can reliably detect and size defects; however, there are improvements that can be made. For example, knowing the sharpness of a flaw-tip is crucial for fitness for service assessments. Computer modelling of the ultrasonic inspection of flaws with different root radius has suggested inspection techniques that provide flaw tip radius information. A preliminary investigation of these methods has been made in the laboratory. The basis for the model will be reviewed at the presentation. Then the results of computer simulations will be displayed on a PC using an interactive program that analyzes simulated A-scans. This software tool gives inspection staff direct access to the results of computer simulations. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  13. Ultrasonic-testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a device adapted to the detection, by means of ultrasonic waves, of all the flaws and defects included in workpieces when only one face of the latter is accessible. A beam is directed towards the rear-face of the workpiece (e.g. a plate) on which it is reflected. The image thus reflected is fed into a receiver. The latter is under the control of the displacement of that image; simultaneously a transducer checks the condition of the mirror at the places where the beam is reflected. Whenever a flow or defect comes between, a silent zone is formed. By recording the silent zones with respect to the positions of several emitters, it is possible to locates a flaw and to define the outline thereof. The apparatus comprises several ''emitter-receiver'' groups intersecting over the emitter used in order to check the good conditions of the mirror. The invention can be used for searching and identifying flaws and defects in buildings which have to be of top quality (e.g., cofferdams, nuclear devices, shipbuilding yards, aeronautics) [fr

  14. Ultrasonic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLain, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The ultrasonic monitoring system is used in LMFBR's, BWR's or PWR's. A remotely controlled, movable instrument carrier may be used which contains the piezo-electric transducer and is connected to the main control console by a transmission cable. An excitation pulse coming from a pulse generator is used to excite the transducer with a maximum of energy, independent of the length of the transmission line. Pulse width and pulse amplitude can be set without any direct interference into the transducer. For this purpose, a resistor whose impedance has been matched to that of the transmission line is connected to the input of the transmission line. Moreover, a capacitor for generation of the excitation pulse is coupled with the transmission line by means of a four-layer switching diode and is discharged. For termination of the excitation and the control pulses, respectively, another four-layer switching diode connected parallel to the capacitor quickly discharges the capacitor. The capacitor and the capacitance of the line constitute a voltage divider. In this way it is possible to change the length of the transmission line and, to safeguard the generation of a pulse of the desired amplitude, only vary the capacitance of the capacitor. (DG/RF) [de

  15. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  16. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  17. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  18. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  19. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  20. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to remove calculus deposits from teeth by application of an ultrasonic vibrating scaler tip to the teeth. (b...

  1. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  2. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  3. Ultrasonic inspection development at HEDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.K.; Mech, S.J.; Michaels, T.E.; Dixon, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing methods and equipment are being developed to support preservice and in-service inspection of selected FFTF welds. A digital computer system is employed in the analysis of both simulated FFTF pipe sections and plate specimens containing fatigue cracks. It is anticipated that test evaluation standards containing fatigue cracks will partially eliminate questions formerly associated with weld test calibration producers by providing natural cracks which follow grain boundaries and stress patterns resembling piping situ conditions. Studies have revealed that commercial transducers may satisfy LMFBR ultrasonic pipe inspection applications: The test system evaluation included transducers and wedge coupling and fluid coupling materials which exhibited acceptable performance at temperatures to 2300C. Results are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasonic inspection of components immersed in sodium at temperatures to 2600C. (UK)

  4. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  5. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  6. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  7. Very high temperature ultrasonic thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorzik, E.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic thermometer comprises an electric pulse transducer head, a pulse transmission line, a notched sensor wire attached to and extending along the axis of said transmission line and a sheath enclosing the transmission line and the sensor wire, a portion of the interior face of the sheath being covered by a stuffing material along at least the length of the notched part of the sensor wire, such that contact between the sensor wire and the stuffing material does not substantially give rise to reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the point of contact. (author)

  8. Influences of ultrasonic irradiation on the morphology and structure of nanoporous Co nanoparticles during chemical dealloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Co-61.8 wt% Al nanoparticles of 45 nm were prepared by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction (HPMR method. The nanoparticles display core shell structure with Al13Co4 and CoAl core and aluminum oxide shell (about 2 nm. Under ultrasonic irradiation, nanoporous fcc-Co nanoparticles were produced successfully by chemically dealloying the Co-Al nanoparticles at room temperature, whereas, without ultrasonic irradiation CoAl phase could hardly react with sodium hydroxide solution. At 323 K the Co-Al nanoparticles could be dealloyed to fcc-Co and hcp-Co phases even without ultrasonic irradiation. The surface area of the dealloyed nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation was larger than that of the dealloyed sample without ultrasonic irradiation at the same temperature. It is believed that the microjet and shock-wave induced by ultrasonic irradiation give rise to particles size reduction, interparticle collision and surface cleaning, and accelerate the dealloying process and the phase transformation.

  9. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  10. Measurement of a 3D Ultrasonic Wavefield Using Pulsed Laser Holographic Microscopy for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic array imaging, 3D ultrasonic wavefields are normally recorded by an ultrasonic piezo array transducer. Its performance is limited by the configuration and size of the array transducer. In this paper, a method based on digital holographic interferometry is proposed to record the 3D ultrasonic wavefields instead of the array transducer, and the measurement system consisting of a pulsed laser, ultrasonic excitation, and synchronization and control circuit is designed. A consecutive sequence of holograms of ultrasonic wavefields are recorded by the system. The interferograms are calculated from the recorded holograms at different time sequence. The amplitudes and phases of the transient ultrasonic wavefields are recovered from the interferograms by phase unwrapping. The consecutive sequence of transient ultrasonic wavefields are stacked together to generate 3D ultrasonic wavefields. Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed technique, and preliminary results are presented.

  11. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and X-ray metallography combined with ultrasonic testing by compression waves was used for inspection of stainless steel weld metal produced by three different welding techniques. X-ray diffraction showed that each weld possessed a characteristic fibre textured structure which was shown by optical microscopy to be parallel to columnar grain boundaries. Metallographic evidence suggested that the development of fibre texture is due to the mechanism of competitive growth. From observations made as a result of optical metallographic examination the orientation of the fibre axis could be predicted if the weld geometry and welding procedure were known. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements as a continuous function of grain orientation, made on cylinders machined from weld samples, showed that attenuation was strongly orientation dependent. It was concluded that the sensitivity of ultrasonic inspection to small defects is unlikely to be as high for austenitic welds as for ferritic even when transmission is improved by modifying the welding procedure to improve the ultrasonic transmission. (U.K.)

  12. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  13. Automated evaluation of ultrasonic indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, M.K.T.; Stegemann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Future requirements of reliability and reproducibility in quality assurance demand computer evaluation of defect indications. The ultrasonic method with its large field of applications and a high potential for automation provides all preconditions for fully automated inspection. The survey proposes several desirable hardware improvements, data acquisition requirements and software configurations. (orig.) [de

  14. Ultrasonic flowmeters. Progress report II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    This progress report presents results of in-plant testing of the prototype ultrasonic flowmeter and describes modifications to the prototype as a result of these tests. The modified prototype, designated MOD-I, is described in detail including the principle of operation, equipment used and the results of both laboratory and in-plant demonstrations

  15. Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a boay which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation...

  16. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  17. Atomic absorption determination of metals in soils using ultrasonic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Smityuk, N.M.; Baklanov, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that ultrasonic treatment accelerates sample preparation of soil extracts from chernozem into different solvents by a factor of 6 to 60. These extracts are used for the atomic absorption determination of soluble species of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The optimum ultrasound parameters (frequency, intensity, and treatment time) were found for preparing soil extracts containing analytes in concentrations required in agrochemical procedures. Different extractants used to extract soluble heavy metals from soils of an ordinary chernozem type in agrochemical procedures using ultrasonic treatment were classified in accordance with the element nature [ru

  18. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  19. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  20. Energetic balance in an ultrasonic reactor using focused or flat high frequency transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hallez, L.; Touyeraz, F.; Hihn, J. Y.; Klíma, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2007), s. 739-749 ISSN 1350-4177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sonochemistry * polymer film irradiation * calorimetry * HIFU Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2007

  1. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  2. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  3. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  4. Ultrasound influence on materials structure in parts reconditioned by welding with ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobrotă

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in the paper refers to the structural analysis of materials that are thermally influenced for loading by welding of pieces in the classical variant of manual coated electric arc welding and the version that in which the welding bath is activated by ultrasounds. The structural analysis made refer to: the size of the grains of the structure obtained under certain loading conditions through welding, grain size variation on the submission of a single layer in the ultrasonic field, the mode of solidification and fragmentation of grains when loaded in welding in a ultrasonic field, acceleration of the diffusion process for ultrasonic activation, the appearance of hard carbides between grains.

  5. Ultrasonic techniques for repair of aircraft structures with bonded composite patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. H.; Senapati, N.; Francini, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    This is a paper on a research and development project to demonstrate a novel ultrasonic process for the field application of boron/epoxy (B/Ep) patches for repair of aircraft structures. The first phase of the project was on process optimization and testing to develop the most practical ultrasonic processing techniques. Accelerated testing and aging behavior of precured B/Ep patches, which were ultrasonically bonded to simulated B-52 wing panel assemblies, were performed by conducting flight-by-flight spectrum loading fatigue tests. The spectrum represented 2340 missions/flights or 30 years of service. The effects of steady-state applied temperature and prior exposure of the B/Ep composite patches were evaluated. Representative experimental results of this phase of the project are presented.

  6. Parameter analysis on the ultrasonic TSV-filling process and electrochemical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Ren, Xinyu; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Zhaohua; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key technologies in 3D packaging, through silicon via (TSV) interconnection technology has become a focus recently. In this paper, an electrodeposition method for TSV filling with the assistance of ultrasound and additives are introduced. Two important parameters i.e. current density and ultrasonic power are studied for TSV filling process and electrochemical properties. It is found that ultrasound can improve the quality of TSV-filling and change the TSV-filling mode. The experimental results also indicate that the filling rate enhances more significantly with decreasing current density under ultrasonic conditions than under silent conditions. In addition, according to the voltammetry curve, the increase of ultrasonic power can significantly increase the current density of cupric reduction, and decrease the thickness of diffusion layer. So that the reduction speed of copper ions is accelerated, resulting in a higher TSV-filling rate.

  7. Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranz, Javier; Aparicio, Sofía; Romero, Héctor; Casati, María Jesús; Molero, Miguel; González, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of damage produced during freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles using two non-destructive measurement approaches—the first approach devoted to continuous monitoring using embedded sensors during the cycles, and the second one, performing ultrasonic imaging before and after the cycles. Both methodologies have been tested in two different types of concrete specimens, with and without air-entraining agents. Using the first measurement approach, the size and distribution of pores were estimated using a thermoporometrical model and continuous measurements of temperature and ultrasonic velocity along cycles. These estimates have been compared with the results obtained using mercury porosimetry testing. In the second approach, the damage due to F-T cycles has been evaluated by automated ultrasonic transmission and pulse-echo inspections made before and after the cycles. With these inspections the variations in the dimensions, velocity and attenuation caused by the accelerated F-T cycles were determined. PMID:24481231

  8. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  9. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  10. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  11. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J R; Wagg, A R; Whittle, M J [N.D.T. Applications Centre, CEGB, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The metallurgical structure of austenitic welds is described and contrasted with that found in ferritic welds. It is shown that this structure imparts a marked elastic anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation parameters. Measurements of variations in the apparent attenuation of sound and deviations in the beam direction are described. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the measured velocity anisotropy. Two applications of the fundamental work are described. In the first it is shown how, by using short pulse compression wave probes, and with major modification of the welding procedure, a stainless steel fillet weld in an AGR boiler can be inspected. In the second application, alternative designs of a transition butt weld have been compared for ease of ultrasonic inspection. The effects of two different welding processes on such an inspection are described. Finally, the paper examines the prospects for future development of inspection and defect-sizing techniques for austenitic welds. (author)

  12. Helium-flow measurement using ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    While designing cryogenic instrumentation for the Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) helium-distribution system it became clear that accurate measurement of mass flow of helium which varied in temperature from room to sub-cooled conditions would be difficult. Conventional venturi flow meters full scale differential pressure signal would decrease by more than an order of magnitude during cooldown causing unacceptable error at operating temperature. At sub-cooled temperatures, helium would be pumped around cooling loops by an efficient, low head pressure circulating compressor. Additional pressure drop meant more pump work was necessary to compress the fluid resulting in a higher outlet temperature. The ideal mass flowmeter for this application was one which did not add pressure drop to the system, functioned over the entire temperature range, has high resolution and delivers accurate mass flow measurement data. Ultrasonic flow measurement techniques used successfully by the process industry, seemed to meet all the necessary requirements. An extensive search for a supplier of such a device found that none of the commercial stock flowmeters were adaptable to cryogenic service so the development of the instrument was undertaken by the CBA Cryogenic Control and Instrumentation Engineering Group at BNL

  13. Proposed new ultrasonic test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxfield, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Within the last four or five years, a great deal of progress has been made both here and in a number of other laboratories in developing techniques that will enable considerably more information to be obtained from the ultrasonic examination of an object. Some of these recent developments relate to information contained within the diffracted beam which does not return along the incident path. An ultrasonic examination based upon an evaluation of diffracted energy must use at least two transducers, one for transmission and the other for reception. Current indications are that even more reliable test results will be achieved using a receiving transducer that can scan a significant portion of the diffracted field including that portion which is back-reflected. In general, this scan can be interpreted most accurately if it follows a path related to the surface shape. If more than one region within the object is to be interrogated, then the transmitting transducer must also be scanned, again along a path related to the surface shape. The large quantity of information obtained as the result of such an examination must be subjected to sophisticated computer analysis in order to be displayed in a meaningful and intelligible manner. Although one motivation for building such an instrument is to explore new ultrasonic test procedures that are evolving from current laboratory research, this is neither the sole motivation nor the only use for this instrument. Such a mechanical and electronic device would permit conventional ultrasonic tests to be performed on parts of complex geometry without the expensive and time-consuming special fixturing that is currently required. May possible test geometries could be explored in practice prior to the construction of a specialized test apparatus. Hence, it would be necessary to design much, if any, flexibility into the special test apparatus

  14. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  16. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  17. Automated ultrasonic inspection using PULSDAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naybour, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    PULSDAT (Portable Ultrasonic Data Acquisition Tool) is a system for recording the data from single probe automated ultrasonic inspections. It is one of a range of instruments and software developed by Nuclear Electric to carry out a wide variety of high quality ultrasonic inspections. These vary from simple semi-automated inspections through to multi-probe, highly automated ones. PULSDAT runs under the control of MIPS software, and collects data which is compatible with the GUIDE data display system. PULSDAT is therefore fully compatible with Nuclear Electric's multi-probe inspection systems and utilises all the reliability and quality assurance of the software. It is a rugged, portable system that can be used in areas of difficult access. The paper discusses the benefits of automated inspection and gives an outline of the main features of PULSDAT. Since April 1990 PULSDAT has been used in several applications within Nuclear Electric and this paper presents two examples: the first is a ferritic set-through nozzle and the second is an austenitic fillet weld. (Author)

  18. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  19. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  20. Recent progress in online ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Szu-Sheng L.; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Ramos-Franca, Demartonne; Nguyen, Ky T.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei; Ihara, Ikuo; Derdouri, A.; Garcia-Rejon, Andres

    1998-03-01

    On-line ultrasonic monitoring of polymer co-extrusion and gas-assisted injection molding are presented. During the co- extrusion of high density polyethylene and Santoprene ultrasonic sensors consisting of piezoelectric transducers and clad ultrasonic buffer rods are used to detect the interface between these two polymers and the stability of the extrusion. The same ultrasonic sensor also measures the surface temperature of the extruded polymer. The results indicate that temperature measurements using ultrasound have a faster response time than those obtained by conventional thermocouple. In gas-assisted injection molding the polymer and gas flow front positions are monitored simultaneously. This information may be used to control the plunger movement.

  1. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  2. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  3. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, K; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V; Baeker, M

    2009-01-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  4. Application of ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of the directive action beverage from black currant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental determination of physical-and chemical parameters, the amount of anthocyanins, the definition of color and organoleptic characteristics of the beverage prepared with ultrasonic extraction method in comparison with the fruit-drink, obtained according to traditional recipe. Black currant was chosen the main raw material for the development of the beverage production technology. It is characterized by a high content of bioactive components that increase the adaptive abilities of human body. The purpose is to use ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of functionally directed actions beverages. Extractor with submerged ultrasonic emitter was used as an experimental device. The essence of its operation is as follows: a mixture of the extractant and the plant substrate in different ratios was loaded into a container with the emitter, then the ultrasonic generator was turned on. The vibrations of ultrasonic frequency (22 kHz made high-frequency mechanical vibrations that caused the formation of intense cavitation areas and diffuse dissolution of cell substrates in the extractant in the treated mixture. The ultrasonic extraction technique involves brief contact of berries and extractant (up to 15 minutes upon application of ultrasonic vibrations. With an increase in exposure time, the yield of biologically active substances increases to reach an equilibrium state corresponding to the most complete exhaustion of raw materials. All this leads to a significant acceleration of the transition from the active ingredients from the raw materials into the extractant to obtain a product with improved physical - and chemical, organoleptic characteristics, as well as a higher antioxidant activity.

  5. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  6. Acceleration theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by Sonochemistry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, L.F.; Pereira, L.C.; Licona, K.P.M.; Lunz, J.N.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Morejon, L.

    2014-01-01

    bone implant substitute due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues. Among synthesis conventional methods, the acoustic cavitation, induced by the sonochemical method, allows formation of nano powders. This work aimed to synthesize HAp nano-sized powders by using CaCl2. 2H2O and Na3PO4. 12H2O as precursors, along with pH and temperature control. The sonochemical method was accomplished by using different amplitudes (20%, 60% e 100%). To optimize the process, another synthesis at 60% ultrasound amplitude was performed, with the use of a peristaltic pump for dripping control. The HAp nano powders achieved were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope/Field Emission Gun (SEM/FEG) combined with EDS. The results indicated the influence of the sonochemical methodology and drip controlling, on the chemical composition, crystallinity and nanoparticles morphology. (author)

  8. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by Sonochemistry Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, L.F.; Pereira, L.C. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Licona, K.P.M.; Lunz, J.N.; Ribeiro, A.A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (DPCM/INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morejon, L. [Universidad de La Habana (UH/BIOMAT), Habana (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales

    2014-07-01

    bone implant substitute due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues. Among synthesis conventional methods, the acoustic cavitation, induced by the sonochemical method, allows formation of nano powders. This work aimed to synthesize HAp nano-sized powders by using CaCl2. 2H2O and Na3PO4. 12H2O as precursors, along with pH and temperature control. The sonochemical method was accomplished by using different amplitudes (20%, 60% e 100%). To optimize the process, another synthesis at 60% ultrasound amplitude was performed, with the use of a peristaltic pump for dripping control. The HAp nano powders achieved were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope/Field Emission Gun (SEM/FEG) combined with EDS. The results indicated the influence of the sonochemical methodology and drip controlling, on the chemical composition, crystallinity and nanoparticles morphology. (author)

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Rapid bonding enhancement by auxiliary ultrasonic actuation for the fabrication of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H; Tor, S B; Loh, N H

    2014-01-01

    Thermal compression bonding is a straightforward, inexpensive and widely used method for enclosing open microchannels in thermoplastic microfluidic devices. It is advantageous over adhesive, solvent and grafting bonding methods in retaining material homogeneity. However, the trade-off between high bond strength and low microchannel deformation is always a crucial consideration in thermal compression bonding. In this study, an effective method for improving bond strength while retaining the microchannel integrity with negligible distortion is proposed and analyzed. Longitudinal ultrasonic actuation was applied to the preheated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) substrates to achieve accelerated and enhanced bonding with an ultrasonic welding system. Intimate contact between the bonding surfaces before the ultrasonic actuation was found to be an important prior condition. With improper contact, several bonding defects would occur, such as voids, localized spot melting and edge melting. Under auxiliary ultrasonic vibration, within 10 s, the bond strength developed at the bonding interface could be dramatically improved compared with those achieved without ultrasonic actuation. The enhanced bond strength obtained at a preheating temperature of 20 °C lower than its T g could be comparable to the strength for pure thermal compression at 5 °C higher than its T g . It is believed that the ultrasonic energy introduced could elevate the interfacial temperature and facilitate the interdiffusion of molecular chain segments at the interface, consequently resulting in rapidly enhanced bonding. Also, the microchannel distortion after ultrasonic actuation was found to be satisfactory—another important requirement. From dynamic mechanical analysis, the glass transition temperature of COC was found to increase with increasing frequency, and the temperature of the bulk polymer under ultrasonic actuation was still well under T g ; therefore the deformation is minor under ultrasonic

  11. Pipe Wall Thickness Monitoring Using Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Waveguide Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, Ha Nam; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor a corrosion or FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion) in a pipe, there is a need to measure pipe wall thickness at high temperature. Ultrasonic thickness gauging is the most commonly used non-destructive testing technique for wall thickness measurement. However, current commonly available ultrasonic transducers cannot withstand high temperatures, such as above 200 .deg. C. It is therefore necessary to carry out manual measurements during plant shutdowns. The current method thus reveals several disadvantages: inspection have to be performed during shutdowns with the possible consequences of prolonging down time and increasing production losses, insulation has to be removed and replaced for each manual measurement, and scaffolding has to be installed to inaccessible areas, resulting in considerable cost for interventions. It has been suggested that a structural health monitoring approach with permanently installed ultrasonic thickness gauges could have substantial benefits over current practices. The main reasons why conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers cannot be used at high temperatures are that the piezo-ceramic becomes depolarized at temperature above the Curie temperature and because differential thermal expansion of the substrate, couplant, and piezoelectric materials cause failure. In this paper, a shear horizontal waveguide technique for wall thickness monitoring at high temperature is investigated. Two different designs for contact to strip waveguide are shown and the quality of output signal is compared and reviewed. After a success of acquiring high quality ultrasonic signal, experiment on the wall thickness monitoring at high temperature is planned

  12. Ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic steel subjected to long-term isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Won Sik; Kim, Chung Seok [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study presents the ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic stainless steels subjected to longterm isothermal aging. These steels are attractive materials for use in industrial mechanical structures because of their strength at high-temperatures and their chemical stability. The test materials were subjected to accelerated heat-treatment in an electrical furnace for a predetermined aging duration. The variations in the ultrasonic nonlinearity and microstructural damage were carefully evaluated through observation of the microstructure. The ultrasonic nonlinearity stiffly dropped after aging for up to 1000 h and, then, monotonously decreased. The polygonal shape of the initial grain structures changed to circular, especially as the annealing twins in the grains dissolved and disappeared. The delta ferrite on the grain boundaries could not be observed at 1000 h of aging, and these continuously transformed into their sigma phases. Consequently, in the intial aging period, the rapid decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity was caused by voids, dislocations, and twin annihilation. The continuous monotonic decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity after the first drop resulted from the generation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and σ phases.

  13. Semi-continuous ultrasonic sounding and changes of ultrasonic signal characteristics as a sensitive tool for the evaluation of ongoing microstructural changes of experimental mortar bars tested for their ASR potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kuchařová, A.; Petružálek, Matěj; Šachlová, Š.; Svitek, Tomáš; Přikryl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, September (2016), s. 40-50 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkali-silica reaction * accelerated test * thermal heating * mortar bar * ultrasonic sounding Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  14. Effect of ultrasonic stimulation on particle transport and fate over different lengths of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxin; Wu, Zhonghan; Cai, Qipeng; Cao, Wei

    2018-04-01

    It is well established that seismic waves traveling through porous media stimulate fluid flow and accelerate particle transport. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. To quantify the coupling effect of hydrodynamic force, transportation distance, and ultrasonic stimulation on particle transport and fate in porous media, laboratory experiments were conducted using custom-built ultrasonic-controlled soil column equipment. Three column lengths (23 cm, 33 cm, and 43 cm) were selected to examine the influence of transportation distance. Transport experiments were performed with 0 W, 600 W, 1000 W, 1400 W, and 1800 W of applied ultrasound, and flow rates of 0.065 cm/s, 0.130 cm/s, and 0.195 cm/s, to establish the roles of ultrasonic stimulation and hydrodynamic force. The laboratory results suggest that whilst ultrasonic stimulation does inhibit suspended-particle deposition and accelerate deposited-particle release, both hydrodynamic force and transportation distance are the principal controlling factors. The median particle diameter for the peak concentration was approximately 50% of that retained in the soil column. Simulated particle-breakthrough curves using extended traditional filtration theory effectively described the experimental curves, particularly the curves that exhibited a higher tailing concentration.

  15. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  16. Defect detection and sizing in ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Benoist, P.; Chapuis, N.; Magnin, I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces imaging processing developed with the SPARTACUS system in the field of ultrasonic testing. The aim of the imaging processing is to detect and to separate defects echoes from background noise. Image segmentation and particularities of ultrasonic images are the base of studied methods. 4 figs.; 6 refs [fr

  17. Reproducibility of the results in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaye, M.; Launay, J.P.; Thomas, A.

    1980-12-01

    This memorandum reports on the conclusions of the tests carried out in order to evaluate the reproducibility of ultrasonic tests made on welded joints. FRAMATOME have started a study to assess the dispersion of results afforded by the test line and to characterize its behaviour. The tests covered sensors and ultrasonic generators said to be identical to each other (same commercial batch) [fr

  18. Backward ray tracing for ultrasonic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Focused ultrasonic beams frequently pass one or more media interfaces, strongly affecting the ultrasonic beamshape and focusing. A computer program, based on backward ray tracing was developed to compute the shape of a corrected focusing mirror. This shape is verified with another program; then the

  19. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  20. The Dynamic Performance of Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Feeney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural ultrasonic transducers are principally used as proximity sensors and for industrial metrology. Their operation relies on a piezoelectric ceramic to generate a flexing of a metallic membrane, which delivers the ultrasound signal. The performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers has been largely limited to excitation through a short voltage burst signal at a designated mechanical resonance frequency. However, a steady-state amplitude response is not generated instantaneously in a flexural ultrasonic transducer from a drive excitation signal, and differences in the drive characteristics between transmitting and receiving transducers can affect the measured response. This research investigates the dynamic performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers using acoustic microphone measurements and laser Doppler vibrometry, supported by a detailed mechanical analog model, in a process which has not before been applied to the flexural ultrasonic transducer. These techniques are employed to gain insights into the physics of their vibration behaviour, vital for the optimisation of industrial ultrasound systems.

  1. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor; Controle par ultrasons des tubes de gaine en acier inoxydable du reacteur EL 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A; Monnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [French] Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de controle des gaines minces, le procede retenu pour de multiples raisons a ete celui faisant appel a la technique des ultrasons. Une methode a ete mise au point qui doit permettre un controle industriel rapide et efficace des tubes de gaine. Sont exposes en detail, les raisons du choix de la methode par ultrasons, les principes de cette methode et les parametres du controle proprement dit. Dans l'etat actuel de nos etudes la cadence devrait permettre le controle de 50000 tubes par an au minimum. Des ameliorations de detail portant sur la technique de controle elle-meme, doivent permettre d'accelerer tres notablement cette cadence. (auteurs)

  2. Plasma Sterilizer with Ultrasonic Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Panasko, T.A.; Shvets, O.M.; Semenova, O.T.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A sterilizer consists of ozone generator based on a barrier glow discharge with the flat electrodes covered with dielectric with a high-voltage pulsed power supply of up to 250 W (1). The sterilization camera is equipped with ultrasonic source with the power of 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. Ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 6 mg/liter with ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator 30 mg/liter. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min

  3. Accelerator microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators have been developed more than sixty years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic phenomena. A major shift toward applications of accelerators in the study of materials structure and composition in inter-disciplinary projects has been witnessed in the last two decades. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has developed advanced research programs based on the use of particle and photon beams. Atmospheric pollution problems are investigated at the 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator using ion beam analysis techniques to detect toxic elements in aerosol particles. High temperature superconductor and semiconductor materials are characterised using the recoil of iodine and other heavy ions produced at ANTARES, the 10-MV Tandem accelerator. A heavy-ion microprobe is presently being developed at ANTARES to map elemental concentrations of specific elements with micro-size resolution. An Accelerator mass Spectrometry (AMS) system has been developed at ANSTO for the ultra-sensitive detection of Carbon-14, Iodine-129 and other long-lived radioisotopes. This AMS spectrometer is a key instrument for climate change studies and international safeguards. ANSTO is also managing the Australian Synchrotron Research program based on facilities developed at the Photon Factory (Japan) and at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). Advanced projects in biology, materials chemistry, structural condensed matter and other disciplines are being promoted by a consortium involving Australian universities and research institutions. This paper will review recent advances in the use of particle accelerators, with a particular emphasis on applications developed at ANSTO and related to problems of international concern, such as global environmental change, public health and nuclear proliferation

  4. Ultrasonic imaging of projected components of PFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia, J.I., E-mail: sylvia@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyan, M.R.; Anbucheliyan, M.; Asokane, C.; Babu, V. Rajan; Babu, B.; Rajan, K.K.; Velusamy, K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Under sodium ultrasonic scanner in PFBR is for detecting protruding objects. ► Feasibility study for detecting Absorber rods and its drive mechanisms. ► Developed in-house PC based ultrasonic imaging system. ► Different case studies were carried out on simulated ARDM's. ► Implemented the experimental results to PFBR application. -- Abstract: The 500 MWe, sodium cooled, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam in India. Opacity of sodium restricts visual inspection of components immersed in sodium by optical means. Ultrasonic wave passes through sodium hence ultrasonic techniques using under sodium ultrasonic scanners are developed to obtain under sodium images. The main objective of such an Under Sodium Ultrasonic Scanner (USUSS) for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is to detect and ensure that no core Sub Assembly (SA) or Absorber Rod or its Drive Mechanism is protruded in the above core plenum before starting the fuel handling operation. Hence, it is necessary to detect and locate the object, if it is protruding the above core plenum. To study the feasibility of detecting the absorber rods and their drive mechanisms using direct ultrasonic imaging technique, experiments were carried out for different orientations and profiles of the projected components in a 5 m diameter water tank. The in-house developed PC based ultrasonic scanning system is used for acquisition and analysis of data. The pseudo three dimensional color images obtained are discussed and the results are applicable for PFBR. This paper gives the details of the features of the absorber rods and their drive mechanisms, their orientation in the reactor core, experimental setup, PC based ultrasonic scanning system, ultrasonic images and the discussion on the results.

  5. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Tsujino; Takashi Tomizaki

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinn...

  6. Destruction of Molecules or Nuclei of Hazardous Substances in Ultrasonic Activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kladov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The acceleration of chemical reactions by means of ultrasonic stress-long ago known at peace effect, but few utilized in industry due to it high price and the complexity of control. Firm ROSLO created simple and exceedingly effective device, in which you may carry out differential chemical and nuclear reactions. In given work are described the experimental events only of reactions of destruction on chemical and nuclear layers, and also is given the short-form intended explanation of occurring appearances

  7. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g., the...

  8. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  9. CNSTN Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbassi, Afifa; Trabelsi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    This project give a big idea about the measurement of the linear accelerator in the CNSTN. During this work we control dose distribution for different product. For this characterisation we have to make an installation qualification ,operational qualification,performance qualification and of course for every step we have to control temperature and the dose ,even the distribution of the last one.

  10. Accelerators course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA; Métral, E

    2006-01-01

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges

  11. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  12. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  13. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deconvolution algorithms applied in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, P.

    1993-12-01

    In a complete system of acquisition and processing of ultrasonic signals, it is often necessary at one stage to use some processing tools to get rid of the influence of the different elements of that system. By that means, the final quality of the signals in terms of resolution is improved. There are two main characteristics of ultrasonic signals which make this task difficult. Firstly, the signals generated by transducers are very often non-minimum phase. The classical deconvolution algorithms are unable to deal with such characteristics. Secondly, depending on the medium, the shape of the propagating pulse is evolving. The spatial invariance assumption often used in classical deconvolution algorithms is rarely valid. Many classical algorithms, parametric and non-parametric, have been investigated: the Wiener-type, the adaptive predictive techniques, the Oldenburg technique in the frequency domain, the minimum variance deconvolution. All the algorithms have been firstly tested on simulated data. One specific experimental set-up has also been analysed. Simulated and real data has been produced. This set-up demonstrated the interest in applying deconvolution, in terms of the achieved resolution. (author). 32 figs., 29 refs

  15. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  16. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  17. Calculations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a body which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation losses as well as internal losses may be important. Due to the complexity of the problem, a closed form solution is the exception rather than the rule. For this reason, it is necessary to use approximate methods for the analysis. Equivalent circuits, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, Mindlin plate theory and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacement and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also given, in the form of a complex stiffness matrix. A special stacking procedure, for analysis of the backing has been developed. This procedure gives a saving, which is similar to that of the fast fourier transform algorithm, and is also wellsuited for analysis of finite and infinite waveguides. Results obtained by the finite element method are shown and compared with measurements and exact solutions. Good agreement is obtained. It is concluded that the finite element method can be a valueable tool in analysis and design of ultrasonic transducers. (author)

  18. Accelerator update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS

  19. Accelerator update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS has managed

  20. Quality control of disinfection in ultrasonic baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Technical University Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Jatzwauk, L. [University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden (Germany). Abt. Krankenhaushygiene

    2002-07-01

    Numerous investigations under laboratory conditions confirmed the microbicidal efficacy of ultrasonication. Morphological destruction was shown on bacteria and fungi as well as on different virus species. Ultrasonic treatment seems to increase the effect of different antibiotics and disinfectants. Reasons for this synergism are largely unknown and uninvestigated, but the active principle seems to bee the dispersing effect of ultrasonication in combination with the destruction of cell wall or cell membrane. Unfortunately no validation of test conditions exists for most of these investigations, regarding intensity and frequency of ultrasonic waves, temperature of liquid medium and measurement of cavitation which is an essential part of physical and chemical effects in ultrasonic baths. In contrast to most laboratory experiments sound density of ultrasound for treatment of medical instruments is below 1 W/cm{sup 2} because instruments will be destroyed under stronger ultrasonic conditions. The frequency is below 50 KHz. This paper describes bactericidal and fungicidal effects of low- intensity-ultrasonication and its synergistical support to chemical disinfection. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonic tests on materials with protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings are applied to some nuclear components such as reactor vessels to inhibit surface corrosion. Since in-service ultrasonic inspection is required for such components, a study was performed to determine whether the use of protective coatings can affect ultrasonic tests. Two 2 in. thick steel plates were uniformly machined, sandblasted, and used as bases for two types of protective coatings. The type and thickness of the coating and the presence of contamination, such as fingerprints or mild oxidation under the paint, were the independent variables associated with the coating. Tests were run to determine the effects of the protective coatings on ultrasonic tests conducted on the steel plates. Significant variations in ultrasonic test sensitivity occurred as a function of the type and thickness of protective coating, couplant (material that conducts the ultrasound from the transducer into the test part, normally water or some type of oil), transducer wear plate, and ultrasonic test frequency. Ultrasonic tests can be strongly affected by a protective coating on the component to be inspected. As compared to the test sensitivity for an uncoated reference sample, the sensitivity may be dramatically shifted up or down on the coated surface. In certain coating thickness ranges, the sensitivity can fluctuate widely with small changes in coating thickness. If a coating is chosen properly, however, components with protective coatings can be tested ultrasonically with valid results. These results are for the case of ultrasonic input on the coated surface. It is not expected that an ultrasonic test conducted from the front surface would be appreciably affected by a coating on the rear surface

  2. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  3. Computer simulation of ultrasonic waves in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.A.; Chaplin, K.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model that simulates the propagation of ultrasonic waves has been developed at AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories. This program is called EWE, short for Elastic Wave Equations, the mathematics governing the propagation of ultrasonic waves. This report contains a brief summary of the use of ultrasonic waves in non-destructive testing techniques, a discussion of the EWE simulation code explaining the implementation of the equations and the types of output received from the model, and an example simulation showing the abilities of the model. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  5. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.K.; Pedersen, H.N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes is described. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose

  6. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonics. A subject with applications across all the basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and oceanography, yet even the broader topic of acoustics is now rarely offered at undergraduate levels. Ultrasonics is addressed primarily at the doctoral level, and texts appropriate for beginning graduate students or newcomers to the field are virtually nonexistent.Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves fills that void. Designed specifically for senior undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and those just entering the field, it begins with the fundamentals, but goes well beyond th

  7. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  9. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  10. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  11. Track type ultrasonic inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Takahisa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improvement of a scanning device disposed near an object to be inspected such as a nuclear pressure vessel and having an ultrasonic probe, mounted thereon that travel along a running track. Specifically, one of wheel supports on both sides is attached being secured to the scanning device. The other of the supports is capable of fixing and releasing, as well as providing and releasing pressure to and from wheels upon mounting and detachment. This enables to provide a structure capable of pressing the wheels of the running device to the plane of the track and release thereof. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the running performance, reduce the size and weight and shorten the time for mounting and detachment of the running inspection device. (I.S.)

  12. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.

    2005-07-01

    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  13. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized......This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... investigated. Comparisons are made with the numerical and experimental results, and they validate the obtained response of the acoustic and photonic components of the device. Finally, a new design for an optical frequency shifter is proposed, posing several advantages over existing devices in terms of size...

  14. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  15. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahk, K J; Saffari, N; Dhar, D K; Malago, M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  16. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  17. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  18. Ultrasonic determination of the size of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterwall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents results from a study of ultrasonic testing of materials. The main topic has been the determination of the size, length and deep, of cracks or defects in stainless steel plates. (K.A.E)

  19. Advanced ultrasonic technology for natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, due to rising environmental and safety concerns, increasing commodity prices, and operational inefficiencies, a paradigm shift has been taking place with respect to gas measurement. The price of natural gas depends on the location, time of the year, and type of consumer. There is wide uncertainty associated with an orifice meter. This paper presents the use of advanced ultrasonic technology for the measurement of natural gas. For many years, multi-path ultrasonic meters with intelligent sensor technology have been used for gas measurement. This paper gives the various applications of ultrasonic technology along with their advantages and a draws a comparison with orifice meters. From the study it can be concluded that extensive advances in the use of ultrasonic technology for gas measurement have widened the areas of application and that varying frequencies combined with sealed transducer designs make it possible to measure atmospheric and sour gas in custody transfer process control and flaring accurately.

  20. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-01-01

    estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized

  2. Ultrasonic Morphological Analyzers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lizzi, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve ultrasonic classification of breast lesions and guide decisions regarding biopsy requirements, especially for small lesions and those in young, dense breasts...

  3. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  4. Nondestructive control of materials by ultrasonic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Noelle.

    1974-01-01

    A bibliographic study of nondestructive control methods of solids by ultrasonic tests, and of the ultrasonic emission of a transducer of finite dimension, is first presented. The principle of two of these methods is verified experimentally; they should permit the measurement of various physical parameters of solids, and the detection of local inhomogeneities. The first method calls upon the analysis of the ultrasonic signal (amplitude and phase), after it has crossed a constant thickness of a metallic specimen. This analysis reveals variations of attenuation and of ultrasonic propagation velocity within the specimen. A good spatial resolution is obtained by using 1mm-diameter probes. The second method leads, thanks to a test rig equipped with broad frequency band electrostatic transducers, to the knowledge of the attenuation law of the specimens as a function of frequency (present range: 5 to 15MHz); from this a classification of these specimens as regards their granulometry is deduced [fr

  5. Ultrasonic testing of materials at level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. Ultrasonic testing has a superior penetrating power to radiography and can detect flaws deep in the test specimen (say up to about 6 to 7 meters of steel). It is quite sensitive to small flaws and allows the precise determination of the location and size of the flaws. Basic ultrasonic test methods such as the through transmission method and the resonance method, sensors and testing techniques are described. Pulse echo type flaw detectors and their applications for inspection of welds are surveyed. Ultrasonic standards, calibration of the equipment and evaluation methods are presented. Examples of practical applications in welding, casting and forging processes are given. Figs and tabs

  6. Improvement of Ultrasonic Distance Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.

  7. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  8. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  9. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  10. Interactive ultrasonic field simulations for complex non-destructive testing configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouh, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfill increasing reliability and safety requirements, non-destructive testing techniques are constantly evolving and so does their complexity. Consequently, simulation is an essential part of their design. We developed a tool for the simulation of the ultrasonic field radiated by any planar probes into non-destructive testing configurations involving meshed geometries without prominent edges, isotropic and anisotropic, homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, and wave trajectories that can include reflections and transmissions. We approximate the ultrasonic wave fronts by using polynomial interpolators that are local to ultrasonic ray pencils. They are obtained using a surface research algorithm based on pencil tracing and successive subdivisions. Their interpolators enable the computation of the necessary quantities for the impulse responses on each point of a sampling of the transducer surface that fulfills the Shannon criterion. By doing so, we can compute a global impulse response which, when convolved with the excitation signal of the transducer, results in the ultrasonic field. The usage of task parallelism and of SIMD instructions on the most computationally expensive steps yields an important performance boost. Finally, we developed a tool for progressive visualization of field images. It benefits from an image reconstruction technique and schedules field computations in order to accelerate convergence towards the final image. (author) [fr

  11. Interfacial Dynamics of Condensing Vapor Bubbles in an Ultrasonic Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziuk, Thomas; Smith, Marc; Glezer, Ari

    2016-11-01

    Enhancement of vapor condensation in quiescent subcooled liquid using ultrasonic actuation is investigated experimentally. The vapor bubbles are formed by direct injection from a pressurized steam reservoir through nozzles of varying characteristic diameters, and are advected within an acoustic field of programmable intensity. While kHz-range acoustic actuation typically couples to capillary instability of the vapor-liquid interface, ultrasonic (MHz-range) actuation leads to the formation of a liquid spout that penetrates into the vapor bubble and significantly increases its surface area and therefore condensation rate. Focusing of the ultrasonic beam along the spout leads to ejection of small-scale droplets from that are propelled towards the vapor liquid interface and result in localized acceleration of the condensation. High-speed video of Schlieren images is used to investigate the effects of the ultrasonic actuation on the thermal boundary layer on the liquid side of the vapor-liquid interface and its effect on the condensation rate, and the liquid motion during condensation is investigated using high-magnification PIV measurements. High-speed image processing is used to assess the effect of the actuation on the dynamics and temporal variation in characteristic scale (and condensation rate) of the vapor bubbles.

  12. Ultrasonic Generation and Optimization for EMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, X.; Dixon, Steve; Edwards, Rachel S.

    2005-01-01

    A model for transient ultrasonic wave generation by EMATs in non-magnetic metals is presented. It combines analytical solutions currently available and FEM to calculate ultrasonic bulk and Rayleigh waves generated by the EMAT. Analytical solutions are used as they can be calculated quickly on a standard mathematical computer package. Calculations agree well with the experimental measurement. The model can be used to optimize EMAT design, and has explained some of the results from our previous published measurements

  13. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  14. An advanced system for automated ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.

    1989-01-01

    As the main component of the AUP system, an ALOK ultrasonic unit has been chosen as it allows for testing of large component areas both search for defects and description of defect geometries. All data required for fault analysis can be obtained by one measuring run. For inspection of primary circuit components in nuclear power stations, the manipulator control and the ultrasonic probe are installed behind the first sufficient shielding. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  16. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  17. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  18. Ultrasonic Characterization of Superhard Material: Osmium Diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadawa, P K

    2012-01-01

    Higher order elastic constants have been calculated in hexagonal structured superhard material OsB 2 at room temperature following the interaction potential model. The temperature variation of the ultrasonic velocities is evaluated along different angles with unique axis of the crystal using the second order elastic constants. The ultrasonic velocity decreases with the temperature along particular orientation with the unique axis. Temperature variation of the thermal relaxation time and Debye average velocities are also calculated along the same orientation. The temperature dependency of the ultrasonic properties is discussed in correlation with elastic, thermal and electrical properties. It has been found that the thermal conductivity is the main contributor to the behaviour of ultrasonic attenuation as a function of temperature and the responsible cause of attenuation is phonon-phonon interaction. The mechanical properties of OsB 2 at low temperature are better than at high temperature, because at low temperature it has low ultrasonic velocity and ultrasonic attenuation. Superhard material OsB 2 has many industrial applications, such as abrasives, cutting tools and hard coatings.

  19. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  20. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  1. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  2. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  3. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  4. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  5. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  6. Ultrasonic monitoring of pitting corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J. C.; Cegla, F. B.; Bazaz, H.; Lozev, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to corrosive substances in high temperature environments can cause damage accumulation in structural steels, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The interaction mechanisms are complex and varied; however initial damage propagation often manifests itself in the form of localized areas of increased material loss. Recent development of an ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring sensor capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 500°C has allowed permanent monitoring within such hostile environments, providing information on how the shape of a pulse which has reflected from a corroding surface can change over time. Reconstructing localized corrosion depth and position may be possible by tracking such changes in reflected pulse shape, providing extra information on the state of the backwall and whether process conditions should be altered to increase plant life. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the effect certain localized features have on reflected pulse shape by `growing' artificial defects into the backwall while wall thickness is monitored using the sensor. The size and complexity of the three dimensional scattering problem lead to the development of a semi-analytical simulation based on the distributed point source method (DPSM) which is capable of simulating pulse reflection from complex surfaces measuring approximately 17×10λ Comparison to experimental results show that amplitude changes are predicted to within approximately 1dB and that pulse shape changes are accurately modelled. All experiments were carried out at room temperature, measurements at high temperature will be studied in the future.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  8. Interfacial Reaction and IMC Growth of an Ultrasonically Soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu Structure during Isothermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC layers in a soldering structure, Cu/SAC305/Cu was first ultrasonically spot soldered and then subjected to isothermal aging. Relatively short vibration times, i.e., 400 ms and 800 ms, were used for the ultrasonic soldering. The isothermal aging was conducted at 150 °C for 0, 120, 240, and 360 h. The evolution of microstructure, the IMC layer growth mechanism during aging, and the shear strength of the joints after aging were systemically investigated. Results showed the following. (i Formation of intermetallic compounds was accelerated by ultrasonic cavitation and streaming effects, the thickness of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer increased with aging time, and a thin Cu3Sn layer was identified after aging for 360 h. (ii The growth of the interfacial IMC layer of the ultrasonically soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu joints followed a linear function of the square root of the aging time, revealing a diffusion-controlled mechanism. (iii The tensile shear strength of the joint decreased to a small extent with increasing aging time, owing to the combined effects of IMC grain coarsening and the increase of the interfacial IMC. (iv Finally, although the fracture surfaces and failure locations of the joint soldered with 400 ms and 800 ms vibration times show similar characteristics, they are influenced by the aging time.

  9. Research towards ultrasonic systems to assist in-vessel manipulations in liquid metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Marc; Van-Dyck, Dries

    2013-06-01

    We describe the state of the art of the research towards ultrasonic measurement methods for use in lead-bismuth cooled liquid metal reactors. Our current research activities are highly focused on specific tasks in the MYRRHA system, which is a fast spectrum research reactor cooled with the eutectic mixture of lead and bismuth (LBE) and is conceived as an accelerator driven system capable of operating in both sub-critical and critical mode. As liquid metal is opaque to light, normal visual feedback during fuel manipulations in the reactor vessel is not available and must therefore be replaced by a system that is not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. In this respect ultrasonic measurement techniques have been proposed and even developed in the past for operation in sodium cooled reactors. To our knowledge, no such systems have ever been deployed in lead based reactors and we are the first to have a research program in this direction as will be detailed in this paper. We give an overview of the acoustic properties of LBE and compare them with the properties of sodium and water to theoretically show the feasibility of ultrasonic systems operating in LBE. In the second part of the paper we discuss the results of the validation experiments in water and LBE. A typical scene is ultrasonically probed by a mechanical scanning system while the signals are processed to render a 3D visualization on a computer screen. It will become clear that mechanical scanning is capable of producing acceptable images but that it is a time consuming process that is not fit to solve the initial task to providing feedback during manipulations in the reactor vessel. That is why we propose to use several dedicated ultrasonic systems each adapted to a specific task and capable to provide real-time feedback of the ongoing manipulations, as is detailed in the third and final part of the paper. (authors)

  10. The digital ultrasonic test unit for automatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, T.; Matsuyama, H.

    1976-01-01

    The operations and features of the ultrasonic test unit used and the digital data processing techniques employed are described. This unit is used for a few hundred multi-channel automatic ultrasonic test equipment

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects

  12. P-Scan provides accuracy and repeatability in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The P-Scan (Projection image scanning technique) is an automated ultrasonic inspection technique, developed to overcome the problems with accuracy and repeatability experienced with manual ultrasonic systems. The equipment and its applications are described. (author)

  13. Method and apparatus to characterize ultrasonically reflective contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for characterizing the time and frequency response of an ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is disclosed. An ultrasonically reflective contrast agent is injected, under constant pressure, into a fluid flowing through a pump flow circuit. The fluid and the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent are uniformly mixed in a mixing chamber, and the uniform mixture is passed through a contrast agent chamber. The contrast agent chamber is acoustically and axially interposed between an ultrasonic transducer chamber and an acoustic isolation chamber. A pulse of ultrasonic energy is transmitted into the contrast agent chamber from the ultrasonic transducer chamber. An echo waveform is received from the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent, and it is analyzed to determine the time and frequency response of the ultrasonically reflective contrast agent.

  14. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  15. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  16. Study on electrical impedance matching for broadband ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kwang Sae [Elache Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrasonic transducers with high resolution and resonant frequency are required to detect small defects (less than hundreds of μm) by ultrasonic testing. The resonance frequency and resolution of an ultrasonic transducer are closely related to the thickness of piezo-electric materials, backing materials, and the electric impedance matching technique. Among these factors, electrical impedance matching plays an important role because it can reduce the loss and reflection of ultrasonic energy differences in electrical impedance between an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic defects detecting system. An LC matching circuit is the most frequently used electric matching method. It is necessary for the electrical impedance of an ultrasonic transducer to correspond to approximately 50 Ω to compensate the difference in electrical impedance between both connections. In this study, a 15 MHz immersion ultrasonic transducer was fabricated and an LC electrical impedance circuit was applied to that for having broad-band frequency characteristic.

  17. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine (Sinobest electronic. Co. Ltd., Jining, Shangdong ... During the ultrasonic treatment, the temperature ..... essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete ...

  18. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  19. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  20. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  1. Standard practice for leaks using ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Practice A, Pressurization—This practice covers procedures for calibration of ultrasonic instruments, location, and estimated measurements of gas leakage to atmosphere by the airborne ultrasonic technique. 1.2 In general practice this should be limited to leaks detected by two classifications of instruments, Class I and Class II. Class I instruments should have a minimum detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−7 mol/s (1.5 × 10−2 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Class II instruments should have a minimal detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−6 mol/s (1.5 × 10−1 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Refer to Guide E432 for additional information. 1.3 Practice B, Ultrasonic Transmitter—For object under test not capable of being pressurized but capable of having ultrasonic tone placed/injected into the test area to act as an ultrasonic leak trace source. 1.3.1 This practice is limited to leaks producing leakage o...

  2. Ultrasonic imaging in LMFBRs using digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, J.R.; McKnight, J.A.; Barrett, L.M.

    Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed at RNL. For many years the application has been restricted by the unavailability of convenient ultrasonic sources and receivers capable of withstanding the reactor environment. Until recently, for example, important ultrasonic instrument design, such as for future sweep arms, had to be based on waveguided ultrasonics. RNL have developed an economic immersible transducer that can be deployed during reactor shut-down, when many demands for ultrasonic imaging are made. The transducer design is not suited at present to the sophisticated techniques of phased arrays; consequently image formation must depend on the physical scanning of a target using one or more transducers in pulse-echo mode. The difficulties of access into a fast reactor impose further restrictions. Some applications may involve easy scanning sequences, thus the sweep arm requires only a rotation to provide a map of the reactor core area. For a more detailed examination of the same area, however, special engineering solutions are needed to provide a more satisfactory scanning sequence. A compromise solution involving the rotating shield movement is being used for a PFR experiment to examine a limited area of the core. (author)

  3. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic scanner for stainless steel weld inspections. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Reimann, K. J.

    1978-09-01

    The large grain size and anisotropic nature of stainless steel weld metal make conventional ultrasonic testing very difficult. A technique is evaluated for minimizing the coherent ultrasonic noise in stainless steel weld metal. The method involves digitizing conventional ''A-scan'' traces and averaging them with a minicomputer. Results are presented for an ultrasonic scanner which interrogates a small volume of the weld metal while averaging the coherent ultrasonic noise.

  5. Training methods in non-destructive examination with ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walte, F.

    1986-01-01

    German concept for inspection of LWR, leak before break, basic safety; General inspection methods; Ultrasonic inspection - basic principle, generation of ultrasound, bulk and surface waves, piezo electric and electromagnetic transducers, energy balance, scattering and adsorption, divergence; Ultra techniques in compliance with KTA-rules - pulse-echo, tandem, throughtransmission; Valuation of ultrasonic indications; Pre- and in-service inspection; Practical part - ultrasonic equipment, ultrasonic piezo electric transducers, wall thickness measurement, crack depth measurement with potential drop technique. (orig.)

  6. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Nuclear Steam Generator by Micro Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Tae; Yoon, Sang Jung [Sae-An Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present ultrasonic cleaning technology for a nuclear steam generator using micro bubble. We could extend the boundary of ultrasonic cleaning by using micro bubbles in water. Ultrasonic energy measured was increased about 5 times after the generation of micro bubbles in water. Furthermore, ultrasound energy was measured to be strong enough to create cavitation even though the ultrasound sensor was about 2 meters away from the ultrasonic transducer

  7. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Contact-free ultrasonic testing: applications to metrology and NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, A.

    1988-01-01

    In some cases classical ultrasonic testing is impossible because of adverse environment (high temperature, ionizing radiations, etc). Ultrasonic waves are created by laser impact and detected by electromagneto-acoustic transducers or laser interferometry. Association of ultrasonics generation by photoacoustic effect and reception by heterodyne interferometer is promising for the future [fr

  9. Experiences in using ultrasonic holography with numerical and optical reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, V.; Wosnitza, M.

    1978-01-01

    At present, ultrasonic holography can resolve and image faults of 1 mm and more and with distances of one ultrasonic wavelength. The main field of application is for thick-walled structural components. Depending on the expected orientation, test probe arrangements as in standard ultrasonic testing are chosen. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Numerical shaping of the ultrasonic wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonis, M.

    1991-01-01

    Improving the performance and the quality of ultrasonic testing requires the numerical control of the shape of the driving signal applied to the piezoelectric transducer. This allows precise shaping of the ultrasonic field wavelet and corrections for the physical defects of the transducer, which are mainly due to the damper or the lens. It also does away with the need for an accurate electric matching. It then becomes feasible to characterize, a priori, the ultrasonic wavelet by means of temporal and/or spectral specifications and to use, subsequently, an adaptative algorithm to calculate the corresponding driving wavelet. Moreover, the versatility resulting from the numerical control of this wavelet allows it to be changed in real time during a test

  11. Method of noncontacting ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel V.; Walter, John B.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    A method of monitoring a material during processing comprising the steps of (a) shining a detection light on the surface of a material; (b) generating ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material to cause a change in frequency of the detection light; (c) detecting a change in the frequency of the detection light at the surface of the material; (d) detecting said ultrasonic waves at the surface point of detection of the material; (e) measuring a change in the time elapsed from generating the ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material and return to the surface point of detection of the material, to determine the transit time; and (f) comparing the transit time to predetermined values to determine properties such as, density and the elastic quality of the material.

  12. Determine bond strength by ultrasonic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic methods for the evaluation and measurement of bond strength has been the object of numerous investigations in the last fifteen years. Some investigators have reported good success (in limited application) while others have experienced dismal failure. One problem common to all investigations was the difficulty in extracting and isolating the many components which comprise the ultrasonic signal reflected from a bonded interface. Part of this problem was due to manually extracting individual parameters from large volumes of raw data. However, with the vast technology now available in the field of signal analysis and computerized data processing, it is feasible to isolate and analyze individual parameters within the ultrasonic signal for great volumes of raw data

  13. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  14. Ultrasonic grinding of optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael; Bechtold, Michael; Fess, Edward; Stephan, Thomas; Bechtold, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, PCA, or Silicon Carbide can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Slow processing speeds, premature tool wear, and poor surface quality are common results of the tough mechanical properties of these materials. Often, as a preparatory stage for polishing, the finish of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. To overcome these challenges, OptiPro Systems has developed an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has been designed for the precision optics and ceramics industry. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations, in microns of amplitude, in line with the rotating spindle. A software package, IntelliSonic, is integral to the function of this platform. IntelliSonic can automatically characterize tooling during setup to identify and select the ideal resonant peak which to operate at. Then, while grinding, IntelliSonic continuously adjusts the output frequency for optimal grinding efficiency while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more precise surface. Utilizing a variety of instruments, tests have proven to show a reduction in force between tool and part by up to 50%, while increasing the surface quality and reducing tool wear. This paper will present the challenges associated with these materials and solutions created to overcome them.

  15. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  17. Development of coaxial ultrasonic probe for fatty liver diagnostic system using ultrasonic velocity change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Aotani, Yuhei; Kumagai, Yuta; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-07-01

    A diagnostic system for fatty liver at an early stage is needed because fatty liver is linked to metabolic syndrome. We have already proposed a fatty liver diagnosis method based on the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity. In this study, we fabricated a coaxial ultrasonic probe by integrating two kinds of transducers for warming and signal detection. The diagnosis system equipped with the coaxial probe was applied to tissue-mimicking phantoms including the fat area. The fat content rates corresponding to the set rates of the phantoms were estimated by the ultrasonic velocity-change method.

  18. Ultrasonic unit for line-by-line ultrasonic scanning of bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic unit for medical diagnostics operates by the sectorial scanning principle, which avoids direct coupling of the transducer head to the surface of the body. For this purpose, several transmitter/receiver units (approx. 100) are arranged on a partial ring of a circular arc and the ultrasonic beams, which can be triggered sequentially in time, are directed at a common intersection behind the ultrasonic window of the unit, i.e., outside the unit. A mechanical system is employed to set and adjust the partial ring carrying the transmitter/receiver units. (DG) [de

  19. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  20. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  1. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  2. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  3. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  4. Ultrasonic Ranging System With Increased Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William E.; Johnson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Master-oscillator frequency increased. Ultrasonic range-measuring system with 0.1-in. resolution provides continuous digital display of four distance readings, each updated four times per second. Four rangefinder modules in system are modified versions of rangefinder used for automatic focusing in commercial series of cameras. Ultrasonic pulses emitted by system innocuous to both people and equipment. Provides economical solutions to such distance-measurement problems as posed by boats approaching docks, truck backing toward loading platform, runway-clearance readout for tail of airplane with high angle attack, or burglar alarm.

  5. Control of hydrodynamic cavitation using ultrasonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dhiman; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2003-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is known to have many harmful effects like surface damage and generation of noise. We investigated the use of ultrasonics to control traveling bubble cavitation. Ultrasonic pressure field, produced by a piezoelectric crystal, was applied to modify the nuclei size distribution. Effects of continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed excitations were studied. At low dissolved gas content the CW-mode performed better than the pulsed one, whereas for high gas content the pulsed one was more effective. The dominant mechanisms were Bjerknes force and rectified diffusion in these two cases. Simultaneous excitation by two crystals in CW and pulsed modes was seen to control cavitation better.

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Dallos; Gyula Dörgő; Dániel Capári

    2016-01-01

    The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretrea...

  7. Multiperiodic accelerator structures for linear particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    High efficiency linear accelerator structures, comprised of a succession of cylindrical resonant cavities for acceleration, are described. Coupling annular cavities are located at the periphery, each being coupled to two adjacent cylindrical cavities. (auth)

  8. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  9. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  10. Ultrasonic Tomography Imaging for Liquid-Gas Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jaysuman PUSPPANATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to measure two-phase liquid – gas flow regime by using a dual functionality ultrasonic transducer. Comparing to the common separated transmitter–receiver ultrasonic pairs transducer, the dual functionality ultrasonic transceiver is capable to produce the same measurable results hence further improvises and contributes to the hardware design improvement and system accuracy. Due to the disadvantages and the limitations of the separated ultrasonic transmitter–receiver pair, this paper presents a non-invasive ultrasonic tomography system using ultrasonic transceivers as an alternative approach. Implementation of ultrasonic transceivers, electronic measurement circuits, data acquisition system and suitable image reconstruction algorithms, the measurement of a liquid/gas flow was realized.

  11. Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Karl; Short, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stir welding (TSW) process is finding applications in fabrication of space vehicles. In this process, workpieces to be joined by TSW are drawn, by heavy forces, between "containment plates," past the TSW tool that then causes joining of the separate plates. It is believed that the TSW process would be significantly improved by reducing the draw force, and that this could be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the workpieces and containment plates. Based on use of high-power ultrasonics in metal forming processes, where friction reduction in drawing dies has been achieved, it is believed that ultrasonic vibrations of the containment plates could achieve similar friction reduction in the TSW process. By applying ultrasonic vibrations to the containment plates in a longitudinal vibration mode, as well as by mounting and holding the containment plates in a specific manner such as to permit the plates to acoustically float, friction between the metal parts and the containment plates is greatly reduced, and so is the drawing force. The concept was to bring in the ultrasonics from the sides of the plates, permitting the ultrasonic hardware to be placed to the side, away from the equipment that contains the thermal stir tooling and that applies clamping forces to the plates. Tests demonstrated that one of the major objectives of applying ultrasonics to the thermal stir system, that of reducing draw force friction, should be achievable on a scaled-up system.

  12. Radial vibration and ultrasonic field of a long tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyu, Lin; Zhiqiang, Fu; Xiaoli, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jing, Hu

    2013-09-01

    The radial vibration of a metal long circular tube is studied analytically and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. Based on the equivalent circuit, the radial resonance frequency equation is derived. The theoretical relationship between the radial resonance frequency and the geometrical dimensions is studied. Finite element method is used to simulate the radial vibration and the radiated ultrasonic field and the results are compared with those from the analytical method. It is concluded that the radial resonance frequency for a solid metal rod is larger than that for a metal tube with the same outer radius. The radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method are in good agreement with those from the numerical method. Based on the acoustic field analysis, it is concluded that the long metal tube with small wall thickness is superior to that with large wall thickness in producing radial vibration and ultrasonic radiation. Therefore, it is expected to be used as an effective radial ultrasonic radiator in ultrasonic sewage treatment, ultrasonic antiscale and descaling and other ultrasonic liquid handling applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonic sensor for sodium perspective device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Fujio; Onuki, Koji.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an ultrasonic wave sensor for a sodium perspective device disposed in an FBR type reactor, which can change the directing angle of the ultrasonic sensor irrespective of the external conditions in liquid sodium. Namely, the sensor comprises (1) a sensor main body, (2) a diaphragm disposed on an oscillating surface of ultrasonic waves generated from the sensor main body, (3) a pressurizing and depressurizing nozzle connected to the sensor main body, and (4) a pressure detector disposed to these nozzles. A gas is charged/discharged to and from the sensor main body to control a gas pressure in the main body. If the gas pressure is made higher, the diaphragm is deformed convexly. If the gas pressure is lowered, the diaphragm is deformed concavely. The directing angle is greater when it is deformed a convexly, and it is smaller when it is deformed concavely. Accordingly, ultrasonic wave receiving/sending range in the sodium can be varied optionally by controlling the gas pressure in the main body. (I.S.)

  14. Development of ultrasonic instrument 'UT1000 Series'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yukio; Ikeda, Toshimichi

    1984-01-01

    The ultrasonic flaw detectors with 'A-scope indication' have been frequently used as the means for confirming the soundness of structures and equipments, but there are problems in their operational, quantifying and recording capabilities. Recently, the digital ultrasonic measuring instrument of touch panel type ''UT 1000 Series'' has been developed, which resolves these problems by a single effort. This measuring instrument is that of portable type, which gives the digital output of measured results in real time only by lightly touching the peak point of an echo on the Brown tube. This instrument contains the rich software for measurement, and can measure the positions and dimensions of defects and the pressure on contact surfaces with high accuracy. 'A-scope indication' is the indication with an oscilloscope taking the intensity of echo and the propagation time of ultrasonic waves on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. There are three types of the instrument, that is, for detecting defects, for measuring contact surface pressure and for both purposes. The size of the instrument is 240 mm width, 350 mm length and 175 mm height, and the weight is 8.5 kgf. The specification, function and features of the ultrasonic flaw detector, touch panel, gain setter, key board, microcomputer and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides .... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag ...

  16. An ultrasonic waveguide for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.D.; Gillespie, A.B.; Deighton, M.O.; Pike, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The value of ultrasonic techniques in nuclear plants is well established. However, in most cases nuclear power plants present an extremely hostile environment for an ultrasonic transducer. The paper presents a novel technique for introducing an ultrasound into hostile liquid environments using a new form of ultrasonic waveguide. Using this approach, a standard transducer arrangement is sited in a hospitable area and conveys the ultrasound along the guide to the required beam-emission collection position. The design of a single-mode ultrasonic waveguide is described. The ultrasound is conveyed along a stainless steel strip of rectangular cross-section. The transference of energy between the strip and the liquid is achieved through a highly efficient mode-conversion process. This process overcomes the usual problems of mis-match of acoustic impedances of stainless steel and liquids, and also produces a highly collimated beam of ultrasound. Tests of a 10-m-long waveguide using these techniques are described, achieving signal-to-noise ratios in the region of 40 dB. (author)

  17. Coded ultrasonic remote control without batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardy, C; Burlage, K; Schomburg, W K

    2009-01-01

    A concept for battery-less remote controls has been developed based on mechanically actuated beams and micro whistles generating ultrasound signals. These signals need to be frequency or time coded to increase the number of signals which can be distinguished from each other and environmental ultrasound. Several designs for generating coded ultrasonic signals have been investigated

  18. Automated ultrasonic inspection of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.A.; Dolbey, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    For reasons of safety and efficiency, automated systems are used in performing ultrasonic inspection of nuclear components. An automated system designed specifically for the inspection of headers in a nuclear plant is described. In-service inspection results obtained with this system are shown to correlate with pre-service inspection results obtained by manual methods

  19. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  20. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  1. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2007), s. 737-743 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrets * polymers * ultrasonic transducers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2007

  2. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the stator structure. In contrast to traditional travelling wave ultrasonic motors, which require two modes to be driven 90° out of phase, only one amplifier is required to drive the proposed device. A prototype device was characterised experimentally...

  3. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatme...

  4. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  5. Advanced ultrasonic field system: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikesell, C.R.; Beller, L.S.

    1984-02-01

    An advanced ultrasonic system was developed to obtain highly reproducible inspection data and to overcome certain limitations encountered with the manual scanning method. Experience from field operations from 1976 through 1980 is discussed. The scope includes a description of the computer controlled system, personnel training, inservice inspections, data analysis, and current upgrading of the system

  6. Ultrasonic thermometry for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Kumar, S.; Arunraj, A.L.R.; Swaminathan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer provides a method of measurement of temperature in industrial tanks and boilers containing different liquids with varied salt content. This method is used to measure the average temperature continuously where other traditional methods available do not offer. Traditional methods used for temperature measurement like infrared thermometers, thermocouples, measures temperature at a single location. Numerous thermocouples are to be fixed at various part of the boiler in order to measure the temperature of the entire boiler, which incurs high cost. Reliability of the system decreases, with increasing number of thermocouples. When they fail at a point, the time incurred in finding the faulty part or faulty thermocouple is high. Ultrasonic transducer provides continuous measurement for all different characteristic liquids with higher accuracy and lesser response time. Fault location and clearance time is also less in ultrasonic measurement method, since only a couple of transducers used for the entire boiler structure. Additionally ultrasonic thermometry along support measuring electronic system can be built of low cost. (author)

  7. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  8. Ultrasonic Communication Project, Phase 1, FY1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, H.D.; Akerman, M.A.; Baylor, V.M.

    2000-06-01

    This Phase 1 project has been successful in identifying, exploring, and demonstrating methods for ultrasonic-based communication with an emphasis on the application of digital signal processing techniques. During the project, at the direction of the agency project monitor, particular attention was directed at sending and receiving ultrasonic data through air and through pipes that would be commonly found in buildings. Efforts were also focused on development of a method for transmitting computer files ultrasonically. New methods were identified and evaluated for ultrasonic communication. These methods are based on a technique called DFS. With DFS, individual alphanumeric characters are broken down into a sequence of bits, and each bit is used to generate a discrete ultrasonic frequency. Characters are then transmitted one-bit-at-a-time, and reconstructed by the receiver. This technique was put into practice through the development of LabVIEW{trademark}VIs. These VIs were integrated with specially developed electronic circuits to provide a system for demonstrating the transmission and reception/reconstruction of typed messages and computer files. Tests were performed to determine the envelope for ultrasound transmission through pipes (with and without water) versus through air. The practical aspects of connections, efficient electronics, impedance matching, and the effect of damping mechanisms were all investigated. These tests resulted in a considerable number of reference charts that illustrate the absorption of ultrasound through different pipe materials, both with and without water, as a function of distance. Ultrasound was found to be least attenuated by copper pipe and most attenuated by PVC pipe. Water in the pipe provides additional damping and attenuation of ultrasonic signals. Dramatic improvements are observed, however, in ultrasound signal strength if the transducers are directly coupled to the water, rather than simply attaching them to the outside of

  9. Analysis of ultrasonically rotating droplet using moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Numerical analysis of the rotation of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The ultrasonically levitated droplet is often reported to rotate owing to the surface tangential component of acoustic radiation force. To observe the torque from an acoustic wave and clarify the mechanism underlying the phenomena, it is effective to take advantage of numerical simulation using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require a calculation grid or mesh. In this paper, the numerical treatment of the viscoacoustic torque, which emerges from the viscous boundary layer and governs the acoustical droplet rotation, is discussed. The Reynolds stress traction force is calculated from the DPSM result using the idea of effective normal particle velocity through the boundary layer and input to the MPS surface particles. A droplet levitated in an acoustic chamber is simulated using the proposed calculation method. The droplet is vertically supported by a plane standing wave from an ultrasonic driver and subjected to a rotating sound field excited by two acoustic sources on the side wall with different phases. The rotation of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically and its acceleration is discussed and compared with those in the literature.

  10. Accelerators of future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the prospects of development of various of types accelerator over next 10 to 15 years is given. The following directions are considered: superhign energy proton accelerators and storage rings, electron-positron colliding beams, heavy ion accelerators, medium energy, high-current proton accelerators superhigh power particle beams (electrons light- and heavy ions) for inertial fusion

  11. Future accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes

  12. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  13. Remote consulting based on ultrasonic digital immages and dynamic ultrasonic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan

    2006-03-01

    Telematic ultrasonic diagnostics is a relatively new tool in providing health care to patients in remote, islolated communities. Our project facility, "The Virtual Polyclinic - A Specialists' Consulting Network for the Islands", is located on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and has been extending telemedical services to the archipelago population since 2000. Telemedicine applications include consulting services by specialists at the University Clinical Hospital Center Rebro in Zagreb and at "Magdalena", a leading cardiology clinic in Croatia. After several years of experience with static high resolution ultrasonic digital immages for referral consulting diagnostics purposes, we now also use dynamic ultrasonic sequences in a project with the Department of Emmergency Gastroenterology at Rebro in Zagreb. The aim of the ongoing project is to compare the advantages and shortcomings in transmitting static ultrasonic digital immages and live sequences of ultrasonic examination in telematic diagnostics. Ultrasonic examination is a dynamic process in which the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the dynamic moment of an ultrasound probe and signal. Our first results indicate that in diffuse parenchymal organ pathology the progression and the follow up of a disease is better presented to a remote consulting specialist by dynamic ultrasound sequences. However, the changes that involve only one part of a parenchymal organ can be suitably presented by static ultrasonic digital images alone. Furthermore, we need less time for digital imaging and such tele-consultations overall are more economical. Our previous telemedicine research and practice proved that we can greatly improve the level of medical care in remote healthcare facilities and cut healthcare costs considerably. The experience in the ongoing project points to a conclusion that we can further optimize remote diagnostics benefits by a right choice of telematic application thus reaching a

  14. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  15. Velocity Measurement of ultrasonic for evaluation of aging epoxy coating in containment structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Gil Soo; Kim, Noh Yu; Nah, Hwan Seon; Song, Young Chol

    2001-01-01

    Relative variation of ultrasonic velocity in aging epoxy coating in nuclear plant is measured for evaluation of the degradation of the epoxy coating. Time delay for ultrasound to travel through the epoxy film due to change of ultrasonic velocity is measured indirectly using ultrasonic interferometry which compares two reflection waves from the same point of coating surface at two different distances. Magnitude of the difference of two waves increases or decreases depending on change of the time of flight of ultrasound in the epoxy film caused by heat damage in the epoxy coating. Based on the transfer functions of the wedge and the epoxy coating in frequency domain, the reflection wave is analyzed and related to the velocity of ultrasound in the epoxy coating. A specially designed conical wedge is adopted to minimize the waviness effect of the surface of the epoxy coating. Epoxy films are fabricated, degraded under the accelerated aging conditions and tested to evaluate the change of ultrasonic velocity in the films. The experimental results show that the method can be applied to evaluate quantitatively the sealing quality of the epoxy coating.

  16. Computer simulation of ultrasonic testing for aerospace vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamawaki, H [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, 305-0047 Tsukuba (Japan); Moriya, S; Masuoka, T [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 1 Koganesawa, Kimigawa, 981-1525 Kakuda (Japan); Takatsubo, J, E-mail: yamawaki.hisashi@nims.go.jp [Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, 305-8568 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques are developed to secure reliability of aerospace vehicles used repetitively. In the case of cracks caused by thermal stress on walls in combustion chambers of liquid-fuel rockets, it is examined by ultrasonic waves visualization technique developed in AIST. The technique is composed with non-contact ultrasonic generation by pulsed-laser scanning, piezoelectric transducer for the ultrasonic detection, and image reconstruction processing. It enables detection of defects by visualization of ultrasonic waves scattered by the defects. In NIMS, the condition of the detection by the visualization is investigated using computer simulation for ultrasonic propagation that has capability of fast 3-D calculation. The simulation technique is based on finite-difference method and two-step elastic wave equations. It is reported about the investigation by the calculation, and shows availability of the simulation for the ultrasonic testing technique of the wall cracks.

  17. Development of an intelligent ultrasonic welding defect classification software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Jeong, Hee Don

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress in the research on this methodology, it has not been widely used in many practical ultrasonic inspections of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments based on their ultrasonic signals using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows the excellent performance in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks. This performance demonstrates the high possibility of this software as a practical tool for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments.

  18. Reconstruction from gamma radiography and ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, S.; Lavayssiere, B.; Idier, J.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.

    1998-02-01

    This work deals with the three-dimensional reconstruction from gamma radiographic and ultrasonic images. Such an issue belongs to the field of data fusion since the data provide complementary information. The two sets of data are independently related to two sets of parameters: gamma ray attenuation and ultrasonic reflectivity. The fusion problem is addressed in a Bayesian framework; the kingpin of the task is then to define a joint a priori model for both attenuation and reflectivity. Thus, the developing of this model and the entailed joint estimation constitute the principal contribution of this work. The results of real data treatments demonstrate the validity of this method as compared to a sequential approach of the two sets of data

  19. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  20. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  1. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  2. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  3. Ultrasonic transducer design for uniform insonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; McCulloch, D.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques used in transducer development for acoustical imaging have been evaluated for the purpose of producing broad, uniform ultrasonic fields from planar radiators. Such fields should be useful in hyperthermia, physical therapy, and ultrasonic bioeffects studies. Fourier inversion of the circ function yielded a source velocity distribution proportional to (P/r) exp ((-ik/2Z) (2Z/sup 2/+r/sup 2/)) J/sub 1/(krP/Z), where r is the radial source coordinate, k is the wave number, and P is the desired radius of uniform insonation at a depth Z in water. This source distribution can be truncated without significantly degrading the solution. A simpler solution consists of exponentially shading the edge of an otherwise uniformly excited disk transducer. This approach was successfully approximated experimentally

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  5. Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Kenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Walker, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting

  6. Ultrasonic examination of stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. have specified a combination of liquid penetrant, radiography and ultrasonic examination of welds in austenitic stainless steel. In the past, angle wedges attached to ultrasonic transducers have been designed so that only shear waves are propagated in the medium. Shear waves, however, do not penetrate one half inch of weld metal without high transmission losses, so that the signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Canadian Vickers have therefore developed a method using longitudinal waves at 45 deg in the material. The presence also of a shear wave at an angle of 19 deg does not cause confusion, because the shear wave travels slower, and has farther to travel. Some considerations for the design of transducers and wedges are outlined. (N.D.H.)

  7. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation systems industrial application issues

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio; Montisci, Augusto; Ricci, Marco; Versaci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the practical implementation of ultrasonic NDT techniques in an industrial environment, discussing several issues that may emerge and proposing strategies for addressing them successfully.  It aims to bridge advanced academic research results and their application to industrial procedures. The topics covered in the text range from the basic operation of an ultrasonic NDT system to the simulation of the measurement operations; from the choice and generation of the signals energizing the system to the different ways of exploiting the probes and their output signals; and from quality assessment evaluation to the use of soft computing techniques for classification. Throughout the text, an effort is made to embrace a system view where the physical and technological aspects of sensing are addressed together with higher abstraction levels, such as signal and information processing. Consequently, the book aims at guiding the reader through the various tasks requested for developing a complete ultras...

  8. Microcomputer-controlled ultrasonic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    The large volume of ultrasonic data generated by computer-aided test procedures has necessitated the development of a mobile, high-speed data acquisition and storage system. This approach offers the decided advantage of on-site data collection and remote data processing. It also utilizes standard, commercially available ultrasonic instrumentation. This system is controlled by an Intel 8080A microprocessor. The MCS80-SDK microcomputer board was chosen, and magnetic tape is used as the storage medium. A detailed description is provided of both the hardware and software developed to interface the magnetic tape storage subsystem to Biomation 8100 and Biomation 805 waveform recorders. A boxcar integrator acquisition system is also described for use when signal averaging becomes necessary. Both assembly language and machine language listings are provided for the software

  9. Nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilibon, I.; Zisu, T.; Raetchi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some ultrasonic methods for evaluation of physical-mechanical properties of construction materials (bricks, concrete, BCA), such as: pulse method, examination methods, and direct measurement of the propagation velocity and impact-echo method. Utilizing these nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods it can be determined the main material parameters and material characteristics (elasticity coefficients, density, propagation velocity, ultrasound attenuation, etc.) of construction materials. These method are suitable for construction materials because the defectoscopy methods for metallic materials cannot be utilized, due to its rugged and non-homogeneous structures and grate attenuation coefficients of ultrasound propagation through materials. Also, the impact-echo method is a technique for flaw detection in concrete based on stress wave propagation. Studies have shown that the impact-echo method is effective for locating voids, honeycombing, delaminating, depth of surface opening cracks, and measuring member thickness

  10. An ultrasonic inspection tool for production tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, K; Martin, R; Ravenscroft, F [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-06-01

    Advances in ultrasonic technology, high temperature techniques and remote processing power are enabling a new generation of inspection tools to be developed. This paper describes a particular new ultrasonic caliper system, developed by AEA Technology, with the aim of providing improved information about the condition of production tubulars of oil and gas wells. The system is designed to provide enhanced surface area coverage compared to the current devices, which are typically mechanical 'finger' calipers. It also provides a non-contacting measure of corrosion and wear together with direct on-line output and automated data analysis. The new tool is designed to operate in oil and gas, vertical or deviated wells and has the potential for modification to inspect small diameter pipes in topside or other plant. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shunichi; Hida, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Shirai, Tasuku.

    1982-05-01

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 55 0 from SUS side, 45 0 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 45 0 , inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 45 0 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  12. Process monitoring using optical ultrasonic wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; Walter, J.B.; Garcia, G.V.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical ultrasonic wave detection techniques are being developed for process monitoring. An important limitation on optical techniques is that the material surface, in materials processing applications, is usually not a specular reflector and in many cases is totally diffusely reflecting. This severely degrades the light collected by the detection optics, greatly reducing the intensity and randomly scattering the phase of the reflected light. A confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift resulting from the surface motion and not to the phase of the collected light, is well suited to detecting ultrasonic waves in diffusely reflecting materials. This paper describes the application of this detector to the real-time monitoring of the sintering of ceramic materials. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  14. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion develops due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the structural integrity. The nondestructive detection and monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted and the wall thickness reduced by consecutive milling of the steel structure. Further measurements were conducted using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath and the damage severity monitored. From the measured signal change due to the wave mode interference the wall thickness reduction was monitored. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  15. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic personal aerosol sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckens, J; Quinn, C; Leith, D; Mehaffy, J; Henry, C S; Miller-Lionberg, D

    2017-03-01

    Assessing personal exposure to air pollution has long proven challenging due to technological limitations posed by the samplers themselves. Historically, wearable aerosol monitors have proven to be expensive, noisy, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to develop a new type of wearable monitor, an ultrasonic personal aerosol sampler (UPAS), to overcome many of the technological limitations in personal exposure assessment. The UPAS is a time-integrated monitor that features a novel micropump that is virtually silent during operation. A suite of onboard environmental sensors integrated with this pump measure and record mass airflow (0.5-3.0 L/min, accurate within 5%), temperature, pressure, relative humidity, light intensity, and acceleration. Rapid development of the UPAS was made possible through recent advances in low-cost electronics, open-source programming platforms, and additive manufacturing for rapid prototyping. Interchangeable cyclone inlets provided a close match to the EPA PM 2.5 mass criterion (within 5%) for device flows at either 1.0 or 2.0 L/min. Battery life varied from 23 to 45 hours depending on sample flow rate and selected filter media. Laboratory tests of the UPAS prototype demonstrate excellent agreement with equivalent federal reference method samplers for gravimetric analysis of PM 2.5 across a broad range of concentrations. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  17. Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, 38415-3840 (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth and Engr. Sciences Building, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, LLC, 360 Stillwater, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Villard, J.F. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, Centre d' etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation. (authors)

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  19. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers

    OpenAIRE

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by a...

  20. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  1. Ultrasonic imaging with a fixed instrument configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, A.; Tuggle, J.; Waag, R.C.

    1988-07-04

    Diffraction tomography is a technique based on an inversion of the wave equation which has been proposed for high-resolution ultrasonic imaging. While this approach has been considered for diagnostic medical applications, it has, until recently, been limited by practical limitations on the speed of data acquisition associated with instrument motions. This letter presents the results of an experimental study directed towards demonstrating tomography utilizing a fixed instrument configuration.

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  3. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  4. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  5. On multiple crack identification by ultrasonic scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigante, M.; Sumbatyan, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present work develops an approach which reduces operator equations arising in the engineering problems to the problem of minimizing the discrepancy functional. For this minimization, an algorithm of random global search is proposed, which is allied to some genetic algorithms. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the solving problem of simultaneous identification of several linear cracks forming an array in an elastic medium by using the circular Ultrasonic scanning.

  6. Ultrasonication and food technology: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ishrat Majid; Gulzar Ahmad Nayik; Vikas Nanda

    2015-01-01

    With increasing consumers demand and tightening of food and environmental regulations, traditional food-processing techniques have lost their optimum performance which gave rise to new and powerful technologies. Ultrasonic is a one of the fast, versatile, emerging, and promising non-destructive green technology used in the food industry from last few years. The ultrasound is being carried out in various areas of food technology namely crystallization, freezing, bleaching, degassing, extractio...

  7. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  8. Research of the ultrasonic testing parts reconditioned by welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Petriceanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained following the nondestructive ultrasonic testing of crankpin shaft of a crankshaft that were reconditioned by welding. After the ultrasonic testing, the reconditioned samples were cut and subjected to visual testing and microstructure examination. When the results obtained following the nondestructive tests were analyzed, it was observed that the ultrasonic nondestructive testing method is an efficient way to determine the conformity of the areas that were reconditioned by welding.

  9. Quality assurance of brazed copper plates through advanced ultrasonic NDE

    OpenAIRE

    Segreto, T.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive methods have demonstrated great potential for the detection of flaws in a material under examination. In particular, discontinuities produced by welding, brazing, and soldering are regularly inspected through ultrasonic techniques. In this paper, an advanced ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique is applied for the quality control of brazed copper cells in order to realize an accelerometer prototype for cancer proton therapy. The cells are composed of two h...

  10. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  11. Manufacturing technologies for ultrasonic transducers in a broad frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Sylvia; Hohlfeld, Kai; Günther, Paul; Neubert, Holger

    2018-01-01

    According to the application field, working frequency of ultrasonic transducers needs to be tailored to a certain value. Low frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies of 1 kHz to 1 MHz are especially interesting for sonar applications, whereas high frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies higher than 15 MHz are favorable for high-resolution imaging in biomedical and non-destructive evaluation. Conventional non-destructive testing devices and clinical ultrasoun...

  12. Ultrasonic guided wave for monitoring corrosion of steel bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Qin, Lei; Huang, Bosheng

    2018-01-01

    Steel corrosion of reinforced concrete structures has become a serious problem all over the word. In this paper, the work aims at monitoring steel corrosion using ultrasonic guided wave (UGW). Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring is a dynamic and non-destructive testing technology. The advantages of ultrasonic guided wave monitoring for reinforcement corrosion are real-time, online and continuous. In addition, it can judge the different stages of steel bar corrosion, which achieved non-destructive detection.

  13. Miniaturized and general purpose fiber optic ultrasonic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, E.; Fontani, S.; Masotti, L.; Pieraccini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative photoacoustic sources for ultrasonic NDE, smart structure, and clinical diagnosis are proposed. The working principle is based on thermal conversion of laser pulses into a metallic film evaporated directly onto the tip of a fiber optic. Unique features of the proposed transducers are very high miniaturization and potential easy embedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high bedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high ultrasonic frequency, large and flat bandwidth. All these characteristics make the proposed device an ideal ultrasonic source

  14. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C

    2011-01-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  15. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  16. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  19. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  20. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  1. STADUS - Ultrasonic data acquisition and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, Robert; Birac, A.M.; Frappier, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    The CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developed a system for the acquisition and analysis of data recorded during ultrasonic testing. Initially this system was designed and built for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR type power reactors. It is in far wider use today for miscellaneous automatic ultrasonic inspection procedures. This system records, in digital form, the ultrasonic data supplied by the transducers (maximum 16 simultaneous channels), and the geometric coordinates defining the position of the inspection tool. Based on these data, which are recorded on floppy disk, this system helps to display data in the form of A SCAN, B SCAN and C SCAN images. In addition, processing programs of data transfer from the STADUS floppy disks have been developed and inserted on computers more powerful than the one used in the STADUS system. These programs serve to obtain different fault charts on an adjustable scale, as well as listings concerning the defect positions and dimensions [fr

  2. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  3. Ultrasonic Study of Dislocation Dynamics in Lithium -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myeong-Deok

    1987-09-01

    Experimental studies of dislocation dynamics in LiF single crystals, using ultrasonic techniques combined with dynamic loading, were performed to investigate the time evolution of the plastic deformation process under a short stress pulse at room temperature, and the temperature dependence of the dislocation damping mechanism in the temperature range 25 - 300(DEGREES)K. From the former, the time dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was understood as resulting from dislocation multiplication followed by the evolution of mobile dislocations to immobile ones under large stress. From the latter, the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was interpreted as due to the motion of the dislocation loops overcoming the periodic Peierls potential barrier in a manner analogous to the motion of a thermalized sine-Gordon chain under a small stress. The Peierls stress obtained from the experimental results by application of Seeger's relaxation model with exponential dislocation length distribution was 4.26MPa, which is consistent with the lowest stress for the linear relation between the dislocation velocity and stress observed by Flinn and Tinder.

  4. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  5. Reactor Coolant Temperature Measurement using Ultrasonic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, YongSun; Bechue, Nicholas [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In NPP, the primary piping temperature is detected by four redundant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) installed 90 degrees apart on the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) piping circumferentially. Such outputs however, if applied to I and C systems would not give balanced results. The discrepancy can be explained by either thermal stratification or improper arrangement of thermo-wells and RTDs. This phenomenon has become more pronounced in the hot-leg piping than in the cold-leg. Normally, the temperature difference among channels is in the range of 1°F in Korean nuclear power Plants. Consequently, a more accurate pipe average temperate measurement technique is required. Ultrasonic methods can be used to measure average temperatures with relatively higher accuracy than RTDs because the sound wave propagation in the RCS pipe is proportional to the average temperature around pipe area. The inaccuracy of RCS temperature measurement worsens the safety margin for both DNBR and LPD. The possibility of this discrepancy has been reported with thermal stratification effect. Proposed RCS temperature measurement system based on ultrasonic technology offers a countermeasure to cope with thermal stratification effect on hot-leg piping that has been an unresolved issue in NPPs. By introducing ultrasonic technology, the average internal piping temperature can be measured with high accuracy. The inaccuracy can be decreased less than ±1℉ by this method.

  6. Ultrasonic boiler inspection and economic analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Boiler tube failures cause approximately 6% availability loss of large fossil-fired power generating plants. This loss can be reduced by systematic approaches using ultrasonic examination and root cause failure analysis methods. Two projects sponsored by EPRI have provided utility engineers with guidelines for performing ultrasonic examinations and with details on 22 types of tube failure mechanisms. A manual has been published that provides descriptions of typical locations, superficial appearances, damage mechanisms, metallurgy, microstructural changes, likely root causes, and potential corrective actions. Application of the principles in the manual is being demonstrated in an EPRI-funded project at 10 electric utilities over the next two years. Guidelines have been published that prescribe the activities necessary for ultrasonic examinations of boiler tubes. Eight essential elements of a boiler examination should be performed to assure that possible economic benefits are obtained. Work was supported by EPRI under RP 1890 and RP 1865. A software package has been developed for effectively planning inspections for wall thinning in fossil-fired boiler tubing. The software assists in minimizing costs associated with maintenance, such as inspection and repair, while the life of the boiler is maximized

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Thermal Pretreatment, Steam Explosion and Ultrasonic Disintegration on Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Dallos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of the corn-based bioethanol production could be reduced using the agricultural byproducts as bioenergy feedstock for biogas digesters. The release of lignocellulosic material and therefore the acceleration of degradation processes can be achieved using thermal and mechanical pretreatments, which assist to hydrolyze the cell walls and speed the solubilization of biopolymers in biogas feedstock. This study is focused on liquid hot water, steam explosion and ultrasonic pretreatments of corn stover. The scientific contribution of this paper is a comprehensive comparison of the performance of the pretreatments by fast analytical, biochemical, anaerobic digestibility and biomethane potential tests, extended by energy consumptions and energy balance calculations.The effectiveness of pretreatments was evaluated by means of soluble chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and by the biogas and methane productivities. The results have shown that the thermal pretreatment, steam explosion and ultrasonic irradiation of biogas feedstock disintegrated the lignocellulosic structure, increased and accelerated the methane production and increased the cumulative biogas and methane productivity of corn stover in reference to the control during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.The energy balance demonstrated that there is an economical basis of the application of the liquid hot-compressed water pretreatments in a biogas plant. However, the steam explosion and ultrasonication are energetically not profitable for corn stover pretreatment.

  8. Method and system having ultrasonic sensor movable by translation device for ultrasonic profiling of weld samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyard, James; Potter, Timothy; Charron, William; Hopkins, Deborah; Reverdy, Frederic

    2010-04-06

    A system for ultrasonic profiling of a weld sample includes a carriage movable in opposite first and second directions. An ultrasonic sensor is coupled to the carriage to move over the sample as the carriage moves. An encoder determines the position of the carriage to determine the position of the sensor. A spring is connected at one end of the carriage. Upon the carriage being moved in the first direction toward the spring such that the carriage and the sensor are at a beginning position and the spring is compressed the spring decompresses to push the carriage back along the second direction to move the carriage and the sensor from the beginning position to an ending position. The encoder triggers the sensor to take the ultrasonic measurements of the sample when the sensor is at predetermined positions while the sensor moves over the sample between the beginning and positions.

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  11. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Diaz, Aaron A [W. Richland, WA; Judd, Kayte M [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Cliff, William C [Richland, WA; Pfund, David M [Richland, WA; Morgen, Gerald P [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  12. An intelligent software approach to ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress on this methodology, it has not been widely used in practical ultrasonic inspection of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows excellent performances in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks.

  13. Ultrasonic sectional imaging for crack identification. Part 1. Confirmation test of essential factors for ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Since the first reports of inter-granular stress corrosion crack (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) pipe in the 1970s, nuclear power industry has focused considerable attention on service induced crack detection and sizing using ultrasonic examination. In recent years, phased array systems, those reconstruct high quality flaw images at real time are getting to apply for crack detection and sizing. But because the price of phased array systems are expensive for inspection vendors, field application of phased array systems are limited and reliable ultrasonic imaging systems with reasonable price are expected. This paper will discuss cost effective ultrasonic equipment with sectional image (B-scan) presentation as the simplified imaging system for assisting ultrasonic examination personnel. To develop the simplified B-scan imaging system, the frequency characteristics of IGSCC echoes and neighboring geometry echoes such as base-metal to weld interface and inner surface of a pipe are studied. The experimental study confirmed the reflectors have different frequency characteristics and 2MHz is suitable to visualize IGSCC and 5MHz and higher frequency are suitable to reconstruct geometry images. The other study is the amplifier selection for the imaging system. To reconstruct images of IGSCC and geometry echoes, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with linear amplifier has to adjust gain setting to the target. On the other hand, the ultrasonic imaging instrument with logarithmic amplifier can collect and display wider dynamic range on a screen and this wider dynamic range are effective to visualize IGSCC and geometry echoes on a B-scan presentation at a time. (author)

  14. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  15. Inspection of piping wall loss with flow accelerated corrosion accelerated simulation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Kim, Ji Hak; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) has become a hot issue for aging of passive components. Ultrasonic Technique (UT) has been adopted to inspect the secondary piping of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). UT, however, uses point detection method, which results in numerous detecting points and thus takes time. We developed an Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop (ES-DCPD) method to monitor the thickness of piping that covers wide range of piping at once time. Since the ES-DCPD method covers area, not a point, it needs less monitoring time. This can be a good approach to broad carbon steel piping system such as secondary piping of NPPs. In this paper, FAC accelerated simulation test results is described. We realized accelerated FAC phenomenon by 2 times test: 23.7% thinning in 216.7 hours and 51% thinning in 795 hours. These were monitored by ES-DCPD and traditional UT. Some parameters of water chemistry are monitored and controlled to accelerate FAC process. As sensitive factors on FAC, temperature and pH was changed during the test. The wall loss monitored results reflected these changes of water chemistry successfully. Developed electrodes are also applied to simulation loop to monitor water chemistry. (author)

  16. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  17. Other people's accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    The first report from the Washington Accelerator Conference concentrated on news from the particle physics centres. But the bulk of the Conference covered the use of accelerators in other fields, underlining this valuable spinoff from particle physics.

  18. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  19. The electron accelerator Ridgetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.; Odera, M.; Fujisawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many electron accelerators of DC or RF type have been widely used for electron beam irradiation (curing, crosslinking of polymers, sterilization of medical disposables, preservation of food, etc.). Regardless of the acceleration energy, the accelerators to be installed in industrial facilities, have to satisfy the requires of compact size, low power consumption and stable operation. The DC accelerator is realized very compact in the energy under 300 keV, however, it is large to prevent the discharge of an acceleration column in the energy over 300 keV. The RF electron accelerator Ridgetron has been developed to accelerate the continuous beam of the 0.5-10 MeV range in compact space. It is the first example as an electron accelerator incorporated a ridged RF cavity. A prototype system of final energy of 2.5 MeV has been studied to confirm the feasibility at present

  20. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  1. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  2. YEREVAN: Acceleration workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia, a Workshop on New Methods of Charged Particle Acceleration in October near the Nor Amberd Cosmic Ray Station attracted participants from most major accelerator centres in the USSR and further afield

  3. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  4. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  5. Vp x B acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo.

    1987-05-01

    A unique particle acceleration by an electrostatic (ES) wave, a magnetosonic shock wave as well as an electromagnetic (EM) wave is reviewed. The principle of the acceleration is that when a charged particle is carried across an external magnetic field the charge feels a DC field (the Lorentz force) and is accelerated. The theory for the ES wave acceleration is experimentally verified thought it is semi-quantitative. The shock acceleration is extensively studied theoretically and in a particle simulation method and the application is extended to phenomena in interplanetary space. The EM wave acceleration is based on a trapping in a moving neutral sheet created by the wave magnetic field and the external magnetic field, and the particle can be accelerated indefinitely. A brief sketch on a slow-wave-structure for this acceleration will be given. (author)

  6. Accelerator-timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, E.; Heine, E.

    1985-01-01

    Along the NIKHEF accelerator in Amsterdam (Netherlands), at several places a signal is needed for the sychronisation of all devices with the acceleration process. In this report, basic principles and arrangements of this timing system are described

  7. Linear accelerator: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  8. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  9. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  10. Accelerators at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required.

  11. Accelerators for Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will review the different applications of particle accelerators to the medical field, from cancer treatment with beams of accelerator-produced particles (photons, electrons, protons, ions and neutrons) to the generation of radioactive isotopes used in medical diagnostics, in cancer therapy and in the new domain of theragnostics. For each application will be outlined the state of the art, the potential, and the accelerator challenges to be faced to meet the increasing demand for therapeutic procedures based on accelerators.

  12. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  13. Particle beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A particle beam accelerator is described which has several electrodes that are selectively short circuited together synchronously with changes in the magnitude of a DC voltage applied to the accelerator. By this method a substantially constant voltage gradient is maintained along the length of the unshortened electrodes despite variations in the energy applied to the beam by the accelerator. The invention has particular application to accelerating ion beams that are implanted into semiconductor wafers. (U.K.)

  14. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  15. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  16. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  17. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  18. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  19. Far field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  20. Virtual Accelerator for Accelerator Optics Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Yan Yi Ton; Decker, Franz Josef; Ecklund, Stanley; Irwin, John; Seeman, John; Sullivan, Michael K; Turner, J L; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs by fitting quantities derivable from precision orbit measurement, one can establish a virtual accelerator that matches the real accelerator optics. These quantities (the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the coupling eigen-plane ellipses tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a model-independent analysis (MIA). Instead of trying to identify magnet errors, a limited number of quadrupoles are chosen for optimized strength adjustment to improve the virtual accelerator optics and then applied to the real accelerator accordingly. These processes have been successfully applied to PEP-II rings for beta beating fixes, phase and working tune adjustments, and linear coupling reduction to improve PEP-II luminosity.

  1. Enhancement of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Cheng, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sonication is an effective way for sludge disintegration, which can significantly improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion to reduce and recycle use of sludge. But high energy consumption limits the wide application of sonication. In order to improve ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency and reduce energy consumption, aeration was introduced. Results showed that sludge disintegration efficiency was improved significantly by combining aeration with ultrasound. The aeration flow rate, gas bubble size, ultrasonic density and aeration timing had impacts on sludge disintegration efficiency. Aeration that used in later stage of ultrasonic irradiation with low aeration flow rate, small gas bubbles significantly improved ultrasonic disintegration sludge efficiency. At the optimal conditions of 0.4 W/mL ultrasonic irradiation density, 30 mL/min of aeration flow rate, 5 min of aeration in later stage and small gas bubbles, ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency was increased by 45% and one third of ultrasonic energy was saved. This approach will greatly benefit the application of ultrasonic sludge disintegration and strongly promote the treatment and recycle of wastewater sludge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Methodic recommendations on ultrasonic testing of pipeline austenitic butt joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.S.; Lantukh, V.M.; Tajts, M.Z.; Ermolov, I.N.; Volkov, A.S.; Vyatskov, I.A.; Kesler, N.A.; Shchedrin, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Recommendations for the application of ultrasonic testing of austenitic welded joints of the Du 500 pipelines with the walls 32-34 mm thick made of steel Kh18N10T are developed. The optimal values of the main parameters of ultrasonic testing are determined experimentally. Principles of calculation of the optimal parameters are considered. 1 ref.; 4 figs

  3. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  4. Degradation of acephate using combined ultrasonic and ozonation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated with the ultrasonic and ozonation methods, as well as a combination of both. An experimental facility was designed and operation parameters such as the ultrasonic power, temperature, and gas flow rate were strictly controlled at constant levels. The frequency of the ultrasonic wave was 160 kHz. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used in the experiment. The UV-Vis spectroscopic results show that ultrasonication and ozonation have a synergistic effect in the combined system. The degradation efficiency of acephate increases from 60.6% to 87.6% after the solution is irradiated by a 160 kHz ultrasonic wave for 60 min in the ozonation process, and it is higher with the combined method than the sum of the separated ultrasonic and ozonation methods. Raman spectra studies show that degradation via the combined ultrasonic/ozonation method is more thorough than photocatalysis. The oxidability of nitrogen atoms is promoted under ultrasonic waves. Changes of the inorganic ions and degradation pathway during the degradation process were investigated in this study. Most final products are innocuous to the environment.

  5. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  6. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1560 - Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system is a device intended to project a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed echo imaging system. 892.1560... receiver. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and...

  8. A Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech-niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com-pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity methodin estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples ...

  9. Monitoring of PHWR end cap weld quality by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxminarayana, B.

    1996-01-01

    In Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor fuel fabrication, the end cap welding is an important process. Till date about 16,000 welds have been studied ultrasonically. This paper discusses the experimental results and the design of a semi automatic ultrasonic equipment incorporating features for both backward and forward integration. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor with a Layer-Structured Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2010-01-01

    In-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors had developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In the previous studies, the Ultrasonic waveguide sensor module had been designed and manufactured. And the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been performed. To Improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module in the under-sodium application, the dispersion effect due to the 10 m long distance propagation of the A 0 -mode Lamb wave should be minimized and the longitudinal leaky wave in a liquid sodium should be generated within the range of the effective radiation angle. In this study, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a layered-structured plate is suggested for the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the effective generation of leaky wave in a liquid sodium

  11. Ultrasonicly identified seals for safeguards and physical protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    The paper provides a general review of an ultrasonic technique available for sealing, marking or otherwise identifying material in such a way that its recognition and guarantee of integrity are inequivocally ensured. Development work on several types of seals and their ultrasonic identification has been performed at Ispra in collaboration with external companies for application to MTRs, HWRs and FBRs

  12. Ultrasonic two-dimensional imaging of the heart with multiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandt, J.R.T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the author was to present the implementation into cardiology of the ultrasonic linear array scanner. The first clinical results, the progress in examination technique and potential applications are described. One method which complements the ultrasonic imaging capabilities is the use of the echo contrast. (Auth.)

  13. Automated ultrasonic testing--capabilities, limitations and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, L.S.; Mikesell, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for precision and reproducibility of ultrasonic testing during inservice inspection of nuclear reactors are both quantitatively and qualitatively more severe than most current practice in the field can provide. An automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) system, which provides a significant advancement in field examination capabilities, is described. Properties of the system, its application, and typical results are discussed

  14. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  15. System of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaubert, Y.; Birac, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1982-08-01

    An original system of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data collected during examinations named STADUS-PRODUS has been developed by C.E.A. in Saclay. First developed for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR vessels, it is now used for the different automatic ultrasonic controls with various tools

  16. Debridement of vaginal radiation ulcers using the surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburgh, E.; Nahhas, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The surgical Ultrasonic Aspirator (USA) is a fairly new surgical instrument used for an increasingly wide range of procedures. This paper introduces a new application: debridement of vulvovaginal necrotic ulcers resulting from intracavitary radiation therapy. The ultrasonic aspirator allowed removal of the soft, necrotic tissue while preserving underlying healthy, firm tissue and blood vessels

  17. Development of phased-array ultrasonic testing probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Seiichi; Kurokawa, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masaru; Tada, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    Phased-array ultrasonic testing was developed for nondestructive evaluation of power plants. Phased-array UT scans and focuses an ultrasonic beam to inspect areas difficult to inspect by conventional UT. We developed a highly sensitive piezoelectric composite, and designed optimized phased-array UT probes. We are applying our phased-array UT to different areas of power plants. (author)

  18. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  19. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  20. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  1. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.; Abdul Rahim, R.; Megat Ali, M.S.A.; Baharuddin, M.Y.; Jahidin, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, NASA grounded its space shuttle fleet. The reason: leaks detected in the hydrogen fuel systems of the Space Shuttles Atlantis and Columbia. Unless the sources of the leaks could be identified and fixed, the shuttles would not be safe to fly. To help locate the existing leaks and check for others, Kennedy Space Center engineers used portable ultrasonic detectors to scan the fuel systems. As a gas or liquid escapes from a leak, the resulting turbulence creates ultrasonic noise, explains Gary Mohr, president of Elmsford, New York-based UE Systems Inc., a long-time leader in ultrasonic detector technologies. "In lay terms, the leak is like a dog whistle, and the detector is like the dog ear." Because the ultrasound emissions from a leak are highly localized, they can be used not only to identify the presence of a leak but also to help pinpoint a leak s location. The NASA engineers employed UE s detectors to examine the shuttle fuel tanks and solid rocket boosters, but encountered difficulty with the devices limited range-certain areas of the shuttle proved difficult or unsafe to scan up close. To remedy the problem, the engineers created a long-range attachment for the detectors, similar to "a zoom lens on a camera," Mohr says. "If you are on the ground, and the leak is 50 feet away, the detector would now give you the same impression as if you were only 25 feet away." The enhancement also had the effect of reducing background noise, allowing for a clearer, more precise detection of a leak s location.

  3. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  4. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  5. Accelerations in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, J H

    1925-01-01

    This work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.

  6. Accelerators for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    A particle accelerator is a device to consume energy but not to produce it. Then, the titled accelerator seems to mean an accelerator for using devices related to nuclear energy. For an accelerator combined to nuclear fissionable fuel, neutron sources are D-T type, (gamma, n) reaction using electron beam type spallation type, and so forth. At viewpoints of powers of incident beam and formed neutron, a spallation type source using high energy proton is told to be effective but others have some advantages by investigation on easy operability, easy construction, combustion with target, energy and directivity of neutron, and so forth. Here were discussed on an accelerator for research on accelerator driven energy system by dividing its researching steps, and on kind, energy, beam intensity, and so forth of an accelerator suitable for it. And, space electric charge effect at beam propagation direction controlled by beam intensity of cyclotron was also commented. (G.K.)

  7. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  8. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  9. Detecting accuracy of flaws by manual and automatic ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1988-01-01

    As the final stage work in the nine year project on proving tests of the ultrasonic inspection technique applied to the ISI of LWR plants, automatic ultrasonic inspection tests were carried out on EDM notches, surface fatigue cracks, weld defects and stress corrosion cracks, which were deliberately introduced in full size structural components simulating a 1,100 MWe BWR. Investigated items are the performance of a newly assembled automatic inspection apparatus, detection limit of flaws, detection resolution of adjacent collinear or parallel EDM notches, detection reproducibility and detection accuracy. The manual ultrasonic inspection of the same flaws as inspected by the automatic ultrasonic inspection was also carried out in order to have comparative data. This paper reports how it was confirmed that the automatic ultrasonic inspection is much superior to the manual inspection in the flaw detection rate and in the detection reproducibility

  10. Ultrasonic hot powder compaction of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-07-01

    Power ultrasonic has been recently employed in a wide variety of manufacturing processes among which ultrasonic assisted powder compaction is a promising powder materials processing technique with significant industrial applications. The products manufactured by the powder metallurgy commonly consist of residual porosities, material impurities, structural non-homogeneities and residual stress. In this paper, it is aimed to apply power ultrasonic to the hot consolidation process of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy powder in order to improve mechanical properties. To do this, the effects of ultrasonic power and process temperature and pressure were considered and then deeply studied through a series of experiments. It was shown that the addition of ultrasonic vibration leads to a significant improvement in the consolidation performance and the mechanical strength of the fabricated specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The ultrasonic shop map and its use in preservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Section X1 of the ASME Code on Inservice Inspection, a plan was introduced by Westinghouse to perform ultrasonic examinations of areas of high stress and high fluence of reactor pressure vessels in the manufacturer's shop and subsequent to the shop hydrostatic test. The tests provided a shop reference map of ultrasonic responses to use in subsequent preservice and inservice inspections, and attempted to locate any ultrasonic reflections beyond the acceptance standards of ASME Section III and, later, of Section X1. The history of the program is reviewed. Thirty-six vessels were examined during 1970 to 1973. As a result of indications discovered during ultrasonic examination repairs were carried out on five of these. Details are given of inspections and repairs. A summary is also given of the indications detected and of the correlations between the ultrasonic evaluation and actual flow characteristics. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  13. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.S.; Hudgell, R.J.; Seed, H.

    1980-01-01

    Successful volumetric inspection of LMFBR primary circuits, and also much of the secondary circuit, is dependent on the availability of satisfactory examination procedures for austenitic welds. Application of conventional ultrasonic techniques is hampered by the anisotropic, textured structure of the weld metal and this paper describes development work on the use of longitudinal wave techniques. In addition to confirming the dominant effects of the weld structure on ultrasound propagation some results are given of studies utilising deliberately induced defects in Manual Metal Arc Welds in 50 mm plate together with preliminary work on the inspection of narrow austenitic welds fabricated by automatic processes. (author)

  14. Numerical processing of ultrasonic holographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, K.J.; Kiefer, R.; Wosnitza, M.; Schmitz, V.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Saarbruecken

    1980-01-01

    Reconstructing ultrasonic holographic data numerically, the well-known Fresnel approximation is a first step in evaluating the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula, that is to say, a one- or two-dimensional Fourier-transform of the holographic data multiplied by a complex phase factor has to be computed. The present contribution investigates the relation between flaw depth and aperture size yielding the more advantageous use of the spatial frequency approach where the advantage is in terms of the number of samples and hence computation time in evaluating Fourier transforms numerically. (orig.) [de

  15. A thinker's guide to ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powis, R.L.; Powis, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Bridging the gap between elementary physics and advanced ultrasonographic theory, this book provides the clinician with an indispensable tool for the most effective use of ultrasound equipment. It is directed to every individual who must take a transducer in hand, make an ultrasonic study, and interpret the visual results. It stands between the very rudimentary texts that provide simple basics and texts in advanced ultrasound science and applications. It is designed to provide an intermediate step in the continuing education of both physician and sonographer. Each chapter stands alone, yet is connected with the others by reference and suggested readings

  16. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  17. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  18. Method of case hardening depth testing by using multifunctional ultrasonic testing instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salchak, Y A; Sednev, D A; Ardashkin, I B; Kroening, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes usability of ultrasonic case hardening depth control applying standard instrument of ultrasonic inspections. The ultrasonic method of measuring the depth of the hardened layer is proposed. Experimental series within the specified and multifunctional ultrasonic equipment are performed. The obtained results are compared with the results of a referent method of analysis. (paper)

  19. Nonlinear ultrasonics for material state awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L. J.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive health monitoring of structural components will require the development of advanced sensing techniques capable of providing quantitative information on the damage state of structural materials. By focusing on nonlinear acoustic techniques, it is possible to measure absolute, strength based material parameters that can then be coupled with uncertainty models to enable accurate and quantitative life prediction. Starting at the material level, this review will present current research that involves a combination of sensing techniques and physics-based models to characterize damage in metallic materials. In metals, these nonlinear ultrasonic measurements can sense material state, before the formation of micro- and macro-cracks. Typically, cracks of a measurable size appear quite late in a component's total life, while the material's integrity in terms of toughness and strength gradually decreases due to the microplasticity (dislocations) and associated change in the material's microstructure. This review focuses on second harmonic generation techniques. Since these nonlinear acoustic techniques are acoustic wave based, component interrogation can be performed with bulk, surface and guided waves using the same underlying material physics; these nonlinear ultrasonic techniques provide results which are independent of the wave type used. Recent physics-based models consider the evolution of damage due to dislocations, slip bands, interstitials, and precipitates in the lattice structure, which can lead to localized damage.

  20. Ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biyu; Shi, Bi; Sun, Danhong; Chen, Yaowen; Shelly, Dennis C

    2007-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound on titanium tanning of leather were investigated. Either 20 or 40 kHz ultrasound was applied to the titanium tanning of pigskins. Five different treatment conditions were carried out and the effects were examined, such as leather shrinkage temperature (T(s)), titanium content and titanium distribution in the leather. Overall heat loading was carefully controlled. Results showed that 20 kHz ultrasound effectively improves titanium agent penetration into the hide and increases the leather's shrinkage temperature. Doubling the frequency to 40 kHz produced negligible enhancements. An impressive 105.6 degrees C T(s) was achieved using 20 kHz ultrasound pretreatment of the tanning liquor followed by 20 kHz ultrasound in the tanning mixture (liquor plus pigskins) in a special salt-free medium. Finally, using a unique ultrasonic tanning drum with 26.5 kHz ultrasound, the T(s) reached a record level of 106.5 degrees C, a value not achieved in conventional (no ultrasound) titanium tanning. The ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather are judged to make a superior mineral tanned leather.

  1. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures

  2. Ultrasonic assessment of shrinkage type discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubber, John

    2010-01-01

    This investigation into ultrasonic internal discontinuities is intended to demonstrate typical examples of internal 'shrinkage' type discontinuities and its connection with the casting suitability, integrity and reliability in service. This type of discontinuity can be misinterpreted by ultrasonic technicians and can lead to the rejection of castings unnecessarily, due to the mis-characterization of fine shrinkage - discrete porosity. The samples for this investigation were taken from thirty ton heavy section ductile iron mill flange castings, manufactured by Graham Campbell Ferrum International. The sampled area was of discontinuities that were recorded for sizing on an area due to loss of back wall echo, but had acceptable reflectivity. A comparative sample was taken adjacent to the area of discrete porosity. The discontinuities found by this investigation are of a 'spongy' type, gaseous in appearance and are surrounded by acoustically sound material. All discontinuities discussed in this paper are centrally located in the through thickness of the casting. The porous nature of this type of discontinuity consisting of approximately 80-90% metal has its own residual strength, as indicated by the proof stress results which reveal a residual strength of up to 50-60% of that of the unaffected area of the casting. The affected areas are elliptical in shape and vary in density and through thickness throughout.

  3. Innovative ultrasonics for power plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.; Alikhan, S.

    1983-05-01

    During the commissioning of a nuclear power plant, the usual role of ultrasonics is associated with nondestructive testing of welds. There is, however, a variety of undesirable conditions associated with the fluids carried through the various reactor systems which may be just as important to station operation. A variety of unusual ultrasonic techniques has been developed for testing fluid systems at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This paper uses the experience gained at the Point Lepreau reactor to illustrate the valuable information which can be gained from these measurements, such as: fluid level in pipes and headers; fluid level in pressure vessels; detection, and sizing of debris in pipes; in situ measurement and verification of orifice condition; detection and location of cavitation, water hammer, valve leakage; quantitative measurement of gate movement within the body of an inservice valve; determination of valve position; detection and imaging of flow separation; detection and location of leaks in concrete containment structures; verification of design flows; balancing of loop flows; and detection of low flow. The application of these techniques at other reactor sites is also discussed

  4. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  5. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  6. Ultrasonic level, temperature, and density sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.; Miller, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    A sensor has been developed to measure simultaneously the level, temperature, and density of the fluid in which it is immersed. The sensor is a thin, rectangular stainless steel ribbon which acts as a waveguide and is housed in a perforated tube. The waveguide is coupled to a section of magnetostrictive magnetic-coil transducers. These tranducers are excited in an alternating sequence to interrogate the sensor with both torsional ultrasonic waves, utilizing the Wiedemann effect, and extensional ultrasonic waves, using the Joule effect. The measured torsional wave transit time is a function of the density, level, and temperature of the fluid surrounding the waveguide. The measured extensional wave transit time is a function of the temperature of the waveguide only. The sensor is divided into zones by the introduction of reflecting surfaces at measured intervals along its length. Consequently, the transit times from each reflecting surface can be analyzed to yield a temperature profile and a density profile along the length of the sensor. Improvements in acoustic wave dampener and pressure seal designs enhance the compatibility of the probe with high-temperature, high-radiation, water-steam environments and increase the likelihood of survival in such environments. Utilization of a microcomputer to automate data sampling and processing has resulted in improved resolution of the sensor

  7. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  8. Ultrasonic Examination of Jet Pump Diffuser Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.; Levesque, M.; Whitman, G.

    1998-01-01

    In October 1997 the Boiling Water REactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP) issued the BWR Jet Pump Assembly Inspection and Flaw Evaluation Guidelines (BWRVIP-41). This document identified several welds on the jet pump diffuser assembly that are susceptible to Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) or fatigue, and whose failure could result in jet pump disassembly. Based on the potential for failures, the document recommends inspection of 50% of the high priority welds at the next refueling outage for each BWR, with 100% expansion if flaws are identified. Because each diffuser assembly contains as many as six high priority welds, and access to these welds from the annulus is very restricted, implementing these recommendations can have a significant impact on outage critical path. In an effort to minimize the impact of implementing these recommendations, Framatome Technologies, Inc (FTI) developed a method to perform ultrasonic examinations of the jet pump diffuser assembly welds utilizing remotely operated equipment from the inner diameter (ID) of the diffuser assembly. This paper will discuss the tooling, ultrasonic methods, and delivery techniques used to perform the examinations, as well as the results obtained from a spring 1998 deployment of the system at a U.S. Nuclear Generating Plant. (Author)

  9. Characterisation and Modelling of MEMS Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, M F; Hariz, A J

    2006-01-01

    Silicon ultrasonic transducer micro arrays based on micro-electro-mechanicalsystem (MEMS) technologies are gaining popularity for applications in sonar sensing and excitation. A current challenge for many researchers is modelling the dynamic performance of these and other micro-mechanical devices to ascertain their performance and explain experimental observations reported. In this work, the performance simulation of a MEMS ultrasonic transducer array made from silicon nitride has been successfully carried out using CoventorWare package. The dynamic response of the entire transducer array was characterised, and the results were compared with theoretical predictions. Individual elements were found to vibrate with Bessel-like displacement patterns, and they were resonant at approximately 3 MHz, depending on thickness and lateral dimensions. The frequency shows a linear dependence around the common thickness of 2 μm. Peak displacement levels were examined as a function of frequency, DC bias voltage, and AC drive voltage. Accounting for fabrication variations, and uniformity variations across the wafer, the full array showed minimal variations in peak out-of-plane displacement levels across the device, and isolated elements that were over-responsive and under-responsive. Presently, the effect of observed variations across the array on the performance of the transducers and their radiated fields are being examined

  10. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  11. STUDY ON ULTRASONIC DEGREASING OF SHEEPSKIN WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather industry is a relatively large source of waste from raw material, so skin waste recovery is a goal of clean technologies. Capitalization of skin waste aims to obtain: chemical auxiliaries, technical articles, hydrolyzed protein, artificial leather, composite building materials, heat sources and collagen biomaterials with applications in medicine, cosmetics, etc. A first step in the recovery of skin waste is the degreasing operation. Ultrasound is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the conventional degreasing affecting the chemical substances as well as the treated skin. In addition, the processing time is reduced. Ultrasound is known to enhance the emulsification and dispersion of oils/fat. The usual degreasing methods requires more emulsifier/solvent ratio and process time for emulsification and additional solvent for washing out the emulsified fat. This paper investigates the possibility of recovery through ecological processes of leather waste from finishing operations for further capitalization. The present study aims emulsification and subsequent removal of the fat present in the chamois powder waste from polishing operation with the aid of ultrasound by an aqueous ecofriendly method. The study also took into account the ultrasonic treatment of the leather waste using trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet method and via ultrasonication. IR-ATR and optical microscopy highlight both morphological and chemical-structural changes of treated materials by different degreasing methods

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of defective porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren, E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the optimization of ultrasonic methods in the non-destructive testing of sintered porcelain tiles containing defects. For this reason, a silicon nitride ball, carbon black and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate were imbedded in porcelain tile granules before pressing to make special defects in tiles. After sintering at 1220ºC, the time of flight of the ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic signal amplitudes through the sintered porcelain tiles were measured by a contact ultrasonic transducer operating on pulse-echo mode. This method can allow for defect detection using the A-scan. The results of the test showed that the amplitude of the received peak for a defective part is smaller than for a part which has no defects. Depending on the size, shape and position of the defect, its peak can be detected. Additionally, an immersion pulse-echo C-scan method was also used to differentiate between defects in porcelain tiles. By using this technique, it is possible to determine the place and shape of defects. To support the results of the ultrasonic investigation, a SEM characterization was also made.

    El fin principal de este trabajo es la optimización de métodos ultrasónicos en la prueba no destructiva de azulejos sinterizados de porcelana que contienen defectos. Por lo tanto, bolas del nitruro de silicio, negros de carbón y PMMA (polimetilmetacrilato fueron encajados en gránulos del azulejo de porcelana antes de presionar para hacer defectos especiales en azulejos. Después de sinterizado en 1220ºC, el tiempo de vuelo de las ondas ultrasónicas fue medido a través del azulejo sinterizado de la porcelana. El tiempo del vuelo de ondas ultrasónicas fue medido por un transductor de contacto ultrasónico operando en modo eco-pulso. Este método puede permitir la detección de defectos usando escaneo-A. Los resultados de la prueba demostraron que la amplitud del pico recibido por partes defectuosas es más pequeño que la parte

  13. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  14. 2014 Accelerators meeting, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry; De Conto, Jean-Marie; Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc; Nadolski, Laurent S.; Kazamias, Sophie; Vretenar, Maurizio; Ferrando, Philippe; Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Laboratory of subatomic physics and cosmology - LPSC-Grenoble (Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Presentation of Grenoble's master diplomas in Accelerator physics (Nadolski, Laurent S.); 4 - Presentation of Paris' master diplomas in big instruments (Kazamias, Sophie); 5 - Particle accelerators and European Union's projects (Vretenar, Maurizio); 6 - French research infrastructures (Ferrando, Philippe); 7 - Coordination of accelerators activity in France (Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre)

  15. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  16. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  17. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  18. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  19. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the physico-chemical parameters of kvass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Demchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the intensification of production kvass process are encouraged to use the installation "Wave-M" UZTA-1/22-OM sonication product. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of treatment of process water and the yeast suspension with ultrasound in the production of kvass. To achieve its objectives for the Department of technological machinery and equipment ITMO University experimental setup was designed. In the course of the experiment we studied the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the physico-chemical characteristics of the finished beverage, made in different formulations, depending on the tiered effect of ultrasound. Organoleptic evaluation of the product was carried out, and active acidity measured amount of dry matter in the finished beverage. When processing kvass ultrasound power of 60 and 90 W at a tasting in the product became noticeable pleasant caramel flavor. Due to this effect may be replaced in the production of soft drinks expensive equipment used for cooking in sugar syrup tinting siropovarochnyh, kolerovarochnyh boilers cheaper ultrasonic unit. The acidity of the samples increased within acceptable limits. On the amount of solids in kvass ultrasonic treatment did not significantly affected. To increase the shelf life of the beverage used microfiltration. Anticipated acceleration of the process of obtaining fermented kvass 2 times. It is shown that the filtration using the dosing of ultrasound in the production of kvass not only reduce the cost of the equipment and remove some of the tra-ditional processes, but also provide with the cold sterilization of kvass with higher quality indicators.

  20. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  1. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  2. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  3. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  4. CONFERENCE: Computers and accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-01-15

    In September of last year a Conference on 'Computers in Accelerator Design and Operation' was held in West Berlin attracting some 160 specialists including many from outside Europe. It was a Europhysics Conference, organized by the Hahn-Meitner Institute with Roman Zelazny as Conference Chairman, postponed from an earlier intended venue in Warsaw. The aim was to bring together specialists in the fields of accelerator design, computer control and accelerator operation.

  5. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  6. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently held its Advanced Accelerator Physics course in Greece on the island of Rhodes. Complementing the general course in Finland last year, this course was organized together with the University of Athens and NCSR. Demokritos. Accelerator specialists from Europe, CIS, Japan and USA followed two weeks of ''state-of-theart'' lectures designed to complete their education in the field

  7. Analysis of Ultrasonic Resonance Signal in Multi-Layered Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Dong Ryun

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing are far superior to other nondestructive tests for detecting the disbond interface which occurred in adhesive interface. However, a solid rocket motor consisting of a steel case, rubber insulation, liner, and propellant poses many difficulties for analyzing ultrasonic waves because of the superposition of reflected waves and large differences in acoustic impedance of various materials. Therefore, ultrasonic tests for detecting the disbond interface in solid rocket motor have been applied in very limited areas between the steel case and rubber insulation using an automatic C-scan system. The existing ultrasonic test cannot detect the disbond interface between the liner and propellant of a solid rocket motor because most of the ultrasonic waves are absorbed in the rubber material which has low acoustic impedance. This problem could be overcome by analyzing the resonance frequency from the frequency spectrum using the ultrasonic resonance method. In this paper, a new technique to detect the disbond interface between the liner and propellant using ultrasonic resonance characteristics is discussed in detail.

  8. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Ultrasonic Resonance Signal in Multi-Layered Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Ryun [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Ultrasonic testing are far superior to other nondestructive tests for detecting the disbond interface which occurred in adhesive interface. However, a solid rocket motor consisting of a steel case, rubber insulation, liner, and propellant poses many difficulties for analyzing ultrasonic waves because of the superposition of reflected waves and large differences in acoustic impedance of various materials. Therefore, ultrasonic tests for detecting the disbond interface in solid rocket motor have been applied in very limited areas between the steel case and rubber insulation using an automatic C-scan system. The existing ultrasonic test cannot detect the disbond interface between the liner and propellant of a solid rocket motor because most of the ultrasonic waves are absorbed in the rubber material which has low acoustic impedance. This problem could be overcome by analyzing the resonance frequency from the frequency spectrum using the ultrasonic resonance method. In this paper, a new technique to detect the disbond interface between the liner and propellant using ultrasonic resonance characteristics is discussed in detail.

  10. Development of an ultrasonic process for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic process for the detoxification of carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 - ) contaminated soil was investigated in the laboratory by using a batch irradiation reactor equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Key parameters studied included soil characteristics, irradiation time, CCl 4 concentration, steady-state operating temperature, applied ultrasonic-wave energy, and the ratio of soil to water in the system. The results of the experiments showed that (1) residual CCl 4 concentrations could be decreased with longer irradiation periods and (2) detoxification efficiency was proportional to steady-state operating temperature and applied ultrasonic-wave energy. The characteristics of the contaminated soil were found to be an important factor in the design of an ultrasonic detoxification system. A soil-phase CCl 4 concentration below 1 ppm (initial concentration of 56 ppm) was achieved through this process, indicating that the application of ultrasonic irradiation is feasible and effective in the detoxification of soil contaminated by organic compounds. On the basis of the experimental results, a schematic of a full-scale ultrasonic soil-detoxification system was developed. Improvements to this novel process are discussed

  11. PROSPECTS FOR THE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC MEMBRANE EXTRACTORS IN THE SUBMERGED CULTIVATION OF LACTIC ACID AND PROPIONIC ACID BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Durnikin

    2016-08-01

    Due to the maintenance of optimum pH, the final concentration of L. lactis, L. plantarum, and P. acidipropionici cells increased in 5.8, 3.6, and 3.2 times, respectively. The equipping of a membrane extractor with ultrasonic transducers accelerated the removal of organic acids from fermentation broth of L. lactis, L. plantarum, and P. acidipropionici in 5.25, 5, and 6.25 times, respectively, i.e., provided a more rapid and efficient fermentation. The proposed technology improves the economical efficiency of the process and provides the required diversity of technical solutions for its use in a microbiological production.

  12. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  13. Laser-driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Several devices for using laser fields have been proposed and they can be classified in three broad categories - 'far-field' accelerators (such as the principle of inverse free electron lasers), 'media' accelerators (which, for example, use the inverse Cherenkov effect or laser-controlled plasma waves), and 'near-field' accelerators (using a loaded guiding structure such as cavities or gratings). These different approaches come from the fact that a particle cannot be accelerated by the absorption of single photons (because of momentum conservation) and thus some other element has to intervene. (orig./HSI).

  14. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  15. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  16. Interacting with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators are research machines which produce energetic particle beam for use as projectiles to effect nuclear reactions. These machines along with their services and facilities may occupy very large areas. The man-machine interface of accelerators has evolved with technological changes in the computer industry and may be partitioned into three phases. The present paper traces the evolution of man-machine interface from the earliest accelerators to the present computerized systems incorporated in modern accelerators. It also discusses the advantages of incorporating expert system technology for assisting operators. (author). 8 ref

  17. FFAGS for muon acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J. Scott; Kahn, Stephen; Palmer, Robert; Trbojevic, Dejan; Johnstone, Carol; Keil, Eberhard; Aiba, Masamitsu; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohmori, Chihiro; Sessler, Andrew; Koscielniak, Shane

    2003-01-01

    Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed

  18. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  20. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic control of ceramic membrane fouling by particles: effect of ultrasonic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Weavers, Linda K; Walker, Harold W

    2006-07-01

    Ultrasound at 20 kHz was applied to a cross-flow ultrafiltration system with gamma-alumina membranes in the presence of colloidal silica particles to systematically investigate how ultrasonic factors affect membrane cleaning. Based on imaging of the ultrasonic cavitation region, optimal cleaning occurred when the membrane was outside but close to the cavitation region. Increasing the filtration pressure increased the compressive forces driving cavitation collapse and resulted in fewer cavitation bubbles absorbing and scattering sound waves and increasing sound wave penetration. However, an increased filtration pressure also resulted in greater permeation drag, and subsequently less improvement in permeate flux compared to low filtration pressure. Finally, pulsed ultrasound with short pulse intervals resulted in permeate flux improvement close to that of continuous sonication.

  2. Reproducibility problems of in-service ultrasonic testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honcu, E.

    1974-01-01

    The reproducibility of the results of ultrasonic testing is the basic precondition for its successful application in in-service inspection of changes in the quality of components of nuclear power installations. The results of periodic ultrasonic inspections are not satisfactory from the point of view of reproducibility. Regardless, the ultrasonic pulse-type method is suitable for evaluating the quality of most components of nuclear installations and often the sole method which may be recommended for inspection with regard to its technical and economic aspects. (J.B.)

  3. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepa, M. W., E-mail: mkepa@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}.

  4. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S K; Durán, C; Elvira, L

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10 −3 unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  5. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  6. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  7. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for imaging and measurements in a liquid Pb/Bi eutectic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Voleisis, Algirdas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Mazeika, Liudas; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Kupschus, Peter; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït

    2005-04-01

    In some nuclear reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS) the core is intended to be cooled by means of a heavy liquid metal, for example, lead-bismuth (Pb/Bi) eutectic alloy. For safety and licensing reasons, an imaging method of the interior of ADS, based on application of ultrasonic waves, has thus to be developed. This paper is devoted to description of developed various ultrasonic transducers suitable for long term imaging and measurements in the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. The results of comparative experimental investigations of the developed transducers of different designs in a liquid Pb/Bi alloy up to 450 degrees C are presented. Prototypes with different high temperature piezoelectric materials were investigated: PZT, bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) and aluminum nitride (A1N). For acoustic coupling with the metal alloy, it was proposed to coat the active surface of the transducers by diamond like carbon (DLC). The radiation robustness was assessed by exposing the transducers to high gamma dose rates in one of the irradiation facilities at SCK x CEN. The experimental results proved that the developed transducers are suitable for long-term operation in harsh conditions.

  8. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; McKeon, Peter, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa [Georgia Institute of Technology, UMI Georgia Tech - CNRS 2958, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation, 2 rue Marconi, 5070 Met-technopole (France); Slah, Yaacoubi [Institut de Soudure, 4 Bvd Henri Becquerel, Espace Cormontaigne, 57937 Yutz (France)

    2015-03-31

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. “Ultrasonic Imaging of materials” covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America’s and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD’s to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous

  9. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers for fingerprint sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yipeng

    Fingerprint identification is the most prevalent biometric technology due to its uniqueness, universality and convenience. Over the past two decades, a variety of physical mechanisms have been exploited to capture an electronic image of a human fingerprint. Among these, capacitive fingerprint sensors are the ones most widely used in consumer electronics because they are fabricated using conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology. However, capacitive fingerprint sensors are extremely sensitive to finger contamination and moisture. This thesis will introduce an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a PMUT array, which offers a potential solution to this problem. In addition, it has the potential to increase security, as it allows images to be collected at various depths beneath the epidermis, providing images of the sub-surface dermis layer and blood vessels. Firstly, PMUT sensitivity is maximized by optimizing the layer stack and electrode design, and the coupling coefficient is doubled via series transduction. Moreover, a broadband PMUT with 97% fractional bandwidth is achieved by utilizing a thinner structure excited at two adjacent mechanical vibration modes with overlapping bandwidth. In addition, we proposed waveguide PMUTs, which function to direct acoustic waves, confine acoustic energy, and provide mechanical protection for the PMUT array. Furthermore, PMUT arrays were fabricated with different processes to form the membrane, including front-side etching with a patterned sacrificial layer, front-side etching with additional anchor, cavity SOI wafers and eutectic bonding. Additionally, eutectic bonding allows the PMUT to be integrated with CMOS circuits. PMUTs were characterized in the mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Using transmit beamforming, a narrow acoustic beam was achieved, and high-resolution (sub-100 microm) and short-range (~1 mm) pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging was demonstrated using a steel

  10. Designing an in-situ ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system for ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Venkata K.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state layer by layer manufacturing process that utilizes vibration induced plastic deformation to form a metallurgical bond between a thin layer and an existing base structure. Due to the vibration based bonding mechanism, the quality of components at each layer depends on the geometry of the structure. In-situ monitoring during and between UAM manufacturing steps offers the potential for closed-loop control to optimize process parameters and to repair existing defects. One interface that is most prone to delamination is the base/build interface and often UAM component height and quality are limited by failure at the base/build interface. Low manufacturing temperatures and favorable orientation of typical interface defects in UAM make ultrasonic NDE an attractive candidate for online monitoring. Two approaches for in-situ NDE are discussed and the design of the monitoring system optimized so that the quality of UAM components is not affected by the addition of the NDE setup. Preliminary results from in-situ ultrasonic NDE indicate the potential to be utilized for online qualification, closed-loop control and offline certification of UAM components.

  11. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  12. Full-field ultrasonic inspection for a composite sandwich plate skin-core debonding detection using laser-based ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, See Yenn; Victor, Jared J.; Todd, Michael D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a full-field ultrasonic guided wave method is proposed to inspect a composite sandwich specimen made for an aircraft engine nacelle. The back skin/core interface of the specimen is built with two fabricated disbond defects (diameters of 12.7 mm and 25.4 mm) by removing areas of the adhesive used to bond the back skin to the core. A laser ultrasonic interrogation system (LUIS) incorporated with a disbond detection algorithm is developed. The system consists of a 1-kHz laser ultrasonic scanning system and a single fixed ultrasonic sensor to interrogate ultrasonic guided waves in the sandwich specimen. The interest area of 400 mm × 400 mm is scanned at a 0.5 mm scan interval. The corresponding full-field ultrasonic data is obtained and generated in the three-dimensional (3-D) space-time domain. Then, the 3-D full-field ultrasonic data is Fourier transformed and the ultrasonic frequency spectra are analyzed to determine the dominant frequency that is sensitive to the disbond defects. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is implemented as a single-frequency bandpass filter to filter the full-field ultrasonic data in the 3-D space-time domain at the selected dominant frequency. The LUIS has shown the ability to detect the disbond with diameters of 11 mm and 23 mm which match to the pre-determined disbond sizes well. For future research, a robust signal processing algorithm and a model-based matched filter will be investigated to make the detection process autonomous and improve detectability

  13. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  14. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  15. CERN Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford.

  16. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  17. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  20. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  1. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  2. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  3. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford

  4. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  5. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  6. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  7. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  8. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses microwave technology (similar to that used for radar) to accelerate electrons in a part of the accelerator called the "wave guide," then allows ... risk of accidental exposure is extremely low. top of page This page was ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  9. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  10. Optimization of accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  11. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  12. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  13. Molecular ion acceleration using tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In TIARA compound beam radiation system, cluster beams have been produced using 3 MV tandem accelerator (9SDH-2) to supply them to various radiation on injection experiments. Till now, productions of C{sub 2-8}, Si{sub 2-4} and O{sub 2} and their accelerations up to 6 MeV have been succeeded. This study aimed at production and acceleration of B{sub 2-4} and LiF. Anion clusters were produced using the conventional ion source of cesium sputter type. The proportions of atoms, molecules and clusters elicited from the ion source were varied depending on the material`s properties and the operating conditions of ion source such as sample temperature, sputter voltage and the shape of sample. The anion clusters were accelerated toward the high voltage terminal in the center of tandem accelerator, leading to cations through losing their electrons by the collision to N{sub 2} gas in a charge conversion cell at the terminal. Positively charged cluster ions could be obtained by modulating the pressure of N{sub 2} gas. Thus, B{sub 2} (64 nA), B{sub 3} (4.4 nA) and B{sub 4} (2.7 nA) have been produced and their maximum survival probabilities were higher than those of carbon or silicon clusters. In addition, the relationship between beam current and gas pressure was investigated for Bn (n = 2-4) and LiF. (M.N.)

  14. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  15. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  16. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  17. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  18. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-06-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by acoustic emission analysed by a 'Cavimeter' supplied by NPL. A node/antinode vibration pattern was observed, with the maximum displacement of each type of tip occurring at the free end. High levels of cavitation activity occurred in areas surrounding the vibration antinodes, although minimal levels were observed at the free end of the tip. There was also good correlation between vibration amplitude and sonochemiluminescence at other points along the scaler tip. 'Cavimeter' analysis correlated well with luminol observations, suggesting the presence of primarily transient cavitation.

  19. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce...... such transducer arrays, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is chosen for this project. Properties such as high bandwidth and high design flexibility makes this an attractive transducer technology, which is under continuous development in the research community. A theoretical...... treatment of CMUTs is presented, including investigations of the anisotropic plate behaviour and modal radiation patterns of such devices. Several new CMUT fabrication approaches are developed and investigated in terms of oxide quality and surface protrusions, culminating in a simple four-mask process...

  20. Limited aperture effects on ultrasonic image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, V.G.; Rose, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the inverse Born approximation the shape of a weak scatterer can be determined from a knowledge of the backscattered ultrasonic amplitude for all directions of incidence and all frequencies. Two questions are considered. First, what information on the scatterer shape is preserved and what is degraded if the scattering data are available only within a limited set of incident directions (limited aperture). This problem is addressed for a spherical weakly scattering uniform flaw. It is shown that the problem of a general uniform ellipsoidal flaw can be reduced to the spherical case by a scale transformation; however, the apertures in these two cases must be related by the same transformation. Second, limited aperture and finite bandwidth Born inversions were performed for strongly scattering flaws (voids and cracks) using numerically generated scattering amplitudes. These inversions were then compared with the weak scattering analytic results, which show many common features