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Sample records for sonication extraction method

  1. Determination of six phthalates in polypropylene consumer products by sonication-assisted extraction/ GC-MS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chong Kian; Fung, Loke Chui; Pang, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Studies on determination of six kinds of phthalates, for example dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), in three kinds of plastic containers for food use, including food container, instant noodle cup and snack container, by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in electronic ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method (GC-MS(EI-SIM)) have been carried out. Extraction, clean-up and analysis methods have been developed and optimized. Determination of samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with 1:9 toluene and dichloromethane, clean-up with Bio-Beads S-X8 gel-permeation column and analyzed by GC-MS methods. The characteristic ions, 163, 194 for DMP; 149, 177, 222 for DEP; 149, 233, 251 for DBP; 91, 149, 206 for BBP; 149, 176, 193 for DEHP; 149, 167, 279 for DNOP were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are possible to detect phthalates at the level of 1-70 mg/ kg. The overall recoveries were 79.2-91.1 % with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values at 3.1-11.3 %. Only DEHP was detected in the studied samples. (author)

  2. Defatting and Sonication Enhances Protein Extraction from Edible Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung Deug; Wong, Nathan A K; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are attracting growing interest as a sustainable source of protein for addition to processed meat and dairy products. The current study investigated the optimal method for protein extraction from mealworm larvae ( Tenebrio molitor ), cricket adults ( Gryllus bimaculatus ), and silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ), for use in further applications. After defatting with n-hexane for up to 48 h, sonication was applied for 1-20 min and the protein yield was measured. All samples showed a total residual fat percentage below 1.36%, and a 35% to 94% improvement in protein yield (%). In conclusion, defatting with n-hexane combined with sonication improves the protein yield from insect samples.

  3. Enhanced Harnessing of the Graviola Bioactive Components Using a Neoteric Sonication Cum Microwave Coadjuvant Extraction Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chul Chun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology gains paramount importance. In case of Graviola, no sophistication in terms of extraction methods is reported. A neoteric sonication cum microwave combined extraction technology was introduced that maximized the extraction process and minimized (7 min the extraction time. The extraction efficiency was validated based on the significant enrichment of bioactive ingredients in Graviola extracts following the sonication cum microwave combined protocol.

  4. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  5. Low frequency sonic waves assisted cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sivananth; Iyyaswami, Regupathi

    2017-08-15

    Low frequency sonic waves, less than 10kHz were introduced to assist cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator present within the crude broth. Process parameters including surfactant system variables and sonication parameters were studied for their effect on extraction efficiency. Introduction of low frequency sonic waves assists in the dissolution of microbial cell wall by the surfactant micelles and release of cellular content, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules released were encapsulated by the micelle core which was confirmed by crotonic acid assay. In addition, sonic waves resulted in the separation of homogeneous surfactant and broth mixture into two distinct phases, top aqueous phase and polyhydroxyalkanoate enriched bottom surfactant rich phase. Mixed surfactant systems showed higher extraction efficiency compared to that of individual Triton X-100 concentrations, owing to increase in the hydrophobicity of the micellar core and its interaction with polyhydroxyalkanoate. Addition of salts to the mixed surfactant system induces screening of charged surfactant head groups and reduces inter-micellar repulsion, presence of ammonium ions lead to electrostatic repulsion and weaker cation sodium enhances the formation of micellar network. Addition of polyethylene glycol 8000 resulted in increasing interaction with the surfactant tails of the micelle core there by reducing the purity of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  7. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  8. Comparison of three mycobacterial DNA extraction methods from extrapulmonary samples for PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker Shadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of the molecular diagnostic tests of extrapulmonary tuberculosis largely depends upon the efficiency of DNA extraction methods. The objective of our study was to compare three methods of extracting DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for testing by polymerase chain reaction. All three methods; heating, heating with sonication and addition of lysis buffer with heating and sonication were implicated on 20 extrapulmonary samples. PCR positivity was 2 (10%, 4 (20% and 7 (35% in the samples extracted by heating, heat+sonication and heat+sonication+lysis buffer method respectively. Of the extraction methods evaluated, maximum PCR positive results were achieved by combined heat, sonication and lysis buffer method which can be applied in routine clinical practice. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(1: 9-11

  9. A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.

    2012-04-01

    hydrodynamic forces during circulation - are disrupted only by sonication. We used this method to compare macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability of air-dried agricultural topsoils under conventional tillage developed from two contrasting parent material types and compared the results with an alternative sieve-based technique. The first soil from the Midlands of England (developed from sedimentary mudstone; mean soil organic carbon (SOC) 2.5%) contained a substantially larger amount of illite/smectite (I/S) minerals compared to the second from the Wensum catchment in eastern England (developed from sands and glacial deposits; mean SOC=1.7%). The latter soils are prone to large erosive losses of fine sediment. Both sets of samples had been stored air-dried for 6 months prior to aggregate analyses. The mean values of DR (n=10 repeated subsample analyses) for the Midlands soil was 178μm; mean DR (n=10 repeat subsample analyses) for the Wensum soil was 30μm. The large difference in DR is most likely due to differences in soil mineralogy. The coefficient of variation of mean DR for duplicate analyses of sub-samples from the two topsoil types is around 10%. The majority of this variation is likely to be related to the difference in composition of the sub-samples. A standard, aggregated material could be included in further analyses to determine the relative magnitude of sub-sampling and analytical variance for this measurement technique. We then used the technique to investigate whether - as previously observed - variations (range 1000 - 4000 mg kg-1) in the quantity of amorphous (oxalate extractable) iron oxyhydroxides in a variety of soil samples (n=30) from the Wensum area (range SOC 1 - 2%) could account for differences in aggregate stability of these samples.

  10. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  11. Pilot Test of a Novel Method for Assessing Community Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonjeff, Richard D.; Harris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A pilot test of a novel method for assessing residents annoyance to sonic booms was performed. During a two-week period, residents of the base housing area at Edwards Air Force Base provided data on their reactions to sonic booms using Smartphone-based interviews. Noise measurements were conducted at the same time. The report presents information about data collection methods and about test participants reactions to low-amplitude sonic booms. The latter information should not be viewed as definitive for several reasons. It may not be reliably generalized to the wider U.S. residential population (because it was not derived from a representative random sample) and the sample itself was not large.

  12. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  13. Evaluation of sonication treatment and buffer composition on rumen bacteria protein extraction and carboxymethylcellulase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauchner, Carlos A; Kozloski, Gilberto V; Farenzena, Roberta

    2013-05-01

    The methodological procedures for studying the fibrolytic activity of rumen bacteria are not clearly established. In this study the efficiency of sonication treatment and buffer composition (i.e. buffer varying in tonicity or pH) on the level of protein extraction from the residue of forage samples incubated in the rumen of a grazing steer and the effect of buffer composition or CaCl₂ concentration on the carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity of the released protein were evaluated. The amount of protein released from the residue of incubation was higher (P buffer pH (P buffer. Both linear and quadratic effects (P buffer pH on CMCase activity were significant, with CMCase activity being maximal at pH 5.4-6.1. CMCase activity was higher (P buffer solution that includes a calcium source. When pH is not a treatment factor, the buffer pH should be between 5.5 and 6. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Computer method to detect and correct cycle skipping on sonic logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but effective computer method has been developed to detect cycle skipping on sonic logs and to replace cycle skips with estimates of correct traveltimes. The method can be used to correct observed traveltime pairs from the transmitter to both receivers. The basis of the method is the linearity of a plot of theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the first receiver versus theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the second receiver. Theoretical traveltime pairs are calculated assuming that the sonic logging tool is centered in the borehole, that the borehole diameter is constant, that the borehole fluid velocity is constant, and that the formation is homogeneous. The plot is linear for the full range of possible formation-rock velocity. Plots of observed traveltime pairs from a sonic logging tool are also linear but have a large degree of scatter due to borehole rugosity, sharp boundaries exhibiting large velocity contrasts, and system measurement uncertainties. However, this scatter can be reduced to a level that is less than scatter due to cycle skipping, so that cycle skips may be detected and discarded or replaced with estimated values of traveltime. Advantages of the method are that it can be applied in real time, that it can be used with data collected by existing tools, that it only affects data that exhibit cycle skipping and leaves other data unchanged, and that a correction trace can be generated which shows where cycle skipping occurs and the amount of correction applied. The method has been successfully tested on sonic log data taken in two holes drilled at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

  15. Effects of rust in the crack face on crack detection based on Sonic-IR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harai, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Sakagami, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sonic-IR, which is based on the thermographic detection of the temperature rise due to frictional heating at the defect faces under ultrasonic excitation, has an advantage in the detection of closed and small defects. However, this method has a lot of nuclear factors relating to heat generation. In this study, effects of rust in the crack faces on the crack detection based on the sonic-IR method is experimentally investigated by using crack specimens. The heat generation by ultrasonic excitation was observed regularly during rust accelerated test using original device. The distribution of temperature change around the crack was changed with the progress of rust. This change in heat generation, it believed to be due to change in the contact state of the crack surface due to rust. As a result, it was found that heat generation by ultrasonic excitation is affected by rust in the crack faces. And it was also found that crack detection can be conducted by sonic-IR even if rust was generated in the crack faces. (author)

  16. Sonic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuki Tachibana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digital sound. In this paper, we extend the range of its applications to live performances with a new composition method for real-time audio watermarking. Sonic watermarking mixes the sound of the watermark signal and the host sound in the air to detect illegal music recordings recorded from auditoriums. We propose an audio watermarking algorithm for sonic watermarking that increases the magnitudes of the host signal only in segmented areas pseudorandomly chosen in the time-frequency plane. The result of a MUSHRA subjective listening test assesses the acoustic quality of the method in the range of “excellent quality.” The robustness is dependent on the type of music samples. For popular and orchestral music, a watermark can be stably detected from music samples that have been sonic-watermarked and then once compressed in an MPEG 1 layer 3 file.

  17. Influence of sonication process parameters to the state of liquid concentration of extracted rebaudioside A from Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana bertoni leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalbasit A. Gasmalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain Stevia extract of a better quality and quantity under influence of ultrasound technique. The chemical compositions, anti-nutritional factor and heavy metals of raw material were tested firstly in (w w−1 in our previous work. The extraction process was assisted by ultrasonication at power 360 W for 12 min using three different types of solvents (water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in different concentrations, that is, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% (v v−1 to optimize the extraction process. Stevia leaves extractions, analyzed by HPLC, indicated that isopropyl alcohol (60% v v−1 gave the highest rebaudioside A yield (35 g 100 g−1. This optimum concentration was used in the next set of experiments to optimize ultrasonic power and time. Optimum applied power and sonication time was found 18 min and 480 W, respectively. The extraction yield obtained under optimum process conditions for water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol were 32.79, 33.85 and 37.10 (g 100 g−1, respectively. Compared to classical methods like maceration and heat extraction, the utilization of ultrasound-assisted extraction proved to be a much simpler and efficient way to obtain rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

  18. Measurement of mechanical properties of metallic glass at elevated temperature using sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are fully amorphous multi-component alloys with homogeneous and isotropic structure down to the atomic scale. Some attractive attributes of bulk metallic glasses include high strength and hardness as well as excellent corrosion and wear resistance. However, there are few reports and limited understanding of their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We used a nondestructive sonic resonance method to measure the Young's modulus and Shear modulus of a bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, at elevated temperatures. The measurement system was designed using a laser displacement sensor to detect the sonic vibration produced by a speaker on the specimen in high-temperature furnace. The OMICRON Bode-100 Vector Network Analyzer was used to sweep the frequency and its output was connected to the speaker which vibrated the material in its flexural mode and torsional modes. A Polytec OFV-505 laser vibrometer sensor was used to capture the vibration of the material at various frequencies. The flexural and torsional mode frequency shift due to the temperature variation was used to determine the Young's modulus and Shear modulus. The temperature range of measurement was from 50°C to 350°C. The Young's modulus was found to reduce from 100GPa to 94GPa for the 300°C temperature span. Similarly, the Shear modulus decreased from 38.5GPa at 50°C to 36GPa at 350°C.

  19. Phase I ResonantSonic CRADA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterich, L.R.; Amos, L.O.; Fancher, J.D.; McLellan, G.W.; Setzer, W.V.; Tuttle, B.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Ferris, R.H.; Riechers, D.M.; Pitman, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    This test report describes the Phase 1 testing and results of the ResonantSonic drilling method. This effort was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Hanford Company and Water Development Corporation. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate the Water Development Corporation's ResonantSonic drilling system, modify components as necessary and determine compatible drilling applications for the ResonantSonic drilling method for use at facilities in the DOE complex and private industry. Initially, the ResonantSonic drill was used to drill several test holes at the Drilling Technology Test Site to assess the feasibility of drilling vertical and angle holes. After this initial phase, a 45 degree angle vapor extraction well was drilled to a depth of 168 feet at the 200 West Carbon Tetrachloride Site. This well was drilled and completed in nine days. Extensive geologic and vapor sampling were conducted while drilling this well. In addition, testing was also conducted at the test site to evaluated drilling with larger diameter casing (8 5/8 inch). Evaluation of the Resonant Sonic drilling method will be continued during the Phase 2 portion of testing to determine if improvements to the ResonantSonic system will make it a more viable method for drilling and sampling

  20. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  1. Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) challenges these prevalent approaches by considering sound as an active medium that can enable novel sensory and social experiences through interactive technologies. This book offers an overview of the emerging SID research, discussing theories, methods, and practices, with a focus on the multisensory......Sound is an integral part of every user experience but a neglected medium in design disciplines. Design of an artifact’s sonic qualities is often limited to the shaping of functional, representational, and signaling roles of sound. The interdisciplinary field of sonic interaction design (SID...... aspects of sonic experience. Sonic Interaction Design gathers contributions from scholars, artists, and designers working at the intersections of fields ranging from electronic music to cognitive science. They offer both theoretical considerations of key themes and case studies of products and systems...

  2. EXTRACTION OF SEDIMENT-BOUND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: IMPLICATIONS ON FATE AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT. (R825513C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five methods were used for the extraction of hexachlorobutadiene and chlorobenzenes from a contaminated estuarine sediment. The following extraction methods were used: Soxhlet extraction, sonication and solvent extraction, sequential solvent extraction, saponification and solv...

  3. Novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid-solid phase micro-extraction membrane for the preconcentration of aniline as degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-Qing; Du, Chun-Hui; Ma, Xu-Ming; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-07-04

    A novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid membrane containing a hydrophilic bromide anion and a hydrophobic carbonyl group was synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) systems using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (BVImBr) and the methylmethacrylate (MMA) as monomers. The prepared amphiphilic ploy-methylmethacrylate-1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (MMA-BVImBr) was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and an infrared spectrum instrument. The results of solid-phase micro-extraction membrane (SPMM) experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of membrane was about 0.76μgμg(-1) for aniline. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of trace aniline, as a degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication, was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The calibration curve showed a good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 10.0μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9998. The limit of quantification was 0.5μgL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 90.6% to 96.1%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 8.3% and 10.9%. The developed SPMM-LC-MS/MS method was used successfully for preconcentration of trace aniline produced during the sonication of Orange G solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  5. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  6. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  7. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  8. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  9. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2011-07-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Muga, Ignacio; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Calo, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Provision of micro-nano bacterial cellulose as bio plastic filler by sonication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam; Rahmad, D.; Yunizurwan; Kasim, A.; Novelina; Emriadi

    2017-07-01

    Research and development of bioplastic has increased recently as a solution for substitution of conventional plastic which have many negative impacts to environment. However, physical properties and mechanical properties of its still lower than conventional plastic. An alternative solution for that problem is by using fillers that can increase the strength. Bacterial cellulose is considered as potential source for filler, but still need to be explored more. The privileges of bacterial cellulose are easy to get and does not have lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses which are impurities in other celluloses. This research focused on gaining bacterial cellulose in micro-nano particle form and its impact on increasing the strength of bio plastic. Ultrasonication has been used as method to form micro-nano particle from bacterial cellulose. The result showed this method may form the particle size of bacterial cellulose approximately ± 3μm. Next step, after getting ± 3μm particle of bacterial cellulose, is making bio plastic with casting method by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, from the total material in making bio plastic. Physical characteristic of the bio plastic which are tensile strength 11.85 MPa, modulus young 3.13 MPa, elongation 4.11% and density 0.42 g/cm3. The numbers of physical properties showwthat, by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, the strength of bio plastic was significantly increase, even value of tensile strength has complied the international standard for bio plastic.

  12. Art and Sonic Mining in the Archives: Methods for Investigating the Wartime History of Birmingham School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sian

    2018-01-01

    "Absconditi Viscus" (or "Hidden Entries") is a series of sound compositions based on the history of Birmingham School of Art during the First World War. Sound artist Justin Wiggan explored the concept of historical sonic information that although lost could still potentially permeate the archival record and the fabric of the…

  13. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  14. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  15. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  16. Comparison of ASE and SFE with Soxhlet, Sonication, and Methanolic Saponification Extractions for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Marine Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemken, O P; Theobald, N; Wenclawiak, B W

    1997-06-01

    The methods of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons from marine samples were investigated. The results of extractions of a certified sediment and four samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were compared to classical Soxhlet (SOX), ultrasonication (USE), and methanolic saponification extraction (MSE) methods. The recovery data, including precision and systematic deviations of each method, were evaluated statistically. It was found that recoveries and precision of ASE and SFE compared well with the other methods investigated. Using SFE, the average recoveries of PAHs in three different samples ranged from 96 to 105%, for ASE the recoveries were in the range of 97-108% compared to the reference methods. Compared to the certified values of sediment HS-6, the average recoveries of SFE and ASE were 87 and 88%, most compounds being within the limits of confidence. Also, for alkanes the average recoveries by SFE and ASE were equal to the results obtained by SOX, USE, and MSE. In the case of SFE, the recoveries were in the range 93-115%, and ASE achieved recoveries of 94-107% as compared to the other methods. For ASE and SFE, the influence of water on the extraction efficiency was examined. While the natural water content of the SPM sample (56 wt %) led to insufficient recoveries in ASE and SFE, quantitative extractions were achieved in SFE after addition of anhydrous sodium sulfate to the sample. Finally, ASE was applied to SPM-loaded filter candles whereby a mixture of n-hexane/acetone as extraction solvent allowed the simultaneous determination of PAHs, alkanes, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  17. Dispersion characteristics of negative refraction sonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.-Y.; Chen, L.-W.; Wang, R.C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Dispersion characteristics of negative refraction sonic crystals are investigated. The plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the equifrequency surface; the dependences of refractive direction on frequencies and incident angles for triangular lattices are shown. There exist the positive and negative refractive waves which include k.V g ≥0 and k.V g ≤0 in the second band for the triangular system. We also use the finite element method to demonstrate that the relative intensity of the transmitted acoustic waves is dependent on incident frequencies and angles. The positions of the partial band gaps obtained by the plane wave expansion method are in good agreement with those obtained by the finite element method. The sonic crystals with negative effective index are shown to have higher transmission intensities. By using the negative refraction behavior, we can design a sonic crystal plane lens to focus a sonic wave

  18. Improvement of soybean transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens methods involving α-aminooxyacetic acid and sonication treatments enlightened by gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Min; Liu, Zi-Hui; Yang, Rui-Juan; Li, Guo-Liang; Guo, Xiu-Lin; Zhang, Hua-Ning; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Di, Rui; Zhao, Qing-Song; Zhang, Meng-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Antagonists and sonication treatment relieved the structural barriers of Agrobacterium entering into cells; hindered signal perception and transmission; alleviated defense responses and increased cell susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Soybean gene expression analysis was performed to elucidate the general response of soybean plant to Agrobacterium at an early stage of infection. Agrobacterium infection stimulated the PAMPs-triggered immunity (BRI1, BAK1, BZR1, FLS2 and EFR) and effector-triggered immunity (RPM1, RPS2, RPS5, RIN4, and PBS1); up-regulated the transcript factors (WRKY25, WRKY29, MEKK1P, MKK4/5P and MYC2) in MAPK pathway; strengthened the biosynthesis of flavonoid and isoflavonoid in the second metabolism; finally led to a fierce defense response of soybean to Agrobacterium infection and thereby lower transformation efficiency. To overcome it, antagonist α-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and sonication treatment along with Agrobacterium infection were applied. This novel method dramatically decreased the expression of genes coding for F3'H, HCT, β-glucosidase and IF7GT, etc., which are important for isoflavone biosynthesis or the interconversion of aglycones and glycon; genes coding for peroxidase, FLS2, PBS1 and transcription factor MYC2, etc., which are important components in plant-pathogen interaction; and genes coding for GPAT and α-L-fucosidase, which are important in polyesters formation in cell membrane and the degradation of fucose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids on the external surface of cell membrane, respectively. This analysis implied that AOA and sonication treatment not only relieved the structural membrane barriers of Agrobacterium entering into cells, but also hindered the perception of 'invasion' signal on cell membrane and intercellular signal transmission, thus effectively alleviated the defense responses and increased the cell susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. All these factors benefit the transformation

  19. Improved solid-phase extraction method for systematic toxicological analysis in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, T; Jurado, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    2001-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse (opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines) and prescribed drugs (tricyclic antidepressants, phenotiazines, benzodiazepines, etc.) in biological fluids--blood, urine, bile, and gastric contents--was developed. This procedure involves solid-phase extraction with Bond-Elut Certify columns followed by analysis by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after derivatization, when necessary. Pretreatment was performed on all samples: sonication for 15 min plus enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase in urine. With respect to the internal standards, nalorphine and trihexylamine were used for basic substances, allobarbital for acidic drugs, and prazepam for benzodiazepines. Acidic and basic compounds were extracted from different aliquots of samples at different pH levels: 6-6.5 for the acidic and neutral and 8-8.5 for the basic and the benzodiazepines. Several areas of experimental design were considered in the process of method optimization. These included internal standards, pH, sonication, flow rate and washing solvents. It was found that systematic analysis could be reliably performed using optimized extraction conditions. The recovery rates for the compounds tested were always higher than 61.02%.

  20. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  1. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  2. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its ... The extensive use of this insecticide poses a serious risk to both the environment and the human ... is the second most widely detected insecticide in the environmental samples ...

  3. Are stirring and sonication pre-dispersion methods equivalent for in vitro toxicology evaluation of SiC and TiC?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Jorge; Valembois, Vanessa; Piret, Jean-Pascal; Tichelaar, Frans; Huis, Marijn van; Masereel, Bernard; Toussaint, Olivier; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb; Lucas, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the particle size distribution and the surface composition of silicon carbide and titanium carbide nanoparticle (NP) dispersions were studied. The pre-dispersions were prepared using two commonly used protocols for dispersion: stirring and sonication. Two dispersants were investigated (water and Pluronic F108 1 %) at two stages: pre-dispersion and during in vitro assays. Our data show that for each tested condition, different time-dependent results for the surface chemical composition as well as size and percentage of the agglomerates and the primary particles are observed. De-agglomeration and successive or simultaneous cleaning-wrapping cycles of the nanomaterial are observed and are related to the dispersion method and the medium as well as to the chemical stability of the NP surface. Biological response during in vitro assessment was also performed for one given pre-dispersion time condition and demonstrates that the preparation method significantly alters the results.

  4. Are stirring and sonication pre-dispersion methods equivalent for in vitro toxicology evaluation of SiC and TiC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.mejiamendoza@fundp.ac.be; Valembois, Vanessa [University of Namur-FUNDP, Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (LARN-PMR), NARILIS (Belgium); Piret, Jean-Pascal [University of Namur-FUNDP, Research Unit in Cellular Biology (URBC), NARILIS (Belgium); Tichelaar, Frans; Huis, Marijn van [Delft University of Technology, National Centre for HRTEM, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience (Netherlands); Masereel, Bernard [University of Namur-FUNDP, Department of Pharmacy NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC) (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [University of Namur-FUNDP, Research Unit in Cellular Biology (URBC), NARILIS (Belgium); Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb [University of Namur-FUNDP, Laboratory of Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Surfaces-CES (Belgium); Lucas, Stephane [University of Namur-FUNDP, Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (LARN-PMR), NARILIS (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    The evolution of the particle size distribution and the surface composition of silicon carbide and titanium carbide nanoparticle (NP) dispersions were studied. The pre-dispersions were prepared using two commonly used protocols for dispersion: stirring and sonication. Two dispersants were investigated (water and Pluronic F108 1 %) at two stages: pre-dispersion and during in vitro assays. Our data show that for each tested condition, different time-dependent results for the surface chemical composition as well as size and percentage of the agglomerates and the primary particles are observed. De-agglomeration and successive or simultaneous cleaning-wrapping cycles of the nanomaterial are observed and are related to the dispersion method and the medium as well as to the chemical stability of the NP surface. Biological response during in vitro assessment was also performed for one given pre-dispersion time condition and demonstrates that the preparation method significantly alters the results.

  5. Methods for determination of extractable complex composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergievskij, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Specific features and restrictions of main methods for determining the extractable complex composition by the distribution data (methods of equilibrium shift, saturation, mathematical models) are considered. Special attention is given to the solution of inverse problems with account for hydration effect on the activity of organic phase components. By example of the systems lithium halides-isoamyl alcohol, thorium nitrate-n-hexyl alcohol, mineral acids tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), metal nitrates (uranium lanthanides) - TBP the results on determining stoichiometry of extraction equilibria obtained by various methods are compared

  6. Production of branched tetraether lipids in the lower Pearl River and estuary: effects of extraction methods and impact on bGDGT proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlun eZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are known as bacterial lipids that occur widely in terrestrial environments, particularly in anaerobic peat bogs and soil. We examined the abundance and distribution of bGDGTs in both core (C and polar (P lipid fractions from the water column and surface sediments in the lower Pearl River (PR and its estuary using two extraction methods (sonication vs. Bligh and Dyer. A number of soil samples in the lower PR drainage basin were also collected and extracted for bGDGTs using the sonication method. The results showed aquatic production of bGDGTs as supported by substantial abundances of P-bGDGTs in the water column and sediment samples. The bGDGT-based proxies (BIT, CBT, and MBT were not affected by the method of extraction when C-bGDGTs were analyzed; in such case, the pHCBT of the sediments reflected the soil pH of the lower PR drainage basin, and the temperature close to the annual mean air temperature in the lower PR basin. On the other hand, the P-bGDGT-derived proxies were inconsistent between the two methods. The P-bGDGTs (particularly those extracted using the sonication method may not be reliable indicators of annual mean air temperatures.

  7. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  8. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE FACE EXTRACTION METHOD FOR MOBILE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Borodin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The problem of automatic face recognition on images is considered. The method of face ellipse extraction from photo and methods for face special points extraction are proposed /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  10. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  11. A Simple and Efficient RNA Extraction Method from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hisashi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Miho; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2017-12-27

    RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals. This decrease in RNA was prevented by the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), salmon sperm DNA, and NaOH. The addition of STPP was also effective for RNA extraction from the mixture of E. coli cells and mock chimney minerals when TRIzol reagent and the RNeasy column were used, but not when the RNeasy PowerSoil total RNA kit was used. A combination of STPP, TRIzol reagent, the RNeasy column, and sonication resulted in the highest RNA yield from a natural chimney. This indirect extraction procedure is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may be used for large-scale RNA extraction.

  12. Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

    2013-12-03

    A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 μL aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 μM, linear from 1 to 40 μM, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to

  13. Influence of extraction methods on the hepatotoxicity of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of extraction methods: Cold aqueous (CA) hot aqueous (HA) and alcoholic extraction (AE) methods on the hepatotoxic effect of Azadirachta indica bark extract (ABC) was investigated using albino rats. A total of forty eight rats were divided into three groups of sixteen rats equally for the extraction methods.

  14. A comparison of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two physical methods (centrifugation and ultrasonication) and 3 chemical methods (extraction with EDTA, extraction with formaldehyde, and extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH) for extraction of EPS from alga-bacteria biofilm were assessed. Pretreatment with ultrasound at low intensity doubled the EPS yield without ...

  15. Development of method of optimized flavor production systems design based on nano-emulsification Kawista (Feronia limonia) Fruit extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, A.; Noor, E.; Fahma, F.; Rusli, M. S.; Djatna, T.

    2018-01-01

    ‘Kawista’ (Feronia limonia) as a tropical fruit has unique flavor that can be applied as a flavor for food products. Flavor as volatile components are unstable by environment factors such as temperature and storage. Flavor nano emulsification form to improve the stability towards environment and increase its use in food products. Research carried out is system development of the nano emulsification Kawista extract flavor with sonication method. The best treatments are selected by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for independent variable are amplitude (70-100%), time (90-150s) and temperature (5-45°C) controlled by the software of the device. The Flavor Extraction by maceration technique extended highest yield and flavor components. Nano-emulsions made with composition 1% (w/w) flavor extract, 2% (w/w) surfactant (tween 80), 0.25% Gum, and 96.75% (w/w) deionized water. The probe of sonication successfully for preparing stable O/W nano emulsions at amplitude, time and temperature 81.01%, 150s, 45°C, respectively. Characteristic of nano-emulsions i.e energy input (15.489J), viscosity (2.076 mPa.s), droplet size (13.446nm), and Polydispersity index (0.469).

  16. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  17. A validated solid-liquid extraction method for the HPLC determination of polyphenols in apple tissues Comparison with pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Corta, Edurne; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2005-02-15

    A solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD) for the determination of polyphenols in freeze-dried apple peel and pulp is reported. The extraction step consists in sonicating 0.5g of freeze-dried apple tissue with 30mL of methanol-water-acetic acid (30:69:1, v/v/v) containing 2g of ascorbic acid/L, for 10min in an ultrasonic bath. The whole method was validated, concluding that it is a robust method that presents high extraction efficiencies (peel: >91%, pulp: >95%) and appropriate precisions (within day: R.S.D. (n = 5) <5%, and between days: R.S.D. (n = 5) <7%) at the different concentration levels of polyphenols that can be found in apple samples. The method was compared with one previously published, consisting in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by RP-HPLC-DAD determination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed.

  18. Paper mechanisms for sonic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle Monache, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Qi, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Introducing continuous sonic interaction in augmented pop-up books enhances the expressive and performative qualities of movables, making the whole narrative experience more engaging and personal. The SaMPL Spring School on Sounding Popables explored the specific topic of paper-driven sonic...

  19. Morphology and crystallinity of sisal nanocellulose after sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosiati, H.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Triyana, K.; Kamiel, B.

    2017-09-01

    Different preparation methods on the natural fibers resulted in different morphology. However, the relationships between type of natural fibers, preparation methods and the morphology of produced nanocellulose could not be exactly defined. The sisal nanocellulose was presently prepared by alkalization and bleaching followed by sonication to verify changes in the morphology and crystallinity of nanocellulose related to the formation mechanism. The extracted microcellulose was subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The isolated cellulose nanospheres were examined with respect to morphology by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, to crystallinity by electron diffraction analysis. Bleaching after alkalization made the microfibrils clearly separated from each other to the individual fiber whose width of the single fiber was ranging from 6 to 13 µm. The XRD crystallinity index (CI) of microcellulose gradually increased after the chemical treatments; 83.12% for raw sisal fiber, 88.57% for alkali treated fiber and 94.03% for bleached fibers. The ultrasonic agitation after bleaching that was carried out at 750 Watt, 20 kHz and amplitude of 39% for 2 h produces homogeneous cellulose nanospheres less than 50 nm in diameter with relatively low crystallinity. The electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the low crystallinity of produced nnocellulose is related to the effect of chemical treatment done before sonication.

  20. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  1. Development of the extraction method for the simultaneous determination of butyl-, phenyl- and octyltin compounds in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Lespes, Gaetane; Milacic, Radmila; Scancar, Janez

    2010-03-15

    The toxicity and bioaccumulation of organotin compounds (OTCs) led to the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for their determination. In the past much attention was assigned to the study of OTCs in biological samples, water and sediments, coming mostly from marine environment. Little information about OTCs pollution of terrestrial ecosystems is available. In order to optimise the extraction method for simultaneous determination of butyl-, phenyl- and octyltin compounds in sewage sludge five different extractants (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, HCl in methanol, glacial acetic acid, mixture of acetic acid and methanol (3:1), and mixture of acetic acid, methanol and water (1:1:1)), the presence or not of a complexing agent (tropolone), and the use of different modes of extraction (mechanical stirring, microwave and ultrasonic assisted extraction) were tested. Extracted OTCs were derivatised with sodium tetraethylborate and determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Quantitative extraction of butyl-, phenyl- and octyltin compounds was obtained by the use of glacial acetic acid as extractant and mechanical stirring for 16h or sonication for 30 min. The limits of detection and quantification for OTCs investigated in sewage sludge were in the ng S ng(-1) range. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. State of the art of sonic boom modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on fundamental theory developed through the 1950s and 1960s, sonic boom modeling has evolved into practical tools. Over the past decade, there have been requirements for design tools for an advanced supersonic transport, and for tools for environmental assessment of various military and aerospace activities. This has resulted in a number of advances in the understanding of the physics of sonic booms, including shock wave rise times, propagation through turbulence, and blending sonic boom theory with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic design methods. This article reviews the early fundamental theory, recent advances in theory, and the application of these advances to practical models.

  3. The sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the sonic borehole tool. First a review of the various elastic wave types is given and velocity values of compressional waves in various materials listed. Next follows a discussion of 3 models for the relation between transit time and porosity, and a comparison between the 3 models is made. The design of sonic tools is described including their geometry. The path of the sonic signals is discussed. Also the effect of environmental factors on the results of the tools are considered. Finally a number of applications are described. In two appendices the mechanics of deformable bodies and formulas for the velocity of sound are reviewed. (author)

  4. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... and or enzymatic lysis for direct or indirect extraction of. DNA followed by ... strength wastewater sludge in order to determine the best. DNA extraction protocol ... Ammonium acetate purification method was used to remove the.

  5. System and method for free-boundary surface extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2017-10-26

    A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.

  6. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da; Mendonca, B.B. de; Nicolau, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  7. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  8. The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system and equipment for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyska, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system has been worked out. The equipment designed for that process has been also subject of the patent. The interesting component is extracted first to intermediate phase consists of magnetic solvent keeping two extracting phases separately. The intermediate magnetic liquid has been kept in its position using a stable magnet maintained on the surface of the extraction vessel. Then the component pass from intermediate phase to the third phase as a result of back extraction. Mixing in the extraction and back extraction zones is organized by means of rotating shaft going along the whole apparatus. The extraction and back extraction processes occur simultaneously as a result of continuous flow of solvent in their zones. The single extraction back extraction facilities can be joined in larger batteries. 3 figs

  9. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  10. Social network extraction based on Web: 1. Related superficial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Matyuso Nasution, Mahyuddin

    2018-01-01

    Often the nature of something affects methods to resolve the related issues about it. Likewise, methods to extract social networks from the Web, but involve the structured data types differently. This paper reveals several methods of social network extraction from the same sources that is Web: the basic superficial method, the underlying superficial method, the description superficial method, and the related superficial methods. In complexity we derive the inequalities between methods and so are their computations. In this case, we find that different results from the same tools make the difference from the more complex to the simpler: Extraction of social network by involving co-occurrence is more complex than using occurrences.

  11. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, D

    2001-01-01

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  12. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  13. Evaluation of urinary excretion of cortisol by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da.

    1992-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of urinary cortisol extracted by organic solvent (free cortisol) has been used for along time in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. With the development of more specific antisera it became possible to measure urinary cortisol without extracting it. The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It was used Gamma Coat 125 I - cortisol kit provided by Clinical Assay, Incstar, US, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98,1%, for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively). A positive correlation between the two methods was noticed in all groups studied (p < 0.05). It was concluded that both methods are efficient for the investigation of hypercortisolism. However, it's suggested that non-extracted urinary cortisol measurement should be the method of choice since it's an easy-to-perform and affordable method to diagnose Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  14. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  15. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  16. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  17. Effect of mucin extraction method on some properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of mucin extraction method on some properties of metronidazole mucoadhesive loaded patches. MI Arhewoh, SO Eraga, PF Builders, MA Ibobiri. Abstract. To evaluate the effects of mucin extraction method and plasticizer concentration on the bioadhesive strength and metronidazole release profile from mucin-based ...

  18. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)

  19. Method of extracting tritium from heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Yusa, Hideo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To extract tritium in heavy water by combining isotope exchange reaction with liquefaction distillation to increase the concentration of recovered tritium, thereby reducing the quantity of radioactive wastes recovered. Constitution: Heavy water containing tritium from a reactor is introduced into a tritium separator through a conduit pipe. On the other hand, a D 2 gas is introduced through the conduit pipe in the lower part of a tritium separator to transfer tritium into D 2 gas by isotope exchange. The D 2 gas containing DT is introduced into a liquefaction distillation tower together with an outlet gas of a converter supplied through a pipeline. The converter is filled with net-like metals of platinum group such as Pt, Ni, Pd and the like, and the D 2 gas affluent in DT, extracted from the distillation tower is converted into D 2 and T 2 . The gas which has been introduced into the liquefaction distillation tower is liquefied. The D 2 gas of low boiling point components reaches the tower top, and the T 2 gas of high boiling point components is concentrated at the tower bottom, and is rendered into tritium water in a recoupler and stored in a water storage apparatus. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  1. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  2. Impact of different extraction methods on the quality of Dipteryx alata extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Martins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to impact of different extraction methods on the quality of Dipteryx alata Vogel, Fabaceae, extracts from fruits. The major compounds found were the lipids 38.9% (w/w and proteins 26.20% (w/w. The residual moisture was 7.20% (w/w, total fiber 14.50% (w/w, minerals 4.10% (w/w and carbohydrate 9.10 % (w/w. The species studied has great potential in producing oil, but the content and type of fatty acids obtained is dependent on the method of extraction. The Blingh & Dyer method was more selective for unsaturated fatty acids and Shoxlet method was more selective for saturated fatty acids. The tannin extraction by ultrasound (33.70 % w/w was 13.90% more efficient than extraction by decoction (29 % w/w.

  3. Effect of sonic agitation, manual dynamic agitation on removal of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare manual dynamic agitation with sonic agitation on removal of intra radicular Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis biofilm. Material and Methods: Extracted mandibular premolars for orthodontic purpose were sectioned at cervical level and divided into three groups (n = 30. The root canals were instrumented using Protaper rotary instruments up to apical file F4. Roots were sterilized and E. faecalis bacteria were incubated within their root canal space for four weeks. Confirmation of biofilm was done using scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining. All groups were irrigated with side vented needle by using three percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl for 60 seconds. Two experimental groups were agitated with manual dynamic agitation (with master gutta-percha cone and sonic agitation (EndoActivator. Remaining bacteria were collected using sterile paper point, which were incubated inside brain-heart infusion (BHI broth to check turbidity. The turbid broth was streaked on blood agar plate for colony counts. Result: Both experimental groups showed highly significant difference in their mean colony count when compared with control group; with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Passive sonic agitation with EndoActivator has proven to be the best irrigating system followed by manual dynamic agitation and conventional needle irrigation.

  4. Method of extraction under pressure of fossil material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenmark, G L

    1942-02-24

    A method is described of extraction under pressure of fossil material, such as coal, brown coal (lignite), peat, oil shale. It is characterized by carrying out the process of extraction by utilization of fractions of shale oils and/or peat tar with a boiling point above 170/sup 0/C and under such as pressure that the medium of extraction is in a liquid state.

  5. Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moddel, Garret

    2009-01-01

    In research articles and patents several methods have been proposed for the extraction of zero-point energy from the vacuum. None has been reliably demonstrated, but the proposals remain largely unchallenged. In this paper the feasibility of these methods is assessed in terms of underlying thermodynamics principles of equilibrium, detailed balance, and conservation laws. The methods are separated into three classes: nonlinear processing of the zero-point field, mechanical extraction using Cas...

  6. Development of an extraction method for perchlorate in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Jaclyn E; Patel, Rashila; Tian, Kang; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-03-01

    Perchlorate originates as a contaminant in the environment from its use in solid rocket fuels and munitions. The current US EPA methods for perchlorate determination via ion chromatography using conductivity detection do not include recommendations for the extraction of perchlorate from soil. This study evaluated and identified appropriate conditions for the extraction of perchlorate from clay loam, loamy sand, and sandy soils. Based on the results of this evaluation, soils should be extracted in a dry, ground (mortar and pestle) state with Milli-Q water in a 1 ratio 1 soil ratio water ratio and diluted no more than 5-fold before analysis. When sandy soils were extracted in this manner, the calculated method detection limit was 3.5 microg kg(-1). The findings of this study have aided in the establishment of a standardized extraction method for perchlorate in soil.

  7. Effects of Extraction Method on the Physicochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of improved method of extraction on the physicochemical, mycological and stability of crude Canarium Schweinfurthii fruit oil were studied. The extracted oils were then stored at 25±5oC for 24 months with samples analyzed at 6months interval for; pH, saponification value, acid value, peroxide value and iodine ...

  8. Comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for proteomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient protein extraction method is a prerequisite for successful implementation of proteomics. In this study, seedling roots of Jerusalem artichoke were treated with the concentration of 250 mM NaCl for 36 h. Subsequently, six different protocols of protein extraction were applied to seedling roots of Jerusalem artichoke ...

  9. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  10. Sonic journeys with the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media and the meta...

  11. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  12. Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of ?Maollahm?

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghpoor, Omid; Dayeni, Manijeh; Razi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maollahm or meat juice, a by-product of meat, is a traditional remedy in Persian medicine. This product was used as a nourishment or treatment substance for sick people. According to the ancient Persian medicine, animal meat has more affinity with the human body and the body easily absorbs its nutrition. Therefore, one could resort to maollahm for patients requiring urgent nourishment to boost and strengthen their body. Methods: In this work, different ways of preparing maollahm f...

  13. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA...

  14. Comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for proteomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... An efficient protein extraction method is a prerequisite for successful implementation of proteomics. ... research, it is noteworthy to discover a proteome ..... Proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds during germination.

  15. effects of extraction method on the physicochemical and mycological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Canarium Schweinfurthii fruit oil obtained by the improved method of extraction had better quality and stability ... application due to the believe that it enhances the oil flavours, also the fruit ..... starters on coconut oil recovery. Proceeding.

  16. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Applied Science, 3Police Forensic Science Center 10, Yala 95000, 4Natural ... Purpose: To develop a solid phase extraction (SPE) method that utilizes reverse-phase high.

  17. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead.

  18. Effect of extraction method and orientin content on radio-protective effect of tulsi extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Mrinalini; Dwarakanath, B. S.; Agrawala, Paban K., E-mail: pkagrawal@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Murugan, R.; Parimelazhagan, T. [Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Uma Devi, P. [ARA-B-3SA, Plavilakonam,Trivandrum (India); Gota, V.; Sarin, R. K. [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Navi Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Extract of tulsi leaves (Ocimum sanctum) has been reported for its radioprotective efficacy. In our initial studies we observed significant variation in the survival of irradiated mice with different batches of tulsi extracts and therefore we employed different extraction methods on leaves collected during various seasons from different localities to study any variation in the radioprotective efficacy. Orientin, a component of tulsi extract, was considered a marker. Mice whole body survival (at 10 Gy lethal whole body irradiation) study and day 11 endo-CFU-s assay (at 5 Gy WBI) were performed employing 3 treatment schedules, 50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg b.w (single injection, 30 min irradiation), and 10 mg/kgb.w (one injection per day for 5 day, last injection being 30 min before irradiation). Single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w (both aqueous and alcoholic) did not provide any significant survival benefit. The orientin concentrations in the extracts tested varied from 3.3 to 9.91 mg/g extract as studied by HPLC method. With a single administration (i.p) of 50 mg/kg, the aqueous extract from leaves of monsoon season had an orientin content of 9.91 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 60% with a CFU-s count of 37, while extract of leaf summer leaves had an orientin content of 4.15 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 11.6. At the same dose (50 mg/kg), the aqueous extract from the winter season had an orientin content of 3.30 mg/g extract and gave 25% survival with a CFU-s count of 19, while the ethanolic extract had an orientin content of 7.70 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 13. These observations suggest that different climatic factors, orientin content and the doses of administration are important factors regulating radioprotection afforded by different extracts of tulsi. (author)

  19. Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of "Maollahm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghpoor, Omid; Dayeni, Manijeh; Razi, Samane

    2016-05-01

    Maollahm or meat juice, a by-product of meat, is a traditional remedy in Persian medicine. This product was used as a nourishment or treatment substance for sick people. According to the ancient Persian medicine, animal meat has more affinity with the human body and the body easily absorbs its nutrition. Therefore, one could resort to maollahm for patients requiring urgent nourishment to boost and strengthen their body. In this work, different ways of preparing maollahm from poultry, goat, cow, and sheep meat are studied. Most of these methods are based on distillation or barbecue before distillation, as prescribed by traditional medicine books. The reactions, chemical processes, and volatile compounds related to different types of cooked meat are also compared with the outcome of recent research studies. The difference between various types of meat is related to their compounds. Different cooking processes such as barbecuing, roasting, cooking, and boiling have an effect on the taste, smell and the chemical constituents of maollahm. Additionally, the type of meat, animal feed, as well as using or removing the fat during the cooking process, have an effect on the produced volatile compounds. Cooking process and the type of meat have a direct effect on the compounds of maollahm. Possible reactions in the preparation process of maollahm are investigated and presented according to the new research studies.

  20. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  1. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de, P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on agar plates and extracted DNA from mycelium mats after manual or electric homogenization. High-quality DNA was isolated, with an A260/A280 ratio ranging between 1.6 and 2.0. Isolated genomic DNA w...

  2. The detectability of cracks using sonic IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidini, Marco; Cawley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to study the detectability of fatigue cracks in metals using sonic IR (also known as thermosonics). The method relies on the validation of simple finite-element thermal models of the cracks and specimens in which the thermal loads have been defined by means of a priori measurement of the additional damping introduced in the specimens by each crack. This estimate of crack damping is used in conjunction with a local measurement of the vibration strain during ultrasonic excitation to retrieve the power released at the crack; these functions are then input to the thermal model of the specimens to find the resulting temperature rises (sonic IR signals). The method was validated on mild steel beams with two-dimensional cracks obtained in the low-cycle fatigue regime as well as nickel-based superalloy beams with three-dimensional "thumbnail" cracks generated in the high-cycle fatigue regime. The equivalent 40kHz strain necessary to obtain a desired temperature rise was calculated for cracks in the nickel superalloy set, and the detectability of cracks as a function of length in the range of 1-5mm was discussed.

  3. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulj, Jelena; Brlek, Tea; Pezo, Lato; Brkljača, Jovana; Popović, Sanja; Zeković, Zoran; Bodroža Solarov, Marija

    2016-08-01

    Amaranthus sp. is a fast-growing crop with well-known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium, and containing a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, a compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg(-1) ) and squalene (4.7 g kg(-1) ) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. Post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. The results of this study indicate that it is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimal oil and squalene yield. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. METHOD OF RARE TERM CONTRASTIVE EXTRACTION FROM NATURAL LANGUAGE TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bessmertny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of automatic domain term extraction from documents corpus by means of a contrast collection. Existing contrastive methods successfully extract often used terms but mishandle rare terms. This could yield poorness of the resulting thesaurus. Assessment of point-wise mutual information is one of the known statistical methods of term extraction and it finds rare terms successfully. Although, it extracts many false terms at that. The proposed approach consists of point-wise mutual information application for rare terms extraction and filtering of candidates by criterion of joint occurrence with the other candidates. We build “documents-by-terms” matrix that is subjected to singular value decomposition to eliminate noise and reveal strong interconnections. Then we pass on to the resulting matrix “terms-by-terms” that reproduces strength of interconnections between words. This approach was approved on a documents collection from “Geology” domain with the use of contrast documents from such topics as “Politics”, “Culture”, “Economics” and “Accidents” on some Internet resources. The experimental results demonstrate operability of this method for rare terms extraction.

  6. An effective method for extraction and polymerase chain reaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PCR amplification with the NaOH and PBS treatment had a success rate of 30 to 100% for both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The PBS method is the best method for extraction of DNA from formalin-preserved samples of longer period (two to seven years) because of higher success rate in amplifying mitochondrial ...

  7. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  8. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  9. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW).

  10. Comparison and flowering valuation of New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Startek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2003 the flowering of four New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups were compared. They were the following cultivars: 'Sonic Pink', 'Sonic Sweet Cherry', 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'. The experiments were carried out from the middle of April till the middle of October. Neutralised sphagnum peat with slow release fertiliser Osmocote Plus 5/6 was used as medium. It was found that the cultivar 'Sonic Pink' began blooming 1-4 weeks earlier than the other cultivars. The cultivars 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' had significantly more abundant flowering (105.3-113.3 flowers per plant than the cultivars 'Sonic Pink' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink' (72.0-92.8 flowers per plant. All the cultivars had big flowers (6.3-7.8 cm in diameter. The most similar flowers were found in 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and the least similar in 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'.

  11. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  12. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  13. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio

    2013-08-15

    A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimizing sonication parameters for dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haibo [Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (Fraunhofer ENAS), 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Hermann, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.hermann@zfm.tu-chemnitz.de [Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schulz, Stefan E.; Gessner, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (Fraunhofer ENAS), 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Li, Wen J., E-mail: wenjungli@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2012-10-26

    Graphical abstract: We study the dispersing behavior of SWCNTs based on the surfactant and the optimization of sonication parameters including the sonication power and running time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the optimization of sonication for the surfactant-based dispersion of SWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorption spectrum of SWCNT solution strongly depend on the sonication conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sonication process has an important influence on the average length and diameters of SWCNTs in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrifugation mainly contributes to the decrease of nonresonant absorption background. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under the same sonication parameters, the large-diameter tip performs dispersion of SWCNTs better than the small-diameter tip. -- Abstract: Non-covalent functionalization based on surfactants has become one of the most common methods for dispersing of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Previously, efforts have mainly been focused on experimenting with different surfactant systems, varying their concentrations and solvents. However sonication plays a very important role during the surfactant-based dispersion process for SWCNTs. The sonication treatment enables the surfactant molecules to adsorb onto the surface of SWCNTs by overcoming the interactions induced by the hydrophobic, electrostatic and van der Waals forces. This work describes a systematic study of the influence of the sonication power and time on the dispersion of SWCNTs. UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra is used to analyze and to evaluate the dispersion of SWCNTs in an aqueous solution of 1 w/v% sodium deoxycholate (DOC) showing that the resonant and nonresonant background absorption strongly depends on the sonication conditions. Furthermore, the diameter and length of SWCNTs under different sonication parameters are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  16. DNA extraction method for PCR in mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, S; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Mills, P R

    2001-10-01

    To develop a simple and rapid DNA extraction protocol for PCR in mycorrhizal fungi. The protocol combines the application of rapid freezing and boiling cycles and passage of the extracts through DNA purification columns. PCR amplifiable DNA was obtained from a number of endo- and ecto-mycorrhizal fungi using minute quantities of spores and mycelium, respectively. DNA extracted following the method, was used to successfully amplify regions of interest from high as well as low copy number genes. The amplicons were suitable for further downstream applications such as sequencing and PCR-RFLPs. The protocol described is simple, short and facilitates rapid isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from a large number of fungal isolates in a single day. The method requires only minute quantities of starting material and is suitable for mycorrhizal fungi as well as a range of other fungi.

  17. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, M A; Bahkali, A H; Abd-Elsalam, K A; Wit, P J G M

    2010-11-23

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on agar plates and extracted DNA from mycelium mats after manual or electric homogenization. High-quality DNA was isolated, with an A(260)/A(280) ratio ranging between 1.6 and 2.0. Isolated genomic DNA was efficiently digested with restriction enzymes and produced distinct banding patterns on agarose gels for the different Cladosporium species. Clear DNA fragments from the isolated DNA were amplified by PCR using small and large subunit rDNA primers, demonstrating that this method provides DNA of sufficiently high quality for molecular analyses.

  18. Sonic Virtuality, Environment, and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The article presents a brief introduction to the concept of sonic virtuality, a view of sound as a multi-modal, emergent perception that provides a framework that has since been used to provide an explanation of the formation of environments. Additionally, the article uses such concepts to explain...... the phenomenon of presence, not only in virtual worlds but also in actual worlds. The view put forward is that environment is an emergent perception, formed from the hypothetical modelling of salient worlds of sensory things, and it is in the environment that we feel present. The article ends with some thoughts...

  19. Calculation of radon concentration in water by toluene extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaaki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Noguchi method and Horiuchi method have been used as the calculation method of radon concentration in water. Both methods have two problems in the original, that is, the concentration calculated is changed by the extraction temperature depend on the incorrect solubility data and the concentration calculated are smaller than the correct values, because the radon calculation equation does not true to the gas-liquid equilibrium theory. However, the two problems are solved by improving the radon equation. I presented the Noguchi-Saito equation and the constant B of Horiuchi-Saito equation. The calculating results by the improved method showed about 10% of error. (S.Y.)

  20. Development of {sup 99m}Tc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Izumo, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Shiina, Takayuki; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro [Chiyoda Technol Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from {sup 99}Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  1. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to…

  2. Genomic DNA extraction method from pearl millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA extraction is difficult in a variety of plants because of the presence of metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation procedures and downstream applications such as DNA restriction, amplification, and cloning. Here we describe a modified procedure based on the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to ...

  3. Genomic DNA extraction method from Annona senegalensis Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction of DNA in many plants is difficult because of the presence of metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation procedures and downstream applications such as DNA restriction, replications, amplification, as well as cloning. Modified procedure based on the hexadecyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide (CTAB) method is ...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  5. Extraction of uranium from simulated ore by the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction method with nitric acid-TBP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Le Thi Kim; Imai, Tomoki; Tomioka, Osamu; Nakashima, Mikio; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Meguro, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method using CO 2 as a medium with an extractant of HNO 3 -tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) complex was applied to extract uranium from several uranyl phosphate compounds and simulated uranium ores. An extraction method consisting of a static extraction process and a dynamic one was established, and the effects of the experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and extraction time, on the extraction of uranium were ascertained. It was found that uranium could be efficiently extracted from both the uranyl phosphates and simulated ores by the SFE method using CO 2 . It was thus demonstrated that the SFE method using CO 2 is useful as a pretreatment method for the analysis of uranium in ores. (author)

  6. Deep Learning Methods for Underwater Target Feature Extraction and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and recognition technology of underwater acoustic signal were always an important research content in the field of underwater acoustic signal processing. Currently, wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients are used as a method of underwater acoustic signal feature extraction. In this paper, a method for feature extraction and identification of underwater noise data based on CNN and ELM is proposed. An automatic feature extraction method of underwater acoustic signals is proposed using depth convolution network. An underwater target recognition classifier is based on extreme learning machine. Although convolution neural networks can execute both feature extraction and classification, their function mainly relies on a full connection layer, which is trained by gradient descent-based; the generalization ability is limited and suboptimal, so an extreme learning machine (ELM was used in classification stage. Firstly, CNN learns deep and robust features, followed by the removing of the fully connected layers. Then ELM fed with the CNN features is used as the classifier to conduct an excellent classification. Experiments on the actual data set of civil ships obtained 93.04% recognition rate; compared to the traditional Mel frequency cepstral coefficients and Hilbert-Huang feature, recognition rate greatly improved.

  7. Analytical methods and problems for the diamides type of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Nigond, L.; Musikas, C.; Vitart, H.; Hoel, P.

    1989-01-01

    Diamides of carboxylic acids and especially malonamides are able to extract alpha emitters (including trivalent ions such as Am and Cm) contained in the wastes solutions of the nuclear industry. As they are completely incinerable and easy to purify, they could be an alternative to the mixture CMPO-TBP which is used in the TRUEX process. A large oxyalkyl radical enhances the distribution coefficients of americium in nitric acid sufficiently to permit the decontamination of wastes solutions in a classical mixers-settlers battery. Now researches are pursued with the aim of optimizing the formula of extractant, the influence of the structure of the extractant on its basicity and stability under radiolysis and hydrolysis is investigated. Analytical methods (potentiometry and NMR of C 13 ) have been developed for solvent titration and to evaluate the percentage of degradation and to identify some of the degradation products

  8. Analysis of Feature Extraction Methods for Speaker Dependent Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition is about what is being said, irrespective of who is saying. Speech recognition is a growing field. Major progress is taking place on the technology of automatic speech recognition (ASR. Still, there are lots of barriers in this field in terms of recognition rate, background noise, speaker variability, speaking rate, accent etc. Speech recognition rate mainly depends on the selection of features and feature extraction methods. This paper outlines the feature extraction techniques for speaker dependent speech recognition for isolated words. A brief survey of different feature extraction techniques like Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC, Linear Predictive Coding Coefficients (LPCC, Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP, Relative Spectra Perceptual linear Predictive (RASTA-PLP analysis are presented and evaluation is done. Speech recognition has various applications from daily use to commercial use. We have made a speaker dependent system and this system can be useful in many areas like controlling a patient vehicle using simple commands.

  9. Effect of sonication on particle dispersion, administered dose and metal release of non-functionalized, non-inert metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Sulena; Hedberg, Jonas, E-mail: jhed@kth.se; Blomberg, Eva [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, we elucidate the effect of different sonication techniques to efficiently prepare particle dispersions from selected non-functionalized NPs (Cu, Al, Mn, ZnO), and corresponding consequences on the particle dose, surface charge and release of metals. Probe sonication was shown to be the preferred method for dispersing non-inert, non-functionalized metal NPs (Cu, Mn, Al). However, rapid sedimentation during sonication resulted in differences between the real and the administered doses in the order of 30–80 % when sonicating in 1 and 2.56 g/L NP stock solutions. After sonication, extensive agglomeration of the metal NPs resulted in rapid sedimentation of all particles. DLVO calculations supported these findings, showing the strong van der Waals forces of the metal NPs to result in significant NP agglomeration. Metal release from the metal NPs was slightly increased by increased sonication. The addition of a stabilizing agent (bovine serum albumin) had an accelerating effect on the release of metals in sonicated solutions. For Cu and Mn NPs, the extent of particle dissolution increased from <1.6 to ~5 % after sonication for 15 min. A prolonged sonication time (3–15 min) had negligible effects on the zeta potential of the studied NPs. In all, it is shown that it is of utmost importance to carefully investigate how sonication influences the physico-chemical properties of dispersed metal NPs. This should be considered in nanotoxicology investigations of metal NPs.Graphical Abstract.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Volatile Components in Tempe by Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Method by Modified Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Syahrial

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An isolation and identification of volatile components in temps for 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation by simultaneous distillation-extraction method was carried out. Simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus was modified by Muchalal from the basic Likens-Nickerson's design. Steam distillation and benzena as an extraction solvent was used in this system. The isolation was continuously carried out for 3 hours which maximum water temperature In the Liebig condenser was 8 °C. The extract was concentrated by freeze concentration method, and the volatile components were analyzed and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. The Muchalal's simultaneous distillation extraction apparatus have some disadvantage in cold finger condenser, and it's extractor did not have condenser. At least 47, 13 and 5 volatile components were found in 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation, respectively. The volatile components in the 2 days fermentation were nonalal, ɑ-pinene, 2,4-decadienal, 5-phenyldecane, 5-phenylundecane, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane, 5-phenyltridecane, and caryophyllene; in the 5 days fermentation were nonalal, caryophyllene, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane; and in the 8 days fermentation were ethenyl butanoic, 2-methy1-3-(methylethenylciclohexyl etanoic and 3,7-dimethyl-5-octenyl etanoic.

  11. Lipid Extraction Methods from Microalgae: A Comprehensive Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjith Kumar, Ramanathan [Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Shree Chandraprabhu Jain College, Chennai (India); Hanumantha Rao, Polur [Department of Microbiology, Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Arumugam, Muthu, E-mail: arumugam@niist.res.in [Division of Biotechnology, CSIR – National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum (India)

    2015-01-08

    Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economically viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to meet futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appear bright because of their unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO{sub 2}-sequestering capability, and ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackish water and high-lipid productivity. The major process constraint in microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available, to date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches, and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. Further research is required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at the production scale.

  12. Lipid Extraction Methods from Microalgae: A Comprehensive Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith Kumar, Ramanathan; Hanumantha Rao, Polur; Arumugam, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economically viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to meet futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appear bright because of their unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO 2 -sequestering capability, and ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackish water and high-lipid productivity. The major process constraint in microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available, to date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches, and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. Further research is required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at the production scale.

  13. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40–80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30–150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2–3 times. PMID:27375964

  14. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  15. SAR Data Fusion Imaging Method Oriented to Target Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the difficulty for target outlines extracting precisely due to neglect of target scattering characteristic variation during the processing of high-resolution space-borne SAR data, a novel fusion imaging method is proposed oriented to target feature extraction. Firstly, several important aspects that affect target feature extraction and SAR image quality are analyzed, including curved orbit, stop-and-go approximation, atmospheric delay, and high-order residual phase error. Furthermore, the corresponding compensation methods are addressed as well. Based on the analysis, the mathematical model of SAR echo combined with target space-time spectrum is established for explaining the space-time-frequency change rule of target scattering characteristic. Moreover, a fusion imaging strategy and method under high-resolution and ultra-large observation angle range conditions are put forward to improve SAR quality by fusion processing in range-doppler and image domain. Finally, simulations based on typical military targets are used to verify the effectiveness of the fusion imaging method.

  16. Intensification of transesterification via sonication numerical simulation and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; ElSamad, Tala; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    equations of the multiple reactive species in an annular continuous reactor. Following model validation, the spatial reaction rate is evaluated to bring more insight to the reaction progression and species distributions. The two methods (conventional and sonication) then are compared on the basis of their sensitivity to the Alcohol:Oil molar ratio. The spatial distribution of the yield and their favorable sonication method is a key enabler of the development of an optimal process reactor that renders more economy to the process when operating at lower AL:TG ration, catalyst amount, and temperature.

  17. Exact extraction method for road rutting laser lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of asphalt pavement rutting detection in pavement maintenance and pavement administration in today's society, the shortcomings of the existing rutting detection methods are presented and a new rutting line-laser extraction method based on peak intensity characteristic and peak continuity is proposed. The intensity of peak characteristic is enhanced by a designed transverse mean filter, and an intensity map of peak characteristic based on peak intensity calculation for the whole road image is obtained to determine the seed point of the rutting laser line. Regarding the seed point as the starting point, the light-points of a rutting line-laser are extracted based on the features of peak continuity, which providing exact basic data for subsequent calculation of pavement rutting depths.

  18. Integrated Phoneme Subspace Method for Speech Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunsin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech feature extraction has been a key focus in robust speech recognition research. In this work, we discuss data-driven linear feature transformations applied to feature vectors in the logarithmic mel-frequency filter bank domain. Transformations are based on principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new feature extraction technique that collects the correlation information among phoneme subspaces and reconstructs feature space for representing phonemic information efficiently. The proposed speech feature vector is generated by projecting an observed vector onto an integrated phoneme subspace (IPS based on PCA or ICA. The performance of the new feature was evaluated for isolated word speech recognition. The proposed method provided higher recognition accuracy than conventional methods in clean and reverberant environments.

  19. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative density value ranged from 0.9 to 0.92 at 29°C (room temperature). Both oil samples were in liquid state at room temperature and boiling points varied from 94°C-to 98°C for solvent extracted oil and hydraulic press oil respectively. The results showed thatJhe method ofextraction imposed significant changes on ...

  20. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Selma Ayşe; SARAÇ, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the exper...

  1. A method for extracting chaotic signal from noisy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, L.-J.; Shyu, K.-K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a approach for extracting chaos signal from noisy environment where the chaotic signal has been contaminated by white Gaussian noise. The traditional type of independent component analysis (ICA) is capable of separating mixed signals and retrieving them independently; however, the separated signal shows unreal amplitude. The results of this study show with our method the real chaos signal can be effectively recovered.

  2. Extractive method for obtaining gas inclusions from ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, G.; Kowski, P.

    1982-01-01

    Doubtless important for glaciological investigations of firn and ice is the knowledge about the chemical composition of gases included in ice. A method for quantitative extraction of gases from about 30 kg ice under vacuum is presented in this paper. The procedure was tested with ice cores from a thermoelectrical drill hole near Soviet Antarctic station Novolazarevskaya. The chemical compositions of inclusion gases and the specific gas contents from 6 horizons are pointed out by a table and some graphics. (author)

  3. Methods for extracting social network data from chatroom logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osesina, O. Isaac; McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard

    2012-06-01

    Identifying social network (SN) links within computer-mediated communication platforms without explicit relations among users poses challenges to researchers. Our research aims to extract SN links in internet chat with multiple users engaging in synchronous overlapping conversations all displayed in a single stream. We approached this problem using three methods which build on previous research. Response-time analysis builds on temporal proximity of chat messages; word context usage builds on keywords analysis and direct addressing which infers links by identifying the intended message recipient from the screen name (nickname) referenced in the message [1]. Our analysis of word usage within the chat stream also provides contexts for the extracted SN links. To test the capability of our methods, we used publicly available data from Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a real-time computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool used by millions of people around the world. The extraction performances of individual methods and their hybrids were assessed relative to a ground truth (determined a priori via manual scoring).

  4. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  5. Vanadium extraction from slimes by the lime-bicarbonate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchenko, T.V.; Vdovina, L.V.; Slobodchikova, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Some main parameters of the lime-bicarbonate method of extracting vanadium from residues obtained in washing waters of mazut boilers on thermal stations have been determined. To study the process of vanadium extraction during caking of the residues with lime and subsequent leaching of water-soluble vanadium, a ''Minsk-22'' computer has been used for computation. Analysis of the equation derived has shown that a change in temperature of vanadium leaching, density of pulp, and a kind of heating of the charge affect the process only slightly. It has also been shown that the calcination temperature is expedient to be kept above 850 deg C and consumption temperature is expedient to be kept above 85O deg C and consumption of lime must not exceed 20% of the residues weight. Bicarbonate consumption exerts a decisive influence on completeness of vanadium extraction and must be increased up to >35%; duration of leaching should be raised up to 30-45 minutes. With increasing calcination temperature the duration of leaching decreases. When temperature and duration of calcination increase, the formation of water-soluble vanadium intensifies. With the aid of optimization program seven variants have been chosen, which ensure vanadium extraction into solution by 95-100%

  6. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Muga, Ignacio; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method

  7. Portable Rule Extraction Method for Neural Network Decisions Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius PLIKYNAS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural network (NN methods are sometimes useless in practical applications, because they are not properly tailored to the particular market's needs. We focus thereinafter specifically on financial market applications. NNs have not gained full acceptance here yet. One of the main reasons is the "Black Box" problem (lack of the NN decisions explanatory power. There are though some NN decisions rule extraction methods like decompositional, pedagogical or eclectic, but they suffer from low portability of the rule extraction technique across various neural net architectures, high level of granularity, algorithmic sophistication of the rule extraction technique etc. The authors propose to eliminate some known drawbacks using an innovative extension of the pedagogical approach. The idea is exposed by the use of a widespread MLP neural net (as a common tool in the financial problems' domain and SOM (input data space clusterization. The feedback of both nets' performance is related and targeted through the iteration cycle by achievement of the best matching between the decision space fragments and input data space clusters. Three sets of rules are generated algorithmically or by fuzzy membership functions. Empirical validation of the common financial benchmark problems is conducted with an appropriately prepared software solution.

  8. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  9. AN ITERATIVE SEGMENTATION METHOD FOR REGION OF INTEREST EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan CETIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is presented for applications which include mammographic image segmentation and region of interest extraction. Segmentation is a very critical and difficult stage to accomplish in computer aided detection systems. Although the presented segmentation method is developed for mammographic images, it can be used for any medical image which resembles the same statistical characteristics with mammograms. Fundamentally, the method contains iterative automatic thresholding and masking operations which is applied to the original or enhanced mammograms. Also the effect of image enhancement to the segmentation process was observed. A version of histogram equalization was applied to the images for enhancement. Finally, the results show that enhanced version of the proposed segmentation method is preferable because of its better success rate.

  10. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  12. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  13. Feature extraction from mammographic images using fast marching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottigli, U.; Golosio, B.

    2002-01-01

    Features extraction from medical images represents a fundamental step for shape recognition and diagnostic support. The present work faces the problem of the detection of large features, such as massive lesions and organ contours, from mammographic images. The regions of interest are often characterized by an average grayness intensity that is different from the surrounding. In most cases, however, the desired features cannot be extracted by simple gray level thresholding, because of image noise and non-uniform density of the surrounding tissue. In this work, edge detection is achieved through the fast marching method (Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), which is based on the theory of interface evolution. Starting from a seed point in the shape of interest, a front is generated which evolves according to an appropriate speed function. Such function is expressed in terms of geometric properties of the evolving interface and of image properties, and should become zero when the front reaches the desired boundary. Some examples of application of such method to mammographic images from the CALMA database (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 460 (2001) 107) are presented here and discussed

  14. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.; McLellan, G.W.; Moak, D.J.; Lerch, R.E.; Thompson, K.M.; Barrow, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    ResonantSonic SM drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. ResonantSonic is a registered service mark of the Water Development Corporation, Woodland, California. The ResonantSonic drilling method, requires no mud, air or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. The specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into a steel drill pipe creating a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ReasonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs are utilizing the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  15. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SARAÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the experiments FormSpring.me dataset is used and the effects of preprocessing methods; several classifiers like C4.5, Naïve Bayes, kNN, and SVM; and information gain and chi square feature selection methods are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the best classification results are obtained when alphabetic tokenization, no stemming, and no stopwords removal are applied. Using feature selection also improves cyberbully detection performance. When classifiers are compared, C4.5 performs the best for the used dataset.

  16. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  17. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  18. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2007-01-01

    ... of the DOD New Investigator award indicate that Shh signaling promotes tumor growth. This proposal addresses the hypothesis that Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes tumor growth by activating stromal cell gene expression...

  19. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Johnner; Setyawan, Daru; Kim, Daniel Young Joon; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  20. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitompul, Johnner, E-mail: sitompul@che.itb.ac.id; Setyawan, Daru, E-mail: daru.setyawan@gmail.com; Kim, Daniel Young Joon, E-mail: daniel.kim12321@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Lee, Hyung Woo, E-mail: leehw@che.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Research and Business Foundation, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  1. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from

  2. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  3. Chemical Profiling of Acalypha Indica Obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Surangkana Chaichoowong; Jan Bernd Bol; Pornprapa Bol; Thomas Gamse; Malinee Sriariyanun

    2017-01-01

    Acalypha indica is a weed that grows in South-East Asia. It contains several valuable compounds that can be used for curing various diseases such as rheumatism, skin infection and blood dysentery. Here, the extraction of A. indica using Soxhlet extraction with two different solvents and supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) with two different temperatures (40 and 60°C) was performed. In Soxhlet extraction, ethanol solvent provided the highest extraction yield of 34.36%. For SCE, the increased te...

  4. DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoib, Adilah; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Md Arshad, M K

    2017-11-01

    This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.

  5. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  6. GPR Signal Denoising and Target Extraction With the CEEMD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-04-17

    In this letter, we apply a time and frequency analysis method based on the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) method in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signal processing. It decomposes the GPR signal into a sum of oscillatory components, with guaranteed positive and smoothly varying instantaneous frequencies. The key idea of this method relies on averaging the modes obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD) applied to several realizations of Gaussian white noise added to the original signal. It can solve the mode-mixing problem in the EMD method and improve the resolution of ensemble EMD (EEMD) when the signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio. First, we analyze the difference between the basic theory of EMD, EEMD, and CEEMD. Then, we compare the time and frequency analysis with Hilbert-Huang transform to test the results of different methods. The synthetic and real GPR data demonstrate that CEEMD promises higher spectral-spatial resolution than the other two EMD methods in GPR signal denoising and target extraction. Its decomposition is complete, with a numerically negligible error.

  7. A new method for the extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.Z.; Turel, Z.R.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for rapid and selective extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate (HETAcAc) into chloroform at pH 4. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient values were studied. The substoichiometry of the extracted species of 1:3 was obtained by slope ratio and substoichiometric extraction method, respectively. (author)

  8. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  9. Micro-focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (muFUSLE) combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for PAHs determination in sediments: optimization and linking with the analytical minimalism concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Galesio, M M; Felisberto, G M; Vaz, C; Pessoa, J Costa

    2005-06-15

    Analytical minimalism is a concept that deals with the optimization of all stages of an analytical procedure so that it becomes less time, cost, sample, reagent and energy consuming. The guide-lines provided in the USEPA extraction method 3550B recommend the use of focused ultrasound (FU), i.e., probe sonication, for the solid-liquid extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs, but ignore the principle of analytical minimalism. The problems related with the dead sonication zones, often present when high volumes are sonicated with probe, are also not addressed. In this work, we demonstrate that successful extraction and quantification of PAHs from sediments can be done with low sample mass (0.125g), low reagent volume (4ml), short sonication time (3min) and low sonication amplitude (40%). Two variables are here particularly taken into account for total extraction: (i) the design of the extraction vessel and (ii) the solvent used to carry out the extraction. Results showed PAHs recoveries (EPA priority list) ranged between 77 and 101%, accounting for more than 95% for most of the PAHs here studied, as compared with the values obtained after soxhlet extraction. Taking into account the results reported in this work we recommend a revision of the EPA guidelines for PAHs extraction from solid matrices with focused ultrasound, so that these match the analytical minimalism concept.

  10. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Kinga; Woods, Peter H.

    1990-07-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1°C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1°C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ± 2 and ± 0.2‰, respectively, for δD and δ 18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents.

  11. Effect of a passive sonic irrigation system on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth, using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Afshari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from root canal systems of primary teeth with or without a passive sonic irrigation system (EndoActivator. Methods. The root canals of 120 extracted single-rooted primary incisors were prepared using the crown-down technique. The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with E. faecalis. The infected samples were then randomly divided into 6 experimental groups of 15 and positive and negative control groups as follows: group 1: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 2: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 3: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; group 4: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; group 5: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation; and group 6: 5% sodium hypochlorite solution + sonic activation. Microbiological samples were collected before and after disinfection procedures and the colony-forming units were counted. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan's tests in cases of significant difference. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables (concentration of antiseptic or use of sonic irrigation system. Conclusion. Use of passive sonic irrigation systems in endodontic treatment of single-rooted primary teeth is of no benefit compared to regular needle irrigation. The results of this study also recommends use of lower concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% for irrigation of the root canal system rather than higher concentrations given approximately equal efficacy.

  12. Comparative study between probe focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of cadmium and copper in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Sara; Fonseca, Luis P. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Capelo, Jose L. [University of Vigo at Ourense Campus, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, Ourense (Spain); Armas, Teresa; Vilhena, Fernanda; Goncalves, Maria L.S.; Mota, A.M. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Pinto, Ana P. [University of Evora, Herdade Experimental da Mitra, ICAAM-Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas, Evora (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    Ultrasound (US)-assisted extraction has been widely used for metal ion extraction in plants due to its unique properties of decreased extraction time, minimal contamination, low reagent consumption and low cost. However, very few papers present a sound comparison between probe-focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of metal ion extraction in plants. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted digestion has been evaluated and compared to magnetic stirring for total copper and cadmium determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in biological samples (plants, plankton and mussels). The same experimental conditions of sample amount and particle size, extractant solution and extraction time were applied for both ultrasound and magnetic stirring-assisted extraction methods in order to truly compare their effect on metal ion solubilisation. To gain further insight in this issue, dried and fresh plants were tested. The results obtained indicated that osmotic tension in cell walls, produced when dried and powdered samples were immersed in the extractant solution, had an important contribution to metal ion solubilisation, the enhancement due to US for the same purpose being negligible. (orig.)

  13. How far away is far enough for extracting numerical waveforms, and how much do they depend on the extraction method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, Enrique [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202 Nicholson Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dorband, Ernst Nils [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202 Nicholson Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Nagar, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Palenzuela, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202 Nicholson Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Schnetter, Erik [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202 Nicholson Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2007-06-21

    We present a method for extracting gravitational waves from numerical spacetimes which generalizes and refines one of the standard methods based on the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli perturbation formalism. At the analytical level, this generalization allows a much more general class of slicing conditions for the background geometry, and is thus not restricted to Schwarzschild-like coordinates. At the numerical level, our approach uses high-order multi-block methods, which improve both the accuracy of our simulations and of our extraction procedure. In particular, the latter is simplified since there is no need for interpolation, and we can afford to extract accurate waves at large radii with only little additional computational effort. We then present fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical evolutions of a distorted Schwarzschild black hole in Kerr-Schild coordinates with an odd parity perturbation and analyse the improvement that we gain from our generalized wave extraction, comparing our new method to the standard one. In particular, we analyse in detail the quasinormal frequencies of the extracted waves, using both methods. We do so by comparing the extracted waves with one-dimensional high resolution solutions of the corresponding generalized Regge-Wheeler equation. We explicitly see that the errors in the waveforms extracted with the standard method at fixed, finite extraction radii do not converge to zero with increasing resolution. We find that even with observers as far out as R = 80M-which is larger than what is commonly used in state-of-the-art simulations-the assumption in the standard method that the background is close to having Schwarzschild-like coordinates increases the error in the extracted waves considerably. Furthermore, those errors are dominated by the extraction method itself and not by the accuracy of our simulations. For extraction radii between 20M and 80M and for the resolutions that we use in this paper, our new method decreases the errors

  14. How far away is far enough for extracting numerical waveforms, and how much do they depend on the extraction method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Dorband, Ernst Nils; Nagar, Alessandro; Palenzuela, Carlos; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for extracting gravitational waves from numerical spacetimes which generalizes and refines one of the standard methods based on the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli perturbation formalism. At the analytical level, this generalization allows a much more general class of slicing conditions for the background geometry, and is thus not restricted to Schwarzschild-like coordinates. At the numerical level, our approach uses high-order multi-block methods, which improve both the accuracy of our simulations and of our extraction procedure. In particular, the latter is simplified since there is no need for interpolation, and we can afford to extract accurate waves at large radii with only little additional computational effort. We then present fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical evolutions of a distorted Schwarzschild black hole in Kerr-Schild coordinates with an odd parity perturbation and analyse the improvement that we gain from our generalized wave extraction, comparing our new method to the standard one. In particular, we analyse in detail the quasinormal frequencies of the extracted waves, using both methods. We do so by comparing the extracted waves with one-dimensional high resolution solutions of the corresponding generalized Regge-Wheeler equation. We explicitly see that the errors in the waveforms extracted with the standard method at fixed, finite extraction radii do not converge to zero with increasing resolution. We find that even with observers as far out as R = 80M-which is larger than what is commonly used in state-of-the-art simulations-the assumption in the standard method that the background is close to having Schwarzschild-like coordinates increases the error in the extracted waves considerably. Furthermore, those errors are dominated by the extraction method itself and not by the accuracy of our simulations. For extraction radii between 20M and 80M and for the resolutions that we use in this paper, our new method decreases the errors

  15. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  16. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brglez Mojzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.

  17. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon extraction methods for radiocarbon dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delque-Kolic, E.

    1995-01-01

    Pottery is a direct witness of human activity and gives, through its macroscopic and microscopic studies, lots of information about its manufacturers. Nevertheless, radiocarbon dating, currently applied in archaeology to charcoals, wood and bones has only been rarely employed with ceramic. The problem is that many different carbon sources, of different radiocarbon age, may contribute to the potsherd carbon content. So, the aim of all dating projects is to separate carbon related to the period when the potsherd was manufactured and used. In a first time, we have made our own samples with raw materials (clay and temper) known in nature and age. We have fired them with wood of known age under reducing atmosphere. Under these conditions, soot produced by wood burning forms a more or less important deposit on the surface of the pots. It is this source of carbon, present in many archaeological sherds, that we first tried to select. Burning these potsherds at low temperature under an O 2 flow, we have noticed that carbon from kiln wood was preferentially extracted. This treatment applied to a thin lamella cut in a smoked part of the potsherd provides, almost exclusively, carbon from smoke. These techniques, applied to known archaeological sherds, have given encouraging results. We have also explored a new method which consists in oxidizing carbon with a laser beam at the surface of the sample. The use of this process for extracting carbon from smoke seems promising if serious experimental precautions are taken when working with so low carbon content. (author)

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS. AN EFFECT OF SONICATION AND SAMPLE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Braniša

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls and carotenoids are abundant pigments in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In this study we verified the applicability of two previously developed UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of chlorophylls (a, b and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene or total carotenoids. The pigments were extracted from the strawberries, apricots and raspberries in both the acetone-water and acetone-hexane mixtures. Based on the statistical evaluation of the results the combination of mechanical disruption and sonication of fruit samples seems to be a suitable way to improve the pigment extraction efficiency from fruits in both types of solvents. In the case of apricot and raspberry fruit extracts the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids calculated from the proposed equations was comparable to those published by other authors. However, the spectrophotometric determination of β-carotene content in strawberry acetone-hexane extract appeared to be problematic mainly due to the fact that carotenoids exhibited overlapping chlorophyll absorption bands. Overlap of bands leads to the negative values calculated from the proposed equation for the β-carotene content. The results indicate the limitations in use of the proposed set of equations for plant samples with comparable amounts of studied pigments.

  20. Field intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, Matthias; Zeeman, Matthias J.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional sonic anemometers are the core component of eddy covariance systems, which are widely used for micrometeorological and ecological research. In order to characterize the measurement uncertainty of these instruments we present and analyse the results from a field intercomparison experiment of six commonly used sonic anemometer models from four major manufacturers. These models include Campbell CSAT3, Gill HS-50 and R3, METEK uSonic-3 Omni, R. M. Young 81000 and 81000RE. The experiment was conducted over a meadow at the TERENO/ICOS site DE-Fen in southern Germany over a period of 16 days in June of 2016 as part of the ScaleX campaign. The measurement height was 3 m for all sensors, which were separated by 9 m from each other, each on its own tripod, in order to limit contamination of the turbulence measurements by adjacent structures as much as possible. Moreover, the high-frequency data from all instruments were treated with the same post-processing algorithm. In this study, we compare the results for various turbulence statistics, which include mean horizontal wind speed, standard deviations of vertical wind velocity and sonic temperature, friction velocity, and the buoyancy flux. Quantitative measures of uncertainty, such as bias and comparability, are derived from these results. We find that biases are generally very small for all sensors and all computed variables, except for the sonic temperature measurements of the two Gill sonic anemometers (HS and R3), confirming a known transducer-temperature dependence of the sonic temperature measurement. The best overall agreement between the different instruments was found for the mean wind speed and the buoyancy flux.

  1. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192). We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  2. The Effect of Homogenization Pressures on Extraction of Avocado Oil by Wet Method

    OpenAIRE

    Basuni Hamzah

    2013-01-01

    Avocado tree usually planted by people of Indonesia in rural are small in scale. Mostly, in the modern and high scale industry especially company has a large avocado farm the extraction of avocado oil is extracted through vacuum drying in low temperature. However, in rural area avocado tree spread out in small number of tree, so it needs alternative method of avocado oil extraction. In this experiment, wet method of avocado extraction was applied similar to traditional extraction of coconut o...

  3. Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction with Ranking-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relation extraction has benefited from distant supervision in recent years with the development of natural language processing techniques and data explosion. However, distant supervision is still greatly limited by the quality of training data, due to its natural motivation for greatly reducing the heavy cost of data annotation. In this paper, we construct an architecture called MIML-sort (Multi-instance Multi-label Learning with Sorting Strategies, which is built on the famous MIML framework. Based on MIML-sort, we propose three ranking-based methods for sample selection with which we identify relation extractors from a subset of the training data. Experiments are set up on the KBP (Knowledge Base Propagation corpus, one of the benchmark datasets for distant supervision, which is large and noisy. Compared with previous work, the proposed methods produce considerably better results. Furthermore, the three methods together achieve the best F1 on the official testing set, with an optimal enhancement of F1 from 27.3% to 29.98%.

  4. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  5. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  6. Quantification of Radicals Generated in a Sonicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Badmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH• is a powerful oxidant produced as a consequence of cavitation in water. It can react nonspecifically in breaking down persistent organic pollutants in water into their mineral form. It can also recombine to form hydrogen peroxide which is very useful in water treatment. In this study, terephthalic acid (TA and potassium iodide dosimetry were used to quantify and investigate the behaviour of the generated OH radical in a laboratory scale sonicator. The 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (HTA formed during terephthalic acid dosimetry was determined by optical fibre spectrometer. The production rate of HTA served as a means of evaluating and characterizing the OH• generated over given time in a sonicator. The influence of sonicator power intensity, solution pH and irradiation time upon OH• generation were investigated. Approximately 2.2 ´ 10-9 M s-1 of OH radical was generated during the sonication process. The rate of generation of the OH radicals was established to be independent of the concentration of the initial reactant. Thus, the rate of generation of OH• can be predicted by zero order kinetics in a sonicator.

  7. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  8. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus.

  9. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the 13 C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most 13 C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, 13 C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra

  10. Nucleic acid extraction, oligonucleotide probes and PCR methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongtang Yu; Forster, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    analysis, and hybridization-based methods, such as RNA-targeted hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray, have been employed. The application of these molecular techniques has been changing our perspectives about ruminal and GI microbiota. Except for FISH, all these methods analyse DNA or RNA extracted from samples collected from rumen or GI tracts. Therefore, reliable and efficient DNA/RNA extraction is the pre-requisite of molecular ecological studies of ruminal microbiota

  11. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR). Such tests will be applied to building a dataset that governing agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. The WSPR test was the first such effort that studied responses to non-traditional low sonic booms while the subject persons were in their own homes and performing daily activities.The WSPR test was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle (El Segundo, California). Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (Savannah, Georgia); Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pennsylvania); Tetra Tech, Inc. (Pasadena, California); and Fidell Associates, Inc. (Woodland Hills, California).A major objective of the effort included exposing a community to the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences that would be expected to occur in high-air traffic regions having a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data were collected using multiple

  12. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry James; Haering, Ed; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASAs ongoing effort to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response. Such tests will go towards building a dataset that governing agencies like the Federal Aviation Administration and International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. Until WSPR, there had never been an effort that studied the response of people in their own homes and performing daily activities to non-traditional, low sonic booms.WSPR was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle. Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Pennsylvania State University, Tetra Tech, and Fidell Associates, Inc.A major objective of the effort included exposing a community with the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences expected in high-air traffic regions with a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data was collected using multiple survey methods. The research focused on essential elements of community response testing including subject recruitment, survey methods, instrumentation systems, flight planning and operations, and data analysis methods.This paper focuses on NASAs role in the efforts

  13. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  15. Measurement of Tritium Activity in Plants by Ice Extraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; Ovad, S.; Tubul, Y.; Tsroya, S.; Gonen, R.; Abraham, A.; Weinstein, M.; German, U.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is produced primarily by interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. However, nuclear installations may add significantly tritium to the surroundings, increasing its concentration. The main sources of tritium released by man are linked to the nuclear power cycle: nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or tritium production plants. Tritium is found in the environment mainly as tritiated water, in gaseous or liquid form (HTO, T2O), in the surrounding air and in soil. It accumulates in plants, which may use as a measure to the level of tritium concentration in the environment. The most common routes of tritium uptake from the environment in plants are from atmospheric humidity and by precipitation water which entered the soil. The fraction of tritium bound to the plant tissue is small compared to that present as tritiated water in the plant (from 0.06% to 0.3% for growing crops). The tritiated water uptake is through the roots, as tritiated water from the soil follows a pathway similar to that of ordinary water. As most tritium in plants consists of tritiated water, the measurements of only the tissue free water tritium concentration (as HTO or T2O) gives an accurate estimate of the tritium content in the plant. Analyzing free tritium in biological matrices usually requires using the freeze-drying method to extract the water from the sample, and then measure the water collected in a cold trap with a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). The 'freeze-drying' occurs because of the sublimation of the frozen water inside the plant, that takes place when the temperature is beneath the triple point and the vapour pressure is low. In the temperature range of -5° to -10° C the mechanism that plants use to avoid freezing is drawing of water from the cell protoplasm into the intercellular spaces. Changes in cell membrane permeability allow water to leave the cell and enter the spaces between the cells where it freezes instead of freezing within the

  16. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  17. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  18. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  19. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  20. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    OpenAIRE

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, S?ren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equip...

  2. Pressurised liquid extraction of flavonoids in onions. Method development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Christensen, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method for quantification of flavonoids in onions was developed and validated. Five extraction methods were tested on freeze-dried onions and subsequently high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was used for quantification of seven flavonoids...... extraction methods. However. PLE was the preferred extraction method because the method can be highly automated, use only small amounts of solvents, provide the cleanest extracts, and allow the extraction of light and oxygen-sensitive flavonoids to be carried out in an inert atmosphere protected from light......-step PLE method showed good selectivity, precision (RSDs = 3.1-11%) and recovery of the extractable flavonoids (98-99%). The method also appeared to be a multi-method, i.e. generally applicable to, e.g. phenolic acids in potatoes and carrots....

  3. Sonication assisted Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a protocol was developed to obtain stable lines of the Spring Dendrobium cultivar 'Sanya' via sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was used with the binary vector AG205 containing the chalcone ...

  4. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  5. The Social and Sonic Semantics of Reggae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This study breaks new ground into the emerging discipline of sonic semantics and the study of language ideologies in postcolonial contexts. The case in point is the reggae sociality in Port Vila, Vanuatu, where young Pacific Islanders are forming new ways of socializing on the fragments of kastom...

  6. The Sound of Stigmatization: Sonic Habitus, Sonic Styles, and Boundary Work in an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2015-07-01

    Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory.

  7. Approaches for on-line coupling of extraction and chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoetylaeinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the approaches available in order to perform on-line coupling of various extraction techniques with liquid and gas chromatography, for the analysis of semivolatile and nonvolatile analytes in liquid and solid samples. The main focus is on the instrumental set-up of these techniques. Selected real applications are described by way of illustration. The extraction methods suitable for on-line coupling covered in this review are: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane-based techniques, pressurised liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and microwave- and sonication-assisted extractions. The following systems are not covered in this review: on-line coupled solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography, purge-and-trap-GC, and membrane extraction with a sorbent interface-GC. (orig.)

  8. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  9. Genomic DNA extraction method from Annona senegalensis Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    SDS) or cetyl-methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The released DNA should be protected from endogenous nuclease. Ethylenediaminetetra acetate. (EDTA) is often included in the extraction buffer to chelate magnesium ions ...

  10. Development and Application of Solid Phase Extraction Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    for the addition of organic modifier, sample load volume, conditioning solvent, washing solvent and ... Solid phase extraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water samples, ... such as polymeric, activated carbon or silica modified with.

  11. Ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method and taking into consideration the sputtering loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guofeng; Wang Dewu; Ying Chuntong

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method is studied by PIC-MCC simulation. The energy and angle distribution of extracted ions is recorded and the sputtering loss is calculated. The results show that compared with parallel electrode method, RF resonance method has advantages such as shorter extraction time, lower collision loss and sputtering loss and higher collection ratio; the extraction time and collision loss are decreased with increasing extraction voltage, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases; collision loss is decreased with increasing magnetic field, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases. (authors)

  12. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  13. Hydrolysis constants of tetravalent neptunium by using solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Kohara, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis constants of tetravalent neptunium (Np(IV)) were determined by solvent extraction method using thenoyltrifluoroacetone(TTA). In order to avoid colloid formation, a stock solution of carrier-free 239 Np(V) was from 243 Am milked. The valence of Np in the solution was then reduced to Np(IV) by using zinc amalgam. The hydrolysis constants (β m ) of the reactions, Np 4+ + mOH - = Np(OH) m (4-m)+ was evaluated by using distribution ratios at ionic strengths (I) = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0. All experiments were performed in oxygen-free 0.5% H 2 -N 2 atmosphere (below 1.0 ppm of O 2 ) in a glove-box at room temperature (23 ± 2 C) to avoid oxidation of Np(IV). The β m values were extrapolated to the standard state (I = 0) by using the specific ion interaction theory (SIT), and the formation constants at I = 0 were determined to be log β 1 = 13.91 ± 0.23, log β 2 = 27.13 ± 0.15, log β 3 = 37.70 ± 0.30 and log β 4 = 46.16 ± 0.30. The ion interaction coefficients were also evaluated to be ε(NpOH 3+ , ClO 4 - ) = 0.49 ± 0.15, ε(Np(OH) 2 2+ , ClO 4 - ) = 0.35 ± 0.11, and ε(Np(OH) 3 + , ClO 4 - ) = 0.29 ± 0.15. (orig.)

  14. Hydrolysis constants of tetravalent neptunium by using solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohara, Y. [Inspection and Development Co., Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The hydrolysis constants of tetravalent neptunium (Np(IV)) were determined by solvent extraction method using thenoyltrifluoroacetone(TTA). In order to avoid colloid formation, a stock solution of carrier-free {sup 239}Np(V) was from {sup 243}Am milked. The valence of Np in the solution was then reduced to Np(IV) by using zinc amalgam. The hydrolysis constants ({beta}{sub m}) of the reactions, Np{sup 4+} + mOH{sup -} = Np(OH){sub m}{sup (4-m)+} was evaluated by using distribution ratios at ionic strengths (I) = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0. All experiments were performed in oxygen-free 0.5% H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere (below 1.0 ppm of O{sub 2}) in a glove-box at room temperature (23 {+-} 2 C) to avoid oxidation of Np(IV). The {beta}{sub m} values were extrapolated to the standard state (I = 0) by using the specific ion interaction theory (SIT), and the formation constants at I = 0 were determined to be log {beta}{sub 1} = 13.91 {+-} 0.23, log {beta}{sub 2} = 27.13 {+-} 0.15, log {beta}{sub 3} = 37.70 {+-} 0.30 and log {beta}{sub 4} = 46.16 {+-} 0.30. The ion interaction coefficients were also evaluated to be {epsilon}(NpOH{sup 3+}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) = 0.49 {+-} 0.15, {epsilon}(Np(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) = 0.35 {+-} 0.11, and {epsilon}(Np(OH){sub 3}{sup +}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) = 0.29 {+-} 0.15. (orig.)

  15. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress, and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    ResonantSonic drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. The ResonantSonic drilling method requires no mud, air, or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. A specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into steel drill pipe and creates a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ResonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs utilize the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  16. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  17. Effect of soil contaminant extraction method in determining toxicity using the Microtox(reg.) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, G.A.; Young, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the influence of different extraction methods on the measured toxicity of contaminated soils collected from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites differing in soil composition and contaminant concentration. Aged soils from a number of MGP sites were extracted using a saline solution, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was assessed using two forms of Microtox tests: acute aqueous tests on saline and SFE soil extracts and solid-phase tests (SPTs) on soil particles. Microtox SPTs were performed on soils before and after SFE to determine resulting toxicity reduction. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Toxicity of soil extracts is related to contaminant concentrations of the extracts, (2) measured toxicity significantly decreases with less vigorous methods of extraction, and (3) supercritical fluid extractability correlates with measured toxicity. The EC50s for SPTs performed before and after SFE were not different for some soils but were significantly greater after extraction for other soils tested. The most significant toxicity reductions were observed for soils exhibiting the highest toxicity in both preextraction SPTs and acute aqueous tests. Acute Microtox tests performed on SFE extracts showed significantly lower EC50s than those reported from saline-based extraction procedures. Toxicity of the soils measured by Microtox SPTs was strongly correlated with both SFE efficiency and measures of contaminant aging. Data from this project provide evidence of sequestration and reduced availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils extracted via physiologically based procedures compared to vigorous physical extraction protocols

  18. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S; Borges, Leonardo L; Ribeiro, Claudia S C; Reifschneider, Francisco J B; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid-solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters found significant ( p Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10-25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. Habanero pepper , line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction and chromatographic analysis (HRGC-FID and HRGC-MS of Lupinus spp. alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nossack Ana C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid extracts from Lupinus spp., obtained by conventional methods (maceration/sonication - solid phase extraction; maceration/sonication - liquid-liquid extraction and SFE (supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 and modified CO2 (CO2/MeOH, CO2/EtOH, CO2/iPrOH and CO2/H2O were analysed by HRGC-FID (high resolution gas chromatography - flame ionization detector and HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The HRGC-FID quantitative analyses were performed with an internal standard method for quantification of lupanine, multiflorine and a spartein-like alkaloid. HRGC-MS allowed identification of the chemical constituents (alkaloids and other compounds from these extracts.

  20. Human DNA Extraction by Two Extraction Methods for Forensic Typification from Human Feces on FTA Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirleny Monserrat Sandoval-Arias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suspects in criminal investigations has been facilitated since DNA test are executed on different samples. The application of this technology for forensic typification from human fecal samples still presents complications therefore this research evaluated two DNA extraction protocols with modifications to determine that of major efficiency. Organic extractions and extractions using the commercial kit “IQTM DNA Casework Sample Kit for Maxwell ® 16” on FTA portions of 4cm2 and 1cm2 impregnated with feces from the same individual were done to accomplish the objective. In all the assays the results were useful, however; the best forensic typification (by the electropherogram characteristics was obtained by using the commercial kit in an area of 1 cm2 of FTA paper impregnated in a 1:4 dilution.

  1. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on

  2. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction method for determination of arsenic in water, food and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Majidi, Behrooz; Abdi, Khosrou

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction (UAISFSPE) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection (ET-AAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of arsenic (As) in various samples. A small amount of cationic surfactant is dissolved in the aqueous sample containing As ions, which were complexed by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate After shaking, a little volume of hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) as an ion-pairing agent was added into the solution by a microsyringe. Due to the interaction between surfactant and ion-pairing agent, solid particles are formed. The alkyl groups of the surfactant in the solid particles strongly interact with the hydrophobic groups of analytes and become bound. Sonication aids the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample solution and mass transfer of the analyte into the sorbent, thus reducing the extraction time. The solid particles are centrifuged, and the sedimented particles can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent to recover the absorbed analyte. After separation, total arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) was determined by ET-AAS. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 7 ng L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100 and relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1 µg L(-1) As(III) were 4.5% achieved. Consequently, the method was applied to the determination of arsenic in certified reference materials, water, food and biological samples with satisfactory results.

  3. Comparison of nine DNA extraction methods for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by real time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, André; Hodon, Mikael Arrais; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Oliveira, Ana Paula Ferreira de; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a high impact on the cattle industry, particularly in developing countries. PCR is a very sensitive method for detection of infectious agents, but the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis is largely dependent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA extraction methods for direct detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue. Nine commercial kits for DNA extraction were evalua...

  4. Comparison of the methods for tissue triiodothyronine T(3) extraction and subsequent radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaishi, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Aoki, M.; Shishiba, Y.; Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo

    1978-01-01

    Although there have been various reports on tissue T 3 concentration, the examination of the quality of radioimmunoassay has not been available. In the present study, we tried to determine whether the available methods for T 3 extraction are adequate for the various methods of T 3 radioimmunoassays used. T 3 was extracted from liver by ethanol extraction or by acid butanol extraction (Flock's method) and the extract was applied to radioimmunoassay either by Seralute T 3 column, ANS-double antibody or the ANS-charcoal method. The values of T 3 were compared with those obtained by isotope-equilibration method. The dilution curve of ethanol extract was not parallel with that of the standard in ANS-charcoal or ANS-double antibody technique. When the extract was tested by Seralate method, the dilution curve was parallel to the standard, whereas the T 3 value obtained with this method was two-fold higher than that with the isotope equilibration technique. The analysis of the ethanol extract suggested that the lipid extracted by ethanol interfered with the assay. The acid butanol extract when tested either by the ANS-double antibody or Seralate method, showed parallelism to the standard curve and gave T 3 values almost identical with those by the isotope-equilibration method. When tested by ANS-charcoal method, the dilution curve of the acid butanol extract was not parallel to the standard. Thus, to obtain reliable results, tissue extraction by Flock's method and subsequent T 3 radioimmunoassay by either ANS-double antibody or Seralate T 3 method are recommended. (author)

  5. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  6. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, Michael J.

    1992-04-01

    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  7. A rapid and low-cost DNA extraction method for isolating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The price of commercial DNA extraction methods makes the routine use of polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) based methods rather costly for scientists in developing countries. A guanidium thiocayante-based DNA extraction method was investigated in this study for the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA ...

  8. Extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal labelled with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Krtil, J.; Vecernik, J.

    1982-01-01

    An extraction method for the determination of inorganic iodides in Rose Bengal preparations labelled with 131 I is described. The method is based on the quantitative extraction of Rose Bengal into chloroform from acidic medium while the inorganic iodides remain in the aqueous phase. The method is simple, rapid, and reproducible. (author)

  9. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for detection of citrus huanglongbing in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Evelio Ángel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four DNA citrus plant tissue extraction protocols and three methods of DNA extraction from vector psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were compared as part of the validation process and standardization for detection of huanglongbing (HLB. The comparison was done using several criterias such as integrity, purity and concentration. The best quality parameters presented in terms of extraction of DNA from plant midribs tissue of citrus, were cited by Murray and Thompson (1980 and Rodríguez et al. (2010, while for the DNA extraction from psyllid vectors of HLB, the best extraction method was suggested by Manjunath et al.(2008.

  10. Study on combined effects of acidification and sonication on selected quality attributes of carrot juice during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, S.; Hu, B.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effects of acid blanching and sonication treatments on selected quality parameters of carrot juice stored at 4 degree C for 18 days. Carrots were blanched in acidified water (40g/L citric acid) at 100 degree C for 4 min and the juice was then extracted. Sonication of the juice was done at an amplitude level of 70% and a frequency of 20 kHz for 2 min at 15 degree C, keeping the pulse duration of 5 Sec on and 5 Sec off. As results, the combined treatment of acidification and sonication of carrot juice showed a significant decrease in pH and increase (P < 0.05) in acidity which remained stable during storage period. No significant changes were observed in Brix. Color values (L, a, b) and non enzymatic browning (NEB) influenced significantly in acidified and sonicated carrot juice during storage period. Maximum stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid were also observed in the combined treatment of acidification and sonication. The findings of this study indicated that the combined treatments of acidification and sonication may successfully be utilized for the production of high quality carrot juice with improved stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid during 18 days of storage. (author)

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cordia verbenacea extracts obtained by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Eliane M Z; Salvador, Ana A; Riehl, Carlos A S; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of extracts from Cordia verbenacea DC (Borraginaceae), a traditional medicinal plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The extracts were obtained using different extraction techniques: high-pressure operations and low-pressure methods. The high-pressure technique was applied to obtain C. verbenacea extracts using pure CO(2) and CO(2) with co-solvent at pressures up to 30MPa and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetone and dichloromethane were used to obtain extracts by low-pressure processes. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was also subjected to screening against four strains of bacteria using the agar dilution method. The extraction yields were up to 5.0% w/w and up to 8.6% w/w for supercritical fluid extraction with pure CO(2) and with ethyl acetate as co-solvent, respectively, while the low-pressure extraction indicates yields up to 24.0% w/w in the soxhlet extraction using water and aqueous mixture with 50% ethanol as solvents. The inhibitory activity of the extracts in gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than in gram-negative. The quantification and the identification of the extracts recovered were accomplished using GC/MS analysis. The most important components identified in the extract were artemetin, beta-sitosterol, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, among others.

  12. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. A method for efficient extraction of rotifers (Rotifera) from soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2010), s. 115-118 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil rotifers * Bdelloids * quantitative extraction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2010

  14. An improved method of DNA extraction from plants for pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based applications in plant molecular biology and molecular diagnostics for plant pathogens require good quality DNA for reliable and reproducible results. Leaf tissue is often the choice for DNA extraction, but the use of other sources such as tubers, stems, or seeds, is not uncommon.

  15. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... extraction technique is highly relied on the protein structure and its chemical characteristics. ..... EDTA, 1% Triton X 100, 80% glycerol, 1M DTT and distilled water) and vortexed ..... prot5438, doi : 10.1101/pdb.prot5438.

  16. Efficient method for the extraction of genomic DNA from wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... DNA is extracted from plant material it will also contain. *Corresponding author. ... an important issue in the field of plant molecular biology. Various plants ..... An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal ...

  17. A new method for microwave assisted ethanolic extraction of Mentha rotundifolia bioactive terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sarrió, María Jesús; Sanz, María Luz; Sanz, Jesús; González-Coloma, Azucena; Cristina Soria, Ana

    2018-04-14

    A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method using ethanol as solvent has been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design for the enhanced extraction of bioactive terpenoids from Mentha rotundifolia leaves; 100°C, 5 min, 1.125 g dry sample: 10 mL solvent and a single extraction cycle were selected as optimal conditions. Improved performance of MAE method in terms of extraction yield and/or reproducibility over conventional solid-liquid extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction was also previously assessed. A comprehensive characterization of MAE extracts was carried out by GC-MS. A total of 46 compounds, mostly terpenoids, were identified; piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the major compounds determined. Several neophytadiene isomers were also detected for the first time in MAE extracts. Different procedures (solid-phase extraction and activated charcoal (AC) treatment) were also evaluated for clean-up of MAE extracts, with AC providing the highest enrichment in bioactive terpenoids. Finally, the MAE method here developed is shown as a green, fast, efficient and reproducible liquid extraction methodology to obtain M. rotundifolia bioactive extracts for further application, among others, as food preservatives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Acoustic pressure in cavity of variously sized two-dimensional sonic crystals with various filling fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liangyu; Chen Lienwen; Liu Chiaming

    2009-01-01

    This study theoretically and experimentally investigates the acoustic pressure in the cavity of a 2D sonic crystal. Such crystals are composed of polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with a square array embedded in air background. The plane wave expansion method and the supercell calculation are employed to calculate the band structure and obtain the defect band. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the pressure field in the sonic crystal and calculate the pressure in the middle of the cavity as a function of frequency. The effects of sizes and filling fractions are investigated, and the quality factor of the cavity is discussed. The measured spectra and pressures in the defect of the sonic crystal demonstrate that the acoustic waves can be localized in the defect at the resonant frequency

  19. PRODUCTION WELL PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT USING SONICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Adewumi; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Robert W. Watson; Mario Farias; Glenn Heckman; Johnson Olanrewaju; Eltohami Eltohami; Bruce G. Miller; W. Jack Hughes; Thomas C. Montgomery

    2003-12-17

    The objective of this project is to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focuses on near wellbore formations. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project has been defined with each year consisting of four tasks. The first task is the laboratory-scale study whose goal is to determine the underlying principles of the technology. The second task will develop a scale-up mathematical model to serve as the design guide for tool development. The third task is to develop effective transducers that can operate with variable frequency so that the most effective frequencies can be applied in any given situation. The system, assembled as part of the production string, ensures delivery of sufficient sonic energy to penetrate the near-wellbore formation. The last task is the actual field testing of the tool. The first year of the project has been completed.

  20. Living Melodies - Coevolution Of Sonic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have constructed an artificial world of coevolving communicating agents. The behavior of the agents is described in terms of a simple genetic programming framework, which allows the evolution of foraging behavior and movement in order to reproduce, as well as sonic communication....... The sound of the entire world is used as musical raw material for the work. Musically interesting and useful structures are found to emerge....

  1. Sonic Fiction as the Mapping of Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2015-01-01

    The here proposed audio paper/audio lecture performance is an iteration of a site-specific participatory performance piece by Danish artist, composer and musician, Andreas Führer. The piece, which has the title THE MAP IS NOT THE TERRITORY D’OR, is a scored sound walk, which shows a map designati......) as a discussion and contextualisation of sonic materialist (Cox, 2011) and signifying representationalist (Kim-Cohen, 2009) positions....

  2. Six propositions on the sonics of pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlabocus, Sharif; Medhurst, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Pornography (and all its contentious pleasures, contested politics and attendant problematics) is enjoying a fresh wave of academic attention. The overwhelming majority of these studies, however, focus on the visual discourses of sexually explicit material. This risks the sonic dimensions of pornography being overlooked entirely. Yet porn is anything but silent. This speculative article maps out some of the ways in which the sounds of pornography (and the pornography of sound) might be approa...

  3. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  4. Auscultation of concrete hydraulic dams by sonic tomography; Auscultation des structures hydrauliques en beton par tomographie sonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrat, Y.; Rhazi, J.; Ballivy, G. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Civil; Cote, P. [Centre de Nantes, Bouguenais (France)

    1995-12-31

    Sonic tomography, a new nondestructive testing method, was described to document the aging and internal degradation of concrete structures. The method is based on the transmission of sonic waves through concrete structures. New tomographic methodology similar to that used in medical or geophysical imaging was applied to existing sonic auscultation techniques used in civil engineering. In the process the speed of propagation of sonic waves in structures is measured with arrays of detectors. Fissures or zones of degradation can be spatially localized and an internal image of the structure can be constructed. Case studies of two hydraulic dams, one from France, the other in Quebec were presented as illustrations. . The theory and experimental procedures involved were described. 16 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  5. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H 2 O (Chl/Met/H 2 O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H 2 O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step

  6. Measures of Ruleset Quality for General Rules Extraction Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2009), s. 867-879 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : rules extraction from data * quality measures * ruleset measures * ROC curves * observational logic * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.090, year: 2009

  7. GA Based Optimal Feature Extraction Method for Functional Data Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wan; Zehua Chen; Yingwu Chen; Zhidong Bai

    2010-01-01

    Classification is an interesting problem in functional data analysis (FDA), because many science and application problems end up with classification problems, such as recognition, prediction, control, decision making, management, etc. As the high dimension and high correlation in functional data (FD), it is a key problem to extract features from FD whereas keeping its global characters, which relates to the classification efficiency and precision to heavens. In this paper...

  8. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda Mamat Ghani; Norashikin Sain; Rozita Osman; Zuraidah Abdullah Munir

    2007-01-01

    The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

  9. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  10. Method evaluation of Fusarium DNA extraction from mycelia and wheat for down-stream real-time PCR quantification and correlation to mycotoxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Olsen, Monica; Börjesson, Thomas; Spliid, Niels Henrik Hytte; Simonsson, Magnus

    2008-04-01

    Identification of Fusarium species by traditional methods requires specific skill and experience and there is an increased interest for new molecular methods for identification and quantification of Fusarium from food and feed samples. Real-time PCR with probe technology (Taqman) can be used for the identification and quantification of several species of Fusarium from cereal grain samples. There are several critical steps that need to be considered when establishing a real-time PCR-based method for DNA quantification, including extraction of DNA from the samples. In this study, several DNA extraction methods were evaluated, including the DNeasy Plant Mini Spin Columns (Qiagen), the Bio robot EZ1 (Qiagen) with the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen), and the Fast-DNA Spin Kit for Soil (Qbiogene). Parameters such as DNA quality and stability, PCR inhibitors, and PCR efficiency were investigated. Our results showed that all methods gave good PCR efficiency (above 90%) and DNA stability whereas the DNeasy Plant Mini Spin Columns in combination with sonication gave the best results with respect to Fusarium DNA yield. The modified DNeasy Plant Mini Spin protocol was used to analyse 31 wheat samples for the presence of F. graminearum and F. culmorum. The DNA level of F. graminearum could be correlated to the level of DON (r(2) = 0.9) and ZEN (r(2) = 0.6) whereas no correlation was found between F. culmorum and DON/ZEA. This shows that F. graminearum and not F. culmorum, was the main producer of DON in Swedish wheat during 2006.

  11. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  12. Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo Da Costa; Cheh, Albert M.; Balan; , Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2017-05-16

    Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are provided. The methods include converting native cellulose I.sub..beta. to cellulose III.sub.I by pretreating the lignocellulosic biomass with liquid ammonia under certain conditions, and performing extracting or digesting steps on the pretreated/converted lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient method for extracting DNA of parasites causing bovine babesiosis from tick vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an economically important pest costing animal agriculture billions of dollars worldwide. This research focuses on a comparison of three different tick DNA extraction methods: phenol-chloroform extraction (method 1), a modified version...

  15. Optimization design and application of composite ultrasonic extraction method for effective constituents of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite ultrasonic process is used to extract five constituent components of green tea, namely caffeine, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The optimal parameters of the extraction process are determined using the robust Taguchi design method. The extracted products are analyzed using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed ultrasonic technique in extracting the components of interest. Moreover, it is shown that the optimal extraction parameters depend on the particular component. In general, the present findings provide a useful reference for further research on the processing of green tea.

  16. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  17. Characterization of sonicated natural zeolite/ferric chloride hexahydrate by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, T. A. B.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of sonicated Bayah natural zeolite with and without ferric chloride hexahydrate solution using infrared method has been studied. High intensity ultrasonic waves were exposed to the samples for 40 min, 80 min and 120 min. Infra red spectra analysis was conducted to evaluate zeolite vibrational spectrum contributions, namely, the vibrations from the framework of the zeolite, from the charge-balancing cations, and from the relatively isolated groups, such as the surface OH groups and their behavior after sonication process. An addition of FeCl3.6H2O and sonication process on natural zeolite improved secondary building units link by forming oxygen bridges and also close relationship with duration of applied high intensity ultrasonic process. Longer ultrasonic process resulted in more increment of O-H absorbance.

  18. Synergic effect of tungstophosphoric acid and sonication for rapid synthesis of crystalline nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Zain, Siti Khadijah; Das, Rasel; Centi, Gabriele

    2016-03-15

    The utilization of sonication in combination with tungstophosphoric acid (PWA) catalyst reduces dramatically the time of operations from 30h to 10min by using an optimum sonication power of 225W. The basic cellulosic structure is maintained, allowing preparing high-quality nanocellulose. The size of the nanocellulose obtained was in the range from 15 to 35nm in diameter and several hundred nanometers in length, with a high crystallinity of about 88%. The nanocellulose shows a surface charge of -38.2mV which allows to obtaina stable colloidal suspension. The surface tension of the stable, swollen aqueous nanocellulose was close to that of water. These characteristics, together with the fast procedure allowed from the synergic combination of PWA and sonication, evidence the high potential of the proposed method for the industrial production of nanocellulose having the properties required in many applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. The cryptophyte cells on the filters were disrupted at -80 °C and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes.•Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs.•Applicable for industrial and biological purposes.

  20. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoisen, Christina Vinum; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive...... freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. Filters with the cryptophyte were frozen (−80 °C) and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C...... followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes. •Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs. •Applicable for industrial and biological purposes....

  1. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasahat Ullah Siddiqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state

  2. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  3. Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination

  4. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  5. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  6. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1 from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, and ultrasonic extraction (UE, MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  8. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Gao, Hua; Wang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yu-Xue; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3- O -[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters-such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time-were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H -pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  9. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  10. Methods for extracting climate indicator data from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.

  11. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale.

  12. An effective placental cotyledons proteins extraction method for 2D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Niu J; Daim, Leona D J; Jamil, Amilia A M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2017-03-01

    Effective protein extraction is essential especially in producing a well-resolved proteome on 2D gels. A well-resolved placental cotyledon proteome, with good reproducibility, have allowed researchers to study the proteins underlying the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the best protein extraction protocol for the extraction of protein from placental cotyledons tissues for a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Based on widely used protein extraction strategies, 12 different extraction methodologies were carefully selected, which included one chemical extraction, two mechanical extraction coupled protein precipitations, and nine chemical extraction coupled protein precipitations. Extracted proteins were resolved in a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 2D-GE; then, it was compared with set criteria: extraction efficacy, protein resolution, reproducibility, and recovery efficiency. Our results revealed that a better profile was obtained by chemical extraction in comparison to mechanical extraction. We further compared chemical extraction coupled protein precipitation methodologies, where the DNase/lithium chloride-dense sucrose homogenization coupled dichloromethane-methanol precipitation (DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE) method showed good protein extraction efficiency. This, however, was carried out with the best protein resolution and proteome reproducibility on 2D-gels. DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE was efficient in the extraction of proteins from placental cotyledons tissues. In addition, this methodology could hypothetically allow the protein extraction of any tissue that contains highly abundant lipid and glycogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  15. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods Suitable for PCR-based Detection and Genotyping of Clostridium botulinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, Bruna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina

    2013-01-01

    in terms of cost, time, labor, and supplies. Eleven botulinum toxin–producing clostridia strains and 25 samples (10 food, 13 clinical, and 2 environmental samples) naturally contaminated with botulinum toxin–producing clostridia were used to compare 4 DNA extraction procedures: Chelex® 100 matrix, Phenol......Sufficient quality and quantity of extracted DNA is critical to detecting and performing genotyping of Clostridium botulinum by means of PCR-based methods. An ideal extraction method has to optimize DNA yield, minimize DNA degradation, allow multiple samples to be extracted, and be efficient...

  16. A comparison of tissue preparation methods for protein extraction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of the main tropical industrial crops. Cocoa has a very high level of interfering substances, such as polysaccharides and phenolic compounds that could prevent the isolation of suitable protein. Efficient methods of protein extraction are a priority to successfully apply proteomic analyses. We compared and evaluated two methods (A and B of tissue preparation for total protein extract by phenol/SDS extraction protocol. The difference in the application of the two methods was that extensively washed dry powder of pod tissue were made in Method A, whereas that crude extract were prepared Method B. Extracted proteins were examined using one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-D. Results show that each extraction method isolated a unique subset of cocoa pod proteome. Principal component analysis showed little variation in the data obtained using Method A, while that in Methods B showed no low reproducibility, thus demonstrating that Method A is a reliable for preparing cocoa pod proteins. The protocol is expected to be applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues and to be of interest to laboratories involved in plant proteomics analyses. A combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based isolation techniques.

  17. Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Ilakya, S; Anitha, S L; Sabarima, S Pooja; Priya, B

    2017-01-01

    Four factors three level face centered central composite response surface design was employed in this study to investigate and optimize the effect of process variables (liquid-solid (LS) ratio (10:1-20:1ml/g), pH (1-2), sonication time (15-30min) and extraction temperature (50-70°C)) on the maximum extraction yield of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) peel by ultrasound assisted extraction method. Numerical optimization method was adapted in this study and the following optimal condition was obtained as follows: Liquid-solid ratio of 15:1ml/g, pH of 1.6, sonication time of 24min and temperature of 60°C. The optimal condition was validated through experiments and the observed value was interrelated with predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Review on the Extraction Methods of Crude oil from all Generation Biofuels in last few Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, G.; Nageswara Rao, P.; Renganathan, S.

    2018-03-01

    The ever growing demand for the energy fuels, economy of oil, depletion of energy resources and environmental protection are the inevitable challenges required to be solved meticulously in future decades in order to sustain the life of humans and other creatures. Switching to alternate fuels that are renewable, biodegradable, economically and environmentally friendly can quench the minimum thirst of fuel demands, in addition to mitigation of climate changes. At this moment, production of biofuels has got prominence. The term biofuels broadly refer to the fuels derived from living matter either animals or plants. Among the competent biofuels, biodiesel is one of the promising alternates for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, environmentally friendly, safe to use with wide applications and biodegradable. Due to which, it has become a major focus of intensive global research and development of alternate energy. The present review has been focused specifically on biodiesel. Concerning to the biodiesel production, the major steps includes lipid extraction followed by esterification/transesterification. For the extraction of lipids, several extraction techniques have been put forward irrespective of the generations and feed stocks used. This review provides theoretical background on the two major extraction methods, mechanical and chemical extraction methods. The practical issues of each extraction method such as efficiency of extraction, extraction time, oil sources and its pros and cons are discussed. It is conceived that congregating information on oil extraction methods may helpful in further research advancements to ease biofuel production.

  19. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  20. An automatic rat brain extraction method based on a deformable surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Zara, Jason M

    2013-08-15

    The extraction of the brain from the skull in medical images is a necessary first step before image registration or segmentation. While pre-clinical MR imaging studies on small animals, such as rats, are increasing, fully automatic imaging processing techniques specific to small animal studies remain lacking. In this paper, we present an automatic rat brain extraction method, the Rat Brain Deformable model method (RBD), which adapts the popular human brain extraction tool (BET) through the incorporation of information on the brain geometry and MR image characteristics of the rat brain. The robustness of the method was demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images of 64 rats and compared with other brain extraction methods (BET, PCNN, PCNN-3D). The results demonstrate that RBD reliably extracts the rat brain with high accuracy (>92% volume overlap) and is robust against signal inhomogeneity in the images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Improved AAM Method for Extracting Human Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active appearance model is a statistically parametrical model, which is widely used to extract human facial features and recognition. However, intensity values used in original AAM cannot provide enough information for image texture, which will lead to a larger error or a failure fitting of AAM. In order to overcome these defects and improve the fitting performance of AAM model, an improved texture representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, translation invariant wavelet transform is performed on face images and then image structure is represented using the measure which is obtained by fusing the low-frequency coefficients with edge intensity. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can increase the accuracy of the AAM fitting and express more information for structures of edge and texture.

  2. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  3. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  4. Diagnosis of Persistent Infection in Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: Evaluation of the Effect of Sonication on Antibiotic Release from Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : When treating periprosthetic joint infection with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers can be used in the interval between prosthetic removal and reimplantation. In our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of the study was to assess whether that sonication causes an elution of antibiotics, leading to elevated antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid inhibiting bacterial growth and thus causing false-negative cultures. Methods : A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to March 2016. Inclusion criteria were a two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Spacers were made of gentamicin-containing cement to which tobramycin and vancomycin were added. Antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid were determined by mass-spectometry (LC-MS). Results : 30 patients were identified (15 hip and 14 knee and 1 ankle arthroplasties). No cases of culture positive sonicated spacer fluid were observed in our serie. In the sonication fluid median concentrations of 13.2µg/ml, 392 µg/ml and 16.6 µg/ml were detected for vancomycin, tobramycin and gentamicin, respectively. According to the European Committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST), these concentrations released from cement spacer during sonication are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for most bacteria relevant in prosthetic joint infections. Conclusion: Spacer sonication cultures remained sterile in all of our cases. Elevated concentrations of antibiotics released during sonication could explain partly negative-cultured sonicated spacers. Indeed, the absence of antibiotic free interval during the two-stages can also contribute to false-negative spacers sonicated cultures.

  5. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Khan, Sumaira

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As(3+) and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As(3+) was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As(3+) and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As(3+) and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  6. Trial of prestressed concrete cable testing by sonic integrity tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masanobu

    1997-01-01

    Highway road network of Japan is in good condition. Those roads were constructed as social infrastructures. But some damages were occurred and propagated in concrete structure which passed more than 20 years after construction. As for the damages load caring capacity of bridge was decreased due to fatigue of increasing traffics and bridge vibration. Recently many troubles happened in PC structure as cut off of the main cables by corrosion and flying the non-grouting PC-bar to roadside. Some case can be checked by hammering testing method and X-ray photo cut or not and condition of cement grouting. But another case has not checking method. Now we are testing for the PC cables by sonic integrity tester which is modified from FPDS(Foundation Pile Diagnosis System). We report in this paper on this result and scope of the future of this method.

  7. Reference Proteome Extracts for Mass Spec Instrument Performance Validation and Method Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mike; Urh, Marjeta; Saveliev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Biological samples of high complexity are required to test protein mass spec sample preparation procedures and validate mass spec instrument performance. Total cell protein extracts provide the needed sample complexity. However, to be compatible with mass spec applications, such extracts should meet a number of design requirements: compatibility with LC/MS (free of detergents, etc.)high protein integrity (minimal level of protein degradation and non-biological PTMs)compatibility with common sample preparation methods such as proteolysis, PTM enrichment and mass-tag labelingLot-to-lot reproducibility Here we describe total protein extracts from yeast and human cells that meet the above criteria. Two extract formats have been developed: Intact protein extracts with primary use for sample preparation method development and optimizationPre-digested extracts (peptides) with primary use for instrument validation and performance monitoring

  8. Solid phase extraction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the determination of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranaw Kumar; Telmore, Vijay M.; Jaison, P.G.; Sarkar, Arnab; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum group of element (PGEs) are extensively used as a catalyst and anticancer reagent. Due to the soft nature of PGEs, sulphur based donar ligands are used for the separation of these elements. Studies on the formation of different species are helpful for obtaining the ideas about separation of these elements from the complex matrices. Palladium (Pd) is studied as a representative element which is also formed by nuclear fission of fissile nuclides. In view of the relatively small amount of solvent required for separation, solid phase extraction is preferred over most of the separation methods. Solid phase extraction method using DPX as a stationary phase was previously reported for the separation of Pd in SHLLW using benzoylthiourea as a ligand. However, in case of large volume samples manual extraction by DPX is tedious task. In the present studies, the feasibility of extraction using benzoylthiourea on automated solid phase extraction system was carried out for the extraction of Pd

  9. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  10. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 2: Data base construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Reiners, S. J.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized method for storing, updating and augmenting experimentally determined overpressure signatures has been developed. A data base of pressure signatures for a shuttle type vehicle has been stored. The data base has been used for the prediction of sonic boom with the program described in Volume I.

  11. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  12. A Method of Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Xiaoqi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing image is an important and difficult task.Since remote sensing images include complicated information,the methods that extract roads by spectral,texture and linear features have certain limitations.Also,many methods need human-intervention to get the road seeds(semi-automatic extraction,which have the great human-dependence and low efficiency.The road-extraction method,which uses the image segmentation based on principle of local gray consistency and integration shape features,is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the image is segmented,and then the linear and curve roads are obtained by using several object shape features,so the method that just only extract linear roads are rectified.Secondly,the step of road extraction is carried out based on the region growth,the road seeds are automatic selected and the road network is extracted.Finally,the extracted roads are regulated by combining the edge information.In experiments,the images that including the better gray uniform of road and the worse illuminated of road surface were chosen,and the results prove that the method of this study is promising.

  13. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Etoricoxib in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and economic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of etoricoxib in tablet formulation. During the course of study, it was observed that acidic solution of the drug formed colored ion-association complexes with Bromocresol Green (BCG and Bromocresol Purple (BCP which were soluble in chloroform. This property of the drug was followed for the development of colorimetric methods for analysis of drug. The complex of etoricoxib with BCG and BCP showed λmax at 416 nm and 408 nm respectively. These methods were validated statistically. Recovery studies gave satisfactory results indicating that none of common additives and excipients interfere the assay method. The proposed methods are found to be simple, accurate and reproducible that was successfully applied for the analysis of tablet formulation.

  14. Advanced RF-KO slow-extraction method for the reduction of spill ripple

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Uesugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Kanazawa, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    Two advanced RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction methods have been developed at HIMAC in order to reduce the spill ripple for accurate heavy-ion cancer therapy: the dual frequency modulation (FM) method and the separated function method. As a result of simulations and experiments, it was verified that the spill ripple could be considerably reduced using these advanced methods, compared with the ordinary RF-KO method. The dual FM method and the separated function method bring about a low spill ripple within standard deviations of around 25% and of 15% during beam extraction within around 2 s, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  15. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqin Quan

    Full Text Available The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1 Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2 Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1 on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  16. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  17. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. K. Y.; Kusuma, H. S.; Syahputra, M. E.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  19. [Comparison of two nucleic acid extraction methods for norovirus in oysters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiao; Li, Hui; Deng, Xiaoling; Mo, Yanling; Fang, Ling; Ke, Changwen

    2013-04-01

    To explore a convenient and effective method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters suitable for long-term viral surveillance. Two methods, namely method A (glycine washing and polyethylene glycol precipitation of the virus followed by silica gel centrifugal column) and method B (protease K digestion followed by application of paramagnetic silicon) were compared for their performance in norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in naturally infected oysters and in oysters with induced infection. The two methods yielded comparable positive detection rates for the samples, but the recovery rate of the virus was higher with method B than with method A. Method B is a more convenient and rapid method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters and suitable for long-term surveillance of norovirus.

  20. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP): Revisiting the Efficacy of Sample Preparation, Sonication, Quantification of Sheared DNA, and Analysis via PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The “quantitative” ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA) method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR). Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest. PMID:22046253

  1. Optimization of Ficus deltoidea Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction by Box-Behnken Statistical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Ong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, sonication time, and solvent-to-sample ratio on Ficus deltoidea leaves was investigated using ultrasound-assisted extraction by response surface methodology (RSM. Total phenolic content (TPC of F. deltoidea extracts was identified using Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g. Box-Behnken statistical design (BBD was the tool used to find the optimal conditions for maximum TPC. Besides, the extraction yield was measured and stated in percentage. The optimized TPC attained was 455.78 mg GAE/g at 64% ethanol concentration, 10 minutes sonication time, and 20 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio whereas the greatest extraction yield was 33% with ethanol concentration of 70%, sonication time of 40 minutes, and solvent-to-material ratio at 40 mL/g. The determination coefficient, R2, for TPC indicates that 99.5% capriciousness in the response could be clarified by the ANOVA model and the value of 0.9681 of predicted R2 is in equitable agreement with the 0.9890 of adjusted R2. The present study shows that ethanol water as solvent, a short time of 10 minutes, and adequate solvent-to-sample ratio (20 mL/g are the best conditions for extraction.

  2. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  3. Adaptation Method Bligh & Dyer a Lipid Extraction of Colomb ian Microalgas Biodiesel Production for Third Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Delgado Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the biodiesel production process from microalgae, the cell disruption and lipid extraction stages are important for obtaining triglycerides that can be transesterified to biodiesel and glycerol. In this work, the Bligh & Dyer method was adapted for lipid extraction from native microalgae using organosolv pretreatment or acid hydrolysis as cell disruption mechanism for improve the extraction process. Chloroform-methanol-water are the solvents employed in the Bligh & Dyer extraction method. The microalgae species Botryococcus braunii, Nannocloropsis, Closterium, Guinardia y Amphiprora were employed for the experimental part. Adaptation of the method was found the best extraction conditions, these were: 1:20 biomass/solvent ratio, initial ratio solvents CHCl3:CH3OH:H2O (1:2:0, stirring conditions of 5000 rpm for 14 minutes and centrifuge of 3400 rpm for 15 minutes. The cell disruption mechanisms allowed to obtain extracts with high lipid content after performing the extraction with Bligh & Dyer method, but decreases significantly the total extraction yield. Finally, the fatty acids profiles showed that Botryococcus braunii specie contains higher acylglycerol percentage area suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  4. Recent developments in the extraction separation method for treatment of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Rongzhou; Song Chongli; Zhu Yongjun

    2000-01-01

    A description and review of the recent developments in the extraction separation method for partitioning transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is presented. The extraction separation processes such as TRUEX process, DIAMEX process, DIDPA process, CTH process, TRPO process are briefly discussed

  5. Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Yi, L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted

  6. Determination of copper in natural waters and sediments by extraction spectroscopic method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    A sensitive extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed based on the formation and extraction of Cu(II)-neocuproine-rosenbengal into chloroform. The molar extinction coefficient of the system is 55.500 and Beer's law is obeyed up to 15...

  7. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  8. Test plan for sonic drilling at the Hanford Site in FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLellan, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This test plan describes the field demonstration of the sonic drilling system being conducted as a coordinated effort between the VOC-Arid ID (Integrated Demonstration) and the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA (Expedited Response Action) programs at Hanford. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the Water Development Corporation's drilling system, modify components as necessary and determine compatible drilling applications for the sonic drilling method for use at facilities in the DOE complex. The sonic demonstration is being conducted as the first field test under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) which involves the US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Hanford Company and Water Development Corporation. The sonic drilling system will be used to drill a 45 degree vadose zone well, two vertical wells at the VOC-Arid ID site, and several test holes at the Drilling Technology Test Site north of the 200 Area fire station. Testing at other locations will depend on the performance of the drilling method. Performance of this technology will be compared to the baseline drilling method (cable-tool)

  9. Evaluation and comparison of FTA card and CTAB DNA extraction methods for non-agricultural taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Chloe S; Stevenson, Florence O; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, effective DNA extraction method is necessary for comprehensive analysis of plant genomes. This study analyzed the quality of DNA obtained using paper FTA cards prepared directly in the field when compared to the more traditional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based extraction methods from silica-dried samples. DNA was extracted using FTA cards according to the manufacturer's protocol. In parallel, CTAB-based extractions were done using the automated AutoGen DNA isolation system. DNA quality for both methods was determined for 15 non-agricultural species collected in situ, by gel separation, spectrophotometry, fluorometry, and successful amplification and sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast gene markers. The FTA card extraction method yielded less concentrated, but also less fragmented samples than the CTAB-based technique. The card-extracted samples provided DNA that could be successfully amplified and sequenced. The FTA cards are also useful because the collected samples do not require refrigeration, extensive laboratory expertise, or as many hazardous chemicals as extractions using the CTAB-based technique. The relative success of the FTA card method in our study suggested that this method could be a valuable tool for studies in plant population genetics and conservation biology that may involve screening of hundreds of individual plants. The FTA cards, like the silica gel samples, do not contain plant material capable of propagation, and therefore do not require permits from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for transportation.

  10. New method for extracting tumors in PET/CT images based on the probability distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Shuhei; Hontani, Hidekata; Hukami, Tadanori

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we propose a method for extracting tumors from PET/CT images by referring to the probability distribution of pixel values in the PET image. In the proposed method, first, the organs that normally take up fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (e.g., the liver, kidneys, and brain) are extracted. Then, the tumors are extracted from the images. The distribution of pixel values in PET images differs in each region of the body. Therefore, the threshold for detecting tumors is adaptively determined by referring to the distribution. We applied the proposed method to 37 cases and evaluated its performance. This report also presents the results of experiments comparing the proposed method and another method in which the pixel values are normalized for extracting tumors. (author)

  11. Accelerated H-LBP-based edge extraction method for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Shuang; Zhao, Chen-yi; Huang, Ji-peng [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Sun, Jia-ning, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-01-11

    With the goal of achieving real time and efficient edge extraction for digital radiography, an accelerated H-LBP-based edge extraction method (AH-LBP) is presented in this paper by improving the existing framework of local binary pattern with the H function (H-LBP). Since the proposed method avoids computationally expensive operations with no loss of quality, it possesses much lower computational complexity than H-LBP. Experimental results on real radiographies show desirable performance of our method. - Highlights: • An accelerated H-LBP method for edge extraction on digital radiography is proposed. • The novel AH-LBP relies on numerical analysis of the existing H-LBP method. • Aiming at accelerating, H-LBP is reformulated as a direct binary processing. • AH-LBP provides the same edge extraction result as H-LBP does. • AH-LBP has low computational complexity satisfying real time requirements.

  12. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Cheng; Hua Gao; Rong-Rong Wang; Yang Liu; Yu-Xue Hou; Xiao-Hong Liu; Kun Liu; Wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction t...

  13. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semidán eRobaina Estévez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application.

  14. An updated ciguatoxin extraction method and silica cleanup for use with HPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of P-CTX-1, PCTX-2 and P-CTX-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lauren; Carter, Steve; Capper, Angela

    2015-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs. ultrasonication); C-18 column sizes (500 mg vs. 900 mg); and a novel HILIC SPE cleanup. Despite minor differences, blending and sonication proved equally effective. Larger 900 mg columns offered a greater extraction efficiency, increasing detected P-CTX-1 by 37% (P HPLC-MS/MS. Silica cleanup extraction efficiencies were also compared between the highly effective and validated ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) and current best practice extraction method employed by Queensland Health (QH). Overall, the QH protocol proved more effective, especially when paired with the newly adapted cleanup, as this increased the amount of extracted P-CTX-1 by 46% (P C-18 column and newly adapted HILIC SPE cleanup was most effective at extracting P-CTX-1, -2, -3. Specifically P-CTX-1, the primary ciguatoxin congener of concern due to its extremely high potency and an ability to cause CFP at 0.1 μg/kg following consumption of carnivorous fish flesh. Despite being more time intensive (an additional 85 min per batch of 12 samples), this will be especially effective for assessing lower toxin burdens, which may be near the limit of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of five methods for total DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol reagent, Puregene solutions and DNeasy column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis.

  16. A simple and efficient total genomic DNA extraction method for individual zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazhan, Hanafiah; Waiho, Khor; Shahreza, Md Sheriff

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches are widely applied in species identification and taxonomic studies of minute zooplankton. One of the most focused zooplankton nowadays is from Subclass Copepoda. Accurate species identification of all life stages of the generally small sized copepods through molecular analysis is important, especially in taxonomic and systematic assessment of harpacticoid copepod populations and to understand their dynamics within the marine community. However, total genomic DNA (TGDNA) extraction from individual harpacticoid copepods can be problematic due to their small size and epibenthic behavior. In this research, six TGDNA extraction methods done on individual harpacticoid copepods were compared. The first new simple, feasible, efficient and consistent TGDNA extraction method was designed and compared with the commercial kit and modified available TGDNA extraction methods. The newly described TGDNA extraction method, "Incubation in PCR buffer" method, yielded good and consistent results based on the high success rate of PCR amplification (82%) compared to other methods. Coupled with its relatively consistent and economical method the "Incubation in PCR buffer" method is highly recommended in the TGDNA extraction of other minute zooplankton species.

  17. Direct DNA extraction method of an obligate parasitic fungus from infected plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wang, C L; Peng, W Y; Yang, J; Lan, M Q; Zhang, B; Li, J B; Zhu, Y Y; Li, C Y

    2015-12-28

    Powdery mildew and rust fungi are obligate parasites that cannot live without host organisms. They are difficult to culture in synthetic medium in the laboratory. Genomic DNA extraction is one of the basic molecular techniques used to study the genetic structure of populations. In this study, 2 different DNA extraction methods, Chelex-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), were used to extract DNA from euonymus powdery mildew and Puccinia striiformis f. sp Tritici. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a race-specific-marker rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequence. Both DNA extraction methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that both Chelex-100 and CTAB were effective for extracting genomic DNA from infected plant tissue. However, less DNA was required for the Chelex-100 method than for the CTAB method, and the Chelex-100 method involved fewer steps, was simpler and safer, and did not require organic solvents compared to the CTAB method. DNA quality was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and the results showed that genomic DNA extracted using the Chelex-100 method was better than that using CTAB method, and was sufficient for studying the genetic structure of population.

  18. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  19. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A new extraction method of bioflavanoids from poisonous plant (Gratiola Officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Polukonova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The way of vegetable raw materials extraction which allows to receive nontoxical composition of biological active agents from poisonous plants such as Gratiola officinalis L. was described. The alkaloids exit changes with the increase of ethyl alcohol percentage (from 15% to 96%. The extract was obtained using 96% ethanol and did not give positive high quality reaction to the content of alkaloids. The chemical composition with new nontoxical biological active composition of Gratiola officinalis L. extract was investigated. The extract contains a previously unknown plant – bioflavonoid quercetin. The average value of quercetin in this extract using the calibration curve of the standard sample quercetin (98% Sigma is 0.66%. In the dry rest of extractive substances (Gratiola officinalis L. the quantity of quercetin was 350 mkg (obtained from 10 g of a dry grass as was established by the method of a liquid chromatography.

  1. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  2. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine mitragynine (MG) in rat and human urine, and to investigate the influence of caffeine (CF) on urinary excretion of MG in rats. Methods: A two-dimensional wash-elute ...

  3. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornanong Aramwit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin (SS can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, but SS obtained from some extraction methods can be toxic at higher concentrations. Heat-degraded SS was the least toxic to cells and activated the highest collagen production, while urea-extracted SS showed the lowest cell viability and collagen production. SS from urea extraction was severely harmful to cells at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL. SS from all extraction methods could still promote collagen production in a concentration-dependent manner, even at high concentrations that are toxic to cells.

  4. Summary of water body extraction methods based on ZY-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Sun, Li Jian; Zhang, Chuan Yin

    2017-12-01

    Extracting from remote sensing images is one of the main means of water information extraction. Affected by spectral characteristics, many methods can be not applied to the satellite image of ZY-3. To solve this problem, we summarize the extraction methods for ZY-3 and analyze the extraction results of existing methods. According to the characteristics of extraction results, the method of WI& single band threshold and the method of texture filtering based on probability statistics are explored. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of all methods are compared, which provides some reference for the research of water extraction from images. The obtained conclusions are as follows. 1) NIR has higher water sensitivity, consequently when the surface reflectance in the study area is less similar to water, using single band threshold method or multi band operation can obtain the ideal effect. 2) Compared with the water index and HIS optimal index method, object extraction method based on rules, which takes into account not only the spectral information of the water, but also space and texture feature constraints, can obtain better extraction effect, yet the image segmentation process is time consuming and the definition of the rules requires a certain knowledge. 3) The combination of the spectral relationship and water index can eliminate the interference of the shadow to a certain extent. When there is less small water or small water is not considered in further study, texture filtering based on probability statistics can effectively reduce the noises in result and avoid mixing shadows or paddy field with water in a certain extent.

  5. Floral Sonication is an Innate Behaviour in Bumblebees that can be Fine-Tuned with Experience in Manipulating Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Tan; Whitehorn, Penelope; Lye, Gillian C; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    Bumblebees demonstrate an extensive capacity for learning complex motor skills to maximise exploitation of floral rewards. This ability is well studied in nectar collection but its role in pollen foraging is less well understood. Floral sonication is used by bees to extract pollen from some plant species with anthers which must be vibrated (buzzed) to release pollen. Pollen removal is determined by sonication characteristics including frequency and amplitude, and thus the ability to optimise sonication should allow bees to maximise the pollen collection. We investigated the ability of the buff-tailed bumblebee ( Bombus terrestris ) to modify the frequency and amplitude of their buzzes with increasing experience manipulating flowers of the buzz-pollinated plant Solanum rostratum . We analysed flight and feeding vibrations generated by naïve workers across feeding bouts. Feeding buzzes were of a higher frequency and a lower amplitude than flight buzzes. Both flight and feeding buzzes had reduced amplitudes with increasing number of foraging trips. However, the frequency of their feeding buzzes was reduced significantly more than their flight buzzes as bumblebee workers gained experience manipulating flowers. These results suggest that bumblebees are able to modify the characteristics of their buzzes with experience manipulating buzz-pollinated flowers. We discuss our findings in the context of bumblebee learning, and the current understanding of the optimal sonication characteristics for releasing pollen in buzz-pollinated species. Our results present a tantalising insight into the potential role of learning in floral sonication, paving the way for future research in this area.

  6. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  7. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  8. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  9. Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Comparison with Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in new products from aromatic plants as medical and nutritional compounds is increasing. The aim of this work was to apply different extraction methods, including the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and to test the antioxidant activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. In vitro efficacy assessments were performed using enzymatic assays. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and volatile oil obtained from supercritical fluid extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify components. The total phenolic content in the extracts ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 85.3 ± 8.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 93.3 ± 3.9 micromole catechin equivalents per gram of dry weight of extract. All the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and the reducing power test. Extracts obtained from methanol had a higher antioxidant capacity per the DPPH test results (IC50 = 3.05 ± 0.36 mg/mL and the reducing power test assay 306.8 ± 21.8 μmol of trolox equivalents per gram of extract (TE/g compared with ethanolic or supercritical fluid extracts. However, using the ABTS assay, the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction had a higher antioxidant capacity with an IC50 of 1.74 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Finally, the examined extracts showed practically no acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory capacity and a slight inhibitory activity against tyrosinase.

  10. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-06-01

    This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP) was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica . Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t -butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP). Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  11. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali M. Kulkarni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica. Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t-butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP. Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL CAPACITY OF LOLOH SEMBUNG (Blumea balsamifera BASED ON EXTRACTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGA. Wita Kusumawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Loloh sembung (Blumea balsamifera is a traditional herbal drink which of the extraction methods can be done by boiling and brewing. Loloh sembung was prepared from fresh and dried leaves. Loloh sembung extracted by different methods producing phenolic content, tannin content, antioxidant capacity, are different. Dried leaves were extracted by brewing have high content of total phenolic was at 13.15±0.11 mg GAE/g sample, while dried leaves were extracted by boiling have high content of tannin and antioxidant capacity were at 1.65±0.01 mg TAE/g sample and 5.55±0.01 mg GAE/g sample respectiveliy. Both of fresh and dried leaves were extracted by boiling and brewing were not show inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  13. Comparison of nine DNA extraction methods for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a high impact on the cattle industry, particularly in developing countries. PCR is a very sensitive method for detection of infectious agents, but the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis is largely dependent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA extraction methods for direct detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue. Nine commercial kits for DNA extraction were evaluated when combined with two real time PCRs. The DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit from QIAGEN showed better performance and sensitivity followed by the DNA Mini Kit RBC and FTA Elute Micro Card. Results suggested that, even when the analytical sensitivity of the qPCR is very high, the extraction method can influence the diagnostic sensitivity.

  14. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden); Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Skyllberg, U. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden); Tu, Q.; Frech, W. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Bleam, W.F. [Dept. of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO{sub 4} and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g{sup -1}, calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times

  15. Comparative efficiency of different methods of gluten extraction in indigenous varieties of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Samra; Hussain, Zaib; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Ahmad Nagra, Saeed; Ashbeal Ziai, Naheeda

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated six varieties of locally grown wheat (Lasani, Sehar, Miraj-08, Chakwal-50, Faisalabad-08 and Inqlab) procured from Punjab Seed Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan for their proximate contents. On the basis of protein content and ready availability, Faisalabad-08 (FD-08) was selected to be used for the assessment of comparative efficiency of various methods used for gluten extraction. Three methods, mechanical, chemical and microbiological were used for the extraction ...

  16. a High Precision dem Extraction Method Based on Insar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinshuang; Liu, Lingling; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Xitao; Geng, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan for Geoinformatics Business, it is proposed that the new InSAR technology should be applied to surveying and mapping production, which will become the innovation driving force of geoinformatics industry. This paper will study closely around the new outline of surveying and mapping and then achieve the TerraSAR/TanDEM data of Bin County in Shaanxi Province in X band. The studying steps are as follows; Firstly, the baseline is estimated from the orbital data; Secondly, the interferometric pairs of SAR image are accurately registered; Thirdly, the interferogram is generated; Fourth, the interferometric correlation information is estimated and the flat-earth phase is removed. In order to solve the phase noise and the discontinuity phase existing in the interferometric image of phase, a GAMMA adaptive filtering method is adopted. Aiming at the "hole" problem of missing data in low coherent area, the interpolation method of low coherent area mask is used to assist the phase unwrapping. Then, the accuracy of the interferometric baseline is estimated from the ground control points. Finally, 1 : 50000 DEM is generated, and the existing DEM data is used to verify the accuracy through statistical analysis. The research results show that the improved InSAR data processing method in this paper can obtain the high-precision DEM of the study area, exactly the same with the topography of reference DEM. The R2 can reach to 0.9648, showing a strong positive correlation.

  17. A Simple Sonication Improves Protein Signal in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-En; Su, Pin-Rui; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Proper matrix application is crucial in obtaining high quality matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Solvent-free sublimation was essentially introduced as an approach of homogeneous coating that gives small crystal size of the organic matrix. However, sublimation has lower extraction efficiency of analytes. Here, we present that a simple sonication step after the hydration in standard sublimation protocol significantly enhances the sensitivity of MALDI MSI. This modified procedure uses a common laboratory ultrasonicator to immobilize the analytes from tissue sections without noticeable delocalization. Improved imaging quality with additional peaks above 10 kDa in the spectra was thus obtained upon sonication treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Effect of Legionella pneumophila sonicate on killing of Listeria monocytogenes by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechnitzer, C; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H

    1993-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila shares with other intracellular pathogens the ability to resist intracellular killing within phagocytes. An increasing number of cellular components of L. pneumophila are proposed as pathogenic factors of the organism. At the site of infection, the phagocytic cells will be ......Legionella pneumophila shares with other intracellular pathogens the ability to resist intracellular killing within phagocytes. An increasing number of cellular components of L. pneumophila are proposed as pathogenic factors of the organism. At the site of infection, the phagocytic cells...... are most likely to represent the inhibitory factors. The inhibitory activity of L. pneumophila sonic extract appears to be related to inhibition of killing mechanisms since uptake of Listeria was not affected by the sonicate. Our observations indicate that as Legionella infection progresses, bacterial...

  19. Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhimin

    2008-12-01

    Four extraction methods: (1) solvent (SOL), (2) ultrasound assisted solvent (UA), (3) saponification and solvent (SP), and (4) saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA), were used in sample preparation for quantifying vitamin E (tocopherols) in chicken liver and plasma samples. The extraction yields of SOL, UA, SP, and SP-UA methods obtained by adding delta-tocopherol as internal reference were 95%, 104%, 65%, and 62% for liver and 98%, 103%, 97%, and 94% for plasma, respectively. The methods with saponification significantly affected the stabilities of tocopherols in liver samples. The measured values of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols using the solvent only extraction (SOL) method were much lower than that using any of the other extraction methods. This indicated that less of the tocopherols in those samples were in a form that could be extracted directly by solvent. The measured value of alpha-tocopherol in the liver sample using the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was 1.5-2.5 times of that obtained from the saponification and solvent (SP) method. The differences in measured values of tocopherols in the plasma samples by using the two methods were not significant. However, the measured value of the saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA) method was lower than either the saponification and solvent (SP) or the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method. Also, the reproducibility of the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was greater than any of the saponification methods. Compared with the traditional saponification method, the ultrasound assisted solvent method could effectively extract tocopherols from sample matrix without any chemical degradation reactions, especially for complex animal tissue such as liver.

  20. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction

  1. Comparison of column chromatographic and precipitation methods for the purification of a macrocyclic polyether extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Felinto, C.; Rhoads, S.; Clapper, M.; Finch, J.W.; Hay, B.P.

    1999-11-01

    Column chromatography on aminopropyl-derivatized silica and precipitation of a complex with perchloric acid have been evaluated as methods for the purification of di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), a compound frequently employed for the selective extraction of strontium from acidic nitrate media. Both methods are shown to provide a simple and effective means of eliminating inactive sample components (i.e., impurities or stereoisomers incapable of extracting strontium) from the crown ether and enriching the material in 4(z),4{prime}(z) cis-syn-cis DtBuCH18C6, a stereoisomer capable of highly efficient strontium extraction.

  2. Comparison of column chromatographic and precipitation methods for the purification of a macrocyclic polyether extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.; Felinto, C.; Rhoads, S.; Clapper, M.; Finch, J.W.; Hay, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    Column chromatography on aminopropyl-derivatized silica and precipitation of a complex with perchloric acid have been evaluated as methods for the purification of di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), a compound frequently employed for the selective extraction of strontium from acidic nitrate media. Both methods are shown to provide a simple and effective means of eliminating inactive sample components (i.e., impurities or stereoisomers incapable of extracting strontium) from the crown ether and enriching the material in 4(z),4 prime(z) cis-syn-cis DtBuCH18C6, a stereoisomer capable of highly efficient strontium extraction

  3. Use of laminar chromatographic methods for determination of separation conditions in column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghersini, G.; Cerrai, E.

    1978-01-01

    Possibilities of using laminar chromatographic methods (paper and thin-layer chromatography) to determine optimal separation conditions in column extraction chromatography are analysed. Most of the given laminar methods are presented as Rf-spectra, i.e. as dependences of Rf found experimentally on eluating solution component concentration. Interrelation between Rf and distribution coefficients of corresponding liquid extraction systems and retention volumes of chromatographic columns is considered. Literature data on extraction paper and thin-layer chromatography of elements with various immovable phases are presented

  4. A Review of Extraction and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Tartrazine (E 102) in Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Kobun; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2017-07-04

    Tartrazine is an azo food dye, which is orange-colored and water soluble. It is usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine has the potential to cause an adverse health effect on humans, such as hyperactivity in children, allergy, and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive and EU Scientific Committee for Food have standardized the acceptable daily intake for tartrazine that is 7.5 mg kg -1 body weight. Many researchers have detected the presence of tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper, we highlighted various tartrazine detection and extraction methods. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high-performance liquid chromatography, electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Also, we discuss following extraction steps: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane filtration, cloud point extraction, and other extraction method. In addition, a brief overview is presented explaining the synthesis process and metabolism of tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give an insight into different extraction and analytical methods for the determination of tartrazine in healthy foods, which will attract the attention of public toward food safety and quality, and also the interest of food industry and government bodies.

  5. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the detection of Cytomegalovirus in dried blood spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, D.; Baecher, K.; Amin, M.; Nikolova, S.; Gallagher, M.; Dollard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) are collected universally from newborns and may be valuable for the diagnosis of congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The reported analytical sensitivity for DBS testing compared to urine or saliva varies greatly across CMV studies. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the performance of various DNA extraction methods for identification of CMV in DBS including those used most often in CMV studies. Study design Whatman® Grade 903 filter paper cards were spotted with blood samples from 25 organ transplant recipients who had confirmed CMV viremia. Six DNA extraction methods were compared for relative yield of viral and cellular DNA: 2 manual solution-based methods (Gentra Puregene, thermal shock), 2 manual silica column-based methods (QIAamp DNA Mini, QIAamp DNA Investigator), and 2 automated methods (M48 MagAttract Mini, QIAcube Investigator). DBS extractions were performed in triplicate followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results For extraction of both viral and cellular DNA, two methods (QIAamp DNA Investigator and thermal shock) consistently gave the highest yields, and two methods (M48 MagAttract Mini and QIAamp DNA Mini) consistently gave the lowest yields. There was an average 3-fold difference in DNA yield between the highest and lowest yield methods. Conclusion The choice of DNA extraction method is a major factor in the ability to detect low levels of CMV in DBS and can largely account for the wide range of DBS sensitivities reported in studies to date. PMID:25866346

  6. From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine interac...

  7. Merging Metallic Catalysts and Sonication: A Periodic Table Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Domini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This account summarizes and discusses recent examples in which the combination of ultrasonic waves and metal-based reagents, including metal nanoparticles, has proven to be a useful choice in synthetic planning. Not only does sonication often enhance the activity of the metal catalyst/reagent, but it also greatly enhances the synthetic transformation that can be conducted under milder conditions relative to conventional protocols. For the sake of clarity, we have adopted a structure according to the periodic-table elements or families, distinguishing between bulk metal reagents and nanoparticles, as well as the supported variations, thus illustrating the characteristics of the method under consideration in target synthesis. The coverage focuses essentially on the last decade, although the discussion also strikes a comparative balance between the more recent advancements and past literature.

  8. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  9. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  10. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  11. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Ecoacoustic Music for Geoscience: Sonic Physiographies and Sound Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The author describes specific ecoacoustic applications in his original compositions, Sonic Physiography of a Time-Stretched Glacier (2015), Catalog of Roughness (2017), Sound Cast of Matanuska Glacier (2016) and Ecoacoustic Concerto (Eagle Rock) (2014). Ecoacoustic music uses technology to map systems from nature into music through techniques such as sonification, material amplification, and field recording. The author aspires for this music to be descriptive of the data (as one would expect from a visualization) and also to function as engaging and expressive music/sound art on its own. In this way, ecoacoustic music might provide a fitting accompaniment to a scientific presentation (such as music for a science video) while also offering an exemplary concert hall presentation for a dedicated listening public. The music can at once support the communication of scientific research, and help science make inroads into culture. The author discusses how music created using the data, sounds and methods derived from earth science can recast this research into a sonic art modality. Such music can amplify the communication and dissemination of scientific knowledge by broadening the diversity of methods and formats we use to bring excellent scientific research to the public. Music can also open the public's imagination to science, inspiring curiosity and emotional resonance. Hearing geoscience as music may help a non-scientist access scientific knowledge in new ways, and it can greatly expand the types of venues in which this work can appear. Anywhere music is played - concert halls, festivals, galleries, radio, etc - become a venue for scientific discovery.

  13. EXTRACTION OF ROOF LINES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES BY A GROUPING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dal Poz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  15. Focused ultrasound-mediated noninvasive blood-brain barrier modulation: preclinical examination of efficacy and safety in various sonication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewoo; Kong, Chanho; Cho, Jae Sung; Lee, Jihyeon; Koh, Chin Su; Yoon, Min-Sik; Na, Young Cheol; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The application of pharmacological therapeutics in neurological disorders is limited by the ability of these agents to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently gained attention for its potential application as a method for locally opening the BBB and thereby facilitating drug delivery into the brain parenchyma. However, this method still requires optimization to maximize its safety and efficacy for clinical use. In the present study, the authors examined several sonication parameters of FUS influencing BBB opening in small animals. METHODS Changes in BBB permeability were observed during transcranial sonication using low-intensity FUS in 20 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The authors examined the effects of FUS sonication with different sonication parameters, varying acoustic pressure, center frequency, burst duration, microbubble (MB) type, MB dose, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and total exposure time. The focal region of BBB opening was identified by Evans blue dye. Additionally, H & E staining was used to identify blood vessel damage. RESULTS Acoustic pressure amplitude and burst duration were closely associated with enhancement of BBB opening efficiency, but these parameters were also highly correlated with tissue damage in the sonicated region. In contrast, MB types, MB dose, total exposure time, and PRF had an influence on BBB opening without conspicuous tissue damage after FUS sonication. CONCLUSIONS The study aimed to identify these influential conditions and provide safety and efficacy values for further studies. Future work based on the current results is anticipated to facilitate the implementation of FUS sonication for drug delivery in various CNS disease states in the near future.

  16. The sonic window: second generation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William F.; Fuller, Michael I.; Brush, Edward V.; Eames, Matthew D. C.; Owen, Kevin; Ranganathan, Karthik; Blalock, Travis N.; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    Medical Ultrasound Imaging is widely used clinically because of its relatively low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time nature. However, even with these advantages ultrasound has failed to permeate the broad array of clinical applications where its use could be of value. A prime example of this untapped potential is the routine use of ultrasound to guide intravenous access. In this particular application existing systems lack the required portability, low cost, and ease-of-use required for widespread acceptance. Our team has been working for a number of years to develop an extremely low-cost, pocket-sized, and intuitive ultrasound imaging system that we refer to as the "Sonic Window." We have previously described the first generation Sonic Window prototype that was a bench-top device using a 1024 element, fully populated array operating at a center frequency of 3.3 MHz. Through a high degree of custom front-end integration combined with multiplexing down to a 2 channel PC based digitizer this system acquired a full set of RF data over a course of 512 transmit events. While initial results were encouraging, this system exhibited limitations resulting from low SNR, relatively coarse array sampling, and relatively slow data acquisition. We have recently begun assembling a second-generation Sonic Window system. This system uses a 3600 element fully sampled array operating at 5.0 MHz with a 300 micron element pitch. This system extends the integration of the first generation system to include front-end protection, pre-amplification, a programmable bandpass filter, four sample and holds, and four A/D converters for all 3600 channels in a set of custom integrated circuits with a combined area smaller than the 1.8 x 1.8 cm footprint of the transducer array. We present initial results from this front-end and present benchmark results from a software beamformer implemented on the Analog Devices BF-561 DSP. We discuss our immediate plans for further

  17. Comparison of two silica-based extraction methods for DNA isolation from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2016-09-01

    One of the most demanding DNA extractions is from bones and teeth due to the robustness of the material and the relatively low DNA content. The greatest challenge is due to the manifold nature of the material, which is defined by various factors, including age, storage, environmental conditions, and contamination with inhibitors. However, most published protocols do not distinguish between different types or qualities of bone material, but are described as being generally applicable. Our laboratory works with two different extraction methods based on silica membranes or the use of silica beads. We compared the amplification success of the two methods from bone samples with different qualities and in the presence of inhibitors. We found that the DNA extraction using the silica membrane method results an in higher DNA yield but also in a higher risk of co-extracting impurities, which can act as inhibitors. In contrast the silica beads method shows decreased co-extraction of inhibitors but also less DNA yield. Related to our own experiences it has to be considered that each bone material should be reviewed independently regarding the analysis and extraction method. Therefore, the most ambitious task is determining the quality of the bone material, which requires substantial experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance in different extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Lin, L. J.; Huang, X. B.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    It was developed for the analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance extracted by steam distillation (SD), ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with retention index (RI) method. There were multiple volatile components of the oils extracted by the three above-mention methods respectively identified; meanwhile, each one was quantified by area normalization method. The results indicated that the content of 1,8-Cineole, the index constituent, by SD was similar as SFE, and higher than UAE. Although UAE was less time consuming and consumed less energy, the oil quality was poorer due to the use of organic solvents was hard to degrade. In addition, some constituents could be obtained by SFE but could not by SD. In conclusion, essential oil of different extraction methods from the same batch of materials had been proved broadly similarly, however, there were some differences in composition and component ratio. Therefore, development and utilization of different extraction methods must be selected according to the functional requirements of products.

  19. An Effective Fault Feature Extraction Method for Gas Turbine Generator System Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis is very important to maintain the operation of a gas turbine generator system (GTGS in power plants, where any abnormal situations will interrupt the electricity supply. The fault diagnosis of the GTGS faces the main challenge that the acquired data, vibration or sound signals, contain a great deal of redundant information which extends the fault identification time and degrades the diagnostic accuracy. To improve the diagnostic performance in the GTGS, an effective fault feature extraction framework is proposed to solve the problem of the signal disorder and redundant information in the acquired signal. The proposed framework combines feature extraction with a general machine learning method, support vector machine (SVM, to implement an intelligent fault diagnosis. The feature extraction method adopts wavelet packet transform and time-domain statistical features to extract the features of faults from the vibration signal. To further reduce the redundant information in extracted features, kernel principal component analysis is applied in this study. Experimental results indicate that the proposed feature extracted technique is an effective method to extract the useful features of faults, resulting in improvement of the performance of fault diagnosis for the GTGS.

  20. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  1. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  2. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Stenberg, L.

    1985-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  3. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of a centrifugation-flotation method for extracting Ascaris ova from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranston, Imogen; Teoh, Penelope J.; baker, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    method to extract STH ova from soil makes it challenging to examine whether the use of latrines may or may not have an effect on environmental contamination with ova. The present study evaluated the recovery rate of a method developed to extract STH ova from soil. Methods: The adapted centrifugation...... with increasing soil moisture content, particle size and organic matter content. The association between recovery rate and organic matter content was statistically significant. Conclusions: The present study identified a low recovery rate for an adapted centrifugation-flotation method, although this was similar...

  5. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  6. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Ni, Wenwen; Sun, Qiang; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2013-01-01

    The Cole function is widely used in bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) applications. Fitting the measured BIS data onto the model and then extracting the Cole parameters (R 0 , R ∞ , α and τ) is a common practice. Accurate extraction of the Cole parameters from the measured BIS data has great significance for evaluating the physiological or pathological status of biological tissue. The traditional least-squares (LS)-based curve fitting method for Cole parameter extraction is often sensitive to noise or outliers and becomes non-robust. This paper proposes an improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation (LAD) method. Comprehensive simulation experiments are carried out and the performances of the LAD method are compared with those of the LS method under the conditions of outliers, random noises and both disturbances. The proposed LAD method exhibits much better robustness under all circumstances, which demonstrates that the LAD method is deserving as an improved alternative to the LS method for Cole parameter extraction for its robustness to outliers and noises. (paper)

  8. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  9. [Clinical use of the Sonic Air MM 1500 and the Meca Sonic 1400 in canal preparation in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Ba, I; Kane, A W; Mbaye, M; Ndoye Diop, A; Agboton-Johnson, C A

    1991-03-01

    The preparation for canalisation has remained manual for a long time, technically constrictive and lasting for a long time. The application of ultrasound in Endontony allows us to tackle more calmly the canal course of the teath. The aim of this work is to make a qualitative comparison of the endosonic technique and the manual technique with reference to cases treated in the Dentisterie Opératoire clinic in Dakar. 40 teeth of a complex canal anatomy and or in the posterior position in the buccal cavity were submitted to either a manual canalisation preparation or endosconic followed by monconic canal filling with a paste: 3 inc oxyde eugenol and iodoform. OPERATING FORMULA: Preparatory X rays: Allow us to evaluate the length of the work or the operating length after catheterisation: LO--length PRO, APEX RADIO-IMM LO--operating length PRO - occlusive point of reference The parietal support technique: The "synergetic" effect of ultrasonic oscillations of cavitation and of micro-acoustic currents associated with the action of the irrigation solution allow us to obtain canal incision. the pneumatic Sonic Air MM 1500; the Meca Sonic MMR 1400 coupled to a standard ISO motor; SHAPERS and Meca Shapers. Activated by shaper or Méca Shaper. Classic monoconic canal filling: Wadding paste + zinc oxyde paste-iodoform eugenol. X rays for orthocentric monitoring. RESULTS--DISCUSSION: In 60% of the cases treated, the patients presented with a complete dentition. The third inferior molar was in almost all the cases, the cause of the patient seeking a dental consultation. By endosonic treatment-conservation of teeth which would otherwise have been destined for extraction; biopulectomy or instituted pulpectomy for cases of desdodontite, endosconic amplication and canal sealing after the cooling of the inflammation. Duration of treatment: 2 sessions for gangrenous cases or desmodondite and one session for biopulpectomy or pulpectomy, with 4 sessions in 10% of the cases. Operation

  10. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: → Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. → Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. → Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  11. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  12. Diagnosis Of Persistent Infection In Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: PCR analysis of Sonication fluid From Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Tafin, Ulrika Furustrand; Borens, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: When treating periprosthetic joint infections with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers are used in the interval between removal of prosthesis and reimplantation. According to our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of our study was to investigate whether PCR analysis would improve the detection of bacteria in the spacer sonication fluid. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria were two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Beside tissues samples and sonication, broad range bacterial PCRs, specific S. aureus PCRs and Unyvero-multiplex PCRs were performed on the sonicated spacer fluid. Results: 30 patients were identified (15 hip, 14 knee and 1 ankle replacements). At reimplantation, cultures of tissue samples and spacer sonication fluid were all negative. Broad range PCRs were all negative. Specific S. aureus PCRs were positive in 5 cases. We had two persistent infections and four cases of infection recurrence were observed, with bacteria different than for the initial infection in three cases. Conclusion: The three different types of PCRs did not detect any bacteria in spacer sonication fluid that was culture-negative. In our study, PCR did not improve the bacterial detection and did not help to predict whether the patient will present a persistent or recurrent infection. Prosthetic 2-stage exchange with short interval and antibiotic-impregnated spacer is an efficient treatment to eradicate infection as both culture- and molecular-based methods were unable to detect bacteria in spacer sonication fluid after reimplantation.

  13. Comparison of water extraction methods in Tibet based on GF-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lingjun; Shang, Kun; Liu, Jing; Sun, Zhongqing

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared four different water extraction methods with GF-1 data according to different water types in Tibet, including Support Vector Machine (SVM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Decision Tree Classifier based on False Normalized Difference Water Index (FNDWI-DTC), and PCA-SVM. The results show that all of the four methods can extract large area water body, but only SVM and PCA-SVM can obtain satisfying extraction results for small size water body. The methods were evaluated by both overall accuracy (OAA) and Kappa coefficient (KC). The OAA of PCA-SVM, SVM, FNDWI-DTC, PCA are 96.68%, 94.23%, 93.99%, 93.01%, and the KCs are 0.9308, 0.8995, 0.8962, 0.8842, respectively, in consistent with visual inspection. In summary, SVM is better for narrow rivers extraction and PCA-SVM is suitable for water extraction of various types. As for dark blue lakes, the methods using PCA can extract more quickly and accurately.

  14. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  15. Extraction optimization and UHPLC method development for determination of the 20-hydroxyecdysone in Sida tuberculata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Hemerson S; Koetz, Mariana; Santos, Marí Castro; Jandrey, Elisa Helena Farias; Folmer, Vanderlei; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro

    2018-04-01

    Sida tuberculata (ST) is a Malvaceae species widely distributed in Southern Brazil. In traditional medicine, ST has been employed as hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. Additionally, this species is chemically characterized by flavonoids, alkaloids and phytoecdysteroids mainly. The present work aimed to optimize the extractive technique and to validate an UHPLC method for the determination of 20-hydroxyecdsone (20HE) in the ST leaves. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used in method optimization. The extractive methods tested were: static and dynamic maceration, ultrasound, ultra-turrax and reflux. In the Box-Behnken three parameters were evaluated in three levels (-1, 0, +1), particle size, time and plant:solvent ratio. In validation method, the parameters of selectivity, specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification (LOD, LOQ), precision, accuracy and robustness were evaluated. The results indicate static maceration as better technique to obtain 20HE peak area in ST extract. The optimal extraction from surface response methodology was achieved with the parameters granulometry of 710 nm, 9 days of maceration and plant:solvent ratio 1:54 (w/v). The UHPLC-PDA analytical developed method showed full viability of performance, proving to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust for 20HE detection in ST leaves. The average content of 20HE was 0.56% per dry extract. Thus, the optimization of extractive method in ST leaves increased the concentration of 20HE in crude extract, and a reliable method was successfully developed according to validation requirements and in agreement with current legislation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  17. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  18. Method Development for Extraction of Butyrylcholin- esterase using Protein-G Agarose Spin Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta S. Indapurkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE is a biomarker of organophosphate (OP poisoning and can be used as a diagnostic marker to measure exposure to OP compounds. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to extract BuChE from human plasma. BuChE was extracted from plasma using the NAb protein-G Agarose Spin Kit. Factors affecting extraction like incubation time, plasma volume and cross-linking of antibodies to agarose beads were evaluated. All samples were analyzed for BuChE activity using the Ellman’s assay. The incubation times of plasma and anti-BuChE antibodies marginally affected the extraction efficiency of BuChE whereas a decrease in plasma volume increased the extraction efficiency. Cross-linking of anti-BuChE antibodies on agarose increased the extraction efficiency. The NAb protein-G Spin Kit can be used successfully to extract BuChE from human plasma. This extraction technique may be coupled to downstream analytical analyses for diagnosing exposure to OP compounds.

  19. Development of automatic extraction method of left ventricular contours on long axis view MR cine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Shinichi; Iijima, Naoto; Yamasaki, Kazunari; Fujita, Akinori

    1995-01-01

    In the MRI cardiac function analysis, left ventricular volume curves and diagnosis parameters are obtained by extracting the left ventricular cavities as regions of interest (ROI) from long axis view MR cine images. The ROI extractions had to be done by manual operations, because automatization of the extraction is difficult. A long axis view left ventricular contour consists of a cardiac wall part and an aortic valve part. The above mentioned difficulty is due to the decline of contrast on the cardiac wall part, and the disappearance of edge on the aortic valve part. In this paper, we report a new automatic extraction method for long axis view MR cine images, which needs only 3 manually indicated points on the 1st image to extract all the contours from the total sequence of images. At first, candidate points of a contour are detected by edge detection. Then, selecting the best matched combination of candidate points by Dynamic Programming, the cardiac wall part is automatically extracted. The aortic valve part is manually extracted for the 1st image by indicating both the end points, and is automatically extracted for the rest of the images, by utilizing the aortic valve motion characteristics throughout a cardiac cycle. (author)

  20. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.

    Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.

    First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.

    Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  1. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical study of Atopic Dermatitis patient treated with Poison Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chi-young

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is desinged in order to evaluate the Poison extraction method for the Atopic dermatitis. Methods : The authors observed the two cases of Atopic dermatitis patients who previously used steroid-based ointment. for treating the Poison Extraction Method. Conclusions : 1. In case 1, the patient with mild case of Atopic dermatitis in face is treated with the Poison extraction method. Rash symptoms intensed for first few days. As sweating appeared in the local area from the seventh day, all the symptoms was disappeared rapidly. No recurrence was found. 2. In case 2, the patient with severe case of Atopic dermatitis in whole body is treated with the Poison extraction method. The symptoms intensed after two months and all the symptoms of itchiness, rash, scaly letter dissapeared in the third and fourth months. No recurrence was found. 3. In both cases of mild and severe cases of Atopic dermatitis. all the symptoms were disappeared and no recurrence was found with the Poison Extraction Method.

  3. Evaluation of extraction methods for ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans employing HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Catanante, Gaëlle; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa is an important ingredient for the chocolate industry and for many food products. However, it is prone to contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA), which is highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. In this work, four different extraction methods were tested and compared based on their recoveries. The best protocol was established which involves an organic solvent-free extraction method for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans using 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) in water within 30 min. The extraction method is rapid (as compared with existing methods), simple, reliable and practical to perform without complex experimental set-ups. The cocoa samples were freshly extracted and cleaned-up using immunoaffinity column (IAC) for HPLC analysis using a fluorescence detector. Under the optimised condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for OTA were 0.62 and 1.25 ng ml(-1) respectively in standard solutions. The method could successfully quantify OTA in naturally contaminated samples. Moreover, good recoveries of OTA were obtained up to 86.5% in artificially spiked cocoa samples, with a maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.7%. The proposed extraction method could determine OTA at the level 1.5 µg kg(-)(1), which surpassed the standards set by the European Union for cocoa (2 µg kg(-1)). In addition, an efficiency comparison of IAC and molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) column was also performed and evaluated.

  4. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for human gut microbial community profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Song, Eun-Ji; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jangwon; Nam, Young-Do

    2018-03-01

    The human gut harbors a vast range of microbes that have significant impact on health and disease. Therefore, gut microbiome profiling holds promise for use in early diagnosis and precision medicine development. Accurate profiling of the highly complex gut microbiome requires DNA extraction methods that provide sufficient coverage of the original community as well as adequate quality and quantity. We tested nine different DNA extraction methods using three commercial kits (TianLong Stool DNA/RNA Extraction Kit (TS), QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QS), and QIAamp PowerFecal DNA Kit (QP)) with or without additional bead-beating step using manual or automated methods and compared them in terms of DNA extraction ability from human fecal sample. All methods produced DNA in sufficient concentration and quality for use in sequencing, and the samples were clustered according to the DNA extraction method. Inclusion of bead-beating step especially resulted in higher degrees of microbial diversity and had the greatest effect on gut microbiome composition. Among the samples subjected to bead-beating method, TS kit samples were more similar to QP kit samples than QS kit samples. Our results emphasize the importance of mechanical disruption step for a more comprehensive profiling of the human gut microbiome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of irradiated Kampo extracts using ESR spin-trap method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yui; Kawamura, Shoei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of 13 kinds of γ-ray irradiated Kampo extracts were studied by ESR spin-trap method. The RSA against alkoxy radical and hydroxyl radical were measured using new spin trapping reagent CYPMPO. The RSA against these two radicals were evaluated using GSH for alkoxy RSA and L-ascorbic acid for hydroxy RSA as a standard antioxidant reagent. We revealed that a few Kampo extracts showed high RSA against alkoxy radical and also hydroxy radical. This RSA of Kampo extracts was changed by γ-ray irradiation treatment. Using ESR spin-trap method, it is concluded that the effect of radiation treatment on RSA of Kampo extracts were able to detect. (author)

  6. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  7. Application of enzymatic methods for chia (Salvia hispanica L oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ciau-Solís

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to evaluate the use of different enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds Methods. Enzymatic extraction was performed by treating of whole and degummed chia flours with different conditions of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. Commercial enzymes were employed: Viscozyme LTM (endo-1,3 (4-betaglucanase derived from Aspergillus aculeatus, with 100 FBG g (Beta Glucanase-unit Fungal and Neutrase0.8LTM, neutral protease with 0.8 AU-NH/g of activity, derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Results. All treatments of enzymatic oil extraction were different (P <0.05 and the maximum oil yield obtained was 9.35%. Conclusion. Oil extraction using enzymatic methods is not a viable for chia seed

  8. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  9. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  10. Evaluation of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for virus detection in a multicenter comparative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Hakhverdyan, M.

    2009-01-01

    between the results obtained for the different automated extraction platforms. In particular, the limit of detection was identical for 9/12 and 8/12 best performing robots (using dilutions of BVDV infected-serum and cell culture material, respectively), which was similar to a manual extraction method used......Five European veterinary laboratories participated in an exercise to compare the performance of nucleic acid extraction robots. Identical sets of coded samples were prepared using serial dilutions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) from serum and cell culture propagated material. Each...

  11. Characteristics of prickly lettuce seed oil in relation to methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A A

    1976-01-01

    Samples of seed oil of prickly lettuce (Lactuca Sacriola oleifera) which had been obtained by pressing or by extracting with acetone, ethyl ether, petroleum ether or carbon tetrachloride were analysed for the following parameters: viscosity, saponification number, iodine number, thiocyanogen value, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids, peroxide number and fatty acid composition. The different parameters varied in part considerably in relation to the method of production (pressing or solvent extraction) and to the solvent. It is tried to interprete these relationships.

  12. Extraction and Determination of Cyproheptadine in Human Urine by DLLME-HPLC Method

    OpenAIRE

    Maham, Mehdi; Kiarostami, Vahid; Waqif-Husain, Syed; Abroomand-Azar, Parviz; Tehrani, Mohammad Saber; Khoeini Sharifabadi, Malihe; Afrouzi, Hossein; Shapouri, MahmoudReza; Karami-Osboo, Rouhollah

    2013-01-01

    Novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been applied for the extraction and determination of cyproheptadine (CPH), an antihistamine, in human urine samples. In this method, 0.6 mL of acetonitrile (disperser solvent) containing 30 ?L of carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected by a syringe into 5 mL urine sample. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase con...

  13. Effective delivery of sonication energy to fast settling and agglomerating nanomaterial suspensions for cellular studies: Implications for stability, particle kinetics, dosimetry and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel M; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip

    2018-04-01

    Typical in vitro assays used for high throughput toxicological screening and measuring nano-bio interactions are conducted by pipetting suspensions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) dispersed in nutrient-rich culture media directly onto cells. In order to achieve fairly monodisperse and stable suspensions of small agglomerates, ultrasonic energy is usually applied to break apart large agglomerates that can form upon suspension in liquid. Lack of standardized protocols and methods for delivering sonication energy can introduce variability in the ENM suspension properties ( e.g . agglomerate size, polydispersity, suspension stability over time), and holds significant implications for in vitro dosimetry, toxicity, and other nano-bio interactions. Careful assessment of particle transformations during dispersion preparation and sonication is therefore critical for accurate interpretation of in vitro toxicity studies. In this short communication, the difficulties of preparing stable suspensions of rapidly settling ENMs are presented. Furthermore, methods to optimize the delivery of the critical sonication energy required to break large agglomerates and prepare stable, fairly monodispersed suspensions of fast settling ENMs are presented. A methodology for the efficient delivery of sonication energy in a discrete manner is presented and validated using various rapidly agglomerating and settling ENMs. The implications of continuous vs. discrete sonication on average hydrodynamic diameter, and polydispersity was also assessed for both fast and slow settling ENMs. For the rapidly agglomerating and settling ENMs (Ag15%/SiO 2 , Ag and CeO 2 ), the proposed discrete sonication achieved a significant reduction in the agglomerate diameter and polydispersity. In contrast, the relatively slow agglomerating and settling Fe 2 O 3 suspension did not exhibit statistically significant differences in average hydrodynamic diameter or polydispersity between the continuous and discrete

  14. RESEARCH ON FEATURE POINTS EXTRACTION METHOD FOR BINARY MULTISCALE AND ROTATION INVARIANT LOCAL FEATURE DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  15. Method Development for Extraction and Quantification of Glycosides in Leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Norazlina Noordin

    2015-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction and an UHPLC method for determination of glycosides from the leave parts of Stevia rebaudiana were developed. Steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia are natural sweetener and commercially sold as sugar substitutes. Extraction of the glycosides consisted of solvent extraction of leaf powder using various solvents followed by its concentration using rotary evaporator and analysis using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). Existing analytical methods are mainly focused on the quantification of either rebaudioside A or stevioside, whereas other glycosides, such as rebaudioside B and rebaudioside D present in the leaves also contribute to sweetness or its biological activity. Therefore, we developed an improved method by changing the UHPLC conditions to enable a rapid and reliable determination of four steviol glycosides rather than just two using an isocratic UHPLC method. (author)

  16. Development of an automated extraction method for liver tumors in three dimensional multiphase multislice CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Junya; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a tumor detection method using four phase three dimensional (3D) CT images of livers, i.e. non-contrast, early, portal, and late phase images. The method extracts liver regions from the four phase images and enhances tumors in the livers using a 3D adaptive convergence index filter. Then it detects local maximum points and extracts tumor candidates by a region growing method. Subsequently several features of the candidates are measured and each candidate is classified into true tumor or normal tissue based on Mahalanobis distances. Above processes except liver region extraction are applied to four phase images, independently and four resultant images are integrated into one. We applied the proposed method to 3D abdominal CT images of ten patients obtained with multi-detector row CT scanner and confirmed that tumor detection rate was 100% without false positives, which was quite promising results. (author)

  17. [DNA extraction from decomposed tissue by double-digest and magnetic beads methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of the double-digest and magnetic beads method for DNA extraction from 3 types of decomposed tissues. DNA of cartilages, nails and joint capsule in 91 highly decomposed corpses which had not been extracted by common magnetic beads method, were prepared with the double-digest and magnetic beads methods, and quantified with Quantifiler kit, followed by amplification with Sinofiler kit or Minifiler kit. DNA concentration extracted from the 91 highly decomposed cartilages, nails and joint capsule samples was 0-0.225 ng/microL. Sixty-two samples whose DNA concentration were more than 0.020 ng/microL had obtained 9 or more STR loci successfully. The detection rate was 68.13%. The successful rate of STR genotyping for the 3 types of decomposed tissues can be significantly improved by the double-digest and magnetic beads methods.

  18. Comparison of Chemical Extraction Methods for Determination of Soil Potassium in Different Soil Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebec, V.; Rastija, D.; Lončarić, Z.; Bensa, A.; Popović, B.; Ivezić, V.

    2017-12-01

    Determining potassium supply of soil plays an important role in intensive crop production, since it is the basis for balancing nutrients and issuing fertilizer recommendations for achieving high and stable yields within economic feasibility. The aim of this study was to compare the different extraction methods of soil potassium from arable horizon of different types of soils with ammonium lactate method (KAL), which is frequently used as analytical method for determining the accessibility of nutrients and it is a common method used for issuing fertilizer recommendations in many Europe countries. In addition to the ammonium lactate method (KAL, pH 3.75), potassium was extracted with ammonium acetate (KAA, pH 7), ammonium acetate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (KAAEDTA, pH 4.6), Bray (KBRAY, pH 2.6) and with barium chloride (K_{BaCl_2 }, pH 8.1). The analyzed soils were extremely heterogeneous with a wide range of determined values. Soil pH reaction ( {pH_{H_2 O} } ) ranged from 4.77 to 8.75, organic matter content ranged from 1.87 to 4.94% and clay content from 8.03 to 37.07%. In relation to KAL method as the standard method, K_{BaCl_2 } method extracts 12.9% more on average of soil potassium, while in relation to standard method, on average KAA extracts 5.3%, KAAEDTA 10.3%, and KBRAY 27.5% less of potassium. Comparison of analyzed extraction methods of potassium from the soil is of high precision, and most reliable comparison was KAL method with KAAEDTA, followed by a: KAA, K_{BaCl_2 } and KBRAY method. Extremely significant statistical correlation between different extractive methods for determining potassium in the soil indicates that any of the methods can be used to accurately predict the concentration of potassium in the soil, and that carried out research can be used to create prediction model for concentration of potassium based on different methods of extraction.

  19. Impact of two different commercial DNA extraction methods on BK virus viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bergallo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: BK virus, a member of human polyomavirus family, is a worldwide distributed virus characterized by a seroprevalence rate of 70-90% in adult population. Monitoring of viral replication is made by evaluation of BK DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Many different methods can be applied for extraction of nucleic acid from several specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two different DNA extraction procedure on BK viral load. Materials and methods: DNA extraction procedure including the Nuclisens easyMAG platform (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France and manual QIAGEN extraction (QIAGEN Hilden, Germany. BK DNA quantification was performed by Real Time TaqMan PCR using a commercial kit. Result and discussion: The samples capacity, cost and time spent were compared for both systems. In conclusion our results demonstrate that automated nucleic acid extraction method using Nuclisense easyMAG was superior to manual protocol (QIAGEN Blood Mini kit, for the extraction of BK virus from serum and urine specimens.

  20. A comprehensive benchmark of kernel methods to extract protein-protein interactions from literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonkos Tikk

    Full Text Available The most important way of conveying new findings in biomedical research is scientific publication. Extraction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs reported in scientific publications is one of the core topics of text mining in the life sciences. Recently, a new class of such methods has been proposed - convolution kernels that identify PPIs using deep parses of sentences. However, comparing published results of different PPI extraction methods is impossible due to the use of different evaluation corpora, different evaluation metrics, different tuning procedures, etc. In this paper, we study whether the reported performance metrics are robust across different corpora and learning settings and whether the use of deep parsing actually leads to an increase in extraction quality. Our ultimate goal is to identify the one method that performs best in real-life scenarios, where information extraction is performed on unseen text and not on specifically prepared evaluation data. We performed a comprehensive benchmarking of nine different methods for PPI extraction that use convolution kernels on rich linguistic information. Methods were evaluated on five different public corpora using cross-validation, cross-learning, and cross-corpus evaluation. Our study confirms that kernels using dependency trees generally outperform kernels based on syntax trees. However, our study also shows that only the best kernel methods can compete with a simple rule-based approach when the evaluation prevents information leakage between training and test corpora. Our results further reveal that the F-score of many approaches drops significantly if no corpus-specific parameter optimization is applied and that methods reaching a good AUC score often perform much worse in terms of F-score. We conclude that for most kernels no sensible estimation of PPI extraction performance on new text is possible, given the current heterogeneity in evaluation data. Nevertheless, our study

  1. INVESTIGATION OF METHODS OF DNA EXTRACTION FROM PLANT ORIGIN OBJECTS AND FOODS BASED ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades modern and highly efficient methods of determining the quality and safety of food products, based on the application of the latest scientific achievements were developed in the world. A special place is given to the methods based on achievements of molecular biology and genetics. At the present stage of development in the field of assessing the quality of raw materials and processed food products much attention is given to highly accurate, sensitive and specific research methods, the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR occupying a leading place among them. PCR is a sophisticated method that simulates the natural DNA replication and allows to detect a single specific DNA molecule in the presence of millions of other molecules. The key point in the preparation of material for PCR is the extraction of nucleic acids. The low content of DNA in plant material and the high concentration of secondary metabolites complicate the process of extraction. The key solution to this problem is highly effective method of extraction, which allows to obtain the DNA of adequate quality and purity. Comparative analysis of methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from fruit raw materials and products based on them was carried out in the study. General analysis of the experimental data allowed us to determine the most efficient method for DNA extracting. In the comparative analysis it was found out that to extract DNA from plant raw materials and food products prepared on their basis it is the most suitable to use "Sorb-GMO-A" reactants kit (set. The approach described gives us a brilliant opportunity to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid proper quality and purity.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of FTA card and CTAB DNA extraction methods for non-agricultural taxa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Chloe S.; Stevenson, Florence O.; Zimmer, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: An efficient, effective DNA extraction method is necessary for comprehensive analysis of plant genomes. This study analyzed the quality of DNA obtained using paper FTA cards prepared directly in the field when compared to the more traditional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)?based extraction methods from silica-dried samples. Methods: DNA was extracted using FTA cards according to the manufacturer?s protocol. In parallel, CTAB-based extractions were done using the a...

  3. N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water using a rapid, solid-phase extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S W.D. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Koester, C J [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Taguchi, V Y [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Wang, D T [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Palmentier, J P.F.P. [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch; Hong, K P [Ministery of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, ON (Canada). Lab. Services Branch

    1995-12-01

    A simple, rapid method for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from drinking and surface waters was developed using Ambersorb 572. Development of an alternative method to classical liquid-liquid extraction techniques was necessary to handle the workload presented by implementation of a provincial guideline of 9 ppt for drinking water and a regulatory level of 200 ppt for effluents. A granular absorbent, Ambersorb 572, was used to extract the NDMA from the water in the sample bottle. The NDMA was extracted from the Ambersorb 572 with dichloromethane in the autosampler vial. Method characteristics include a precision of 4% for replicate analyses, and accuracy of 6% at 10 ppt and a detection limit of 1.0 ppt NDMA in water. Comparative data between the Ambersorb 572 method and liquid-liquid extraction showed excellent agreement (average difference of 12%). With the Ambersorb 572 method, dichloromethane use has been reduced by a factor of 1,000 and productivity has been increased by a factor of 3-4. Monitoring of a drinking water supply showed rapidly changing concentrations of NDMA from day to day. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Different Protein Extraction Methods for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ganoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Saidi, Noor Baity; Usuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad; Hussin, Siti Nahdatul Isnaini Said; Yusoff, Noornabeela Md; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-04-01

    Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp.

  5. The effects of three different grinding methods in DNA extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... The effects of three different grinding methods in DNA extraction of cowpea .... 100 mg of the leaf tissues were weighed in an electronic balance. CTAB method .... The primers were synthesized by Life Technologies (AB & Invitrogen). .... This work was supported by 'Shuang-Zhi Plan' of Sichuan. Agricultural ...

  6. Comparison of six simple methods for extracting ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara and Toxascaris nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, F; Kia, E B; Sharbatkhori, M; Sharifdini, M; Jalalizand, N; Heidari, Z; Zarei, Z; Stensvold, C R; Mirhendi, H

    2013-06-01

    Six simple methods for extraction of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina were compared by evaluating the presence, appearance and intensity of PCR products visualized on agarose gels and amplified from DNA extracted by each of the methods. For each species, two isolates were obtained from the intestines of their respective hosts: T. canis and T. leonina from dogs, and T. cati from cats. For all isolates, total DNA was extracted using six different methods, including grinding, boiling, crushing, beating, freeze-thawing and the use of a commercial kit. To evaluate the efficacy of each method, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were chosen as representative markers for ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Among the six DNA extraction methods, the beating method was the most cost effective for all three species, followed by the commercial kit. Both methods produced high intensity bands on agarose gels and were characterized by no or minimal smear formation, depending on gene target; however, beating was less expensive. We therefore recommend the beating method for studies where costs need to be kept at low levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  8. COMPARISON OF CULTURE OF SYNOVIAL FLUID, PERIPROSTHETIC TISSUE AND PROSTHESIS SONICATE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF KNEE PROSTHESIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Trampuž

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens are the standard specimens cultured for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. We hypothesize that ultrasonication of the explanted prosthesis may improve diagnosis of PJI by dislodging biofilm bacteria from the prosthesis surface and improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of PJI.Methods. Included were patients undergoing knee prosthesis exchange for septic or biomechanical failure and have not received antimicrobial therapy in the last 2 weeks prior specimen collection. Cultures of synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens were performed per the usual clinical practice. Additionally, explanted joint components were sonicated for 5 minutes at frequency 40 kHz in sterile Ringer’s solution; aliquots of 0.5 ml sonicate were plated onto five aerobic and five anaerobic blood agar plates, and incubated at 37 °C and examined for the next seven days. The number and identity of each colony morphology was recorded.Results. 35 patients undergoing knee replacement have been studied (24 for aseptic biomechanical failure and 11 for suspected PJI. In patients with PJI, coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 cases, Corynebacterium spp. (2 cases, Staphylococcus aureus (1 case, and viridans group streptococcus (1 case were recovered. Culture sensitivity and specificity were for synovial fluid 88% and 100%, for periprosthetic tissue 83% and 81%, and for explant sonicate 91% and 100%, respectively. In sonicate cultures higher numbers of microorganisms than in periprosthetic tissue cultures were consistently detected.Conclusions. Using synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, and explant sonicate cultures, 12%, 17% and 9% of PJI were missed, respectively. Explant sonicate cultures were the most sensitive with respect to the diagnosis of PJI, indicating that explant ultrasonication may improve bacterial recovery. In sonicate cultures, infecting organisms were detected in

  9. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for the Identification of Grapevine fan leaf virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholampour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To now, more than 70 viral diseases have been reported from grapevine. Serological methods are regular diagnostic tools of grapevine viruses, however, their sensitivity has affected by seasonal fluctuations of the virus. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction provides significant improvement in detection of grapevine viruses. Extraction of high-quality RNA is essential for the successful application of many molecular techniques, such as RT-PCR. Extraction of high-quality RNA from the leaves of woody plants, such as grapevine, is particularly challenging because of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and other secondary metabolites. Some RNA extraction methods yield pellets that are poorly soluble, indicating the presence of unknown contaminants, whereas others are gelatinous, indicating the presence of polysaccharides. RNA can make complexes with polysaccharides and phenolic compounds render the RNA unusable for applications such as reverse transcription. Grapevine fanleaf virus is a member of the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae. The GFLV genome consists of two positive-sense single stranded RNAs. The genome has a poly (A tail at the 3´ terminus and a covalently linked VPG protein at the 5´ terminus. Several extraction methods had been reported to be used for identification of GFLV in grapevine. Some of them require harmful chemical material; disadvantages of other are high costs. Immunocapture-RT-PCR requires preparation of specific antibody and direct binding RT-PCR (DB-RT-PCR has a high contamination risk. In this study, four RNA extraction protocols were compared with a commercial isolation kit to explore the most efficient RNA isolation method for grapevines. Material and Methods: 40 leaf samples were randomly collected during the growing season of 2011-2012. GFLV was detected in leaf samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Using specific antibodies raised against Iranian

  10. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  11. Comparison of Three Different DNA Extraction Methods for Linguatula serrata as a Food Born Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda ESLAMI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important items in molecular characterization of food-borne pathogens is high quality genomic DNA. In this study, we investigated three protocols and compared their simplicity, duration and costs for extracting genomic DNA from Linguatula serrata.Methods: The larvae were collected from the sheep’s visceral organs from the Yazd Slaughterhouse during May 2013. DNA extraction was done in three different methods, including commercial DNA extraction kit, Phenol Chloroform Isoamylalcohol (PCI, and salting out. Extracted DNA in each method was assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometery and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively.Results: The less duration was regarding to commercial DNA extraction kit and then salting out protocol. The cost benefit one was salting out and then PCI method. The best quantity was regarding to PCI with 72.20±29.20 ng/μl, and purity of OD260/OD280 in 1.76±0.947. Agarose gel electrophoresis for assessing the quality found all the same.Conclusion: Salting out is introduced as the best method for DNA extraction from L. seratta as a food-borne pathogen with the least costand appropriate purity. Although, the best purity was regarding to PCI but PCI is not safe as salting out. In addition, the duration of salting out was less than PCI. The least duration was seen in commercial DNA extraction kit, but it is expensive and therefore is not recommended for developing countries where consumption of offal is common.

  12. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing

  14. A simple method of genomic DNA extraction suitable for analysis of bulk fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Zhang, S; Liu, X Z; Wen, H A; Wang, M

    2010-07-01

    A simple and rapid method (designated thermolysis) for extracting genomic DNA from bulk fungal strains was described. In the thermolysis method, a few mycelia or yeast cells were first rinsed with pure water to remove potential PCR inhibitors and then incubated in a lysis buffer at 85 degrees C to break down cell walls and membranes. This method was used to extract genomic DNA from large numbers of fungal strains (more than 92 species, 35 genera of three phyla) isolated from different sections of natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis specimens. Regions of interest from high as well as single-copy number genes were successfully amplified from the extracted DNA samples. The DNA samples obtained by this method can be stored at -20 degrees C for over 1 year. The method was effective, easy and fast and allowed batch DNA extraction from multiple fungal isolates. Use of the thermolysis method will allow researchers to obtain DNA from fungi quickly for use in molecular assays. This method requires only minute quantities of starting material and is suitable for diverse fungal species.

  15. Methods for extraction and characterization of tannins from some acacia species of sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgailani, I.E.H.; Ishak, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05), 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. (author)

  16. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  17. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  18. Ultrasound assisted methods for enhanced extraction of phycobiliproteins from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rochak; Tavanandi, Hrishikesh A; Mantri, Vaibhav A; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time. Standardization of ultrasonication for different parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude (60, 90 and 120µm) and ultrasonication time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mins) at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) was carried out. Kinetic parameters were estimated for extraction of phycobiliproteins by ultrasonication based on second order mass transfer kinetics. Based on calorimetric measurements, power, ultrasound intensity and acoustic power density were estimated to be 41.97W, 14.81W/cm 2 and 0.419W/cm 3 , respectively. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication was observed when employed in combination with other conventional primary extraction methods. Homogenization in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 9.3% over homogenization alone. Similarly, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 31% over maceration alone. Among all the methods employed, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of 77 and 93% for R-PE and R-PC, respectively followed by homogenization in combination with ultrasonication (69.6% for R-PE and 74.1% for R-PC). HPLC analysis was carried out in order to ensure that R-PE was present in the extract and remained intact even after processing

  19. Extraction and determination of arsenic species in leafy vegetables: Method development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Kong, Qian; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-15

    Extraction of arsenic (As) species in leafy vegetables was investigated by different combinations of methods and extractants. The extracted As species were separated and determined by HPLC-ICP-MS method. The microwave assisted method using 1% HNO3 as the extractant exhibited satisfactory efficiency (>90%) at 90°C for 1.5h. The proposed method was applied for extracting As species from real leafy vegetables. Thirteen cultivars of leafy vegetables were collected and analyzed. The predominant species in all the investigated vegetable samples were As(III) and As(V). Moreover, both As(III) and As(V) concentrations were positive significant (p<0.01) correlated with total As (tAs) concentration. However, the percentage of As(V) reduced with tAs concentration increasing probably due to the conversion and transformation of As(V) to As(III) after uptake. The hazard quotient results indicated no particular risk to 94.6% of local consumers. Considerably carcinogenic risk by consumption of the leafy vegetables was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  1. AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION BASED ON MULTIPLE FEATURES FROM LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1 road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2 local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3 hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for “Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction” project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  2. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  3. The Efficiency of Random Forest Method for Shoreline Extraction from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, B.; Erdem, F.; Akpinar, B.; Ince, A. K.; Bozkurt, S.; Catal Reis, H.; Seker, D. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718) titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model - Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band) and GOKTURK-2 (4th band) imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  4. THE EFFICIENCY OF RANDOM FOREST METHOD FOR SHORELINE EXTRACTION FROM LANDSAT-8 AND GOKTURK-2 IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal monitoring plays a vital role in environmental planning and hazard management related issues. Since shorelines are fundamental data for environment management, disaster management, coastal erosion studies, modelling of sediment transport and coastal morphodynamics, various techniques have been developed to extract shorelines. Random Forest is one of these techniques which is used in this study for shoreline extraction.. This algorithm is a machine learning method based on decision trees. Decision trees analyse classes of training data creates rules for classification. In this study, Terkos region has been chosen for the proposed method within the scope of "TUBITAK Project (Project No: 115Y718 titled "Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sustainable Coastal Zone Monitoring Model – Three-Dimensional Automatic Coastline Extraction and Analysis: Istanbul-Terkos Example". Random Forest algorithm has been implemented to extract the shoreline of the Black Sea where near the lake from LANDSAT-8 and GOKTURK-2 satellite imageries taken in 2015. The MATLAB environment was used for classification. To obtain land and water-body classes, the Random Forest method has been applied to NIR bands of LANDSAT-8 (5th band and GOKTURK-2 (4th band imageries. Each image has been digitized manually and shorelines obtained for accuracy assessment. According to accuracy assessment results, Random Forest method is efficient for both medium and high resolution images for shoreline extraction studies.

  5. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  6. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Hydrodistillation Methods for Extraction of Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mollasalehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD method has been compared with hydrodistillation (HD conventional technique for extraction of essential oil from Achillea millefolium. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation were examined at three levels of microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W. Obtained results show that MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (20 min against 2.5 h. Also, the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The amount of oxygenated compounds and monoterpene, such as 1,8 -Cineole, Lavandulyl acetate,Caryophylla-dien, Aromadendrene were increased in the microwave method. All these results suggest that MAHD represents an excellent alternative method for extraction of essential oils from plant materials.

  7. [Identification of special quality eggs with NIR spectroscopy technology based on symbol entropy feature extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hong, Wen-Xue

    2011-11-01

    Fast, nondestructive and accurate identification of special quality eggs is an urgent problem. The present paper proposed a new feature extraction method based on symbol entropy to identify near infrared spectroscopy of special quality eggs. The authors selected normal eggs, free range eggs, selenium-enriched eggs and zinc-enriched eggs as research objects and measured the near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra in the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1). Raw spectra were symbolically represented with aggregation approximation algorithm and symbolic entropy was extracted as feature vector. An error-correcting output codes multiclass support vector machine classifier was designed to identify the spectrum. Symbolic entropy feature is robust when parameter changed and the highest recognition rate reaches up to 100%. The results show that the identification method of special quality eggs using near-infrared is feasible and the symbol entropy can be used as a new feature extraction method of near-infrared spectra.

  8. Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Deng, Meng; Liu, Mingdong; Cheng, Lei; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Ten Cate, Jacob. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention. Methods: The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation. Results: All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE. Conclusions: Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries. PMID:28979574

  9. Estimation of solubility of organo-phosphorus extractants by P determination using molybdovanadophosphoric acid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.S.; Kotekar, M.K.; Singh, H.

    2005-01-01

    Solvent extraction processes have been found to be suitable for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid. Various extractants like di-2-ethyl hexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-nonylphenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and synergistic agents like tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) have been used in liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid. Contents of these organo-phosphorus compounds in aqueous raffinates need estimation for process requirements. Solubility of Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extractants have been determined in different media of water, oxalic acid (0.6M) and sulphuric acid (3.75M) solutions. These compounds were estimated by determining their phosphorus (P) contents employing molybdovanadophosphoric acid method, after digesting and solubalizing them in nitric and perchloric acid. (author)

  10. Extraction chromatographic method of uranium(VI) with high molecular mass amine (ALIQUAT - 336)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Uday Sankar; Dutta, Keshab Kumar

    1999-01-01

    A selective method has been developed for reversed phase extraction chromatographic studies of uranium(VI) with Aliquat - 336 (liquid anion exchanger) coated on silica gel as stationary phase. Quantitative extraction of uranium has been achieved in HCl - medium from 1.25(M)-4(M). The effect of different acids with various concentrations stripping agents, flow rate on extraction and elution have been investigated. The exchange capacity of the prepared exchanger has been determined. Uranium(VI) has been separated quantitatively from Th, Ce, Zr, Pb, Ga, Hg, Fe, La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Cr from a binary mixture by controlling the extraction and elution conditions. The separation of U(VI) from ternary and quarternary mixtures of various metal ions has also been achieved. (author)

  11. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P 4 ) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with 125 I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  12. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  13. A method for real-time implementation of HOG feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai-bo; Yu, Xin-rong; Liu, Hong-mei; Ding, Qing-hai

    2011-08-01

    Histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) is an efficient feature extraction scheme, and HOG descriptors are feature descriptors which is widely used in computer vision and image processing for the purpose of biometrics, target tracking, automatic target detection(ATD) and automatic target recognition(ATR) etc. However, computation of HOG feature extraction is unsuitable for hardware implementation since it includes complicated operations. In this paper, the optimal design method and theory frame for real-time HOG feature extraction based on FPGA were proposed. The main principle is as follows: firstly, the parallel gradient computing unit circuit based on parallel pipeline structure was designed. Secondly, the calculation of arctangent and square root operation was simplified. Finally, a histogram generator based on parallel pipeline structure was designed to calculate the histogram of each sub-region. Experimental results showed that the HOG extraction can be implemented in a pixel period by these computing units.

  14. Validation of an HPLC method for quantification of total quercetin in Calendula officinalis extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz Muñoz, John Alexander; Morgan Machado, Jorge Enrique; Trujillo González, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: calendula officinalis extracts are used as natural raw material in a wide range of pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations; however, there are no official methods for quality control of these extracts. Objective: to validate an HPLC-based analytical method for quantification total quercetin in glycolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Calendula officinalis. Methods: to quantify total quercetin content in the matrices, it was necessary to hydrolyze flavonoid glycosides under optimal conditions. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 SiliaChrom 4.6x150 mm 5 µm column, adapted to a SiliaChrom 5 um C-18 4.6x10 mm precolumn, with UV detection at 370 nm. The gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of methanol (MeOH) and phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) (0.08 % w/v). The quantification was performed through the external standard method and comparison with quercetin reference standard. Results: the studied method selectivity against extract components and degradation products under acid/basic hydrolysis, oxidation and light exposure conditions showed no signals that interfere with the quercetin quantification. It was statistically proved that the method is linear from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/mL. Intermediate precision expressed as a variation coefficient was 1.8 and 1.74 % and the recovery percentage was 102.15 and 101.32 %, for glycolic and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: the suggested methodology meets the quality parameters required for quantifying total quercetin, which makes it a useful tool for quality control of C. officinalis extracts. (author)

  15. Determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and biological matrices using pressurised liquid extraction--are we developing sound extraction methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnqvist, Hannah; Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is now a well established and extensively applied extraction technique in environmental analysis for pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). During the past decade, an emerging group of environmentally interesting analytes are pharmaceuticals...

  16. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    A unit performing a simple and effective way to extract active phytochemicals from the plant specimens has been developed. The unit is mobile enabling operation near the place of collection of plant specimens reducing waste of potential valuable phytochemicals. The design is based on counter...... as solid/liquid extraction is developed on the basis similar to sugar extraction from sugar beets, albeit in a much more compact form. The equipment has been tested on extraction of ethereal oils from dried, stored oregano and extraction of natural compounds from freshly harvested Artemesia with 96% Et......OH as the solvent. Preliminary results from a continuous oregano extraction show efficiency between 55% and 85% of a more ideal laboratory batch extraction of a marker compound like carvacrol, which is most abundant in the ethereal oil. The operation can be repeated with another liquid in order to extract compounds...

  17. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  18. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  19. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  20. Research on Weak Fault Extraction Method for Alleviating the Mode Mixing of LMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the strong background noise, the energy entropy of early fault signals of bearings are weak under actual working conditions. Therefore, extracting the bearings’ early fault features has always been a major difficulty in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Based on the above problems, the masking method is introduced into the Local Mean Decomposition (LMD decomposition process, and a weak fault extraction method based on LMD and mask signal (MS is proposed. Due to the mode mixing of the product function (PF components decomposed by LMD in the noisy background, it is difficult to distinguish the authenticity of the fault frequency. Therefore, the MS method is introduced to deal with the PF components that are decomposed by the LMD and have strong correlation with the original signal, so as to suppress the modal aliasing phenomenon and extract the fault frequencies. In this paper, the actual fault signal of the rolling bearing is analyzed. By combining the MS method with the LMD method, the fault signal mixed with the noise is processed. The kurtosis value at the fault frequency is increased by eight-fold, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is increased by 19.1%. The fault signal is successfully extracted by the proposed composite method.

  1. MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data

  2. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  3. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  4. METHODS FOR PORE WATER EXTRACTION FROM UNSATURATED ZONE TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. SCOFIELD

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits taken from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate, while the chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no significant fractionation of solutes

  5. Analysis of Time n Frequency EEG Feature Extraction Methods for Mental Task Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Uyulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many endogenous and external components may affect the physiological, mental and behavioral states in humans. Monitoring tools are required to evaluate biomarkers, identify biological events, and predict their outcomes. Being one of the valuable indicators, brain biomarkers derived from temporal or spectral electroencephalography (EEG signals processing, allow for the classification of mental disorders and mental tasks. An EEG signal has a nonstationary nature and individual frequency feature, hence it can be concluded that each subject has peculiar timing and data to extract unique features. In order to classify data, which are collected by performing four mental task (reciting the alphabet backwards, imagination of rotation of a cube, imagination of right hand movements (open/close and performing mathematical operations, discriminative features were extracted using four competitive time-frequency techniques; Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD, Morlet Wavelet Transform (MWT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Wavelet Filter Bank (WFB, respectively. The extracted features using both time and frequency domain information were then reduced using a principal component analysis for subset reduction. Finally, the reduced subsets were fed into a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MP-NN trained with back propagation (BP algorithm to generate a predictive model. This study mainly focuses on comparing the relative performance of time-frequency feature extraction methods that are used to classify mental tasks. The real-time (RT conducted experimental results underlined that the WPD feature extraction method outperforms with 92% classification accuracy compared to three other aforementioned methods for four different mental tasks.

  6. The Extraction of Heavy Metals by Means of a New Electrolytic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiragossian, Z. G.; Martoyan, G. A.; Injeyan, S. G.; Tonikyan, S. G.; Nalbandyan, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    The extraction of metals in known metallurgical methods is pursued on the basis of separating as much as possible the desired metal's content from the ore concentrate, in the most economical manner. When these principles are also applied to the extraction of heavy metals, the related environmental factors do not readily meet with requirements. Today, an acceptable extraction technology for metals must satisfy the need to produce the deep separation of metals from their source in both economical and environmentally safe manner. This pertains to the direction of our ongoing research and development, among others in the field of environmental remediation. Earlier, we successfully addressed in an environmentally safe manner the selective extraction of radioactive isotopes from liquid radioactive wastes, produced at Armenia's Metzamor Nuclear Power Plant and implemented a functioning LRW station at the NPP. Currently, we extended our new electrodialysis-based electrolytic method in a laboratory scale, for the extraction and deep separation of different metals, including the heavy metals. Our new method, its efficiency, economy and full compliance with environmental issues will be presented

  7. Comparison between Different Extraction Methods for Determination of Primary Aromatic Amines in Food Simulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shahrestani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aromatic amines (PAAs are food contaminants which may exist in packaged food. Polyurethane (PU adhesives which are used in flexible packaging are the main source of PAAs. It is the unreacted diisocyanates which in fact migrate to foodstuff and then hydrolyze to PAAs. These PAAs include toluenediamines (TDAs and methylenedianilines (MDAs, and the selected PAAs were 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, 4,4′-MDA, 2,4′-MDA, and 2,2′-MDA. PAAs have genotoxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic effects. In this study, extraction methods were applied on a 3% acetic acid as food simulant which was spiked with the PAAs under study. Extraction methods were liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME, and solid-phase extraction (SPE with C18 ec (octadecyl, HR-P (styrene/divinylbenzene, and SCX (strong cationic exchange cartridges. Extracted samples were detected and analyzed by HPLC-UV. In comparison between methods, recovery rate of SCX cartridge showed the best adsorption, up to 91% for polar PAAs (TDAs and MDAs. The interested PAAs are polar and relatively soluble in water, so a cartridge with cationic exchange properties has the best absorption and consequently the best recoveries.

  8. Comparison of mobility extraction methods based on field-effect measurements for graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrier mobility extraction methods for graphene based on field-effect measurements are explored and compared according to theoretical analysis and experimental results. A group of graphene devices with different channel lengths were fabricated and measured, and carrier mobility is extracted from those electrical transfer curves using three different methods. Accuracy and applicability of those methods were compared. Transfer length method (TLM can obtain accurate density dependent mobility and contact resistance at relative high carrier density based on data from a group of devices, and then can act as a standard method to verify other methods. As two of the most popular methods, direct transconductance method (DTM and fitting method (FTM can extract mobility easily based on transfer curve of a sole graphene device. DTM offers an underestimated mobility at any carrier density owing to the neglect of contact resistances, and the accuracy can be improved through fabricating field-effect transistors with long channel and good contacts. FTM assumes a constant mobility independent on carrier density, and then can obtain mobility, contact resistance and residual density stimulations through fitting a transfer curve. However, FTM tends to obtain a mobility value near Dirac point and then overestimates carrier mobility of graphene. Comparing with the DTM and FTM, TLM could offer a much more accurate and carrier density dependent mobility, that reflects the complete properties of graphene carrier mobility.

  9. The direct effect of ultrasound on the extraction of date syrup and its micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, M H; Hagh Nazary, S; Haddad Khodaparast, M H

    2004-09-01

    In the date syrup industry, date fruits are mixed with a suitable amount of water at a temperature greater than 50 degrees C for about 1 h. This condition is not sufficient for killing the micro-organisms present in the fruit. In addition, Overheating for a long time can damages nutritious materials and also changes the final product's color. Ultrasound was applied for improving the quantity and quality of the extraction, and also to overcome the health problem. In this research, the following variables were examined: date fruit/water ratio, ultrasonic intensity and temperature. The results showed that sonication under the proper conditions can lead to a higher extraction in a shorter time with a better physical quality of the product. Most importantly, the sonication significantly decreased the microbial count in comparison to the classical method. This study also confirmed the presence of anti-microbial substances in date fruit, and that ultrasonic waves can accelerate their effects.

  10. Development and validation of a simple method for the extraction of human skin melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjuan; Tissot, Marion; Rolin, Gwenaël; Muret, Patrice; Robin, Sophie; Berthon, Jean-Yves; He, Li; Humbert, Philippe; Viennet, Céline

    2018-03-21

    Primary melanocytes in culture are useful models for studying epidermal pigmentation and efficacy of melanogenic compounds, or developing advanced therapy medicinal products. Cell extraction is an inevitable and critical step in the establishment of cell cultures. Many enzymatic methods for extracting and growing cells derived from human skin, such as melanocytes, are described in literature. They are usually based on two enzymatic steps, Trypsin in combination with Dispase, in order to separate dermis from epidermis and subsequently to provide a suspension of epidermal cells. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an extraction method of human skin melanocytes being simple, effective and applicable to smaller skin samples, and avoiding animal reagents. TrypLE™ product was tested on very limited size of human skin, equivalent of multiple 3-mm punch biopsies, and was compared to Trypsin/Dispase enzymes. Functionality of extracted cells was evaluated by analysis of viability, morphology and melanin production. In comparison with Trypsin/Dispase incubation method, the main advantages of TrypLE™ incubation method were the easier of separation between dermis and epidermis and the higher population of melanocytes after extraction. Both protocols preserved morphological and biological characteristics of melanocytes. The minimum size of skin sample that allowed the extraction of functional cells was 6 × 3-mm punch biopsies (e.g., 42 mm 2 ) whatever the method used. In conclusion, this new procedure based on TrypLE™ incubation would be suitable for establishment of optimal primary melanocytes cultures for clinical applications and research.

  11. Recent Progress on Sonic Boom Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sonic boom research conducted at NASA through the Supersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is oriented toward understanding the potential impact of sonic boom noise on communities from new low-boom supersonic aircraft designs. Encompassing research in atmospheric propagation, structural response, and human response, NASA research contributes to knowledge in key areas needed to support development of a new noise-based standard for supersonic aircraft certification. Partnerships with several industry, government, and academic institutions have enabled the recent execution of several acoustic field studies on sonic booms. An overview of recent activities funded by NASA includes: focus boom model development and experimental validation, field experiments of structural transmission of sonic booms into large buildings, and low boom community response testing.

  12. Research on Methods of High Coherent Target Extraction in Urban Area Based on Psinsar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Wu, J.

    2018-04-01

    PSInSAR technology has been widely applied in ground deformation monitoring. Accurate identification of Persistent Scatterers (PS) is key to the success of PSInSAR data processing. In this paper, the theoretic models and specific algorithms of PS point extraction methods are summarized and the characteristics and applicable conditions of each method, such as Coherence Coefficient Threshold method, Amplitude Threshold method, Dispersion of Amplitude method, Dispersion of Intensity method, are analyzed. Based on the merits and demerits of different methods, an improved method for PS point extraction in urban area is proposed, that uses simultaneously backscattering characteristic, amplitude and phase stability to find PS point in all pixels. Shanghai city is chosen as an example area for checking the improvements of the new method. The results show that the PS points extracted by the new method have high quality, high stability and meet the strong scattering characteristics. Based on these high quality PS points, the deformation rate along the line-of-sight (LOS) in the central urban area of Shanghai is obtained by using 35 COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images acquired from 2008 to 2010 and it varies from -14.6 mm/year to 4.9 mm/year. There is a large sedimentation funnel in the cross boundary of Hongkou and Yangpu district with a maximum sedimentation rate of more than 14 mm per year. The obtained ground subsidence rates are also compared with the result of spirit leveling and show good consistent. Our new method for PS point extraction is more reasonable, and can improve the accuracy of the obtained deformation results.

  13. Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting the development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonic over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' ratings and can be placed and operated in individual homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment. The effects on annoyance of several other parameters were also examined. Initially, data analyses were based on all the data collected. However, further analyser found that test subjects adapted to the sonic

  14. A Remotely Deployable Wind Sonic Anemometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication and computing shape up base for explosion of Internet of Things (IoT era. Humans can efficiently control the devices around their environment as per requirements because of IoT, the communication between different devices brings more flexibility in surrounding. Useful data is also gathered from some of these devices to create Big Data; where, further analysis assist in making life easier by developing good business models corresponding to user needs, enhance scientific research, formulating weather prediction or monitoring systems and contributing in other relative fields as well. Thus, in this research a remotely deployable IoT enabled Wind Sonic Anemometer has been designed and deployed to calculate average wind speed, direction, and gust. The proposed design is remotely deployable, user-friendly, power efficient and cost-effective because of opted modules i.e., ultrasonic sensors, GSM module, and solar panel. The testbed was also deployed at the roof of Computer & Information Systems Engineering (CIS department, NED UET. Further, its calibration has been carried out by using long short-term memory (LSTM, a deep learning technique; where ground truth data has been gathered from mechanical wind speed sensor (NRG-40 H deployed at top of Industrial & Manufacturing (IM department of NED UET. The obtained results are satisfactory and the performance of designed sensor is also good under various weather conditions.

  15. Epithelial trafficking of Sonic hedgehog by megalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos R; Zeng, Jibin; El Alfy, Mohamed; Barth, Jeremy L; Chintalapudi, Mastan Rao; McCarthy, Robert A; Incardona, John P; Argraves, W Scott

    2006-10-01

    We present here evidence of in vivo epithelial endocytosis and trafficking of non-lipid-modified Sonic hedgehog (ShhN) when infused into rat efferent ducts via microinjection. Initially, exogenous ShhN is detected in endocytic vesicles and early endosomes located near the apical plasma membrane of non-ciliated cells. Within 30-60 min following infusion, ShhN can be detected in lysosomes and at basolateral regions of non-ciliated cells. Basolaterally, ShhN was observed along the extracellular surfaces of interdigitated plasma membranes of adjacent cells and in the extracellular compartment underlying the efferent duct epithelium. Uptake and subcellular trafficking of infused ShhN by non-ciliated cells could be blocked by either anti-megalin IgG or the megalin antagonist, RAP. Ciliated cells, which do not express megalin, displayed little if any apical internalization of ShhN even though they were found to express Patched-1. However, ShhN was found in coated pits of lateral plasma membranes of ciliated cells as well as in underlying endocytic vesicles. We conclude that megalin-mediated endocytosis of ShhN can occur in megalin-expressing epithelia in vivo, and that the internalized ShhN can be targeted to the lysosome or transcytosed in the plane of the epithelium or across the epithelium. These findings highlight the multiple mechanisms by which megalin may influence Shh morphogen gradients in vivo.

  16. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy.

  17. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulong; Lu, Yurong; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy. PMID:29163356

  18. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  19. Chinese License Plates Recognition Method Based on A Robust and Efficient Feature Extraction and BPNN Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-01

    The prosperity of license plate recognition technology has made great contribution to the development of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). In this paper, a robust and efficient license plate recognition method is proposed which is based on a combined feature extraction model and BPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network) algorithm. Firstly, the candidate region of the license plate detection and segmentation method is developed. Secondly, a new feature extraction model is designed considering three sets of features combination. Thirdly, the license plates classification and recognition method using the combined feature model and BPNN algorithm is presented. Finally, the experimental results indicate that the license plate segmentation and recognition both can be achieved effectively by the proposed algorithm. Compared with three traditional methods, the recognition accuracy of the proposed method has increased to 95.7% and the consuming time has decreased to 51.4ms.

  20. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  1. Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Janis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.

  2. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Hou Jianping; Yang Guangling; Zeng Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method has been carried out in own liquid lithium-lead bubbler (LLLB). Experimental results show that, He is more suitable than Ar as carrier gas in the filler tower. The higher temperature the tower is, the greater hydrogen content the tower exports. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on the hydrogen content in the export is jagged, no obvious rule. Although the difference between experimental results and literature data, but it is feasible that hydrogen isotopes extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead by gas-liquid contact method, and the higher extraction efficiency increases with the growth of the residence time of the alloy in tower. (authors)

  3. A method for the solvent extraction of low-boiling-point plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Gruber, Margaret; Westcott, Neil; Soroka, Julie; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of volatiles from plant materials and tested on seedling tissue and mature leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, pine needles and commercial mixtures of plant volatiles. Volatiles were extracted with n-pentane and then subjected to quick distillation at a moderate temperature. Under these conditions, compounds such as pigments, waxes and non-volatile compounds remained undistilled, while short-chain volatile compounds were distilled into a receiving flask using a high-efficiency condenser. Removal of the n-pentane and concentration of the volatiles in the receiving flask was carried out using a Vigreux column condenser prior to GC-MS. The method is ideal for the rapid extraction of low-boiling-point volatiles from small amounts of plant material, such as is required when conducting metabolic profiling or defining biological properties of volatile components from large numbers of mutant lines.

  4. [Comparative study of different extraction methods and assays of tannins in some pteridophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S

    1975-10-01

    Various processes of extraction and quantitative analysis of a condensed tannin in a plant extract, which also includes some chlorogenic acids, have been examined. 60% methanol, at 50 degrees C, proved the most efficient extraction solvent. Several methods of analysis have been tried. The measure of the colour intensity obtained by the action of sulphuric vanilline on flavanols cannot be used because it depends on the tannin condensation stage. It is impossible to separate tannin from chlorogenic acids using the methods of adsorption by skin or nylon powders, or precipitation by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Only paper chromatography, followed by the distinct elution of the various phenolic compounds, allows the tannin evaluation by subtraction; but owing to the variability of the results, many more experiments are necessary. Some other processes are being studied.

  5. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Baek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound examination (US does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases in extracting appendix.

  6. Study the Three Extraction Methods for HBV DNA to Use in PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheikh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Hepatitis B is important because of the its high prevalence. Recently PCR method , has found greater interest among different diagnostic methods. Several reports emphasis on some false negative results in those laboratories using PCR. The aim of this study was to compare three different procedures for HBV DNA extraction. A total 30 serum samples received from Shariati hospital. Sera was taken from patients having chronic Hepatitis with HBs antigen positive and HBe antigen negative. The sensitivity of guanidium hydrochloride method for extracting the HBV DNA from serum were evaluated and compared with phenol–chloroform and boiling methods. Diagnostic PCR kit was obtained from Cynagene contained taq polymerase, reaction mixture, dNTP, and buffer for reaction. A 353 bp product were amplified by amplification program provided in used PCR protocol. The comparison of results indicated that procedure was successful for amplification of the designed products from Hepatitis B in sera. Number of positive results were 16,19,23 and number of negative result were 14,11,7 for the boiling, phenol-chloroform and guanidium-hydrochloride extraction methods respectively.PCR method is the fastest diagnosis method and the most accurate procedure to identify Hepatitis B. Guanidium hydrochloride method was the most successful procedure studied in this survey for viruses.

  7. Comparative efficiency of different methods of gluten extraction in indigenous varieties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Samra; Hussain, Zaib; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Nagra, Saeedahmad; Ziai, Naheeda Ashbeal

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated six varieties of locally grown wheat (Lasani, Sehar, Miraj-08, Chakwal-50, Faisalabad-08 and Inqlab) procured from Punjab Seed Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan for their proximate contents. On the basis of protein content and ready availability, Faisalabad-08 (FD-08) was selected to be used for the assessment of comparative efficiency of various methods used for gluten extraction. Three methods, mechanical, chemical and microbiological were used for the extraction of gluten from FD-08. Each method was carried out under ambient conditions using a drying temperature of 55 degrees C. Mechanical method utilized four different processes viz:- dough process, dough batter process, batter process and ethanol washing process using standard 150 mesh. The starch thus obtained was analyzed for its proximate contents. Dough batter process proved to be the most efficient mechanical method and was further investigated using 200 and 300 mesh. Gluten content was determined using sandwich omega-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The results of dough batter process using 200 mesh indicated a starch product with gluten content of 678 ppm. Chemical method indicated high gluten content of more than 5000 ppm and the microbiological method reduced the gluten content from 2500 ppm to 398 ppm. From the results it was observed that no gluten extraction method is viable to produce starch which can fulfill the criteria of a gluten free product (20 ppm).

  8. Improvement of seawater salt quality by hydro-extraction and re-crystallization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumada, K.; Dewati, R.; Suprihatin

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the salt producing countries that use sea water as a source of raw materials, the quality of salt produced is influenced by the quality of sea water. The resulting average salt quality contains 85-90% NaCl. The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for human salt’s consumption sodium chloride content is 94.7 % (dry base) and for industrial salt 98,5 %. In this study developed the re-crystallization without chemical and hydro-extraction method. The objective of this research to choose the best methods based on efficiency. The results showed that re-crystallization method can produce salt with NaCl content 99,21%, while hydro-extraction method content 99,34 % NaCl. The salt produced through both methods can be used as a consumption and industrial salt, Hydro-extraction method is more efficient than re-crystallization method because re-crystallization method requires heat energy.

  9. Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Extracted Oil from Oil Palm Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasimah Kasmin; Hasimah Kasmin; Roila Awang; Azwan Mat Lazim

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization is important process during the processing of oil palm fruits in order to produce crude palm oil (CPO). This process can be carried out using steam (conventional method), dry heating or wet heating method. In this study, the effectiveness of the dry heating and wet heating method for sterilization and solvent extraction were carried out. The sterilization time of these two methods were varied at 30, 60 and 90 min in order to determine their effectiveness on the oil extraction and their quality. Results showed that, at 30 min of sterilization, the wet heating produced a higher percentage of oil extraction compared to the conventional and dry heating, with average of 27.65 %, 19.01 % and 20.21 % respectively. In comparison with the conventional method, both sterilization methods gave better FFA and DOBI results. This can be seen where the average of free fatty acid (FFA) content for proposed sterilization method was between 0.37 % to 0.93 % while, average deterioration of bleach ability index (DOBI) was from 4.89 to 6.12. The average carotene content was in agreement with the conventional method at a range of 644.64 ppm to 764.80 ppm. (author)

  10. Methodology on quantification of sonication duration for safe application of MR guided focused ultrasound for liver tumour ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihcin, Senay; Karakitsios, Ioannis; Le, Nhan; Strehlow, Jan; Demedts, Daniel; Schwenke, Michael; Haase, Sabrina; Preusser, Tobias; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) for liver tumour ablation is a challenging task due to motion caused by breathing and occlusion due the ribcage between the transducer and the tumour. To overcome these challenges, a novel system for liver tumour ablation during free breathing has been designed. The novel TRANS-FUSIMO Treatment System (TTS, EUFP7) interacts with a Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner and a focused ultrasound transducer to sonicate to a moving target in liver. To meet the requirements of ISO 13485; a quality management system for medical device design, the system needs to be tested for certain process parameters. The duration of sonication and, the delay after the sonication button is activated, are among the parameters that need to be quantified for efficient and safe ablation of tumour tissue. A novel methodology is developed to quantify these process parameters. A computerised scope is programmed in LabVIEW to collect data via hydrophone; where the coordinates of fiber-optic sensor assembly was fed into the TRANS-FUSIMO treatment software via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to sonicate to the tip of the sensor, which is synchronised with the clock of the scope, embedded in a degassed water tank via sensor assembly holder. The sonications were executed for 50 W, 100 W, 150 W for 10 s to quantify the actual sonication duration and the delay after the emergency stop by two independent operators for thirty times. The deviation of the system from the predefined specs was calculated. Student's-T test was used to investigate the user dependency. The duration of sonication and the delay after the sonication were quantified successfully with the developed method. TTS can sonicate with a maximum deviation of 0.16 s (Std 0.32) from the planned duration and with a delay of 14 ms (Std 0.14) for the emergency stop. Student's T tests indicate that the results do not depend on operators (p > .05). The evidence obtained via this

  11. Development of a new compound method to extract the five parameters of PV modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jianbo; Liu, Sheng; Hao, Yuzhe; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Meng; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound method to extract the five parameters of the five-parameter PV model. • A piecewise curve-fitting method to obtain the differential values at the short and open circuit points. • Simulated and experimental I–V and P–V curves at any operating conditions have excellent agreement. • Prediction of generation output for a PV power station has high accuracy. - Abstract: The five-parameter photovoltaic (PV) mathematical model has been considered a reliable and accurate method for simulating the performance of PV modules. This paper puts forth a new compound method to extract the five parameters of the model with the basic manufacture template data. As the two differential values at the short and open circuit points of the I–V curve at standard testing conditions (STC) are fundamental data to obtain the five parameters and not normally available from the template data, we use a piecewise I–V curve-fitting method combined with the four-parameter PV model to calculate them with which an explicit extraction method is then presented to extract the five parameters at STC conditions by using five individual algebraic equations. Furthermore, the five parameters are revised according to certain operating conditions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the simulated I–V characteristic curves for three types of PV modules over a range of operating conditions are compared with the measured data. The experimental results demonstrate that the method has high accuracy. This method is also used to predict the generation power of an actual PV power station; the simulation results show good agreement with the field data. This proposed method is easy to carry out and especially useful for simulating the actual performances of PV modules or arrays at various operating conditions and predicting the output power of real PV power stations

  12. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  13. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  14. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rey David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1 convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2 detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3 refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4 annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch.

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction methods from biofilm samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and tolerance to the immune system. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Obtaining high quality mRNA from biofilms is crucial to validate the transcriptional measurements associated with the switching to the biofilm mode of growth. Therefore, we selected three commercially available RNA extraction kits with distinct characteristics, including those using silica membrane or organic extraction methods, and enzymatic or mechanical cell lysis, and evaluated the RNA quality obtained from two distinct S. epidermidis bacterial biofilms. Results RNA extracted using the different kits was evaluated for quantity, purity, integrity, and functionally. All kits were able to extract intact and functional total RNA from the biofilms generated from each S. epidermidis strain. The results demonstrated that the kit based on mechanical lysis and organic extraction (FastRNA® Pro Blue was the only one that was able to isolate pure and large quantities of RNA. Normalized expression of the icaA virulence gene showed that RNA extracted with PureLink™ had a significant lower concentration of icaA mRNA transcripts than the other kits tested. Conclusions When working with complex samples, such as biofilms, that contain a high content extracellular polysaccharide and proteins, special care should be taken when selecting the appropriate RNA extraction system, in order to obtain accurate, reproducible, and biologically significant results. Among the RNA extraction kits tested, FastRNA® Pro Blue was the best option for both S. epidermidis biofilms used.

  16. A Review of the Application of Ultrasound in Bioleaching and Insights from Sonication in (BioChemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Vyas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological leaching is practiced on a commercial scale for the mining of metals from ores. Although bioleaching is an environmentally-friendly alternative to chemical leaching, one of the principal shortcomings is the slow rate of leaching which needs to be addressed. The application of ultrasound in bioleaching, termed sonobioleaching, is a technique which has been reported to increase the rate and extent of metal extraction. This article reviews efforts made in the field of sonobioleaching. Since bioleaching is effectively a biological and chemical process, the effects of sonication on chemical leaching/reactions and biological processes are also reviewed. Although sonication increases metal extraction by increasing the metabolite production and enhanced mixing at a micro scale, research is limited in terms of the microorganisms explored. This paper highlights some shortcomings and limitations of existing techniques, and proposes directions for future research.

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  18. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  19. Application of ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of the directive action beverage from black currant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental determination of physical-and chemical parameters, the amount of anthocyanins, the definition of color and organoleptic characteristics of the beverage prepared with ultrasonic extraction method in comparison with the fruit-drink, obtained according to traditional recipe. Black currant was chosen the main raw material for the development of the beverage production technology. It is characterized by a high content of bioactive components that increase the adaptive abilities of human body. The purpose is to use ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of functionally directed actions beverages. Extractor with submerged ultrasonic emitter was used as an experimental device. The essence of its operation is as follows: a mixture of the extractant and the plant substrate in different ratios was loaded into a container with the emitter, then the ultrasonic generator was turned on. The vibrations of ultrasonic frequency (22 kHz made high-frequency mechanical vibrations that caused the formation of intense cavitation areas and diffuse dissolution of cell substrates in the extractant in the treated mixture. The ultrasonic extraction technique involves brief contact of berries and extractant (up to 15 minutes upon application of ultrasonic vibrations. With an increase in exposure time, the yield of biologically active substances increases to reach an equilibrium state corresponding to the most complete exhaustion of raw materials. All this leads to a significant acceleration of the transition from the active ingredients from the raw materials into the extractant to obtain a product with improved physical - and chemical, organoleptic characteristics, as well as a higher antioxidant activity.

  20. Extraction of Stevia rebaudiana bertoni sweetener glycosides by supercritical fluid methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Hinojosa-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to evaluate the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method with and without the addition of co-solvent to the system (mixture water: ethanol to obtain the glycosides from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Methods. A SFT-150 SFE / SFR model with CO2 as a fluid was used for the supercritical extraction. The variables studied were temperature, pressure, extraction time and the presence or absence of the co-solvent (water-ethanol mixture in a concentration of 70:30 v/v, incorporated in different proportions to determine the effect on yield. The amount of glycoside sweeteners was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Results. The pressure was the factor that favored the extraction, which was selective in obtaining Rebaudioside A with yields no greater than 2%. The inclusion of the co-solvent achieved an increase in yield to values of 2.9% Conclusion. Supercritical CO2 individually and mixed with ethanol-water as a co-solvent was not efficient to extract Stevia rebaudiana stevioside sweeteners

  1. A new analytical method for 32P. Liquid scintillation counting with solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, J.A.; Yonezawa, C.

    2003-01-01

    Trace determination of phosphorus has been studied using neutron activation analysis. Radioactivity of 32 P in tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate complex was measured using liquid scintillation counting by extracting the complex into xylene. Phosphorus can be quantitatively determined from 16.7 to 600 μg/10 ml by using the radiochemical analysis method described. (author)

  2. A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ai, Tinghua; Lu, Wei

    2018-04-19

    Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS) traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction) by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.

  3. System and method for extracting physiological information from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and a method for extracting physiological information indicative of at least one health symptom from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation. The device comprises an interface (20) for receiving a data stream comprising remotely detected image data

  4. System and method for extracting physiological information from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and a method for extracting physiological information indicative of at least one health symptom from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation. The device comprises an interface (20) for receiving a data stream comprising remotely detected image data

  5. Comparison of Qinzhou bay wetland landscape information extraction by three methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chang

    2014-04-01

    and OO is 219 km2, 193.70 km2, 217.40 km2 respectively. The result indicates that SC is in the f irst place, followed by OO approach, and the third DT method when used to extract Qingzhou Bay coastal wetland.

  6. Efficient recovery of environmental DNA for expression cloning by indirect extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Esther; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Using direct and cell extraction-based (indirect) isolation methods, DNA was obtained from environmental samples with largely differing characteristics (loam soil, sand soil, sediment, activated sludge, and compost) and evaluated with respect to the comprised bacterial diversity and its suitability

  7. Easy methods for extracting individual regression slopes: Comparing SPSS, R, and Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Pfister

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different methods for extracting coefficientsof linear regression analyses are presented. The focus is on automatic and easy-to-use approaches for common statistical packages: SPSS, R, and MS Excel / LibreOffice Calc. Hands-on examples are included for each analysis, followed by a brief description of how a subsequent regression coefficient analysis is performed.

  8. Evaluation of methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanqing Yuan

    Full Text Available DNA extraction is an essential step in all cultivation-independent approaches to characterize microbial diversity, including that associated with the human body. A fundamental challenge in using these approaches has been to isolate DNA that is representative of the microbial community sampled.In this study, we statistically evaluated six commonly used DNA extraction procedures using eleven human-associated bacterial species and a mock community that contained equal numbers of those eleven species. These methods were compared on the basis of DNA yield, DNA shearing, reproducibility, and most importantly representation of microbial diversity. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from a mock community showed that the observed species abundances were significantly different from the expected species abundances for all six DNA extraction methods used.Protocols that included bead beating and/or mutanolysin produced significantly better bacterial community structure representation than methods without both of them. The reproducibility of all six methods was similar, and results from different experimenters and different times were in good agreement. Based on the evaluations done it appears that DNA extraction procedures for bacterial community analysis of human associated samples should include bead beating and/or mutanolysin to effectively lyse cells.

  9. A simple method of DNA extraction from coffee seeds suitable for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... This makes coffee seed as one of the important material for molecular marker ... homogenised in 10 ml of freshly prepared extraction buffer (200. mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, .... DNA material for particular molecular analysis. This method will be ... Pharmawati M, Yan G, Sedgley R, Finnegan PM (2004). Chloroplast.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of emerging contaminants in freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Grosseli, Guilherme Martins; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Sediments are the fate of several emerging organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones, and therefore an important subject in environmental monitoring studies. In the present work, a simple and sensitive method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous extraction of atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, propranolol, triclosan, estrone, 17-β-estradiol and 17-α-ethinylestradiol using ultrasound-assisted extraction from freshwater sediment samples followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The solvent type and extraction pH were evaluated to obtain the highest recoveries of the compounds. The best method shows absolute recoveries between 54.0 and 94.4% at 50 ng/g concentration. The method exhibits good precision with relative standard deviation ranging from 1.0-16%. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.006-0.067 and 0.016-0.336 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to freshwater sediment samples collected from different sites in Jundiaí River basin of São Paulo State, Brazil. The compounds atenolol, caffeine, propranolol and triclosan were detected in all the sampling sites with concentrations of 13.8, 41.0, 28.5 and 176 ng/g, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Selective extraction methods for aluminium, iron and organic carbon from montane volcanic ash soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Tonneijck, F.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle. Given the central role of Al and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils, we assessed various extraction methods of Al, Fe, and

  12. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  13. A method for automating the extraction of specialized information from the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Liotta, A.; Hippisley, A.; Hao, Y.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheung, Y-M.; Yin, H.; Jiao, L.; Ma, j.; Jiao, Y-C.

    2005-01-01

    The World Wide Web can be viewed as a gigantic distributed database including millions of interconnected hosts some of which publish information via web servers or peer-to-peer systems. We present here a novel method for the extraction of semantically rich information from the web in a fully

  14. The Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris; a Comparison of Extraction and Detection Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Vrieling, K.; Veen, van der M.R.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction – Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) serve an important function in plant defence. Objective – To compare different extraction methods and detection techniques, namely gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

  15. A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT. First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.

  16. A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX. The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  17. Prediction of methylmercury accumulation in rice grains by chemical extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dai-Wen; Zhong, Huan; Zeng, Qi-Long; Yin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possibility of using chemical extraction methods to predict phytoavailability/bioaccumulation of soil-bound MeHg, MeHg extractions by three widely-used extractants (CaCl 2 , DTPA, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 ) were compared with MeHg accumulation in rice grains. Despite of variations in characteristics of different soils, MeHg extracted by (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 (highly affinitive to MeHg) correlated well with grain MeHg levels. Thus (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 extraction, solubilizing not only weakly-bound and but also strongly-bound MeHg, may provide a measure of ‘phytoavailable MeHg pool’ for rice plants. Besides, a better prediction of grain MeHg levels was obtained when growing condition of rice plants was also considered. However, MeHg extracted by CaCl 2 or DTPA, possibly quantifying ‘exchangeable MeHg pool’ or ‘weakly-complexed MeHg pool’ in soils, may not indicate phytoavailable MeHg or predict grain MeHg levels. Our results provided the possibility of predicting MeHg phytoavailability/bioaccumulation by (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 extraction, which could be useful in screening soils for rice cultivation in contaminated areas. - Highlights: • MeHg extraction by (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 correlates well with its accumulation in rice grains. • MeHg extraction by (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 provides a measure of phytoavailable MeHg in soils. • Some strongly-bound MeHg could be desorbed from soils and available to rice plants. • MeHg extraction by CaCl 2 or DTPA could not predict grain MeHg levels. - Methylmercury extraction from soils by (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 could possibly be used for predicting methylmercury phytoavailability and its bioaccumulation in rice grains

  18. An Accurate Integral Method for Vibration Signal Based on Feature Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of current integral methods, a novel vibration signal integral method based on feature information extraction was proposed. This method took full advantage of the self-adaptive filter characteristic and waveform correction feature of ensemble empirical mode decomposition in dealing with nonlinear and nonstationary signals. This research merged the superiorities of kurtosis, mean square error, energy, and singular value decomposition on signal feature extraction. The values of the four indexes aforementioned were combined into a feature vector. Then, the connotative characteristic components in vibration signal were accurately extracted by Euclidean distance search, and the desired integral signals were precisely reconstructed. With this method, the interference problem of invalid signal such as trend item and noise which plague traditional methods is commendably solved. The great cumulative error from the traditional time-domain integral is effectively overcome. Moreover, the large low-frequency error from the traditional frequency-domain integral is successfully avoided. Comparing with the traditional integral methods, this method is outstanding at removing noise and retaining useful feature information and shows higher accuracy and superiority.

  19. Novel quantitative autophagy analysis by organelle flow cytometry after cell sonication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Degtyarev

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a dynamic process of bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Current methods of autophagy measurement include microscopy-based counting of autophagic vacuoles (AVs in cells. We have developed a novel method to quantitatively analyze individual AVs using flow cytometry. This method, OFACS (organelle flow after cell sonication, takes advantage of efficient cell disruption with a brief sonication, generating cell homogenates with fluorescently labeled AVs that retain their integrity as confirmed with light and electron microscopy analysis. These AVs could be detected directly in the sonicated cell homogenates on a flow cytometer as a distinct population of expected organelle size on a cytometry plot. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of autophagic flux, such as chloroquine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, increased the number of particles in this population under autophagy inducing conditions, while inhibition of autophagy induction with 3-methyladenine or knockdown of ATG proteins prevented this accumulation. This assay can be easily performed in a high-throughput format and opens up previously unexplored avenues for autophagy analysis.

  20. Physiochemical characterizations of hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bones by three different methods: Extraction of biologically desirable HAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Khalil, K.A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Omran, A.M.; Gaihre, Babita; Khil, Soeb M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, subcritical water and alkaline hydrolysis methods are proposed methodologies for extraction of natural hydroxyapatite bioceramic from bovine bone. In these processes, the bovine bones powder were treated by high pressure water at 250 deg. C for 1 h and 25% (wt) sodium hydroxide at 250 deg. C for 5 h, respectively. Also the conventional calcination methodology has been utilized as well (T = 850 deg. C for 1 h). The obtained apatites from the three treatment processes have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM). FT IR and XRD results affirmed that both the proposed methods and the traditional one can eliminate the collagen and other organic materials present in the bovine bones. The physiochemical characterizations for the obtained apatites have proved that the subcritical water and the alkaline hydrolysis relatively preserve the carbonate content present in the biological apatite, so they yield carbonated hydroxyapatite which is medically preferable. While, the thermal process produces almost hydroxyapatite carbonate-free