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Sample records for somatic cellular darwinian

  1. Tumor progression: chance and necessity in Darwinian and Lamarckian somatic (mutationless) evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sui

    2012-09-01

    Current investigation of cancer progression towards increasing malignancy focuses on the molecular pathways that produce the various cancerous traits of cells. Their acquisition is explained by the somatic mutation theory: tumor progression is the result of a neo-Darwinian evolution in the tissue. Herein cells are the units of selection. Random genetic mutations permanently affecting these pathways create malignant cell phenotypes that are selected for in the disturbed tissue. However, could it be that the capacity of the genome and its gene regulatory network to generate the vast diversity of cell types during development, i.e., to produce inheritable phenotypic changes without mutations, is harnessed by tumorigenesis to propel a directional change towards malignancy? Here we take an encompassing perspective, transcending the orthodoxy of molecular carcinogenesis and review mechanisms of somatic evolution beyond the Neo-Darwinian scheme. We discuss the central concept of "cancer attractors" - the hidden stable states of gene regulatory networks normally not occupied by cells. Noise-induced transitions into such attractors provide a source for randomness (chance) and regulatory constraints (necessity) in the acquisition of novel expression profiles that can be inherited across cell divisions, and hence, can be selected for. But attractors can also be reached in response to environmental signals - thus offering the possibility for inheriting acquired traits that can also be selected for. Therefore, we face the possibility of non-genetic (mutation-independent) equivalents to both Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution which may jointly explain the arrow of change pointing toward increasing malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  3. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

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    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/ for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  4. Darwinian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter; Koelewijn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a

  5. Cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, L; Olmedilla, A; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. The aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of Agave tequilana Weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in this species. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells from several genotypes. Presence of granular structures was detected after somatic embryogenesis induction in embryogenic cells; composition of these structures as well as changes in protein and polysaccharide distribution was studied using Coomassie brilliant blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff stains. Distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins was investigated in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells by immunolabelling using anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies (JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13) as well as an anti-methyl-esterified pectin-antibody (JIM7), in order to evaluate major modifications in cell wall composition in the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis. Our observations pointed out that induction of somatic embryogenesis produced accumulation of proteins and polysaccharides in embryogenic cells. Presence of JIM8, JIM13 and JIM7 epitopes were detected exclusively in embryogenic cells, which supports the idea that specific changes in cell wall are involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence of A. tequilana.

  6. Darwinian Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Do; Bontekoe, Romke; MohammadDjafari, A; Bercher, JF; Bessiere, P

    2010-01-01

    We present a way to generate heuristic mathematical models based on the Darwinian principles of variation and selection in a pool of individuals over many generations. Each individual has a genotype (the hereditary properties) and a phenotype (the expression of these properties in the environment).

  7. Glis family proteins are differentially implicated in the cellular reprogramming of human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Young; Noh, Hye Bin; Kim, Hyeong-Taek; Lee, Kang-In; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2017-09-29

    The ground-breaking discovery of the reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells, termed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), was accomplished by delivering 4 transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, into fibroblasts. Since then, several efforts have attempted to unveil other factors that are directly implicated in or might enhance reprogramming. Importantly, a number of transcription factors are reported to retain reprogramming activity. A previous study suggested Gli-similar 1 (Glis1) as a factor that enhances the reprogramming of fibroblasts during iPSC generation. However, the implication of other Glis members, including Glis2 and Glis3 (variants 1 and 2), in cellular reprogramming remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of human Glis family proteins, including hGlis1-3, in cellular reprogramming. Our results demonstrate that hGlis1, which is reported to reprogram human fibroblasts, promotes the reprogramming of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs), indicating that the reprogramming activity of Glis1 is not cell type-specific. Strikingly, hGlis3 promoted the reprogramming of hADSCs as efficiently as hGlis1. On the contrary, hGlis2 showed a strong negative effect on reprogramming. Together, our results reveal clear differences in the cellular reprogramming activity among Glis family members and provide valuable insight into the development of a new reprogramming strategy using Glis family proteins.

  8. Darwinian Model Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, Do; Bontekoe, Romke

    2011-01-01

    We present a way to generate heuristic mathematical models based on the Darwinian principles of variation and selection in a pool of individuals over many generations. Each individual has a genotype (the hereditary properties) and a phenotype (the expression of these properties in the environment). Variation is achieved by cross-over and mutation operations on the genotype which consists in the present case of a single chromosome. The genotypes 'live' in the environment of the data. Nested Sampling is used to optimize the free parameters of the models given the data, thus giving rise to the phenotypes. Selection is based on the phenotypes.The evidences which naturally follow from the Nested Sampling Algorithm are used in a second level of Nested Sampling to find increasingly better models.The data in this paper originate from the Leiden Cytology and Pathology Laboratory (LCPL), which screens pap smears for cervical cancer. We have data for 1750 women who on average underwent 5 tests each. The data on individual women are treated as a small time series. We will try to estimate the next value of the prime cancer indicator from previous tests of the same woman.

  9. Quantum Darwinism as a Darwinian process

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    The Darwinian nature of Wojciech Zurek's theory of Quantum Darwinism is evaluated against the criteria of a Darwinian process as understood within Universal Darwinism. The characteristics of a Darwinian process are developed including the consequences of accumulated adaptations resulting in adaptive systems operating in accordance with Friston's free energy principle and employing environmental simulations. Quantum theory, as developed in Zurek's research program and encapsulated by his theor...

  10. Activation of specific cellular immunity toward murine leukemia in mice rejecting syngeneic somatic hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.; Cohen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK) - somatic hybrid cells form both H-2/sup a/ and H-2/sup k/ antigen complexes. After forming a localized tumor in syngeneic (A/J x C 3 H/HeJ)F 1 mice, they are rejected. Such mice are resistant to otherwise invariably lethal injections of ASL-1 cells, surviving for prolonged and, in some instances, indefinite periods. To examine the basis of immunity, the capacity of spleen cells from mice rejecting hybrid cells to stimulate the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells was investigated. Cells from the spleens of mice rejecting ASL-1 x LM(TK) - cells stimulated the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells, but not from Ehrlich ascites or P815 cells. Cells from mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells led to the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells as well, but the extent of 51 Cr release was approximately one-third as occurred in the presence of cells from hybrid cell-injected mice. Cells from noninjected mice or from mice injected with LM(TK) - cells failed to lead to the specific release of 51 Cr from ASL-1 cells. The presence of unlabeled ASL-1 cells, but not Ehrlich ascites cells, competitively inhibited the spleen cell-stimulated release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells. Sera from A/J mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells contained antibodies specific for the tumor-associated antigen of ASL-1 cells

  11. Darwinian evolution on a chip.

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    Brian M Paegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer control of Darwinian evolution has been demonstrated by propagating a population of RNA enzymes in a microfluidic device. The RNA population was challenged to catalyze the ligation of an oligonucleotide substrate under conditions of progressively lower substrate concentrations. A microchip-based serial dilution circuit automated an exponential growth phase followed by a 10-fold dilution, which was repeated for 500 log-growth iterations. Evolution was observed in real time as the population adapted and achieved progressively faster growth rates over time. The final evolved enzyme contained a set of 11 mutations that conferred a 90-fold improvement in substrate utilization, coinciding with the applied selective pressure. This system reduces evolution to a microfluidic algorithm, allowing the experimenter to observe and manipulate adaptation.

  12. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  13. What makes Darwinian hydrology "Darwinian"? Asking a different kind of question about landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science, or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding of the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion because its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows the example of Charles Darwin by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations and seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development. These hypotheses do not simply catalog patterns or predict them statistically - they connect the present structure with processes operating in the past. Nor are they explanations presented without independent evidence or critical analysis - Darwin's hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying present-day variation could be independently tested and validated. With a Darwinian framework in mind, it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. We discuss some practical and philosophical issues with this approach to hydrologic science: how are explanatory hypotheses generated? What constitutes a good hypothesis? How are hypotheses tested? "Historical" sciences - including paleohydrology - have long grappled with these questions, as must a Darwinian hydrologic science. We can draw on Darwin's own example for some answers, though there are ongoing debates about the philosophical nature of his methods and reasoning. Darwin used a range of methods of historical reasoning to develop explanatory

  14. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    the Darwin-Wallace controversy was that most Darwinian biologists avoided the subject of sexual selection until at least the 1950s, Ronald Fisher being a major exception. This controversy still deserves attention from modern evolutionary biologists, because the modern approach inherits from both Darwin and Wallace. The modern approach tends to present sexual selection as a special aspect of the theory of natural selection, although it also recognizes the big difficulties resulting from the inevitable interaction between these two natural processes of selection. And contra Wallace, it considers mate choice as a major process that deserves a proper evolutionary treatment. The paper's conclusion explains why sexual selection can be taken as a test case for a proper assessment of "Darwinism" as a scientific tradition. Darwin's and Wallace's attitudes towards sexual selection reveal two different interpretations of the principle of natural selection: Wallace's had an environmentalist conception of natural selection, whereas Darwin was primarily sensitive to the element of competition involved in the intimate mechanism of any natural process of selection. Sexual selection, which can lack adaptive significance, reveals this exemplarily. 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?

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    Wolf Yuri I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The year 2009 is the 200th anniversary of the publication of Jean-Bapteste Lamarck's Philosophie Zoologique and the 150th anniversary of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Lamarck believed that evolution is driven primarily by non-randomly acquired, beneficial phenotypic changes, in particular, those directly affected by the use of organs, which Lamarck believed to be inheritable. In contrast, Darwin assigned a greater importance to random, undirected change that provided material for natural selection. The concept The classic Lamarckian scheme appears untenable owing to the non-existence of mechanisms for direct reverse engineering of adaptive phenotypic characters acquired by an individual during its life span into the genome. However, various evolutionary phenomena that came to fore in the last few years, seem to fit a more broadly interpreted (quasiLamarckian paradigm. The prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system of defense against mobile elements seems to function via a bona fide Lamarckian mechanism, namely, by integrating small segments of viral or plasmid DNA into specific loci in the host prokaryote genome and then utilizing the respective transcripts to destroy the cognate mobile element DNA (or RNA. A similar principle seems to be employed in the piRNA branch of RNA interference which is involved in defense against transposable elements in the animal germ line. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, a dominant evolutionary process, at least, in prokaryotes, appears to be a form of (quasiLamarckian inheritance. The rate of HGT and the nature of acquired genes depend on the environment of the recipient organism and, in some cases, the transferred genes confer a selective advantage for growth in that environment, meeting the Lamarckian criteria. Various forms of stress-induced mutagenesis are tightly regulated and comprise a universal adaptive response to environmental stress in cellular life forms. Stress-induced mutagenesis

  16. The relativity of Darwinian populations and the ecology of endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, Adrian

    If there is a single discipline of science calling the basic concepts of biology into question, it is without doubt microbiology. Indeed, developments in microbiology have recently forced us to rethink such fundamental concepts as the organism, individual, and genome. In this paper I show how microorganisms are changing our understanding of natural aggregations and develop the concept of a Darwinian population to embrace these discoveries. I start by showing that it is hard to set the boundaries of a Darwinian population, and I suggest thinking of a Darwinian population as a relative property of a Darwinian individual. Then I argue, in contrast to the commonly held view, that Darwinian populations are multispecies units, and that in order to accept the multispecies account of Darwinian populations we have to separate fitness from natural selection. Finally, I show how all these ideas provide a theoretical framework leading to a more precise understanding of the ecology of endosymbiosis than is afforded by poetic metaphors such as 'slavery'.

  17. Nonequilibrium Entropic Bounds for Darwinian Replicators

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    Jordi Piñero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Life evolved on our planet by means of a combination of Darwinian selection and innovations leading to higher levels of complexity. The emergence and selection of replicating entities is a central problem in prebiotic evolution. Theoretical models have shown how populations of different types of replicating entities exclude or coexist with other classes of replicators. Models are typically kinetic, based on standard replicator equations. On the other hand, the presence of thermodynamical constraints for these systems remain an open question. This is largely due to the lack of a general theory of statistical methods for systems far from equilibrium. Nonetheless, a first approach to this problem has been put forward in a series of novel developements falling under the rubric of the extended second law of thermodynamics. The work presented here is twofold: firstly, we review this theoretical framework and provide a brief description of the three fundamental replicator types in prebiotic evolution: parabolic, malthusian and hyperbolic. Secondly, we employ these previously mentioned techinques to explore how replicators are constrained by thermodynamics. Finally, we comment and discuss where further research should be focused on.

  18. Are we Genomic Mosaics? Variations of the Genome of Somatic Cells can Contribute to Diversify our Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, P A; Salamini, F; Sgaramella, V

    2010-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that the genomes and the epigenomes may be different in the somatic cells of complex organisms. In the genome, the differences range from single base substitutions to chromosome number; in the epigenome, they entail multiple postsynthetic modifications of the chromatin. Somatic genome variations (SGV) may accumulate during development in response both to genetic programs, which may differ from tissue to tissue, and to environmental stimuli, which are often undetected and generally irreproducible. SGV may jeopardize physiological cellular functions, but also create novel coding and regulatory sequences, to be exposed to intraorganismal Darwinian selection. Genomes acknowledged as comparatively poor in genes, such as humans', could thus increase their pristine informational endowment. A better understanding of SGV will contribute to basic issues such as the "nature vs nurture" dualism and the inheritance of acquired characters. On the applied side, they may explain the low yield of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer, provide clues to some of the problems associated with transdifferentiation, and interfere with individual DNA analysis. SGV may be unique in the different cells types and in the different developmental stages, and thus explain the several hundred gaps persisting in the human genomes "completed" so far. They may compound the variations associated to our epigenomes and make of each of us an "(epi)genomic" mosaic. An ensuing paradigm is the possibility that a single genome (the ephemeral one assembled at fertilization) has the capacity to generate several different brains in response to different environments.

  19. The Problem with a Darwinian View of Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the special issue on Charles Darwin and psychology (Dewsbury, February-March 2009), in which the authors present evidence supporting the validity of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and how generations of psychologists have viewed the natural world through its light, taking Darwinian theories for granted as being a literal…

  20. Darwin and Reductionisms: Victorian, Neo-Darwinian and Postgenomic Biologies

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    Angelique Richardson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the open-ended Darwinism of Charles Darwin, George Lewes, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy with reductive post-Weismann and early eugenist views and more recent neo-Darwinian ideas including literary Darwinism. It argues that some Victorians had a clear sense of the complexities of the natural world, and of the centrality of environment to life. This awareness contrasts with the processes of divorce and isolation that underpin neo-Darwinian understandings of evolutionary development. But biologists and philosophers of biology are now emphasising the complex and dynamic relations between organism and environment in ways that would have appealed to Darwin’s contemporaries. The article establishes that there are significant parallels between mid-Victorian and postgenomic thought.

  1. Direct Measurements of Human Colon Crypt Stem Cell Niche Genetic Fidelity: The Role of Chance in Non-Darwinian Mutation Selection

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    Haeyoun eKang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perfect human stem cell genetic fidelity would prevent aging and cancer. However, perfection would be difficult to achieve, and aging is universal and cancers common. A hypothesis is that because mutations are inevitable over a human lifetime, downstream mechanisms have evolved to manage the deleterious effects of beneficial and lethal mutations. In the colon, a crypt stem cell architecture reduces the number of mitotic cells at risk for mutation accumulation, and multiple niche stem cells ensure that a lethal mutation within any single stem cell does not lead to crypt death. In addition, the architecture of the colon crypt stem cell niche may harness probability or chance to randomly discard many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer. An analysis of somatic chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs reveals a lack of perfect fidelity in individual normal human crypts, with age-related increases and higher frequencies in ulcerative colitis, a proliferative, inflammatory disease. The age-related increase in somatic CNAs appears consistent with relatively normal replication error and cell division rates. Surprisingly, and similar to point mutations in cancer genomes, the types of crypt mutations were more consistent with random fixation rather than selection. In theory, a simple non-Darwinian way to nullify selection is to reduce the size of the reproducing population. Fates are more determined by chance rather than selection in very small populations, and therefore selection may be minimized within small crypt niches. The desired effect is that many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer are randomly lost by drift rather than fixed by selection. The subdivision of the colon into multiple very small stem cell niches may trade Darwinian evolution for non-Darwinian somatic cell evolution, capitulating to aging but reducing cancer risks.

  2. César Vallejo and the Stones of Darwinian Risk

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    Christiane von Buelow

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available César Vallejo's short story, "Los caynas" (1923, relates a tale of species mutation, of men who become apes. The story, however, is something more than the reflection of the positivist interpretation of Darwinian theory. It can be read as a critique of Positivism's pseudo-scientific ideals or as a version of the Oedipal drama in which the son encounters and rejects his ape father. The ambivalence raises the question of whether Vallejo's Darwinism is to be read literally or ironically as well, as marking an antinomy present throughout his writing between the human subject's immersion in the species and the possibility of a collective human-transformation.

  3. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  4. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimijian, Gregory G

    2010-07-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at "human nature" and contrasts the "dark side" of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

  5. Diversification and enrichment of clinical biomaterials inspired by Darwinian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D W; Watson, G S; Watson, J A; Lee, D-J; Lee, J-M; Jung, H-S

    2016-09-15

    Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions. It is possible to engineer these essential elements into clinical biomaterials via bioinspired implementation of concepts, processes and mechanisms played out during Darwinian evolution; mechanisms such as, directed, computational, accelerated evolutions and artificial selection contrived in the laboratory. These dynamos for innovation can be used during biomaterials fabrication, but also to choose optimal designs in the regeneration process. Further evolutionary information can help at the design stage; gleaned from the historical evolution of material adaptations compared across phylogenies to changes in their environment and habitats. Taken together, harnessing evolutionary mechanisms and evolutionary pathways, leading to ideal adaptations, will eventually provide a new class of Darwinian and evolutionary biomaterials. This will provide bioengineers with a more diversified and more efficient innovation tool for biomaterial design, synthesis and function than currently achieved with synthetic materials chemistry programmes and rational based materials design approach, which require reasoned logic. It will also inject further creativity, diversity and richness into the biomedical technologies that

  6. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  7. The Darwinian revolution La revolución darwiniana

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    ÓSCAR M CHAVES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific revolution probably began at 16th century with the heliocentric theory of the eminent astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, but it was culminated with the masterful discoveries of Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton at 17th century who revealed that planet movements around the sun and other similar phenomena can be explained by simple mechanical laws of physics and astronomy. However, the origin, complexity and configuration of living beings remained in the mystery until 19th century, with the publication of "On the origin of species". In this essay I discuss the importance of the Darwinian scientific revolution, its beginnings, and the main objections of creationists to his evolutionary ideas. Darwin demonstrated that the origin and complexity of living beings can be explained by natural processes, without the intervention of a supernatural being. However, the beginnings of the Darwinian revolution were particularly difficult and 128 years after his death, the controversy between evolutionists and creationists still persists.Con base en la teoría heliocéntrica formulada por Nicolás Copérnico en el siglo XVI, Galileo Galilei e Isaac Newton iniciaron la revolución científica al demostrar que los movimientos de los planetas alrededor del sol podían ser explicados por las leyes de la física y la astronomía. No obstante, el origen y complejidad del mundo orgánico permaneció en el misterio hasta mediados del siglo XIX, cuando Charles Darwin publicó su célebre obra 'El origen de las especies'. Desde entonces, la selección natural se ha convertido en una de las teorías científicas más umversalmente aceptadas y Darwin en el fundador de la biología moderna. En este ensayo se discute la importancia de la revolución darwiniana, sus inicios y las principales objeciones de sus detractores. Darwin demostró que el origen y la complejidad de los seres vivos pueden ser explicados por procesos naturales sin necesidad de la intervenci

  8. Fractional order Darwinian particle swarm optimization applications and evaluation of an evolutionary algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Couceiro, Micael

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the bottom-up applicability of swarm intelligence to solving multiple problems, such as curve fitting, image segmentation, and swarm robotics. It compares the capabilities of some of the better-known bio-inspired optimization approaches, especially Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) and the recently proposed Fractional Order Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization (FODPSO), and comprehensively discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Further, it demonstrates the superiority and key advantages of using the FODPSO algorithm, suc

  9. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  10. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...

  11. The population dynamics of cancer: a Darwinian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Berwick, Marianne

    2006-10-01

    Carcinogenesis, at least for some types of cancer, can be interpreted as the consequence of selection of mutated cells similar to what, in the theory of evolution, occurs at the population level. Instead of considering a population of organisms, we can refer to a population of cells belonging to multicellular organisms. Many carcinogens are mutagens, and the observed geographic distribution of cancer is, at least in part, attributable to environmental mutagens. However, the rapid change in risk for some cancers after migration suggests that carcinogenesis involves--in addition to mutations--some late event that most probably consists of the selection of cells already carrying mutations. We review a few examples of such selective pressures: finasteride in prostate cancer, vitamin supplementation in smokers, acquired resistance to chemotherapy, peripheral resistance to insulin, and sunlight and mutations in melanoma. A disease model for such a hypothesis is represented by Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). Mutations can be present at birth, as in the case of PNH, and can have a frequency much higher than the occurrence of the corresponding disease (PNH or lymphocytic leukaemia in children). However, PNH does not require a mutator phenotype, only a mutant phenotype followed by selection. A characteristic feature of cancer, instead, is likely to be the development of the mutator phenotype. We propose a 'Darwinian' model of carcinogenesis. If the model is correct, it suggests that prevention is more complex than avoiding exposure to mutagens. Mutations and genetic instability can be already present at birth. Mutations can be selected in the course of life if they increase survival advantage of the cell under certain environmental circumstances. In addition, gene-environment interactions cannot be interpreted according to a simplified linear model (based on the 'analysis of variance' concept); experimental work suggests that a more comprehensive non

  12. Brassinosteroid action in flowering plants: a Darwinian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2012-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 150th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin's first botanical book, on the fertilization of orchids (1862), wherein he described pollen grains and outlined his evolutionary principles with respect to plant research. Five decades later, the growth-promoting effect of extracts of Orchid pollen on coleoptile elongation was documented. These studies led to the discovery of a new class of phytohormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs) that were isolated from rapeseed (Brassica napus) pollen. These growth-promoting steroids, which regulate height, fertility, and seed-filling in crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa), also induce stress- and disease resistance in green algae and angiosperms. The origin and current status of BR-research is described here, with reference to BR-action and -signal transduction, and it is shown that modern high-yield rice varieties with erect leaves are deficient in endogenous BRs. Since brassinosteroids induce pathogen resistance in rice plants and hence can suppress rice blast- and bacterial blight-diseases, genetic manipulation of BR-biosynthesis or -perception may be a means to increase crop production. Basic research on BR activity in plants, such as Arabidopsis and rice, has the potential to increase crop yields further as part of a 21th century 'green biotech-revolution' that can be traced back to Darwin's classical breeding experiments. It is concluded that 'Nothing in brassinosteroid research makes sense except in the light of Darwinian evolution' and the value of basic science is highlighted, with reference to the genetic engineering of better food crops that may become resistant to a variety of plant diseases.

  13. Emerging of Stochastic Dynamical Equalities and Steady State Thermodynamics from Darwinian Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao, P.

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics first conceived by Darwin and Wallace, referring to as Darwinian dynamics in the present paper, has been found to be universally valid in biology. The statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, while enormous successful in physics, have been in an awkward situation of wanting a consistent dynamical understanding. Here we present from a formal point of view an exploration of the connection between thermodynamics and Darwinian dynamics and a few related topics. We first show that the stochasticity in Darwinian dynamics implies the existence temperature, hence the canonical distribution of Boltzmann-Gibbs type. In term of relative entropy the Second Law of thermodynamics is dynamically demonstrated without detailed balance condition, and is valid regardless of size of the system. In particular, the dynamical component responsible for breaking detailed balance condition does not contribute to the change of the relative entropy. Two types of stochastic dynamical equalities of current interest are explicitly discussed in the present approach: One is based on Feynman-Kac formula and another is a generalization of Einstein relation. Both are directly accessible to experimental tests. Our demonstration indicates that Darwinian dynamics represents logically a simple and straightforward starting point for statistical mechanics and thermodynamics and is complementary to and consistent with conservative dynamics that dominates the physical sciences. Present exploration suggests the existence of a unified stochastic dynamical framework both near and far from equilibrium

  14. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  15. Unfinished stories on viral quasispecies and Darwinian views of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Más, Antonio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Cacho, Isabel; Gómez, Jordi; Martínez, Miguel Angel

    2010-04-09

    Experimental evidence that RNA virus populations consist of distributions of mutant genomes, termed quasispecies, was first published 31 years ago. This work provided the earliest experimental support for a theory to explain a system that replicated with limited fidelity and to understand the self-organization and adaptability of early life forms on Earth. High mutation rates and quasispecies dynamics of RNA viruses are intimately related to both viral disease and antiviral treatment strategies. Moreover, the quasispecies concept is being applied to other biological systems such as cancer research in which cellular mutant spectra can be also detected. This review addresses some of the unanswered questions regarding viral and theoretical quasispecies concepts as well as more practical aspects concerning resistance to antiviral treatments and pathogenesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypochondriasis and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R

    1987-11-20

    Between 60% and 80% of healthy individuals experience somatic symptoms in any one week. About 10% to 20% of a random sample of people worry intermittently about illness. A substantial proportion of patients present physicians with somatic complaints for which no organic cause can be found. Patients who are hypochondriacal do not understand the benign nature of functional somatic symptoms and interpret these as evidence of disease. Hypochondriacal concerns range from common short-lived worries to persistent and distressing fears or convictions of having a disease. Hypochondriasis can be secondary to other psychiatric disorders (eg, melancholia or panic disorder), and hypochondriacal attitudes remit when the primary disorder is successfully treated. Patients with primary hypochondriasis are also anxious or depressed, but the fear of disease, or the false belief of having a disease, persists and is the most important feature of their psychopathology. There are substantial differences among hypochondriacal patients in their personalities and psychopathologies. Psychotherapy as well as psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of functional somatic symptoms. There are no adequate controlled studies on the value of psychotherapy in hypochondriasis; the recommended guidelines are based on uncontrolled studies of hypochondriasis and on controlled studies of the psychotherapy in similar disorders. The prognosis of functional somatic symptoms as well as that of hypochondriasis is good in a substantial proportion of patients.

  17. Extending and expanding the Darwinian synthesis: the role of complex systems dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce H

    2011-03-01

    Darwinism is defined here as an evolving research tradition based upon the concepts of natural selection acting upon heritable variation articulated via background assumptions about systems dynamics. Darwin's theory of evolution was developed within a context of the background assumptions of Newtonian systems dynamics. The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, or neo-Darwinism, successfully joined Darwinian selection and Mendelian genetics by developing population genetics informed by background assumptions of Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Currently the Darwinian Research Tradition is changing as it incorporates new information and ideas from molecular biology, paleontology, developmental biology, and systems ecology. This putative expanded and extended synthesis is most perspicuously deployed using background assumptions from complex systems dynamics. Such attempts seek to not only broaden the range of phenomena encompassed by the Darwinian Research Tradition, such as neutral molecular evolution, punctuated equilibrium, as well as developmental biology, and systems ecology more generally, but to also address issues of the emergence of evolutionary novelties as well as of life itself. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EUGENICS, THE GIRARDIAN THEORY OF SACRIFICE, AND THE NEW DARWINIAN ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS RYBA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that, though many ethical systems recognizesacrifice as moral action, the utilitarian appropriation of Neo-Darwinian theory especially as it justifies eugenics as a “winnowing of the human stock” is in Girardian terms analogous to the sacrificial scapegoating of innocents. This argument is accomplished in four steps. (1 I show that within some ethical systems sacrifice is recognized as moral behavior driven by a specific axiology (or theory of value (2 I discuss some of the meta-ethical problems connected with Neo-Darwinian naturalism and naturalism, in general. (3 I show how modern varieties of naturalism and Darwinian naturalism, inparticular are especially inclined to lead to a moral justification of eugenic scapegoating and how Girardian theory is helpful in identifying the moral disorder connected with eugenics. (4 Finally, I conclude by arguing that Darwin’s thought is susceptible to another kind of interpretation, one that need not lead to the valorization of eugenics.

  19. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  20. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Breeding novel solutions in the brain: a model of Darwinian neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, András; Zachar, István; Fedor, Anna; de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2016-01-01

    Background : The fact that surplus connections and neurons are pruned during development is well established. We complement this selectionist picture by a proof-of-principle model of evolutionary search in the brain, that accounts for new variations in theory space. We present a model for Darwinian evolutionary search for candidate solutions in the brain. Methods : We combine known components of the brain - recurrent neural networks (acting as attractors), the action selection loop and implicit working memory - to provide the appropriate Darwinian architecture. We employ a population of attractor networks with palimpsest memory. The action selection loop is employed with winners-share-all dynamics to select for candidate solutions that are transiently stored in implicit working memory. Results : We document two processes: selection of stored solutions and evolutionary search for novel solutions. During the replication of candidate solutions attractor networks occasionally produce recombinant patterns, increasing variation on which selection can act. Combinatorial search acts on multiplying units (activity patterns) with hereditary variation and novel variants appear due to (i) noisy recall of patterns from the attractor networks, (ii) noise during transmission of candidate solutions as messages between networks, and, (iii) spontaneously generated, untrained patterns in spurious attractors. Conclusions : Attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks can be used to model Darwinian search. The proposed architecture can be used for fast search among stored solutions (by selection) and for evolutionary search when novel candidate solutions are generated in successive iterations. Since all the suggested components are present in advanced nervous systems, we hypothesize that the brain could implement a truly evolutionary combinatorial search system, capable of generating novel variants.

  2. Field Studies: Novels as Darwinian Niches, Poetry for Physicists and Mathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Walter Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This brief forum contribution reflects upon some historical factors in the formation of nineteenth century science and of the literature and science discipline that has since arisen to study its literary receptions. Noting the preponderance of studies focusing upon forms of scientific developmentalism, principally Darwinian biology, and of novels and other prose, and more broadly, on literary figures, rather than the writings of scientists, the paper introduces some poetry on science by scientists. It concentrates principally on those working and writing in the fields of physics and mathematics, areas that have been neglected in literature and science studies.

  3. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  4. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  5. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-Darwinian evolution for the source detection of atmospheric releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, Guido; Franzese, Pasquale

    2011-08-01

    A non-Darwinian evolutionary algorithm is presented as search engine to identify the characteristics of a source of atmospheric pollutants, given a set of concentration measurements. The algorithm drives iteratively a forward dispersion model from tentative sources toward the real source. The solutions of non-Darwinian evolution processes are not generated through pseudo-random operators, unlike traditional evolutionary algorithms, but through a reasoning process based on machine learning rule generation and instantiation. The new algorithm is tested with both a synthetic case and with the Prairie Grass field experiment. To further test the capabilities of the algorithm to work in real-world scenarios, the source identification of all Prairie Grass releases was performed with a decreasing number of sensor measurements, and a relationship is found between the precision of the solution, the number of sensors available, and the levels of concentration measured by the sensors. The proposed methodology can be used for a variety of optimization problems, and is particularly suited for problems where the operations needed for evaluating new candidate solutions are computationally expensive.

  7. The Mastodon in the room: how Darwinian is neo-Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel R

    2011-03-01

    Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view of natural selection, with the nature of the organism determined by the nature of the conditions, rendering the nature of the organism and temporal contingency unnecessary. Contemporary advances in biology, specifically the phylogenetics revolution and evo-devo, underscore the significance of history and the nature of the organism in biology. Darwinism explains more biology better, and better resolves apparent anomalies between living systems and more general natural laws, than does neo-Darwinism. The "extended" or "expanded" synthesis currently called for by neo-Darwinians is Darwinism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Why mental disorders are just mental dysfunctions (and nothing more): some Darwinian arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as well as on the harm that attends the disruption. The arguments advanced here are partially based on the view that a core feature of Darwinism is that it stresses the environmental relativity of functions and dysfunctions. These arguments show a very close empirical connection between social judgments (values) and dysfunctions (psychopathology), which is of interest for psychiatric theory. Philosophically, they lead to the conclusion that the concept of mental disorder is identical to the concept of mental dysfunction. Consequently, it is both misleading and redundant to conceptualize mental disorders as 'harmful dysfunctions', and not simply as 'mental dysfunctions'.

  9. If we are all cultural Darwinians what's the fuss about? : clarifying recent disagreements in the field of cultural evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acerbi, A.; Mesoudi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural evolution studies are characterized by the notion that culture evolves accordingly to broadly Darwinian principles. Yet how far the analogy between cultural and genetic evolution should be pushed is open to debate. Here, we examine a recent disagreement that concerns the extent to which

  10. Somatic Mutations and Clonal Hematopoiesis in Aplastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Hosokawa, Kohei; Makishima, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenichi; Townsley, Danielle; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Sato, Yusuke; Liu, Delong; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Wu, Colin O; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Clemente, Michael J; Kataoka, Keisuke; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Nagata, Yasunobu; Katagiri, Takamasa; Kon, Ayana; Sanada, Masashi; Scheinberg, Phillip; Miyano, Satoru; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Nakao, Shinji; Young, Neal S; Ogawa, Seishi

    2015-07-02

    In patients with acquired aplastic anemia, destruction of hematopoietic cells by the immune system leads to pancytopenia. Patients have a response to immunosuppressive therapy, but myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia develop in about 15% of the patients, usually many months to years after the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. We performed next-generation sequencing and array-based karyotyping using 668 blood samples obtained from 439 patients with aplastic anemia. We analyzed serial samples obtained from 82 patients. Somatic mutations in myeloid cancer candidate genes were present in one third of the patients, in a limited number of genes and at low initial variant allele frequency. Clonal hematopoiesis was detected in 47% of the patients, most frequently as acquired mutations. The prevalence of the mutations increased with age, and mutations had an age-related signature. DNMT3A-mutated and ASXL1-mutated clones tended to increase in size over time; the size of BCOR- and BCORL1-mutated and PIGA-mutated clones decreased or remained stable. Mutations in PIGA and BCOR and BCORL1 correlated with a better response to immunosuppressive therapy and longer and a higher rate of overall and progression-free survival; mutations in a subgroup of genes that included DNMT3A and ASXL1 were associated with worse outcomes. However, clonal dynamics were highly variable and might not necessarily have predicted the response to therapy and long-term survival among individual patients. Clonal hematopoiesis was prevalent in aplastic anemia. Some mutations were related to clinical outcomes. A highly biased set of mutations is evidence of Darwinian selection in the failed bone marrow environment. The pattern of somatic clones in individual patients over time was variable and frequently unpredictable. (Funded by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and others.).

  11. Research and Application on Fractional-Order Darwinian PSO Based Adaptive Extended Kalman Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiguang Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the difficulty in establishing accurate priori noise model for the extended Kalman filtering algorithm, propose the fractional-order Darwinian particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm has been proposed and introduced into the fuzzy adaptive extended Kalman filtering algorithm. The natural selection method has been adopted to improve the standard particle swarm optimization algorithm, which enhanced the diversity of particles and avoided the premature. In addition, the fractional calculus has been used to improve the evolution speed of particles. The PSO algorithm after improved has been applied to train fuzzy adaptive extended Kalman filter and achieve the simultaneous localization and mapping. The simulation results have shown that compared with the geese particle swarm optimization training of fuzzy adaptive extended Kalman filter localization and mapping algorithm, has been greatly improved in terms of localization and mapping.

  12. Physical microscopic free-choice model in the framework of a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baladron, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011, Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    A compatibilistic model of free choice for a fundamental particle is built within a general framework that explores the possibility that quantum mechanics be the emergent result of generalised Darwinian evolution acting on the abstract landscape of possible physical theories. The central element in this approach is a probabilistic classical Turing machine -basically an information processor plus a randomiser- methodologically associated with every fundamental particle. In this scheme every system acts not under a general law, but as a consequence of the command of a particular, evolved algorithm. This evolved programme enables the particle to algorithmically anticipate possible future world configurations in information space, and as a consequence, without altering the natural forward causal order in physical space, to incorporate elements to the decision making procedure that are neither purely random nor strictly in the past, but in a possible future. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Genetic structure and evidence of putative Darwinian diversifying selection in the Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and genetic variation of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV were estimated by analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein of 69 isolates, reported in GenBank, from Solanum tuberosum (ST and Solanum phureja (SP hosts from different regions; predominantly Cundinamarca, Antioquia and Nariño, located in central and southwestern Colombia. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that despite the wide geographic distribution of different hosts and different collecting years, PYVV maintains a genetic similarity between 97.1 to 100.0%, indicating high spatial and temporal genetic stability of the major coat protein. No recombination events were found, but evidence was seen for the first time that this protein could be undergoing Darwinian diversifying selection

  14. Evolutionism through Chinese Eyes: Yan Fu, Ma Junwu and Their translations of Darwinian Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-song Vincent Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge impact that Darwinian Evolutionism has effected over Chinese intellectuals through Yan Fu's translation of Huxley's "Evolution and Ethics" into the Tianyanlun, is in fact based on Chinese traditional worldview on the one hand and the novel ideas it brings to the Chinese mind facing the challenge of transition. However, Yan Fu's translation is not as scientific as it should be when dealing with Huxley's discourse. Ma Junwu's translation of Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" attempts to be more scientific, in an effort to supply exact scientific terms and discourse in Chinese. However, at the end it is social Darwinism that has won the mind of the Chinese people. This paper analyses the ideas in Chinese past that leads to Chinese perception of Darwimism evolutionism and examines the ways it has been translated by Yan Fu and Ma Junwu.  

  15. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  16. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  17. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  18. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  19. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  20. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  1. The molecular and mathematical basis of Waddington's epigenetic landscape: a framework for post-Darwinian biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sui

    2012-02-01

    The Neo-Darwinian concept of natural selection is plausible when one assumes a straightforward causation of phenotype by genotype. However, such simple 1:1 mapping must now give place to the modern concepts of gene regulatory networks and gene expression noise. Both can, in the absence of genetic mutations, jointly generate a diversity of inheritable randomly occupied phenotypic states that could also serve as a substrate for natural selection. This form of epigenetic dynamics challenges Neo-Darwinism. It needs to incorporate the non-linear, stochastic dynamics of gene networks. A first step is to consider the mathematical correspondence between gene regulatory networks and Waddington's metaphoric 'epigenetic landscape', which actually represents the quasi-potential function of global network dynamics. It explains the coexistence of multiple stable phenotypes within one genotype. The landscape's topography with its attractors is shaped by evolution through mutational re-wiring of regulatory interactions - offering a link between genetic mutation and sudden, broad evolutionary changes. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adaptive evolution of cooperation through Darwinian dynamics in Public Goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    The linear or threshold Public Goods game (PGG) is extensively accepted as a paradigmatic model to approach the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we explore the significant effect of nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population by adopting Darwinian dynamics, which simultaneously consider the evolution of populations and strategies on a continuous adaptive landscape, and extend the concept of evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a coalition of strategies that is both convergent-stable and resistant to invasion. Results show (i) that in the linear PGG contributing nothing is an ESS, which contradicts experimental data, (ii) that in the threshold PGG contributing the threshold value is a fragile ESS, which cannot resist the invasion of contributing nothing, and (iii) that there exists a robust ESS of contributing more than half in the sigmoid PGG if the return rate is relatively high. This work reveals the significant effect of the nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation, and suggests that, compared with the linear or threshold PGG, the sigmoid PGG might be a more proper model for the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population.

  3. Darwinian algorithms and the Wason selection task: a factorial analysis of social contract selection task problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R D; Griggs, R A

    1993-08-01

    In four experiments with 760 subjects, the present study examined Cosmides' Darwinian algorithm theory of reasoning: specifically, its explanation of facilitation on the Wason selection task. The first experiment replicated Cosmides' finding of facilitation for social contract versions of the selection task, using both her multiple-problem format and a single-problem format. Experiment 2 examined performance on Cosmides' three main social contract problems while manipulating the perspective of the subject and the presence and absence of cost-benefit information. The presence of cost-benefit information improved performance in two of the three problems while the perspective manipulation had no effect. In Experiment 3, the cost-benefit effect was replicated; and performance on one of the three problems was enhanced by the presence of explicit negatives on the NOT-P and NOT-Q cards. Experiment 4 examined the role of the deontic term "must" in the facilitation observed for two of the social contract problems. The presence of "must" led to a significant improvement in performance. The results of these experiments are strongly supportive of social contract theory in that cost-benefit information is necessary for substantial facilitation to be observed in Cosmides' problems. These findings also suggest the presence of other cues that can help guide subjects to a deontic social contract interpretation when the social contract nature of the problem is not clear.

  4. Homo sapiens as physician and patient: a view from Darwinian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Franco, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere. That human microecosystem is composed of constituents derived from the archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryan domains via endosymbiotic, commensalistic and mutualistic interactions. This amalgamation of 100 trillion cells and viral elements is regulated by a composite genome aggregated over the 3.8 billion years of evolutionary history of organic life. No component of H. sapiens or its genome can be identified as irreducibly and exclusively human. H. sapiens' humanity is an emergent property of the microecosystem. Ironically as H. sapiens is viewed by evolutionary science in a highly integrated manner medicine approaches it as a balkanized, deaggregated entity through the eye of 150 different specialties. To effectively address the needs of H sapiens in its role as patient by the same species in its role as physician the disparate views must be harmonized. Here I review some conceptual elements that would assist a physician in addressing the needs of the patient in integrum, as a microecosystem, by the former address the latter as a historical gestalt being. The optimal way to recover the harmony between patient and physician is through a revitalization of the clinical encounter via an ecological and Darwinian epistemology.

  5. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  6. Boron-Mediated Plant Somatic Embryogenesis: A Provocative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay K. Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A central question in plant regeneration biology concerns the primary driving forces invoking the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis. Recently, the role of micronutrient boron (B in the initiation and perpetuation of embryogenesis has drawn considerable attention within the scientific community. This interest may be due in part to the bewildering observation that the system-wide induction of embryogenic potential significantly varied in response to a minimal to optimal supply of B (minimal ≤ 0.1 mM, optimal = 0.1 mM. At the cellular level, certain channel proteins and cell wall-related proteins important for the induction of embryogenesis have been shown to be transcriptionally upregulated in response to minimal B supply suggesting the vital role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. At the molecular level, minimal to no B supply increased the endogenous level of auxin, which subsequently influenced the auxin-inducible somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases, suggesting the role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. Also, minimal B concentration may “turn on” other genetic and/or cellular transfactors reported earlier to be essential for cell-restructuring and induction of embryogenesis. In this paper, both the direct and indirect roles of B in the induction of somatic embryogenesis are highlighted and suggested for future validation.

  7. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  8. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  9. Breeding novel solutions in the brain: a model of Darwinian neurodynamics [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Szilágyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fact that surplus connections and neurons are pruned during development is well established. We complement this selectionist picture by a proof-of-principle model of evolutionary search in the brain, that accounts for new variations in theory space. We present a model for Darwinian evolutionary search for candidate solutions in the brain. Methods: We combine known components of the brain – recurrent neural networks (acting as attractors, the action selection loop and implicit working memory – to provide the appropriate Darwinian architecture. We employ a population of attractor networks with palimpsest memory. The action selection loop is employed with winners-share-all dynamics to select for candidate solutions that are transiently stored in implicit working memory. Results: We document two processes: selection of stored solutions and evolutionary search for novel solutions. During the replication of candidate solutions attractor networks occasionally produce recombinant patterns, increasing variation on which selection can act. Combinatorial search acts on multiplying units (activity patterns with hereditary variation and novel variants appear due to (i noisy recall of patterns from the attractor networks, (ii noise during transmission of candidate solutions as messages between networks, and, (iii spontaneously generated, untrained patterns in spurious attractors. Conclusions: Attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks can be used to model Darwinian search. The proposed architecture can be used for fast search among stored solutions (by selection and for evolutionary search when novel candidate solutions are generated in successive iterations. Since all the suggested components are present in advanced nervous systems, we hypothesize that the brain could implement a truly evolutionary combinatorial search system, capable of generating novel variants.

  10. Breeding novel solutions in the brain: a model of Darwinian neurodynamics [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Szilágyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fact that surplus connections and neurons are pruned during development is well established. We complement this selectionist picture by a proof-of-principle model of evolutionary search in the brain, that accounts for new variations in theory space. We present a model for Darwinian evolutionary search for candidate solutions in the brain. Methods: We combine known components of the brain – recurrent neural networks (acting as attractors, the action selection loop and implicit working memory – to provide the appropriate Darwinian architecture. We employ a population of attractor networks with palimpsest memory. The action selection loop is employed with winners-share-all dynamics to select for candidate solutions that are transiently stored in implicit working memory. Results: We document two processes: selection of stored solutions and evolutionary search for novel solutions. During the replication of candidate solutions attractor networks occasionally produce recombinant patterns, increasing variation on which selection can act. Combinatorial search acts on multiplying units (activity patterns with hereditary variation and novel variants appear due to (i noisy recall of patterns from the attractor networks, (ii noise during transmission of candidate solutions as messages between networks, and, (iii spontaneously generated, untrained patterns in spurious attractors. Conclusions: Attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks can be used to model Darwinian search. The proposed architecture can be used for fast search among stored solutions (by selection and for evolutionary search when novel candidate solutions are generated in successive iterations. Since all the suggested components are present in advanced nervous systems, we hypothesize that the brain could implement a truly evolutionary combinatorial search system, capable of generating novel variants.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis in plantain cultivar 'FHIA - 25' (AAB from meristem tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Rodríguez González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantain cultivar 'FHIA – 25' (AAB shows high yielding qualities and high resistance to Black Sigatoka disease, but its sugar content in the fruit is low, so a regeneration method at cell level is necessary, such as somatic embryogenesis supported by biotechnological tools to improve fruit quality. This work was performed with the aim of establishing a plant regeneration method via somatic embryogenesis using initial explants of shoot apices from axillary buds in liquid culture medium. Homogenous embryogenic cell suspensions were obtained from mentioned explants. The highest cellular multiplication rates were achieved at 3,0% density. The incubation of somatic embryos during 30 days in the maturation culture medium permitted to increase germination. During the acclimatization stage, plants regenerated from somatic embryos, as well as plants from organogenesis, showed a high survival percentage (98 and 97 respectively, without somaclonal variation.

  12. [Somatization disorders of the urogenital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, E A

    2002-11-01

    Diffuse symptoms in the urogenital region can frequently be explained by somatization disorders. Since they cannot be proven either by laboratory tests or with common technical diagnostic methods, somatization disorders should always be taken into consideration. Somatization disorders are to be considered functional disorders. Since somatization disorders due to muscular tension prevail in the urogenital region, the functional disturbance can be explained by the muscular tension. Subsequently, muscular tension causes the pathophysiological development of symptoms. As a rule they appear as myofascial pain or disorder. Muscular tension can have a psychic origin. The absence of urological findings is typical. Males and females between the ages of 16 and 75 can be affected by somatization disorders in the urogenital region. Somatization disorders due to muscular tension belong to the large group of symptoms due to tension. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the pathophysiology of somatization disorders due to muscular tension are illustrated by two detailed case-reports.

  13. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  14. Dimensions of somatization and hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C V

    1995-05-01

    A significantly large group of patients who communicate their psychosocial distress in the form of physical symptoms are called somatizers. They tend to overuse medical services. The syndromes with which they present have indistinct boundaries, and there tends to be some fluidity of their symptomatic presentations. Underlying psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), and personality disorders are frequently present.

  15. DNMT1 Maintains Progenitor Function in Self-Renewing Somatic Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, George L.; Reuter, Jason A.; Webster, Daniel E.; Zhu, Lilly; Khavari, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation1,2. DNA methylation3,4,5 provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)6,7 maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication. Although dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintena...

  16. Toward the Darwinian transition: Switching between distributed and speciated states in a simple model of early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldt, Hinrich; Strogatz, Steven H; Timme, Marc

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that in the era just before the last universal common ancestor emerged, life on earth was fundamentally collective. Ancient life forms shared their genetic material freely through massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). At a certain point, however, life made a transition to the modern era of individuality and vertical descent. Here we present a minimal model for stochastic processes potentially contributing to this hypothesized "Darwinian transition." The model suggests that HGT-dominated dynamics may have been intermittently interrupted by selection-driven processes during which genotypes became fitter and decreased their inclination toward HGT. Stochastic switching in the population dynamics with three-point (hypernetwork) interactions may have destabilized the HGT-dominated collective state and essentially contributed to the emergence of vertical descent and the first well-defined species in early evolution. A systematic nonlinear analysis of the stochastic model dynamics covering key features of evolutionary processes (such as selection, mutation, drift and HGT) supports this view. Our findings thus suggest a viable direction out of early collective evolution, potentially enabling the start of individuality and vertical Darwinian evolution.

  17. "Plants that Remind Me of Home": Collecting, Plant Geography, and a Forgotten Expedition in the Darwinian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kuang-Chi

    2017-02-01

    In 1859, Harvard botanist Asa Gray (1810-1888) published an essay of what he called "the abstract of Japan botany." In it, he applied Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory to explain why strong similarities could be found between the flora of Japan and that of eastern North America, which provoked his famous debate with Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) and initiated Gray's efforts to secure a place for Darwinian biology in the American sciences. Notably, although the Gray-Agassiz debate has become one of the most thoroughly studied scientific debates, historians of science remain unable to answer one critical question: How was Gray able to acquire specimens from Japan? Making use of previously unknown archival materials, this article scrutinizes the institutional, instrumental, financial, and military settings that enabled Gray's collector, Charles Wright (1811-1885), to travel to Japan, as well as examine Wright's collecting practices in Japan. I argue that it is necessary to examine Gray's diagnosis of Japan's flora and the subsequent debate about it from the viewpoint of field sciences. The field-centered approach not only unveils an array of historical significances that have been overshadowed by the analytical framework of the Darwinian revolution and the reception of Darwinism, but also places a seemingly domestic incident in a transnational context.

  18. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  19. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  20. Genomic stability during cellular reprogramming: Mission impossible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joest, Mathieu von; Búa Aguín, Sabela; Li, Han, E-mail: han.li@pasteur.fr

    2016-06-15

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells is one of the most exciting discoveries in recent biomedical research. It holds tremendous potential in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, a series of reports highlighting genomic instability in iPSCs raises concerns about their clinical application. Although the mechanisms cause genomic instability during cellular reprogramming are largely unknown, several potential sources have been suggested. This review summarizes current knowledge on this active research field and discusses the latest efforts to alleviate the genomic insults during cellular reprogramming to generate iPSCs with enhanced quality and safety.

  1. Explanation of climate and human impacts on sediment discharge change in Darwinian hydrology: Derivation of a differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie; Zhang, Lu

    2018-04-01

    The assessment for impacts of climate variability and human activities on suspended sediment yield (SSY) change has long been a question of great interest. However, the sediment generation processes are sophisticated with high nonlinearity and great uncertainty, which give rise to extreme complexity for SSY change assessment in Newtonian approach. Consequently, few approaches can be simply but widely applied to decompose impacts of climatic variability and human activities on SSY change. Thus, it is an urgent need to develop advanced methods that are simple and robust. Since that the Newtonian approach is hardly achievable due to limitation of either observations or knowledge of mechanisms, there have been repeated calls to capture the hydrologic system in Darwinian approach for hydrological change prediction or explanation. As streamflow is the carrier of suspended sediment, SSY change are thus documented in changes of sediment concentrated flow and suspended sediment concentration - water discharge (C-Q) relationships. By deduced corollaries, a differential equation of sediment discharge change was derived to explicitly decompose impacts of climate variability and human activities in Darwinian hydrology. Besides, a new form of sediment rating curves was proposed and curved as C-Q relationships and probability distribution of sediment concentrated flow. River sediment flux can be revealed by this representation, which simply elucidates mechanism of SSY generation covering a range of time scales from finer than rainfall-event to long term. By the new sediment rating curves, the differential equation was partly solved using a segmentation algorithm proposed and validated in this paper, and then was submitted to water balance framework expressed by Budyko-type equation. Thus, for catchment management, hydrologists can obtain explicit explanation of how climate variation and human activities propagate through landscape and result in sediment discharge change. The

  2. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  3. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  4. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically diverse range of cacao genotypes. The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis response of eight promising cacao clones and a positive control was evaluated using modified versions of standard protocols.

  5. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  6. MMPI screening scales for somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, R D; Brim, J; Guze, S B; Cloninger, C R; Martin, R L; Clayton, P J

    1999-08-01

    44 items on the MMPI were identified which appear to correspond to some of the symptoms in nine of the 10 groups on the Perley-Guze checklist for somatization disorder (hysteria). This list was organized into two scales, one reflecting the total number of symptoms endorsed and the other the number of organ systems with at least one endorsed symptom. Full MMPIs were then obtained from 29 women with primary affective disorder and 37 women with somatization disorder as part of a follow-up study of a consecutive series of 500 psychiatric clinic patients seen at Washington University. Women with the diagnosis of somatization disorder scored significantly higher on the somatization disorder scales created from the 44 items than did women with only major depression. These new scales appeared to be slightly more effective in identifying somatization disorder than the use of the standard MMPI scales for hypochondriasis and hysteria. Further development is needed.

  7. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  8. Histology of somatic embryos of eurycoma longifolia (simaroubaceae): relevance in agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Rabiah, S.S.; Keng, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Histological analysis conducted on somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia shows the developmental structures that are remarkably similar to seeds found in the wild. The primary components of a growing somatic embryo are its shoot and root apical meristems indicated by dense layers of rapidly growing cells. The increased understanding of In vitro culture systems and anatomical changes provide information into cellular processes that govern genetic transformation of E. longifolia with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The presence of meristematic regions on cultured somatic embryos suggests that they are suitable for genetic transformation as genetic elements could be transported to these regions where growth and differentiation are centered. This allows the successful integration and expression of transferred DNA in the host organism, leading the way for an efficient A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation protocol. (author)

  9. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  10. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  11. Further evidence for a broader concept of somatization disorder using the somatic symptom index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Rief, W; Fichter, M M

    1995-01-01

    Somatization syndromes were defined in a sample of 102 psychosomatic inpatients according to the restrictive criteria of DSM-III-R somatization disorder and the broader diagnostic concept of the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI). Both groups showed a qualitatively similar pattern of psychopathological comorbidity and had elevated scores on measures of depression, hypochondriasis, and anxiety. A good discrimination between mild and severe forms of somatization was found by using the SSI criterion. SSI use accounted for a substantial amount of comorbidity variance, with rates of 15%-20% for depression, 16% for hypochondriasis, and 13% for anxiety. The results provide further evidence for the validity of the SSI concept, which reflects the clinical relevance of somatization in addition to the narrow definition of somatization disorder.

  12. The Influence of Darwinian Ideas on Greek Literary Writers of the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Case of Emmanuel Roidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zarimis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Darwin's works provoked an enormous response in many disciplines including the literary world. This paper presents a portion of my doctoral thesis3, which responds to a blind spot in Greek literary scholarship on evolutionary ideas in comparison to other Western countries. Little work to date focuses on modern Greek writers's responses to Darwinian and other evolutionary ideas. This paper explores the impact of Darwin in selected writings of Emmanuel Roidis and how Roidis satirised Darwinism in his essays and short stories, contributing to the Darwinian discourse on "man's place in nature" and by placing humanity on the same continuum as other primates. The year 2009 marks the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the first publication of his The Origin of Species. It is timely, then, to consider Darwin's impact on modern Greek literature.

  13. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section

  14. symptomatology and comorbidity of somatization disorder amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    underlying mental disorder, manifesting solely as somatic symptoms or with ... unsatisfactory visit and seemingly ineffective treatment plan. ... patients of all ages and both gender with various ..... identity and physical health: Interdisciplinary.

  15. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler

    2007-01-01

    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  16. Dance and Somatic Inquiry in Studios and Community Dance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Martha Hart

    2002-01-01

    Addresses pragmatic aspects of somatics in the public sector, investigating the fit of somatics within various institutions and settings, including universities, professional schools, and community programs. The article explores issues such as somatic movement approaches, certification, academic degrees in somatic study, confusions within the…

  17. Multicellularity makes somatic differentiation evolutionarily stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mary E.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Many multicellular organisms produce two cell lineages: germ cells, whose descendants produce the next generation, and somatic cells, which support, protect, and disperse the germ cells. This germ-soma demarcation has evolved independently in dozens of multicellular taxa but is absent in unicellular species. A common explanation holds that in these organisms, inefficient intercellular nutrient exchange compels the fitness cost of producing nonreproductive somatic cells to outweigh any potential benefits. We propose instead that the absence of unicellular, soma-producing populations reflects their susceptibility to invasion by nondifferentiating mutants that ultimately eradicate the soma-producing lineage. We argue that multicellularity can prevent the victory of such mutants by giving germ cells preferential access to the benefits conferred by somatic cells. The absence of natural unicellular, soma-producing species previously prevented these hypotheses from being directly tested in vivo: to overcome this obstacle, we engineered strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that differ only in the presence or absence of multicellularity and somatic differentiation, permitting direct comparisons between organisms with different lifestyles. Our strains implement the essential features of irreversible conversion from germ line to soma, reproductive division of labor, and clonal multicellularity while maintaining sufficient generality to permit broad extension of our conclusions. Our somatic cells can provide fitness benefits that exceed the reproductive costs of their production, even in unicellular strains. We find that nondifferentiating mutants overtake unicellular populations but are outcompeted by multicellular, soma-producing strains, suggesting that multicellularity confers evolutionary stability to somatic differentiation. PMID:27402737

  18. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  19. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology.

  20. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Rossi, Soledad Paola

    2017-05-31

    The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  1. The Somatic Complaints List: Validation of a self-report questionnaire assessing somatic complaints in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F. C.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Somatic Complaint List (SCL) in children. Method: At T1, 365 fourth and 352 fifth graders completed the SCL, the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI-C), and the Mood Questionnaire. Parents (n=564) completed the parental form of the CSI-C (CSI-P). Six months later, the

  2. Is somatic comorbidity associated with more somatic symptoms, mental distress, or unhealthy lifestyle in elderly cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Ellen Karine; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    The associations of lifestyle factors, somatic symptoms, mental distress, and somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors have not been well studied. This study examines these associations among elderly cancer survivors (age >or=65 years) in a population-based sample. A cross-sectional comparative study of Norwegian elderly cancer survivors. Combining information from The Norwegian Cancer Registry, and by self-reporting, 972 elderly cancer survivors were identified, of whom 632 (65%) had somatic comorbidity and 340 did not. Elderly cancer survivors with somatic comorbidity had significantly higher BMI, more performed minimal physical activity, had more somatic symptoms, used more medication, and had more frequently seen a medical doctor than survivors without somatic comorbidity. In multivariable analyses, unhealthy lifestyle and higher somatic symptoms scores were significantly associated with cancer cases with somatic comorbidity. In univariate analyses those with somatic comorbidity were significantly older, had lower levels of education, higher proportions of BMI >or= 30, less physical activity, poorer self-rated health, higher somatic symptoms score, more mental distress, had more frequently seen a medical doctor last year, and more frequently used daily medication. Our outcome measures of lifestyle, somatic symptoms and mental distress were all significantly associated with somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors, however only lifestyle and somatic symptoms were significant in multivariable analyses. In elderly cancer survivors not only cancer, but also somatic comorbidity, deserve attention. Such comorbidity is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, more somatic symptoms and mental distress which should be evaluated and eventually treated.

  3. Somatization: a perspective from self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, G M

    1991-01-01

    Somatization is a complex phenomenon that occurs in many forms and diverse settings. It is not necessarily pathological and may be found in a variety of psychiatric disorders. Much of the psychiatric literature has focused on patients with conversion disorders and hypochondriasis. Psychoanalytic theories regarding such conditions were largely based upon concepts of drive, conflict, and defense. The perspective from self psychology, with its emphasis on subjective experience and the sense of self, may further enhance the psychoanalytic understanding of somatization. Individuals with disturbances in the stability and organization of the self may present with somatic symptoms and disturbances in emotional awareness. Somatization in such cases may be the experiential manifestation of a disturbance in the cohesion of the self and/or may result from defensive operations to ward off affect. The latter may be prominent when affective arousal triggers the psychological threat of fragmentation. Somatization may diminish in such individuals when a self-object relationship is formed that bolsters and consolidates the sense of self. The integration of affect into ongoing subjective experience may also be an important aspect of psychoanalytic treatment in such patients.

  4. Hypochondriacal concerns and somatization in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, P; Walker, J R; Chartier, M J; Stein, M B

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between panic disorder and the symptoms of hypochondriasis and somatization, we evaluated these symptoms and diagnoses in patients attending an Anxiety Disorders Clinic. Structured clinical interviews, self-report measures, and symptom diaries were used to assess 21 patients with panic disorder, 23 patients with social phobia, and 22 control subjects with no psychiatric disorders. Ten of the patients with panic disorder (48%) also met DSM-IV criteria for hypochondriasis, whereas only one of the patients with social phobia and none of the healthy control subjects met the criteria for this diagnosis. None of the participants met DSM-IV criteria for somatization disorder, even though both anxiety groups reported high levels of somatic symptoms. The panic disorder group reported higher levels of fear about illness and disease conviction and endorsed more somatic symptoms than did the other groups. A higher proportion of panic disorder patients reported previously diagnosed medical conditions (48%) as compared with patients with social phobia (17%) or healthy control subjects (14%). The panic disorder patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis obtained higher scores on measures of hypochondriacal concerns, somatization, blood-injury phobia, and general anxiety and distress than did the panic disorder patients without hypochondriasis. The results suggest a strong association between panic disorder and hypochondriasis.

  5. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  6. Somatic embryogenesis on Musa AAAB, cv. FHIA-18, using liquids culture mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Barranco

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogenous cell suspensions were iniciated from somatic embryos in the globular stage and the greatest volume of cell biomass on multiplying the suspensions at a density of 3.0% PCV. From the fifteenth day in culture medium for the formation of embryos, structures consisting of proembryos and somatic embryos in the globular stage started to form. With respect to the densities studied, the best results were obtained with 100 mgFW, where 1 871 SE.l-1 formed with a weight of 248 mgFW.l-1 after 30 days. With an initial density of 0.6 gFW in the culture medium for secondary multiplication, an increase of 42.9-fold the initial amount of fresh weight was obtained; after 60 days of culture 15 985 SE.l-1 were obtained. The greatest percentage of maturation was obtained with 400 mgFW with 70% of mature somatic embryos. The positive effect of Biobras-6 (brassinosteroid analogous was confirmed, with a concentration of 0.01 mg.l-1 the best germination percentages were obtained in liquid and semisolid culture medium. Embryo germination in temporaly inmersion (RITA was achieved with an inoculum density of 0.5 gFW for system with 85% germination. One thousand plants obtained from somatic embryos were taken to ex vitro environment, along with plants derived from conventional micropropagation (shoot tips to carry out studies on the possible presence of somaclonal variation. During the first cycle of production, the plants derived from the two methods in vitro culture showed differences with respect to the plants derived from corms in height, diameter and number of suckers. In the second production cycle, the plants from somatic embryos showed similar characteristics to the plants derived from shoot tip and corms with respect to the morphological parameters evaluated, with only 0.2% of the plants with phenotypic changes. Key Words: Banana, cellular density, germination, somaclonal variability, somatic embryo

  7. Protein Based Molecular Markers Provide Reliable Means to Understand Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Support Darwinian Mode of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav eBhandari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to the prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs and conserved signature proteins (CSPs for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical

  8. Protein based molecular markers provide reliable means to understand prokaryotic phylogeny and support Darwinian mode of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz S; Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-01-01

    The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs) among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning of whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on the Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs) initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical studies.

  9. Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Doux, John D; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the oldest human drugs. Their pervasive integration into the modern human diet may reflect behavioral attempts to correct maladaptations induced by evolutionary displacement of the autonomic system. The dietary adoption of caffeine may parallel the emergence of cognition as an independent basis of competition. Enhancement of the cognitive ability to gather and process information likely evolved as a valuable adjunct to physical behavior in prehistoric fight-or-flight encounters. Caffeine effectively exploits this pre-existing association between adrenergic activity and cognitive readiness, leading to its use in the modern environment where success in competition increasingly depends on cognitive, rather than physical, prowess. Ethanol may have emerged as a dietary means to buffer the maladaptive chronic sympathetic activation and fear response associated with stressful lifestyles and the social phobias associated with the dissolution of kin networks. We explore the health implications of ethanol and caffeine use, with particular attention to their acute and chronic effects on the autonomic axis. The putative protective effects of ethanol in surviving major trauma or reducing inflammation and heart disease may relate to tempering the behavioral and cardiovascular consequences of catastrophic or chronic sympathetic activation. Acute or chronic abuse of ethanol manifests paradoxical pro-adrenergic effects such as tremors and insomnia that may partly represent compensatory responses. Compensatory remodeling may also explain why confirmation of detrimental effects related to caffeine-induced sympathetic activation has proven elusive; indeed, paradoxical pro-vagal benefits may eventually be recognized. Ethanol and caffeine are potential agents that may beneficially expand the dynamic range of the autonomic system. In an environment where the Darwinian value of knowledge has increasingly supplanted that of physical traits, the consumption

  10. Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L. were produced for the first time. Shoot-tips isolated from in vitro obtained 4-week shoots were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Capsules with or without sucrose and with and without cytokinin - indole-3-butyric acid (IBA were used. Sucrose presence in capsules very distinctly influences somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica germination and their conversion into plants. However, addition of IBA to capsules has not clear influence on the ability of plant regrowth. Plantlets transplanted to soil grew to phenotypically normal plants.

  11. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Somatic tinnitus prevalence and treatment with tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, K; Lurquin, P; Horoi, M; Cotton, P; Hervé, V; Thill, M P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus originates from increased activity of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a cross-point between the somatic and auditory systems. Its activity can be modified by auditory stimulation or somatic system manipulation. Thus, sound enrichment and white noise stimulation might decrease tinnitus and associated somatic symptoms. The present uncontrolled study sought to determine somatic tinnitus prevalence among tinnitus sufferers, and to investigate whether sound therapy with counselling (tinnitus retraining therapy; TRT) may decrease tinnitus-associated somatic symptoms. To determine somatic tinnitus prevalence, 70 patients following the TRT protocol completed the Jastreboff Structured Interview (JSI) with additional questions regarding the presence and type of somatic symptoms. Among 21 somatic tinnitus patients, we further investigated the effects of TRT on tinnitus-associated facial dysesthesia. Before and after three months of TRT, tinnitus severity was evaluated using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and facial dysesthesia was assessed with an extended JSI-based questionnaire. Among the evaluated tinnitus patients, 56% presented somatic tinnitus-including 51% with facial dysesthesia, 36% who could modulate tinnitus by head and neck movements, and 13% with both conditions. Self-evaluation indicated that TRT significantly improved tinnitus and facial dysesthesia in 76% of patients. Three months of TRT led to a 50% decrease in mean THI and JSI scores regarding facial dysesthesia. Somatic tinnitus is a frequent and underestimated condition. We suggest an extension of the JSI, including specific questions regarding somatic tinnitus. TRT significantly improved tinnitus and accompanying facial dysesthesia, and could be a useful somatic tinnitus treatment.

  13. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR SIDHU

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Two as well as three way interactions of three eggplant genotypes, media compositions and explants. (hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf) showed significant differences for plant regeneration. Among three explants, hypocotyl induced highest percent callusing, but cotyledon showed best results for somatic.

  15. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  16. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  17. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relationship between somatization and remission with ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keith G; Snyder, Karen A; Knapp, Rebecca G; Mueller, Martina; Yim, Eunsil; Husain, Mustafa M; Rummans, Teresa A; Sampson, Shirlene M; O'Connor, M Kevin; Bernstein, Hilary J; Kellner, Charles H

    2004-12-30

    Patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were divided into those with less severe depression and those with more severe depression. In the less severely depressed group, high somatic anxiety and hypochondriasis predicted a low likelihood of sustained remission with ECT. In the more severely depressed group, these traits were not predictive of ECT outcome.

  19. Somatic And Behavioral Changes Associated With Difuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The effects of diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation on somatic and behavioral changes in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized normal male and female Wister rats was studied. Method: Diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation (0-25v, frequency 90Hz,pulse width 1ms) was administered via two electrodes clipped ...

  20. Somatic Symptoms in Traumatized Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Brittany B.; Bloom, Marlene; Kaercher, Lauren B.; Truax, Tatyana V.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to trauma has been associated with increased rates of somatic symptoms (SS), which may contribute to diminished daily functioning. One hundred and sixty-one children residing at a residential treatment home who had experienced neglect and/or abuse were administered the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), the…

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic ... Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos.

  2. [Interdependance between somatic symptoms, sleep and dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Assya

    2014-03-19

    Even in an established illness, somatic complains can hide other emotional inquiries. The therapist, always with a kind attitude, can ask more about patient's sexual life. This can be use of having a better idea of patient's life and problems. Talking about dreams can also be useful: it gives new and surprising elements about patient's personality and helps to progress on healing's way.

  3. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, Janny; De Waal, M.W.M.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Outpatient and inpatient clinics of

  4. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  5. Depression and hypochondriasis in family practice patients with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, T E; Barrett, J

    1985-10-01

    The relationships specified in DSM-III between somatization disorder and depression, and somatization disorder and hypochondriasis require further validation and easier methods of detection for use by primary care physicians. The authors investigated hypochondriacal and depressive symptoms in 13 family practice outpatients with somatization disorder. Pain complaints and depressive symptomatology were present in over 75% of this group, while hypochondriacal symptoms were present in 38%. The mean score on the somatization scale of the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-90) was greater than that reported for any other group. These findings support the separation of somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and suggest the need for better delineation of depressive subtypes in somatization disorder. The somatization scale of the HSCL-90 should be a useful screen for somatization disorder in future research.

  6. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to distinguish cases of delusional disorder of somatic subtype from severe somatization .... features suggestive of a paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia ... Of note is that the patient's personality and psychosocial functioning were ...

  7. DNMT1 maintains progenitor function in self-renewing somatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, George L; Reuter, Jason A; Webster, Daniel E; Zhu, Lilly; Khavari, Paul A

    2010-01-28

    Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. DNA methylation provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication. Although dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintenance, the role for DNMT1 in maintaining the progenitor state in constantly replenished somatic tissues, such as mammalian epidermis, is unclear. Here we show that DNMT1 is essential for epidermal progenitor cell function. DNMT1 protein was found enriched in undifferentiated cells, where it was required to retain proliferative stamina and suppress differentiation. In tissue, DNMT1 depletion led to exit from the progenitor cell compartment, premature differentiation and eventual tissue loss. Genome-wide analysis showed that a significant portion of epidermal differentiation gene promoters were methylated in self-renewing conditions but were subsequently demethylated during differentiation. Furthermore, UHRF1 (refs 9, 10), a component of the DNA methylation machinery that targets DNMT1 to hemi-methylated DNA, is also necessary to suppress premature differentiation and sustain proliferation. In contrast, Gadd45A and B, which promote active DNA demethylation, are required for full epidermal differentiation gene induction. These data demonstrate that proteins involved in the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns are required for progenitor maintenance and self-renewal in mammalian somatic tissue.

  8. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  10. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, effective, human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. When available, such assays should allow us to fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. We will be able to validate the role of somatic mutations in carcinogenesis, to identify environmental factors that affect human germ cells, to integrate the effects of complex mixtures and the environment in the human subject, and to identify people who are hypersusceptible to genetic injury. Human cellular mutational assays, particularly when combined with cytogenetic and heritable mutational tests, promise to play pivotal roles in estimating the risk from low-dose radiation and chemical exposures. These combined methods avoid extrapolations of dose and from species to species, and may be sensitive enough and credible enough to permit politically, socially and scientifically acceptable risk management. 16 references

  11. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  12. Punctuated Equilibrium in Statistical Models of Generalized Coevolutionary Resilience: How Sudden Ecosystem Transitions Can Entrain Both Phenotype Expression and Darwinian Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick; Wallace, Deborah

    We argue that mesoscale ecosystem resilience shifts akin to sudden phase transitions in physical systems can entrain similarly punctuated events of gene expression on more rapid time scales, and, in part through such means, slower changes induced by selection pressure, triggering punctuated equilibrium Darwinian evolutionary transitions on geologic time scales. The approach reduces ecosystem, gene expression, and Darwinian genetic dynamics to a least common denominator of information sources interacting by crosstalk at markedly differing rates. Pettini's 'topological hypothesis', via a homology between information source uncertainty and free energy density, generates a regression-like class of statistical models of sudden coevolutionary phase transition based on the Rate Distortion and Shannon-McMillan Theorems of information theory which links all three levels. A mathematical treatment of Holling's extended keystone hypothesis regarding the particular role of mesoscale phenomena in entraining both slower and faster dynamical structures produces the result. A main theme is the necessity of a cognitive paradigm for gene expression, mirroring I. Cohen's cognitive approach to immune function. Invocation of the necessary conditions imposed by the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory enables us to penetrate one layer more deeply before needing to impose an empirically-derived phenomenological system of 'Onsager relation' recursive coevolutionary stochastic differential equations. Extending the development to second order via a large deviations argument permits modeling the influence of human cultural structures on ecosystems as 'farming'.

  13. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  14. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders.

  15. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  16. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    OpenAIRE

    CREED, FRANCIS

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result fr...

  17. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  18. The somatic shunt cable model for neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, D

    1984-01-01

    The derivation of the equations for an electrical model of nerve cells is presented. The model consists of an equivalent cylinder, a lumped somatic impedance, and a variable shunt at the soma. This shunt was introduced to take into account the fast voltage decays observed following the injections of current pulses in some motoneurons and hippocampal granule cells that could not be explained by existing models. The shunt can be interpreted either by penetration damage with the electrode or by ...

  19. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  20. Children of people with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, R

    1993-05-01

    The author investigated psychopathology, suicidal behavior, child abuse, somatization, and health care utilization in 34 children with a parent who has somatization disorder (SD-P) and two comparison groups: 41 children with a somatizing parent (SOM) (fewer symptoms than required for diagnosis of SD-P), and 30 pediatrically ill controls (CON). Child and parent versions of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents were scored for diagnosis and symptom counts in specified categories. Medical records were obtained and abstracted. Children of SD-P had significantly more psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts than did children of SOM or the CON. SD-P and CON had significantly more unexplained physical symptoms than SOM. SD-P showed a trend toward more hospitalizations and experienced significantly more maltreatment. Children of SD-P are at significant risk in several respects. Clinical implications of these findings include a need for awareness and cooperation among general psychiatrists, primary care physicians, and child and adolescent psychiatrists to facilitate detection and treatment of these children's problems.

  1. Re: Epigenetics of Cellular Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Cells have some specific molecular and physiological properties that act their functional process. However, many cells have an ability of efficient transition from one type to another. This ability is named plasticity. This process occurs due to epigenetic reprogramming that involves changes in transcription and chromatin structure. Some changes during reprogramming that have been identified in recent years as genomic demethylation (both histone and DNA, histone acetylation and loss of heterochromatin during the development of many diseases such as infertility and cancer progression. In this review, the authors focused on the latest work addressing the mechanisms surrounding the epigenetic regulation of various types of reprogramming, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor- and microRNA-induced pluripotency. There are many responsible factors such as genes, cytokines, proteins, co-factors (i.e. vitamin C in this local area network. The exact mechanisms by which these changes are achieved and the detailed interplay between the players responsible, however, remain relatively unclear. In the treatment of diseases, such as infertility, urooncology, reconstructive urology, etc., epigenetic changes and cellular reprogramming will be crucial in the near future. Central to achieving that goal is a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic state of fully reprogrammed cells. By the progress of researches on this topic, new treatment modalities will be identified for these diseases.

  2. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the genome of donor cells causes poor early and full-term developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Previous research indicate that inhibition of the histone H3 K79 methyltransferase DOT1L, using a selective pharmacological...... inhibitor EPZ004777 (EPZ), significantly improved reprogramming efficiency during the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the roles of DOT1L in porcine nuclear transfer-mediated cellular reprogramming are not yet known. Here we showed that DOT1L inhibition via 0.5 nM EPZ treatment...

  3. The somatic symptom scale-8 (SSS-8): a brief measure of somatic symptom burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Kroenke, Kurt; Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden, but its reliability, validity, and usefulness have not yet been tested. To investigate the reliability, validity, and severity categories as well as the reference scores of the SSS-8. A national, representative general-population survey was performed between June 15, 2012, and July 15, 2012, in Germany, including 2510 individuals older than 13 years. The SSS-8 mean (SD), item-total correlations, Cronbach α, factor structure, associations with measures of construct validity (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale, visual analog scale for general health status, 12-month health care use), severity categories, and percentile rank reference scores. The SSS-8 had excellent item characteristics and good reliability (Cronbach α = 0.81). The factor structure reflects gastrointestinal, pain, fatigue, and cardiopulmonary aspects of the general somatic symptom burden. Somatic symptom burden as measured by the SSS-8 was significantly associated with depression (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.60]), anxiety (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.58]), general health status (r = -0.24 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.20]), and health care use (incidence rate ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14]). The SSS-8 severity categories were calculated in accordance with percentile ranks: no to minimal (0-3 points), low (4-7 points), medium (8-11 points), high (12-15 points), and very high (16-32 points) somatic symptom burden. For every SSS-8 severity category increase, there was a 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) increase in health care visits. The SSS-8 is a reliable and valid self-report measure of somatic symptom burden. Cutoff scores identify individuals with low, medium, high, and very high somatic

  4. Mortality in unipolar depression preceding and following chronic somatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyanagi, A; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, M E

    2018-01-01

    -varying covariates were constructed to assess the risk for all-cause and non-suicide deaths for individual somatic diseases. RESULTS: For all somatic diseases, prior and/or subsequent depression conferred a significantly higher mortality risk. Prior depression was significantly associated with a higher mortality......OBJECTIVE: It is largely unknown how depression prior to and following somatic diseases affects mortality. Thus, we examined how the temporal order of depression and somatic diseases affects mortality risk. METHOD: Data were from a Danish population-based cohort from 1995 to 2013, which included...... all residents in Denmark during the study period (N = 4 984 912). Nineteen severe chronic somatic disorders from the Charlson Comorbidity Index were assessed. The date of first diagnosis of depression and somatic diseases was identified. Multivariable Cox proportional Hazard models with time...

  5. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  6. Somatic symptom disorder treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovskaya, Anna; Augsburger, Jay Alan

    2017-05-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a challenging condition to treat with chronic pain, a common and disabling symptom. We present a patient who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for SSD with significant improvement in pain and gastrointestinal symptoms. We also present a brief literature review of similar cases treated with ECT. Preliminary evidence suggests that ECT should be considered for treatment of SSD comorbid with major depressive disorder, when standard treatments fail. Further research is needed to clarify whether ECT can be used for SSD without associated depression.

  7. Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Somatic Pain and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Somatic pain is often associated with depression. Patients presenting with this combination can be difficult to treat and create a significant financial burden on the medical system. The mechanisms of action linking somatic pain and the myriad of depression are not clearly understood thus highlighting a gap in knowledge between the scientific mechanism, pathogenesis, and psychiatry involved in depression and somatic pain. The objective of this review article is to address etiolog...

  8. Polyphenols distributions and reserve substances analysis in cacao somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana María Gallego Rúa; Ana María Henao Ramírez; Aura Inés Urrea Trujillo; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cac...

  9. POLYPHENOLS DISTRIBUTION AND RESERVE SUBSTANCES ANALYSIS IN CACAO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO RÚA, Adriana María; HENAO RAMÍREZ, Ana María; URREA TRUJILLO, Aura Inés; ATEHORTÚA GARCÉS, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cacao varie...

  10. Ballet as Somatic Practice: A Case Study Exploring the Integration of Somatic Practices in Ballet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores one teacher's integration of Alexander Technique and the work of neuromuscular retrainer Irene Dowd in ballet pedagogy to establish a somatic approach to teaching, learning, and performing ballet technique. This case study highlights the teacher's unique teaching method called IMAGE TECH for dancers (ITD) and offers…

  11. Somatic Symptom Disorder in Semantic Dementia: The Role of Alexisomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Joanna J; Lin, Andrew; Samimi, Mersal S; Mendez, Mario F

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program. Fifty-three patients with SD meeting criteria for imaging-supported semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (another term for SD) were compared with 125 patients with clinically probable Alzheimer disease. Logistic regression controlled for sex, age, disease duration, education, overall cognitive impairment, and depression. The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder was significantly higher among patients with SD (41.5%) compared to patients with Alzheimer disease (11.2%) (odds ratio = 6:1; p Cotard syndrome or the delusion that unidentified somatic symptoms signify death or deterioration. SD, a disorder of semantic knowledge, is associated with somatic symptom disorder from impaired identification of somatic sensations. Their inability to read and name somatic sensations, or "alexisomia," results in disproportionate and persistent concern about somatic sensations with consequent significant disability. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in soybean: physicochemical factors influencing the development of somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonacin Gisele Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryogenic capability of five soybean cultivars (Renascença, IAS-5, IAC-17, BR-16 and FT-Cometa was studied at different auxin concentrations (8, 10 and 12 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid, NAA, at different pHs (5.8 and 7.0 and at low (8-12 muEm-2 s-1 and high (27-33 mEm-2 s-1 light intensities. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. Immature cotyledons 4-6 mm in length were placed in the six induction mediums evaluated and submitted to two light intensities. Twenty immature cotyledons per cultivar were placed on each Petri dish, which was considered to be one replication. The number of somatic embryos per treatment per replication was counted. The results showed genotype influence on somatic embryogenic capability of each cultivar, with the most embryogenic cultivars being BR-16, FT-Cometa and IAS-5. Auxin concentration and pH value also influenced somatic embryo production, with 10 mg/l NAA being the best auxin concentration and 7.0 the best pH value. The interactions cultivar x auxin, auxin x pH and pH x light were significant, while other double interactions were not. All triple and quadruple interactions were significant, except cultivar x pH x light. No significant differences in somatic embryo production were observed in medium with different pHs or when the Petri dishes containing immature cotyledons were exposed to the two light intensities evaluated. However, a higher number of somatic embryos was produced when the medium pH was adjusted to 7.0.

  13. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Zalud, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  14. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  15. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bruun Krøigård

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  16. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Kruse, Torben A; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  17. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Progress report, August 1977--August 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1978-09-01

    Studies in progress on cultured frog and fish cells, exploring the relation between the frequency of mutation after ultraviolet irradiation and the pathway through which DNA repair takes place are reported. The rationale is that the mutation frequency induced by a uv exposure is determined not only by the dose delivered but by the fidelity of the DNA repair process. Since frog cells express photoreversal enzyme, whether repair takes place by error-free photoreversal or by other, error-prone, mechanisms can be determined experimentally. An important question is whether an inducible, error-prone mutagenic form of repair is demonstrable. During the past year, methods necessary to determine uv survival and mutation frequency over a range of uv exposures were worked out. Using these methods, we have tested for alteration of the uv survival curve by previous conditioning exposures in frog cells was studied and uv survival and photoreversal capacity in fish cells were determined. The relation between uv survival and induction of ouabain resistance by an alkylating agent (MNNG) was examined as a background for further studies with uv. A procedure intended to accomplish DNA-mediated transfer of frog DNA photolyase enzyme to Chinese hamster cells is described

  18. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature

  19. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1982-03-01

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  20. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Comprehensive report, April 1975--June 1977. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report reviews genetic studies carried out since 1975 on a haploid cultured cell line from frog embryos (ICR 2A). Although a single chromosome set would be expected to facilitate recovery of recessive mutants, experiments suggested that cell culture variants might arise through processes more complex than the selection of simple mutational changes. Therefore, the objectives of the work reported here have been to throw light on just how cell culture variants arise in this system. First, we have continued to characterize the ICR 2A line, with emphasis on stability of karyotype and DNA content. Second, we have studied in detail the origin of two classes of drug-resistant variants. Bromodeoxyuridine resistance of the thymidine deficiency type has been shown to arise through sequential loss of two forms of thymidine-phosphorylating enzyme; loss of the second form of enzyme is complex, suggesting that changes more complex than simple recessive mutations may be involved. Another form of resistance, in which tolerance of high levels of bromodeoxyuridine is found in cells that continue to express thymidine kinase, remains under study. Variants resistant to microtubule inhibitors were isolated. It was found that these haploid strains have properties distinguishing them from analogous resistant strains isolated from diploid mammalian cell cultures in other laboratories. In order to understand better how mutagens are involved in the origin of cell culture variants, we have examined the effect of different forms of DNA repair on the frequency of drug-resistant colonies induced by ultraviolet radiation. Preliminary experiments suggest that the frequency of such colonies is greater when repair takes place through (presumably error-prone) dark repair than when (error-free) photoreversal is allowed to occur. Such experiments can determine whether new phenotypes arise from alterations in DNA, and thus whether, in a broad sense, they are likely to be mutational in nature.

  1. Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, M.; Conti, M.; Geremia, R.; Ziparo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the IV European Workshop on Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis held in Capri (Italy) between the 9th and 12th April 1986. The workshop was organized in several symposia related to some of the most relevant aspects of the regulation of testicular function. Main topics were the role of cell interactions, the mechanisms of signal transduction, gene expression and metabolic response of somatic cells as well as differentiation of germ cells. One session was devoted to prostaglandins in the male reproductive system and to brief discussions on interstitial fluid and on antispermatogenic compounds. In this book only the main lectures and some selected short papers are presented. (Auth.)

  2. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  3. The Use of Light Microscopy for Detection of Somatic Embryos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... 2,4-D. After four weeks of culture of explants on the callus induction medium, globular structures were obtained. At the end of 20 days in maturation medium, somatic embryos were observed. Histological analysis showed somatic embryos with caulinar and root apex, protodermal tissue, and the vascular ...

  4. Plant regeneration of Michelia champaca L., through somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... as a basic material for perfume, cosmetic, and medicine. The development of an ... Plant regeneration systems of M. champaca through somatic ... The embryogenic cells proliferated and formed somatic embryos (30%) after four to six .... by using MS excel program and Duncan's new multiple range test.

  5. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis induction in Iranian melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... embryo induction and the combination of 0.1 mg/l BA and 5 mg/l 2,4-D had significant effect on somatic ... such as genotype, growth regulator, explant and culture ... different stages of somatic embryos development. (globular ...

  6. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was later referred to the psychiatry department of the same hospital and diagnosed with schizophrenia with somatic delusions and OCS according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. He was screened for schizophrenia, OCS and olfactory and somatic delusions by ...

  7. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced

  8. Induction of somatic embryogenesis by polyethylene glycol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIJI

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... supplemented with 2,4-D (2 µM), abscisic acid (3 µM) and glutamine (0.03 mM). The somatic embryos ... essential amino acids of seed proteins, shortened vegetative ... or somatic embryo maturation in diverse plants such as.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made to study the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the in vitro leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L. a renowned medicinal plant, which belongs to polygonaceae family. Effective in vitro regeneration of R. vesicarius was achieved via young leaf derived somatic embryo cultures.

  10. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...

  11. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before t...

  12. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  13. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  14. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  15. Masked depression: its interrelations with somatization, hypochondriasis and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, R Z

    1987-01-01

    Masked depression appears to be a common clinical phenomenon. Most depressions present with some somatic complaints in addition to affective and cognitive ones. About one half of all depressions seen by primary care physicians initially present predominantly or exclusively with somatic symptoms. Many of these depressions are not recognized or are misdiagnosed and mistreated. The possible reasons for this are discussed here. The phenomenon of somatization in depressions and other conditions is reviewed and the interface with other related clinical problems like hypochondriasis and conversion is delineated. It is hypothesized that the proportion of depressions that are masked is positively correlated to the patients' tendency to somatize and negatively correlated to the doctors' ability to recognize depressions that hide behind somatic complaints. Suggestions for the diagnosis and treatment of masked depressions are given.

  16. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  17. Somatic hybridization of sexually incompatible petunias: Petunia parodii, Petunia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J B; Berry, S F; Chapman, J V; Cocking, E C

    1980-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following the fusion of leaf mesophyll protoplasts of P. parodii with those isolated from a nuclear-albino mutant of P. parviflora. Attempts at sexual hybridization of these two species repeatedly failed thus confirming their previously established cross-incompatibility. Selection of somatic hybrid plants was possible since protoplasts of P. parodii would not develop beyond the cell colony stage, whilst those of the somatic hybrid and albino P. parviflora produced calluses. Green somatic hybrid calluses were visible against a background of albino cells/calluses, and upon transfer to regeneration media gave rise to shoots. Shoots and the resultant flowering plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids based on their growth habit, floral pigmentation and morphology, leaf hair structure, chromosome number and Fraction 1 protein profiles. The relevance of such hybrid material for the development of new, and extensively modified cultivars, is discussed.

  18. Effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis of quince leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Onofrio, C.; Morini, S.; Bellocchi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis in quince BA 29 was investigated. 2,4-D induced leaves were exposed for 25 days to the following light quality treatments: dark, far-red, far-red+blue, far-red+red, blue, white, red+blue, red. After a further 20 days of white light exposure, somatic embryo production was recorded. Somatic embryogenesis was highest in cultures subjected to red light treatment, and decreased progressively with the transition to red+blue and to white. Overall, embryogenic competence showed a correlation with photoequilibrium. Phytochrome appeared to be inductive although this effect was adversely influenced by the blue absorbing photoreceptor, in particular at low photoequilibrium. Independently of light treatments applied, somatic embryos frequently showed severe morphological abnormalities. Conversion of somatic embryos to plantlets was not observed. (author)

  19. [Family medicine and functional somatic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Between psychosomatic medicine and psychiatry, FSS (functional somatic syndromes) patients are often visiting a family doctor. For FSS, the role of family physicians is large, but the family physicians are not required for the role of diagnosis and treatment of FSS. Rather, appropriate referral to a specialist to exclude organic disease is important and a role as the coordinator is large to the patient to refuse a psychiatric consultation. To serve as a role for such coordination, a family physician has to response the patient's emotional side and focus on the construction of the doctor-patient relationship and response. I also think of structuralism medicine approach to describe disease from the meta-level as a new procedure to the patient. This approach consists of 4 components, 'entity', 'phenomenon', 'words', and 'I'. This may be a useful approach to family physicians who coordinate the overall for FSS patients' management.

  20. Progression inference for somatic mutations in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods were employed to determine progression inference of genomic alterations in commonly occurring cancers. Using cross-sectional TCGA data, we computed evolutionary trajectories involving selectivity relationships among pairs of gene-specific genomic alterations such as somatic mutations, deletions, amplifications, downregulation, and upregulation among the top 20 driver genes associated with each cancer. Results indicate that the majority of hierarchies involved TP53, PIK3CA, ERBB2, APC, KRAS, EGFR, IDH1, VHL, etc. Research into the order and accumulation of genomic alterations among cancer driver genes will ever-increase as the costs of nextgen sequencing subside, and personalized/precision medicine incorporates whole-genome scans into the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Keywords: Oncology, Cancer research, Genetics, Computational biology

  1. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Cameron W.; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R.; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J. Zachary; Berman, Samuel H.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, WK; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L.; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W.; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O’Neill, Brian P.; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M.; Hayes, D. Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B.; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W.; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multi-dimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer. PMID:24120142

  2. Multiple somatic symptoms in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, D. P.; Reed, G. M.; Robles, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated...... with distress or dysfunction. HA involves persistent, intrusive fears of having an illness or intense preoccupation with and misinterpretation of bodily sensations. This study examined how the proposed descriptions for BSS and HA corresponded to what was observed by working primary care physicians (PCPs......) in participating countries, and the relationship of BSS and HA to depressive and anxiety disorders and to disability. Method PCPs referred patients judged to have BSS or HA, who were then interviewed using a standardized psychiatric interview and a standardized measure of disability. Results Of 587 patients...

  3. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  4. [Somatic complaints, emotional awareness and maladjustment in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Maganto, C; González, R

    2015-05-01

    Somatic complaints are common in childhood. Research has shown their relationship with emotional awareness and maladjustment. The study had three objectives: 1) to analyze the prevalence of somatic complaints; 2) To explore the relationships between the variables evaluated: somatic complaints, differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotions, body awareness, attending to others' emotions, analysis of emotions, and personal, social, family, and school maladjustments; and 3) To identify predictors of somatic complaints. The study included a total of 1,134 randomly selected schoolchildren of both sexes between 10-12 years old (M=10.99; SD=0.88). The Somatic Complaint List, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, and Self-reported Multifactor Test of Childhood Adaptation were used to gather information. The results showed that the prevalence of somatic complaints was 90.2%, with fatigue, headache and stomachache being the most frequently. Dizziness and headache were more common in girls, and the frequency of complaints decreases with age. Somatic complaints are negatively related to emotional awareness, and positively related to maladjustment. The variables that contribute the most to the prediction of somatic complaints are personal maladjustment (25.1%) and differentiating emotions (2.5%). The study shows that personal maladjustment is the best predictor of somatic complaints; the more emotional awareness and better adapted the child, the fewer somatic complaints they lodge. Childhood is a stage with significant physical discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2...

  6. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  7. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  8. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  9. Extending a structural model of somatization to South Koreans: Cultural values, somatization tendency, and the presentation of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Min, Seongho; Sun, Jiahong; Kim, Se Joo; Ahn, Joung-Sook; Peng, Yunshi; Noh, Samuel; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Somatization refers to the tendency to emphasize somatic symptoms when experiencing a psychiatric disturbance. This tendency has been widely reported in patients from East Asian cultural contexts suffering from depression. Recent research in two Chinese samples have demonstrated that the local cultural script for depression, involving two aspects-the experience and expression of distress (EED) and conceptualization and communication of distress (CCD)-can be evoked to help explain somatization. Given the beliefs and practices broadly shared across Chinese and South Korean cultural contexts, the current study seeks to replicate this explanatory model in South Koreans. Our sample included 209 psychiatric outpatients from Seoul and Wonju, South Korea. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess somatization tendency, adherence to traditional values, and psychological and somatic symptoms of depression. Results from SEM showed that the EED and CCD factors of somatization tendency were differently associated with cultural values and somatic symptoms, replicating our previous findings in Chinese outpatients. The reliance on a brief self-report measure of somatization tendency, not originally designed to assess separate EED and CCD factors, highlights the need for measurement tools for the assessment of cultural scripts in cross-cultural depression research. The replication of the Chinese structural model of somatization in South Korea lends empirical support to the view that somatization can be understood as the consequence of specific cultural scripts. These scripts involve the experience and expression of distress as well as culturally meaningful ways in which this distress is conceptualized and communicated to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  11. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Djibril; Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Quillard, Jeanine; Ba, Nathalie; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Benoit, Gérard; Bedretdinova, Dina; Bessede, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Innervation of the penis supports erectile and sensory functions. This article aims to study the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and afferent somatic (sensory) nervous systems of the penis and to investigate how these systems relate to vascular pathways. Penises obtained from five adult cadavers were studied via computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). The number of autonomic and somatic nerve fibers was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Proximally, penile innervation was mainly somatic in the extra-albugineal sector and mainly autonomic in the intracavernosal sector. Distally, both sectors were almost exclusively supplied by somatic nerve fibers, except the intrapenile vascular anastomoses that accompanied both somatic and autonomic (nitrergic) fibers. From this point, the neural immunolabeling within perivascular nerve fibers was mixed (somatic labeling and autonomic labeling). Accessory afferent, extra-albugineal pathways supplied the outer layers of the penis. There is a major change in the functional type of innervation between the proximal and distal parts of the intracavernosal sector of the penis. In addition to the pelvis and the hilum of the penis, the intrapenile neurovascular routes are the third level where the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and the afferent somatic (sensory) penile nerve fibers are close. Intrapenile neurovascular pathways define a proximal penile segment, which guarantees erectile rigidity, and a sensory distal segment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Duren, M. Van; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD 50 for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K S; Duren, M Van; Morpurgo, R [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD{sub 50} for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs.

  14. Characteristics of somatic tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    Full Text Available Determine if somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis have different characteristics from those without hyperacusis.172 somatic tinnitus patients with (n = 82 and without (n = 90 hyperacusis referred to the Tinnitus Unit of Sapienza University of Rome between June 2012 and June 2016 were compared for demographic characteristics, tinnitus features, self-administered questionnaire scores, nature of somatic modulation and history.Compared to those without hyperacusis, patients with somatic tinnitus and hyperacusis: (a were older (43.38 vs 39.12 years, p = 0.05, (b were more likely to have bilateral tinnitus (67.08% vs 55.56%, p = 0.04, (c had a higher prevalence of somatic modulation of tinnitus (53.65% vs 36.66%, p = 0.02 and (d scored significantly worse on tinnitus annoyance (39.34 vs 22.81, p<0.001 and subjective hearing level (8.04 vs 1.83, p<0.001.Our study shows significantly higher tinnitus modulation and worse self-rating of tinnitus and hearing ability in somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis versus somatic tinnitus patients without hyperacusis. These differences could prove useful in developing a better understanding of the pathophysiology and establishing a course of treatment for these two groups of patients.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1990-02-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  16. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  17. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  20. Cellular MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  1. Somatic radiation risk in case of irradiation of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocken, U.; Ewen, K.; Makoski, H.B.

    1983-09-01

    The somatic dose index for irradiation of the brain was determined for the 10 MeV bremsstrahlung of a linear electron-accelerator. A small volume rotation technique and the irradiation of the total neurocranium were chosen as extreme conditions for the radiation exposure of the skull. On the basis of a target volume dose of 50 Gy for the total irradiation series, the somatic dose index of the small volume technique is within the scope of coronarography. In case of irradiation of the total neurocranium, however, the somatic dose index largely exceeds the maximum values of X-ray diagnosis.

  2. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-09-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients.

  3. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  4. Germ cell regeneration-mediated, enhanced mutagenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis reveals flexible germ cell formation from different somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keita; Hozumi, Akiko; Treen, Nicholas; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2017-03-15

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis has a high regeneration capacity that enables the regeneration of artificially removed primordial germ cells (PGCs) from somatic cells. We utilized PGC regeneration to establish efficient methods of germ line mutagenesis with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). When PGCs were artificially removed from animals in which a TALEN pair was expressed, somatic cells harboring mutations in the target gene were converted into germ cells, this germ cell population exhibited higher mutation rates than animals not subjected to PGC removal. PGC regeneration enables us to use TALEN expression vectors of specific somatic tissues for germ cell mutagenesis. Unexpectedly, cis elements for epidermis, neural tissue and muscle could be used for germ cell mutagenesis, indicating there are multiple sources of regenerated PGCs, suggesting a flexibility of differentiated Ciona somatic cells to regain totipotency. Sperm and eggs of a single hermaphroditic, PGC regenerated animal typically have different mutations, suggesting they arise from different cells. PGCs can be generated from somatic cells even though the maternal PGCs are not removed, suggesting that the PGC regeneration is not solely an artificial event but could have an endogenous function in Ciona. This study provides a technical innovation in the genome-editing methods, including easy establishment of mutant lines. Moreover, this study suggests cellular mechanisms and the potential evolutionary significance of PGC regeneration in Ciona. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  6. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, L; Hoyos, R; Roca, W

    1987-06-01

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4-16 mg/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect to the embryogenic capacity of the explants of different varieties. Secondary embryogenesis has been induced by subculture on solid or liquid induction medium. Long term cultures were established and maintained for up to 18 months by repeated subculture of the proliferating somatic embryos. Plantlets developed from primary and secondary embryos in the presence of 0.1 mg/l BAP, 1mg/l GA3, and 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D. Regenerated plants were transferred to the field, and were grown to maturity.

  7. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salari, Raheleh; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Khavari, David; Newburger, Daniel E.; West, Robert B.; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    multiple, genetically related tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic information to improve the accuracy of their variant calls. Here, we present a novel algorithm that uses somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in multiple

  8. Anxiety, depression, and somatization in DSM-III hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R; Abbott, P; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D

    1989-01-01

    To assess the severity of distress and of somatization in hypochondriasis, the authors administered several validated self-rating scales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and anger/hostility to 21 psychiatric outpatients with the DSM-III diagnosis of hypochondriasis and to matched groups of other nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, family practice patients, and employees. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were highest in hypochondriacal patients; depression and anger/hostility did not differ from those of other psychiatric patients but were higher than in the other groups. The findings do not support the theory that hypochondriasis is a defense against anxiety or that it is a masked depression or depressive equivalent. The findings are consistent with the view that the interaction of severe anxiety and severe somatic symptoms is a common feature of the psychopathology of hypochondriasis.

  9. Hypochondriasis and somatization related to personality and attitudes toward self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, M; Tuttle, L; Paine, S; Kellner, R

    1999-01-01

    Better definition of the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization was determined by measuring attitudes to self and personality dimensions associated with these syndromes. In this study, the primary care patients with hypochondriacal responses (HR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had more negative attitudes to self and more psychological distress than the matched group of primary care control subjects. The HR subjects were different from the non-HR subjects on two of five personality domains on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO)-Five-Factor Inventory, and the HSC subjects were different from the non-HSC subjects on four of five NEO domains. Analysis of variance demonstrated that somatization explained most of the variance in attitudes, personality, and psychological distress, but hypochondriasis uniquely contributed only to thanatophobia. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization and offer a descriptive model of this relationship.

  10. Cognitive aspects of hypochondriasis and the somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Hiller, W; Margraf, J

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether specific cognitive aspects are present in patients suffering from somatoform disorders. With a sample of 493 patients from a center for behavioral medicine, the authors evaluated a questionnaire assessing typical cognitions concerning body perception, illness behavior, and health. The authors further examined 225 participants, including patients with a somatization syndrome, patients with somatization syndrome and additional hypochondriasis, patients with hypochondriasis, patients with other mental disorders (clinical control group), and nonclinical controls. The results showed that not only patients with hypochondriasis but also patients with somatization syndrome had cognitive concerns and assumptions that were specific for the disorder. These patients had a self-concept of being weak and unable to tolerate stress. A catastrophizing interpretation of minor bodily complaints found in hypochondriacal patients in earlier studies was also found for patients with multiple somatization symptoms.

  11. Journeying as Amateur and Professional – A Somatic Movement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Eddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This account is an interactive case study co-authored by a teacher and her student on the topic of moving from amateur to professional. It highlights the role of somatic education in equalizing the experience of amateurs and professionals as well as pointing to specific curricula, public performances, participatory events and volunteer work that are made uniquely available to students of programs related to Dynamic EmbodimentTM Somatic Movement Therapy (known as the Somatic Movement Therapy Training – SMTT from 1991-2005. Written in first-person narrative style (Powdermaker 1966, this inquiry supports the primary methodology of somatic education – the process of self-discovery “from within” (Hanna 1976 emphasizing the physical body with a focus on bodily proprioception and kinesthetic awareness – as well as the humanistic nature of the student-teacher relationship and the value of each in performance and education.

  12. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Case Study: Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia. 527. Vol 52 No 6 ... liver function, and urea and electrolytes), including an ... neurotransmitter systems (such as serotonin and dopamine).

  13. Recurrent Somatic Structural Variations Contribute to Tumorigenesis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs and copy number alterations (CNAs. To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as well as 14 samples in a validation cohort. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs exhibited a pattern of localized hypermutation called kataegis in 50% of the tumors. We identified p53 pathway lesions in all tumors in the discovery cohort, nine of which were translocations in the first intron of the TP53 gene. Beyond TP53, the RB1, ATRX, and DLG2 genes showed recurrent somatic alterations in 29%–53% of the tumors. These data highlight the power of whole-genome sequencing for identifying recurrent somatic alterations in cancer genomes that may be missed using other methods.

  14. Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and production of multiple shoot from cotyledonary leaf explants of Solanum trilobatum L. VNC Dhavala, RD Tejeswara, VR Yechuri, K Prabavathi ...

  15. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle. ... are not unity, the RM-model estimates more competitive variances and requires ... are therefore recommended for breeding value estimation on a national basis.

  16. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis in ferns: a new experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła, Anna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Tomiczak, Karolina; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2015-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has never been reported in ferns. The study showed that it is much easier to evoke the acquisition and expression of embryogenic competence in ferns than in spermatophytes. We discovered that the tree fern Cyathea delgadii offers an effective model for the reproducible and rapid formation of somatic embryos on hormone-free medium. Our study provides cyto-morphological evidence for the single cell origin and development of somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in both primary and secondary explants was induced on half-strength micro- and macro-nutrients Murashige and Skoog medium without the application of exogenous plant growth regulators, in darkness. The early stage of SE was characterized by sequential perpendicular cell divisions of an individual epidermal cell of etiolated stipe explant. These resulted in the formation of a linear pro-embryo. Later their development resembled that of the zygotic embryo. We defined three morphogenetic stages of fern somatic embryo development: linear, early and late embryonic leaf stage. The transition from somatic embryo to juvenile sporophyte was quick and proceeded without interruption caused by dormancy. Following 9 weeks of culture the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis reached 12-13 embryos per responding explant. Spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and callus production, which improved the effectiveness of the process sevenfold in 10-month-long culture, occurred without subculturing. The tendency for C. delgadii to propagate by SE in vitro makes this species an excellent model for studies relating to asexual embryogenesis and the endogenous hormonal regulation of that process and opens new avenues of experimentation.

  18. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  19. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK; Selçuk ASLAN; Çisem UTKU

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used ...

  20. Teaching at the interface of dance science and somatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Pamela; Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a combined scientific and somatic approach to teaching and learning about the body, and explains how it can be of benefit to dancers and dance educators. The study of the science of movement (kinesiology) and a somatic approach to teaching are initially defined and described as distinct entities; following this, a model for integration of the two is presented. The authors advocate for such a combination in order to enhance dancing.

  1. Induction and isolation of somatic mutations in vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.

    1975-01-01

    Research carried out since 1963 concentrated on techniques of mutagenic treatment: problems of exposure, type of radiation (acute irradiation by x- and γ-rays, and chronic exposure in the gamma field), conditions during and after irradiation, mechanisms of mutation induction, and methodology of isolation of somatic mutations. Analyses of somatic mutations included studies on apple, pear, olive, peach, grape and cherry plants. Young trees, dormant and rooted scions, summer and floral buds or seeds were used

  2. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  5. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  6. Parental Criticism is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Somatic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495

  7. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  8. Somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma identified by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Hornick, Jason L; Woda, Bruce; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of presumed hematopoietic origin showing morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation. Somatic mutation importance in the pathogenesis or disease progression of histiocytic sarcoma was largely unknown. To identify somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma, we studied 5 histiocytic sarcomas [3 female and 2 male patients; mean age 54.8 (20-72), anatomic sites include lymph node, uterus, and pleura] and matched normal tissues from each patient as germ line controls. Somatic mutations in 50 "Hotspot" oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were examined using next generation sequencing. Three (out of five) histiocytic sarcoma cases carried somatic mutations in BRAF. Among them, G464V [variant frequency (VF) of 43.6 %] and G466R (VF of 29.6 %) located at the P loop potentially interfere with the hydrophobic interaction between P and activating loops and ultimately activation of BRAF. Also detected was BRAF somatic mutation N581S (VF of 7.4 %), which was located at the catalytic loop of BRAF kinase domain: its role in modifying kinase activity was unclear. A similar mutational analysis was also performed on nine acute monocytic/monoblastic leukemia cases, which did not identify any BRAF somatic mutations. Our study detected several BRAF mutations in histiocytic sarcomas, which may be important in understanding the tumorigenesis of this rare neoplasm and providing mechanisms for potential therapeutical opportunities.

  9. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  10. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Jun [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM gene-targeted pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. • A novel large animal model for ataxia telangiectasia was developed. • The new model may provide an alternative to the mouse model. - Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies.

  11. Dynamic and static maintenance of epigenetic memory in pluripotent and somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Cohen, Netta Mendelson; Landan, Gilad; Chomsky, Elad; Zeliger, Shlomit Reich; Fried, Yael Chagit; Ainbinder, Elena; Friedman, Nir; Tanay, Amos

    2014-09-04

    Stable maintenance of gene regulatory programs is essential for normal function in multicellular organisms. Epigenetic mechanisms, and DNA methylation in particular, are hypothesized to facilitate such maintenance by creating cellular memory that can be written during embryonic development and then guide cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we develop new methods for quantitative inference of DNA methylation turnover rates, and show that human embryonic stem cells preserve their epigenetic state by balancing antagonistic processes that add and remove methylation marks rather than by copying epigenetic information from mother to daughter cells. In contrast, somatic cells transmit considerable epigenetic information to progenies. Paradoxically, the persistence of the somatic epigenome makes it more vulnerable to noise, since random epimutations can accumulate to massively perturb the epigenomic ground state. The rate of epigenetic perturbation depends on the genomic context, and, in particular, DNA methylation loss is coupled to late DNA replication dynamics. Epigenetic perturbation is not observed in the pluripotent state, because the rapid turnover-based equilibrium continuously reinforces the canonical state. This dynamic epigenetic equilibrium also explains how the epigenome can be reprogrammed quickly and to near perfection after induced pluripotency.

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  13. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  14. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung; Choi, Seong-Jun; Shim, Hosup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM gene-targeted pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. • A novel large animal model for ataxia telangiectasia was developed. • The new model may provide an alternative to the mouse model. - Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies

  15. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  16. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Iuso

    Full Text Available The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT. Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  17. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  18. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  19. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  20. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  1. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  3. Novel paths towards neural cellular products for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M

    2011-11-01

    The prospect of using neural cells derived from stem cells or from reprogrammed adult somatic cells provides a unique opportunity in cell therapy and drug discovery for developing novel strategies for brain repair. Cell-based therapeutic approaches for treating CNS afflictions caused by disease or injury aim to promote structural repair of the injured or diseased neural tissue, an outcome currently not achieved by drug therapy. Preclinical research in animal models of various diseases or injuries report that grafts of neural cells enhance endogenous repair, provide neurotrophic support to neurons undergoing degeneration and replace lost neural cells. In recent years, the sources of neural cells for treating neurological disorders have been rapidly expanding and in addition to offering therapeutic potential, neural cell products hold promise for disease modeling and drug discovery use. Specific neural cell types have been derived from adult or fetal brain, from human embryonic stem cells, from induced pluripotent stem cells and directly transdifferentiated from adult somatic cells, such as skin cells. It is yet to be determined if the latter approach will evolve into a paradigm shift in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. These multiple sources of neural cells cover a wide spectrum of safety that needs to be balanced with efficacy to determine the viability of the cellular product. In this article, we will review novel sources of neural cells and discuss current obstacles to developing them into viable cellular products for treating neurological disorders.

  4. mTOR-regulated senescence and autophagy during reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency: a roadmap from energy metabolism to stem cell renewal and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A; Vellon, Luciano; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

    2011-11-01

    Molecular controllers of the number and function of tissue stem cells may share common regulatory pathways for the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells to become induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs). If this hypothesis is true, testing the ability of longevity-promoting chemicals to improve reprogramming efficiency may provide a proof-of-concept validation tool for pivotal housekeeping pathways that limit the numerical and/or functional decline of adult stem cells. Reprogramming is a slow, stochastic process due to the complex and apparently unrelated cellular processes that are involved. First, forced expression of the Yamanaka cocktail of stemness factors, OSKM, is a stressful process that activates apoptosis and cellular senescence, which are the two primary barriers to cancer development and somatic reprogramming. Second, the a priori energetic infrastructure of somatic cells appears to be a crucial stochastic feature for optimal successful routing to pluripotency. If longevity-promoting compounds can ablate the drivers and effectors of cellular senescence while concurrently enhancing a bioenergetic shift from somatic oxidative mitochondria toward an alternative ATP-generating glycolytic metabotype, they could maximize the efficiency of somatic reprogramming to pluripotency. Support for this hypothesis is evidenced by recent findings that well-characterized mTOR inhibitors and autophagy activators (e.g., PP242, rapamycin and resveratrol) notably improve the speed and efficiency of iPSC generation. This article reviews the existing research evidence that the most established mTOR inhibitors can notably decelerate the cellular senescence that is imposed by DNA damage-like responses, which are somewhat equivalent to the responses caused by reprogramming factors. These data suggest that fine-tuning mTOR signaling can impact mitochondrial dynamics to segregate mitochondria that are destined for clearance through autophagy, which results in the loss of

  5. The Role of Somatic Symptoms in Sexual Medicine: Somatization as Important Contextual Factor in Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Egidia; Castellini, Giovanni; Corona, Giovanni; Boddi, Valentina; Ricca, Valdo; Rastrelli, Giulia; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne; Cipriani, Sarah; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    An important feature of somatic symptom disorder is the subjective perception of the physical symptoms and its maladaptive interpretation. Considering that psychological distress is often expressed through somatic symptoms, it is possible that they underlie at least a part of the symptoms in subjects complaining of sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, studies on the impact of somatoform disorders in sexual dysfunction are scanty. To define the psychological, relational, and organic correlates of somatic symptoms in a large sample of patients complaining of sexual problems. A consecutive series of 2833 men (mean age 50.2 ± 13.5 years) was retrospectively studied. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the "somatized anxiety symptoms" subscale of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ-S). Several clinical, biochemical, psychological, and relational parameters were studied. Patients were interviewed with the previously validated Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), and ANDROTEST (a structured interview for the screening of hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction). Among the 2833 patients studied, subjects scoring higher on somatic symptoms were older, more obese, reporting unhealthy lifestyle (current smoking, alcohol consumption), and a lower education (all P sexuality more often, including erectile problems (spontaneous or sexual-related), low sexual desire, decreased frequency of intercourse, and perceived reduction of ejaculate volume (all P sexual dysfunction. High levels of somatic symptoms in subjects with sexual dysfunction can be related to the sexual symptom itself. The consequences of this pattern have great clinical relevance in a sexual medicine setting, considering their severe impact on sexuality. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  7. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  8. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  9. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  10. Predictability in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.

  11. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

  12. Wavefront cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  13. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Wavefront cellular learning automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  15. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  16. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...

  17. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  18. Hypochondriasis and somatization in college women: a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, P; Lecci, L

    1993-03-01

    Although the descriptive features of hypochondriasis and somatization have been widely studied, the motivational correlates (goal representations) of individuals manifesting abnormal illness patterns have not been considered. The Personal Projects Analysis method (Little, 1983) was used to contrast the health and nonhealth goals of female undergraduates. Subjects selected 10 goals for evaluation along a series of dimensions. When health pursuits alone were examined, hypochondriasis on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was found to correlate directly with goal appraisal dimensions subsumed by an anxiety-absorption factor and inversely with dimensions characterizing rewardingness, thus suggesting a negativity of health goal construal. Somatizers also pursued more health-related projects than did nonsomatizers; nonhealth goal cognition did not relate as strongly to hypochondriasis. Finally, using discriminant function analysis, goal representations were shown to significantly and substantially differentiate somatizers from nonsomatizers.

  19. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  20. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  3. [Stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive mutations exist widely in the evolution of cells, such as antibiotic resistance mutations of pathogenic bacteria, adaptive evolution of industrial strains, and cancerization of human somatic cells. However, how these adaptive mutations are generated is still controversial. Based on the mutational analysis models under the nonlethal selection conditions, stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis is proposed as a new evolutionary viewpoint. The hypothetic pathway of stress-induced mutagenesis involves several intracellular physiological responses, including DNA damages caused by accumulation of intracellular toxic chemicals, limitation of DNA MMR (mismatch repair) activity, upregulation of general stress response and activation of SOS response. These responses directly affect the accuracy of DNA replication from a high-fidelity manner to an error-prone one. The state changes of cell physiology significantly increase intracellular mutation rate and recombination activity. In addition, gene transcription under stress condition increases the instability of genome in response to DNA damage, resulting in transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize these two molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis and transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis to help better understand the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis.

  4. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  5. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  6. Evaluation of Structural Cellular Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. A.; Zwissler, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary design information presented. First report discusses state of structural-cellular-glass programs as of June 1979. Second report gives further details of program to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize properties of glasses and commercially available materials.

  7. Lethals induced by γ-radiation in drosophila somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of 3-hour drosophila male embryos to γ-radiation during the topographic segregation of the germ anlage nuclei caused recessive sex-linked lethals in somatic cells only. The selectivity of the screening was determined by the ratio of mutation frequencies induced in embryos and adult males. Analysis of lethal mutations shows that a minimal rate of the divergence between germinal and somatic patterns of the cell development is observed in the embryogenesis, the 3d instar larva and prepupa, and maximal in the 1st and 2nd larva and pupa

  8. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, C.; Garreau, F.; Bougueleret, L.; Cariani, E.; Thiers, V.; Croissant, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C.; Grzeschik, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration

  9. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  10. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  11. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  12. The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S Mechiel; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Wingfield, John C; McEwen, Bruce S

    2005-02-01

    Why do we get the stress-related diseases we do? Why do some people have flare ups of autoimmune disease, whereas others suffer from melancholic depression during a stressful period in their life? In the present review possible explanations will be given by using different levels of analysis. First, we explain in evolutionary terms why different organisms adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with stress. It has become clear that natural selection maintains a balance of different traits preserving genes for high aggression (Hawks) and low aggression (Doves) within a population. The existence of these personality types (Hawks-Doves) is widespread in the animal kingdom, not only between males and females but also within the same gender across species. Second, proximate (causal) explanations are given for the different stress responses and how they work. Hawks and Doves differ in underlying physiology and these differences are associated with their respective behavioral strategies; for example, bold Hawks preferentially adopt the fight-flight response when establishing a new territory or defending an existing territory, while cautious Doves show the freeze-hide response to adapt to threats in their environment. Thus, adaptive processes that actively maintain stability through change (allostasis) depend on the personality type and the associated stress responses. Third, we describe how the expression of the various stress responses can result in specific benefits to the organism. Fourth, we discuss how the benefits of allostasis and the costs of adaptation (allostatic load) lead to different trade-offs in health and disease, thereby reinforcing a Darwinian concept of stress. Collectively, this provides some explanation of why individuals may differ in their vulnerability to different stress-related diseases and how this relates to the range of personality types, especially aggressive Hawks and non-aggressive Doves in a population. A conceptual framework is

  13. Sub-cellular distribution and translocation of TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos A; Arias, Luis A; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Cellular electrical activity is the result of a highly complex processes that involve the activation of ion channel proteins. Ion channels make pores on cell membranes that rapidly transit between conductive and non-conductive states, allowing different ions to flow down their electrochemical gradients across cell membranes. In the case of neuronal cells, ion channel activity orchestrates action potentials traveling through axons, enabling electrical communication between cells in distant parts of the body. Somatic sensation -our ability to feel touch, temperature and noxious stimuli- require ion channels able to sense and respond to our peripheral environment. Sensory integration involves the summing of various environmental cues and their conversion into electrical signals. Members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels have emerged as important mediators of both cellular sensing and sensory integration. The regulation of the spatial and temporal distribution of membrane receptors is recognized as an important mechanism for controlling the magnitude of the cellular response and the time scale on which cellular signaling occurs. Several studies have shown that this mechanism is also used by TRP channels to modulate cellular response and ultimately fulfill their physiological function as sensors. However, the inner-working of this mode of control for TRP channels remains poorly understood. The question of whether TRPs intrinsically regulate their own vesicular trafficking or weather the dynamic regulation of TRP channel residence on the cell surface is caused by extrinsic changes in the rates of vesicle insertion or retrieval remain open. This review will examine the evidence that sub-cellular redistribution of TRP channels plays an important role in regulating their activity and explore the mechanisms that control the trafficking of vesicles containing TRP channels.

  14. Restoration of Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Delays Stem Cell Senescence and Facilitates Reprogramming of Aged Somatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myung Jin; Kwon, Youjeong; Son, Taekwon; Cho, Yee Sook

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental tenet that aging is irreversible has been challenged by the development of reprogramming technology that can restore molecular and cellular age by reversing the progression of aging. The use of cells from aged individuals as sources for reprogramming or transplantation creates a major barrier in stem cell therapy with respect to cell quality and quantity. Here, we investigated the molecular features underlying senescence and rejuvenation during aged cell reprogramming and identified novel factors that can overcome age-associated barriers. Enzymes, such as nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 (NMNAT3), that control mitochondrial NAD + levels appear to be susceptible to aging. In aged cells, mitochondrial NAD + levels decrease, accompanied by reduced SIRT3 activity; these changes severely impede cell fate transition. However, in cells collected from aged p16 knockout mice, which exhibit delayed cellular senescence, no changes in NNT or NMNAT3 expression were found. Importantly, restoring mitochondrial NAD + levels by overexpressing NNT and NMNAT3 enhanced reprogramming efficiency of aged somatic cells and extended the lifespan of human mesenchymal stem cells by delaying replicative senescence. These results demonstrate that maintenance of mitochondrial NAD + levels is critical for reversing the mechanisms of aging and ensuring that cells collected from aged individuals are of high quality. Stem Cells 2016;34:2840-2851. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Looking into the Black Box: Insights into the Mechanisms of Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Wrana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic discovery that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, by the expression of just four factors, has opened new opportunities for regenerative medicine and novel ways of modeling human diseases. Extensive research over the short time since the first iPSCs were generated has yielded the ability to reprogram various cell types using a diverse range of methods. However the duration, efficiency, and safety of induced reprogramming have remained a persistent limitation to achieving a robust experimental and therapeutic system. The field has worked to resolve these issues through technological advances using non-integrative approaches, factor replacement or complementation with microRNA, shRNA and drugs. Despite these advances, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process remain poorly understood. Recently, through the use of inducible secondary reprogramming systems, researchers have now accessed more rigorous mechanistic experiments to decipher this complex process. In this review we will discuss some of the major recent findings in reprogramming, pertaining to proliferation and cellular senescence, epigenetic and chromatin remodeling, and other complex cellular processes such as morphological changes and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We will focus on the implications of this work in the construction of a mechanistic understanding of reprogramming and discuss unexplored areas in this rapidly expanding field.

  16. Unbound (bioavailable IGF1 enhances somatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Elis

    2011-09-01

    Understanding insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 biology is of particular importance because, apart from its role in mediating growth, it plays key roles in cellular transformation, organ regeneration, immune function, development of the musculoskeletal system and aging. IGF1 bioactivity is modulated by its binding to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs and the acid labile subunit (ALS, which are present in serum and tissues. To determine whether IGF1 binding to IGFBPs is necessary to facilitate normal growth and development, we used a gene-targeting approach and generated two novel knock-in mouse models of mutated IGF1, in which the native Igf1 gene was replaced by Des-Igf1 (KID mice or R3-Igf1 (KIR mice. The KID and KIR mutant proteins have reduced affinity for the IGFBPs, and therefore present as unbound IGF1, or ‘free IGF1’. We found that both KID and KIR mice have reduced serum IGF1 levels and a concomitant increase in serum growth hormone levels. Ternary complex formation of IGF1 with the IGFBPs and the ALS was markedly reduced in sera from KID and KIR mice compared with wild type. Both mutant mice showed increased body weight, body and bone lengths, and relative lean mass. We found selective organomegaly of the spleen, kidneys and uterus, enhanced mammary gland complexity, and increased skeletal acquisition. The KID and KIR models show unequivocally that IGF1-complex formation with the IGFBPs is fundamental for establishing normal body and organ size, and that uncontrolled IGF bioactivity could lead to pathological conditions.

  17. Immune-to-brain communication in functional somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, T.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935068

    2013-01-01

    When a person presents with somatic symptoms that cannot (fully) be explained by a known organic pathology, these symptoms will be labeled ‘medically unexplained’ or ‘functional’. Often, more than one symptom is present and certain constellations of symptoms give way to a diagnosis of a specific

  18. PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16 utilization in the potato somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Hidrobo Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the application of PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16, somatic embryos were obtained in potato (Solanum tuberosum, L c.v. Desirèe, of 40 days old callus obtained from stem micropropagated plants. These were used as possible substitutes for crop regulators used in culture media for the induction of somatic embryos. The culture media was composed for 10ml.l-1 of Murashige and Skoog salt, 0.1mg.l-1 ANA, 0.1mg.l-1 kinetin, 0.5mg.l-1 thiamine, 2.5mg.l-1 cistein, 100mg.l-1 mioinositol, 20g.l-1 sucrose and 2.0g.l-1 agar. Four culture medias were tested in distinct combinations that contained different concentration of PECTIMOR and BIOBRAS-16 as substitute of auxins and cytokinins. After 90 days, the results obtained showed the possibility of substituting the auxins (0.5mg.l-1 ANA and the cytokinins (0.5mg.l-1 kinetin in the culture media, because the application of PECTIMORF at 3.2mg.l-1 and BIOBRAS-16 at 1.0mg.l-1, gave friable callus, high fresh weight (more than 1.4g and a brownish color at the end of the process, moment in which the somatic embryos of different phases, appeared at the surface of the callus. Keywords: brasinoesteroids, callus, oligopectate, somatic embryo

  19. The somatic mutation landscape of premalignant colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hong; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Huff, Chad; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Han; Menter, David G; Morris, Jeffery; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R; Futreal, Andrew; Kopetz, Scott; Mishra, Lopa; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-06-12

    There are few studies which characterised the molecular alterations in premalignant colorectal adenomas. Our major goal was to establish colorectal adenoma genome atlas and identify molecular markers of progression from colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing were carried out in 149 adenoma samples and paired blood from patients with conventional adenoma or sessile serrated adenoma to characterise the somatic mutation landscape for premalignant colorectal lesions. The identified somatic mutations were compared with those in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A supervised random forest model was employed to identify gene panels differentiating adenoma from CRC. Similar somatic mutation frequencies, but distinctive driver mutations, were observed in sessile serrated adenomas and conventional adenomas. The final model included 20 genes and was able to separate the somatic mutation profile of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma with an area under the curve of 0.941. The findings of this project hold potential to better identify patients with adenoma who may be candidates for targeted surveillance programmes and preventive interventions to reduce the incidence of CRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. High frequency induction of somatic embryos and plantlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... plant, Hygrophila spinosa through direct somatic embryogenesis from nodal explants excised from 4 week old ... medicinal purposes further curbs propagation via seed. Plant tissue ... buted a great deal of information for the genetic, morpho- ..... analysis of peroxidase in cultured lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

  2. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n =

  3. Effect of the somatic cell count on physicochemical components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xz

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... the standard method to determine the quality of raw milk. (Ribas, 1999). Magalhães .... somatic cell score (SCS) resulted in an increase in the protein concentration of .... Yield of Dairy Herds]. C. E. Martins, C. N. Costa, J. R. F..

  4. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  5. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  6. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  7. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu ( Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  8. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  9. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  10. Effect of the somatic cell count on physicochemical components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the Federal University of Goiás (Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Goiás). Protein, fat, lactose, casein, urea, defatted dry extract and somatic cell counts (SCC) were analyzed. A completely randomized experimental design was used.

  11. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to delusional disorder-somatic subtype there may be a relationship with body dysmorphic disorder. There are reports that some delusional disorders can evolve to become schizophrenia. Similarly, the treatment of such disorders with antipsychotics has been documented. This report describes a case of ...

  12. Somatic symptoms of anxiety and nonadherence to statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2016-07-01

    The association between anxiety and nonadherence to preventive therapies remains unclear. We investigated whether somatic symptoms of anxiety predict statin nonadherence. This is a prospective cohort study of 1924 individuals who responded to a questionnaire survey on health status and initiated statin therapy after the survey during 2008-2010. We followed the cohort for nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered pain upon anger or emotion, sweating without exercise, flushing, tremor of hands or voice, muscle twitching) before the statin initiation, and 16% had experienced at least one symptom on average weekly to daily. 49% of respondents were nonadherent. Weekly to daily occurrence of these symptoms predicted a 33% increase in the risk of nonadherence (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.13-1.57) compared to no symptoms when adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle risks, cardiovascular comorbidities, and depression. Particularly, chest pain upon anger or emotion (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and muscle twitching (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42) predicted an increased risk of nonadherence to statin therapy. Psychological symptoms of anxiety were not associated with nonadherence when adjusted for somatic symptoms. Somatic anxiety-related symptoms predicted nonadherence to statin therapy. Information on pre-existing somatic symptoms may help identifying patients at increased risk of statin nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuger, M.

    1996-01-01


    The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic

  14. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... days in most of the cultured genotypes. Formed embryos were cultured in a single tube before in vivo acclimatization. After sanitary assays, regenerated plants were shown to be free from the agents detected in the mother trees. Key words: Algeria, citrus germplasm, plant regeneration, sanitation, somatic embryogenesis.

  15. Behavioral Variability and Somatic Mosaicism: A Cytogenomic Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Zelenova, Maria A; Yurov, Yuri B; Iourov, Ivan Y

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral sciences are inseparably related to genetics. A variety of neurobehavioral phenotypes are suggested to result from genomic variations. However, the contribution of genetic factors to common behavioral disorders (i.e. autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability) remains to be understood when an attempt to link behavioral variability to a specific genomic change is made. Probably, the least appreciated genetic mechanism of debilitating neurobehavioral disorders is somatic mosaicism or the occurrence of genetically diverse (neuronal) cells in an individual's brain. Somatic mosaicism is assumed to affect directly the brain being associated with specific behavioral patterns. As shown in studies of chromosome abnormalities (syndromes), genetic mosaicism is able to change dynamically the phenotype due to inconsistency of abnormal cell proportions. Here, we hypothesize that brain-specific postzygotic changes of mosaicism levels are able to modulate variability of behavioral phenotypes. More precisely, behavioral phenotype variability in individuals exhibiting somatic mosaicism might correlate with changes in the amount of genetically abnormal cells throughout the lifespan. If proven, the hypothesis can be used as a basis for therapeutic interventions through regulating levels of somatic mosaicism to increase functioning and to improve overall condition of individuals with behavioral problems.

  16. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared

  17. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  18. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Theobroma cacao L.) using Thidiazuron. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 34:293-299. Michaux-Ferrière N, Carron MP (1989). Histology of early somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. The importance of timing of subculturing. Plant Cell Tiss ...

  19. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig | Muenthaisong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now more than 8 years, since the first cloned pig from nuclear transfer was reported. Success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig is still low compared to that in bovine. Embryonic and neonatal abnormalities of cloned piglets are probably a result of incorrect or incomplete reprogramming of the transferred ...

  20. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  1. Seasonal variability in somatic and reproductive investment of the bivalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, S.; Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Carvalho, C.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Monthly investment in soma and gonads in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana is described for three populations along its distributional range: Minho estuary, Portugal; Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands and Buvika estuary, Norway. Seasonal cycles in body mass (BMI), somatic mass (SMI) and

  2. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A system for induction of callus and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. clone Reyan 87-6-62 was evaluated. The influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT) on ...

  3. Somatic activating ARAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, David S.; Quispel, Willemijn; Badalian-Very, Gayane; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; van den Bos, Cor; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; Tian, Sara Y.; van Hummelen, Paul; Ducar, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura E.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Rollins, Barrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is activated in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) histiocytes, but only 60% of cases carry somatic activating mutations of BRAF. To identify other genetic causes of ERK pathway activation, we performed whole exome sequencing on

  4. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis and selection regimes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kanamycin in CIM containing explants undergoing SSE led to a decrease in their embryogenic potential resulting in tissue death at 50 mg/L. The highest transient expression of uidA gene in FEC was observed combining plasmolysis, M5 particle and a helium pressure of 1,200 psi, while in somatic cotyledons, the highest ...

  5. Paroxetine for Somatic Pain Associated With Physical Illness: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Narasimhan, Meera; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of somatic pain with and without depression or anxiety and the pharmacologic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on pain in physical conditions with and without comorbid depression or anxiety.

  6. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, who coordinates the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey team that made the discovery. "They suggest that galaxies as we see them today are the product of their inherent genetic information, evolved over time, as well as complex interactions with their environments, such as mergers." Scientists have known for several decades that galaxies in the Universe's past look different to those in the present-day Universe, local to the Milky Way [3]. Today, galaxies can be roughly classified as red, when few or no new stars are being born, or blue, where star formation is still ongoing. Moreover, a strong correlation exists between a galaxy's colour and the environment it resides in: the more sociable types found in dense clusters are more likely to be red than the more isolated ones. By looking back at a wide range of galaxies of a variety of ages, the astronomers were aiming to study how this peculiar correlation has evolved over time. "Using VIMOS, we were able to use the largest sample of galaxies currently available for this type of study, and because of the instrument's ability to study many objects at a time we obtained many more measurements than previously possible," said Angela Iovino, from the Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy, another member of the team. The team's discovery of a marked variation in the 'colour-density' relationship, depending on whether a galaxy is found in a cluster or alone, and on its luminosity, has many potential implications. The findings suggest for example that being located in a cluster quenches a galaxy's ability to form stars more quickly compared with those in isolation. Luminous galaxies also run out of star-forming material at an earlier time than fainter ones. They conclude that the connection between galaxies' colour, luminosity and their local environment is not merely a result of primordial conditions 'imprinted' during their formation - but just as for humans, galaxies' relationship and interactions can have a profound impact on their evolution.

  7. Darwinian foundations for evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper engages with the methodological debate on the contribution of Darwinism to Veblen's (1898) evolutionary research program for economics. I argue that ontological continuity, generalized Darwinism, and multi-level selection are necessary building blocks for an explanatory framework that can

  8. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: μ = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time.

  9. Balinsky’s Darwinian roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fabian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Boris Ivan Balinsky (1905–1997 was Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits,Johannesburg,South Africa. He came to Wits in 1949 (via Munich and Edinburghfrom Kiev,where he was Professor of Embryology. As an acclaimed experimental embryologist he was especially famous for inducing a supernumerary limb in a newt when he was a19-year-old student in Ivan Schmalhausen’s laboratory in Kiev 1924. In Johannesburg he wrote his famous text book of embryology, which influenced generations of students around the world.In addition to pioneering the application of electronmicros-copy to the study of early development, he tackled a variety of projects of general zoological interest. Lesser known is his latter daywork, carried out during his retirement, on variation and hereditability (especially of wing colourationin the butterfly Acraeahorta, on which he published five papers from 1974 to 1986. His butterfly work showing the loose connection between the genotype and phenotype, with the genotype expressing itself in a variable way in the face of a constant physical environment,is of special interest in the current era of evolutionary and ecological developmental biology. His exposure to the stimulating evolutionary ideas of Schmalhausen during his early Kiev years no doubt provided a context for his butterfly work.Some ideas about how the ‘loose connection between the genotype and phenotype’maybe achieved through behavioral modification or positional information during development are addressed in this paper in the light of recent work.In his eighties Balinsky worked on the classification of microlepidoptera on which he published several papers. He died in September 1997, just short of his 92nd birthday.

  10. The cell cycle regulator protein P16 and the cellular senescence of dental follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Hullmann, Markus; Reck, Anja; Reichert, Torsten E

    2018-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a restricting factor for regenerative therapies with somatic stem cells. We showed previously that the onset of cellular senescence inhibits the osteogenic differentiation in stem cells of the dental follicle (DFCs), although the mechanism remains elusive. Two different pathways are involved in the induction of the cellular senescence, which are driven either by the cell cycle protein P21 or by the cell cycle protein P16. In this study, we investigated the expression of cell cycle proteins in DFCs after the induction of cellular senescence. The induction of cellular senescence was proved by an increased expression of β-galactosidase and an increased population doubling time after a prolonged cell culture. Cellular senescence regulated the expression of cell cycle proteins. The expression of cell cycle protein P16 was up-regulated, which correlates with the induction of cellular senescence markers in DFCs. However, the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)2 and 4 and the expression of the cell cycle protein P21 were successively decreased in DFCs. In conclusion, our data suggest that a P16-dependent pathway drives the induction of cellular senescence in DFCs.

  11. Epilepsy as a systemic condition: Link with somatic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, J; Bell, G S; Peacock, J L; Sisodiya, S M; Sander, J W

    2017-10-01

    People with epilepsy have more concomitant medical conditions than the general population; these comorbidities play an important role in premature mortality. We sought to generate explanatory hypotheses about the co-occurrence of somatic comorbidities and epilepsy, avoiding causal and treatment-resultant biases. We collected clinical, demographic and somatic comorbidity data for 2016 consecutive adults with epilepsy undergoing assessment at a tertiary centre and in 1278 people with epilepsy in the community. Underlying causes of epilepsy were not classed as comorbidities. Somatic comorbidities were more frequent in the referral centre (49%) where people more frequently had active epilepsy than in the community (36%). Consistent risk factors for comorbidities were found in both cohorts. Using multivariable ordinal regression adjusted for age, longer epilepsy duration and an underlying brain lesion were independently associated with a smaller burden of somatic conditions. The treatment burden, measured by the number of drugs to which people were exposed, was not an independent predictor. Shorter epilepsy duration was a predictor for conditions that conceivably harbour significant mortality risks. Somatic comorbidities do not occur randomly in relation to epilepsy; having more severe epilepsy seems to be a risk factor. Independently from age, the early period after epilepsy onset appears to be at particular risk, although it is not clear whether this relates to an early mortality or to a later decrease in the burden of comorbidities. These results suggest that, for some people, epilepsy should be considered a systemic condition not limited to the CNS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  13. Modeling and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Testing the applicability of mathematical models with carefully designed experiments is a powerful tool in the investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation on cells. The modeling and cellular studies complement each other, for modeling provides guidance for designing critical experiments which must provide definitive results, while the experiments themselves provide new input to the model. Based on previous experimental results the model for the accumulation of damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been extended to include various multiple two-event combinations. Split dose survival experiments have shown that models tested to date predict most but not all the observed behavior. Stationary-phase mammalian cells, required for tests of other aspects of the model, have been shown to be at different points in the cell cycle depending on how they were forced to stop proliferating. These cultures also demonstrate different capacities for repair of sublethal radiation damage

  14. Localization of the cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) gene relative to the acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated breakpoint on human chromosome 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad); H. de Leeuw (H.); E.J. Dekker (Erik Jan); J.M. Rijks (Jolianne); N. Spurr (N.); A.M. Ledbetter (Andrew M.); E. Kootwijk (E.); M.J. Vaessen (Marie-Josée)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA human genomic fragment comprising the cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) gene was isolated. By using a panel of somatic cell hybrids, this gene could be assigned to human chromosome 15. Subsequently, a possible involvement of the CRABP gene in translocation (15;17)

  15. File list: DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591729,SRX591728,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzel Diedrik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis, and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs, mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs, proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM. This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP

  16. Statistical mechanics of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, S.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed

  17. The thorny path linking cellular senescence to organismalaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Christopher K.; Mian, Saira; Campisi, Judith

    2005-08-09

    Half a century is fast approaching since Hayflick and colleagues formally described the limited ability of normal human cells to proliferate in culture (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961). This finding--that normal somatic cells, in contrast to cancer cells, cannot divide indefinitely--challenged the prevailing idea that cells from mortal multicellular organisms were intrinsically ''immortal'' (Carrell, 1912). It also spawned two hypotheses, essential elements of which persist today. The first held that the restricted proliferation of normal cells, now termed cellular senescence, suppresses cancer (Hayflick, 1965; Sager, 1991; Campisi, 2001). The second hypothesis, as explained in the article by Lorenzini et al., suggested that the limited proliferation of cells in culture recapitulated aspects of organismal aging (Hayflick, 1965; Martin, 1993). How well have these hypotheses weathered the ensuing decades? Before answering this question, we first consider current insights into the causes and consequences of cellular senescence. Like Lorenzini et al., we limit our discussion to mammals. We also focus on fibroblasts, the cell type studied by Lorenzini et al., but consider other types as well. We suggest that replicative capacity in culture is not a straightforward assessment, and that it correlates poorly with both longevity and body mass. We speculate this is due to the malleable and variable nature of replicative capacity, which renders it an indirect metric of qualitative and quantitative differences among cells to undergo senescence, a response that directly alters cellular phenotype and might indirectly alter tissue structure and function.

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium.

  19. Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Sosińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick’s discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases.

  20. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets...

  1. qpure: A tool to estimate tumor cellularity from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Song

    Full Text Available Tumour cellularity, the relative proportion of tumour and normal cells in a sample, affects the sensitivity of mutation detection, copy number analysis, cancer gene expression and methylation profiling. Tumour cellularity is traditionally estimated by pathological review of sectioned specimens; however this method is both subjective and prone to error due to heterogeneity within lesions and cellularity differences between the sample viewed during pathological review and tissue used for research purposes. In this paper we describe a statistical model to estimate tumour cellularity from SNP array profiles of paired tumour and normal samples using shifts in SNP allele frequency at regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the tumour. We also provide qpure, a software implementation of the method. Our experiments showed that there is a medium correlation 0.42 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.0001 between tumor cellularity estimated by qpure and pathology review. Interestingly there is a high correlation 0.87 ([Formula: see text]-value [Formula: see text] 2.2e-16 between cellularity estimates by qpure and deep Ion Torrent sequencing of known somatic KRAS mutations; and a weaker correlation 0.32 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.004 between IonTorrent sequencing and pathology review. This suggests that qpure may be a more accurate predictor of tumour cellularity than pathology review. qpure can be downloaded from https://sourceforge.net/projects/qpure/.

  2. [Hypochondriac symptoms in late-onset depression: the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanets, N N; Avdeeva, T I; Kinkul'kina, M A

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied 276 women with late-onset depression. Concomitant chronic somatic diseases were identified in 90%. The presence of disease and its nosological definition did not impact on the development of hypochondriac symptoms in patients with late-onset depression. Patients with hypochondriac late-onset depression more often had disability pension due to somatic disease because they more often referred to internists in case of similar objective severity of somatic pathology. It was singled out three variants of the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state: hypernosognostic (a complete coincidence of hypochondria content with actual somatic pathology; anosognostic (a lack of coincidence) and disharmonic (a partial coincidence). The themes of hypochondria in late-nset depressions were correlated with a total number of somatic diseases and their severity. At the same time, there was no correlation between the content of hypochondria and the character of somatic disease.

  3. Somatization as a core symptom of melancholic type depression. Evidence from a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D; Martus, P

    1994-12-01

    The study questions whether different types of somatization may be a core symptom of melancholia, thus, being invariable across cultures and being a candidate for neurobiological research and diagnostic criteria. 51 Turkish patients and 51 education-matched German patients with melancholic depression were compared for two types of somatization. Turkish patients had higher frequencies of somatic preoccupation and hypochondriasis but they were not different in the perception and experience of somatic symptoms. It is concluded that: (1) somatization has to be differentiated psychopathologically; (2) it may be a neurobiological core symptom of melancholia in the well-defined sense of 'perceiving abnormal somatic symptoms'; and (3) it may be a culture-bound symptom in the sense of 'being abnormally concerned with somatic symptoms or hypochondrial fears'.

  4. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salari, Raheleh

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies provide a powerful tool for studying genome evolution during progression of advanced diseases such as cancer. Although many recent studies have employed new sequencing technologies to detect mutations across multiple, genetically related tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic information to improve the accuracy of their variant calls. Here, we present a novel algorithm that uses somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in multiple, related tissue samples as lineage markers for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Our method then leverages the inferred phylogeny to improve the accuracy of SNV discovery. Experimental analyses demonstrate that our method achieves up to 32% improvement for somatic SNV calling of multiple related samples over the accuracy of GATK\\'s Unified Genotyper, the state of the art multisample SNV caller. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Somatic Treatments in Treatment of Depression During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although some psychotropic drugs are known to be teratogenic no psychotropic drug is of proven safety for treatment of depression during pregnancy. Untreated mood disorders during pregnancy pose significant risks for mother and the newborn. This review focuses on the use of somatic tretments of depression during pregnancy.Electroconvulsive therapy, bright light therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation are relatively safe and effective treatments during pregnancy if steps are taken to decrease potential risks. A clear information related to the somatic treatment should be given to the patient and informed consent should be obtained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 244-254

  6. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Functional Somatic Syndromes: Emerging Biomedical Models and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Tan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.

  10. Local anesthesia selection algorithm in patients with concomitant somatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Sokhov, S T; Letunova, N Y; Orekhova, I V; Gromovik, M V; Erilin, E A; Ryazantsev, N A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents basic principles of local anesthesia selection in patients with concomitant somatic diseases. These principles are history taking; analysis of drugs interaction with local anesthetic and sedation agents; determination of the functional status of the patient; patient anxiety correction; dental care with monitoring of hemodynamics parameters. It was found that adhering to this algorithm promotes prevention of urgent conditions in patients in outpatient dentistry.

  11. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-04-01

    Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 43-51

  12. Protecting genomic integrity in somatic cells and embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.; Cervantes, R.B.; Tichy, E.; Tischfield, J.A.; Stambrook, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutation frequencies at some loci in mammalian somatic cells in vivo approach 10 -4 . The majority of these events occur as a consequence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to mitotic recombination. Such high levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, which can accumulate with age, will cause injury and, after a latency period, may lead to somatic disease and ultimately death. This high level of DNA damage is untenable for germ cells, and by extrapolation for embryonic stem (ES) cells, that must recreate the organism. ES cells cannot tolerate such a high frequency of damage since mutations will immediately impact the altered cell, and subsequently the entire organism. Most importantly, the mutations may be passed on to future generations. ES cells, therefore, must have robust mechanisms to protect the integrity of their genomes. We have examined two such mechanisms. Firstly, we have shown that mutation frequencies and frequencies of mitotic recombination in ES cells are about 100-fold lower than in adult somatic cells or in isogenic mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). A second complementary protective mechanism eliminates those ES cells that have acquired a mutational burden, thereby maintaining a pristine population. Consistent with this hypothesis, ES cells lack a G1 checkpoint, and the two known signaling pathways that mediate the checkpoint are compromised. The checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which participates in both pathways is sequestered at centrosomes in ES cells and does not phosphorylate its substrates (i.e. p53 and Cdc25A) that must be modified to produce a G1 arrest. Ectopic expression of Chk2 does not rescue the p53-mediated pathway, but does restore the pathway mediated by Cdc25A. Wild type ES cells exposed to ionizing radiation do not accumulate in G1 but do so in S-phase and in G2. ES cells that ectopically express Chk2 undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 as well as G2, and appear to be protected from apoptosis

  13. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  14. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  15. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  16. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie J Radenbaugh

    Full Text Available The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis, a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84% and very high precision (98% and 99% for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis of East Kalimantan local upland rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah; Ramitha; Supriyanto, B.; Sunaryo, W.

    2018-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the formation, growth and development of embryos from somatic cells. Somatic embryo induction is one of the in vitro plant propagation techniques that is very important for plant developmental purposes. Four local upland rice varieties of East Kalimantan, Mayas Pancing, Gedagai, Siam and Serai, were used in this study. A total of 200 explants (mature rice grains) for each varieties were inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 2,4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). The results showed that response of each variety differed to embryosomatic induction, indicated by callus induction rate and callus quality, in terms of callus color and structure. The fastest callus formation was sobserved in Gedagai variety (8 days) while Mayas Pancing (13 days) was the latest one. The rate of callus induction varied from 60 to 98.5 %, and Serai variety has the highest callus induction rate. The highest friable callus structure was found in Siam variety (89.1%) and the lowest was in Gedagai (62.5%). Callus color was dominated by the yellowish-white (transparent) on all varieties tested. Most of the callus was potential as embryogenic callus characterized from the nodular and globular of friable callus structure and its yellowish-white color.

  18. Review of somatic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A

    2013-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes.

  19. Direct Transcriptional Consequences of Somatic Mutation in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Shlien

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Disordered transcriptomes of cancer encompass direct effects of somatic mutation on transcription, coordinated secondary pathway alterations, and increased transcriptional noise. To catalog the rules governing how somatic mutation exerts direct transcriptional effects, we developed an exhaustive pipeline for analyzing RNA sequencing data, which we integrated with whole genomes from 23 breast cancers. Using X-inactivation analyses, we found that cancer cells are more transcriptionally active than intermixed stromal cells. This is especially true in estrogen receptor (ER-negative tumors. Overall, 59% of substitutions were expressed. Nonsense mutations showed lower expression levels than expected, with patterns characteristic of nonsense-mediated decay. 14% of 4,234 rearrangements caused transcriptional abnormalities, including exon skips, exon reusage, fusions, and premature polyadenylation. We found productive, stable transcription from sense-to-antisense gene fusions and gene-to-intergenic rearrangements, suggesting that these mutation classes drive more transcriptional disruption than previously suspected. Systematic integration of transcriptome with genome data reveals the rules by which transcriptional machinery interprets somatic mutation.

  20. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  1. The role of chromatin modifications in somatic embryogenesis in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia eDe-la-Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE is a powerful tool for plant genetic improvement, when used in combination with agricultural traditional techniques, and it is being used to understand the different processes that occur during the development of plant embryogenesis. SE onset depends on a complex network of interactions among plant growth regulators, mainly auxins and cytokinins, during the proembryogenic early stages, and ethylene, gibberellic and abscisic acids later in the development of the somatic embryos. These growth regulators control spatial and temporal regulation of multiple genes in order to initiate the change in the genetic program of the somatic cells, as well as the transition among embryo developmental stages. In recent years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as critical factors during SE. Some early reports indicate that auxins modify the levels of DNA methylation in embryogenic cells. The changes in DNA methylation patterns are associated with the regulation of several genes involved in SE, such as WUS, BBM1, LEC, and several others. In this review, we highlight the more recent discoveries in the role of epigenetic regulation of SE. In addition, we include a survey of novel approaches to the study of SE, and new opportunities to focus SE studies.

  2. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  3. Advances in reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Yang, Shuying

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods and clinical applications of iPS cells. Viral vectors have been used to transfer transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, Klf4, and nanog) to induce reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, B lymphocytes and meningeal membrane cells towards pluripotency. Human fibroblasts, neural cells, blood and keratinocytes have also been reprogrammed towards pluripotency. In this review we have discussed the use of viral vectors for reprogramming both animal and human stem cells. Currently, many studies are also involved in finding alternatives to using viral vectors carrying transcription factors for reprogramming cells. These include using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. Applications of these techniques have been discussed in detail including its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, current clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and its limitations have also been reviewed. Thus, this review is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

  4. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  5. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  6. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  7. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  10. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  11. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Fernando

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D e mantidos no escuro em câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos.

  12. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  13. When Whole(ness is more than the Sum of the Parts: somatics as contemporary epistemological field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the text, it is discussed some aspects on somatics in contemporary times, from the starting point of its technical and conceptual basis, clarifying premises and applications, as well as misunderstandings and restrictions. Some aspects include: conceptual, historical, and technical origins; common premises and principles developed by diverse somatic techniques; the difference between somatic technique, method, and approach; transculturality, decolonization, and repatterning; Somatic Attunement and Wisdom; institutionalization in technical and/or academic courses; somatics as autonomous field of therapy, education, aesthetics, and research; somatics as practice as research; somatic-performative research.

  14. Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Peura, T.T.; Hartwich, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuvlear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos...... were produced by in vitro culture of in vivo fertilized zygotes. Most SCNT and IVC embryos were transferred to recipients on day 6 while some remained in culture for day 7 processing. In vivo embryos were collected as zygotes, transferred to intermediate recipients and retransferred to final recipients...

  15. Reprogramming somatic cell differentiation and the Hayflick Limit: contrasting two modern molecular bioengineering aims and their impact on the future of mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E S; Takeuchi, T; Rosenwaks, Z; Palermo, G D

    2001-08-01

    The molecular biology of human cloning and aging research depend on the closely related laboratory techniques supported by a thorough understanding of cell-signaling processes. Unfortunately, the link between these two research fields has received only marginal attention in the lay press. Cloning is possible when somatic cell differentiation is successfully reprogrammed, and clinical control of cellular senescence depends on a proper reconfiguration of the predetermined number of divisions permitted during the cell life-cycle (the so-called "Hayflick Limit"). In this paper, we discuss these two concepts and compare the impact likely to be associated with bioengineering studies that facilitate both human cloning and longevity therapy.

  16. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  17. Germline contamination and leakage in whole genome somatic single nucleotide variant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendorek, Dorota H; Caloian, Cristian; Ellrott, Kyle; Bare, J Christopher; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Ewing, Adam D; Houlahan, Kathleen E; Norman, Thea C; Margolin, Adam A; Stuart, Joshua M; Boutros, Paul C

    2018-01-31

    The clinical sequencing of cancer genomes to personalize therapy is becoming routine across the world. However, concerns over patient re-identification from these data lead to questions about how tightly access should be controlled. It is not thought to be possible to re-identify patients from somatic variant data. However, somatic variant detection pipelines can mistakenly identify germline variants as somatic ones, a process called "germline leakage". The rate of germline leakage across different somatic variant detection pipelines is not well-understood, and it is uncertain whether or not somatic variant calls should be considered re-identifiable. To fill this gap, we quantified germline leakage across 259 sets of whole-genome somatic single nucleotide variant (SNVs) predictions made by 21 teams as part of the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge. The median somatic SNV prediction set contained 4325 somatic SNVs and leaked one germline polymorphism. The level of germline leakage was inversely correlated with somatic SNV prediction accuracy and positively correlated with the amount of infiltrating normal cells. The specific germline variants leaked differed by tumour and algorithm. To aid in quantitation and correction of leakage, we created a tool, called GermlineFilter, for use in public-facing somatic SNV databases. The potential for patient re-identification from leaked germline variants in somatic SNV predictions has led to divergent open data access policies, based on different assessments of the risks. Indeed, a single, well-publicized re-identification event could reshape public perceptions of the values of genomic data sharing. We find that modern somatic SNV prediction pipelines have low germline-leakage rates, which can be further reduced, especially for cloud-sharing, using pre-filtering software.

  18. Comparative aspects of animal and human data on somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1986-10-01

    This report contains presentations at the 17th Symposium organized by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, which took place in Chiba, Japan, from 11 to 12 December 1985. Unlike in the previous symposiums dealing with cellular and molecular levels, the present symposium discussed somatic effects of ionizing radiation at the organic level in conjunction with epidemiological data. This report is divided into five sections: the first is explanation for UNSCEAR's and ICRP's views of human and animal data in the current assessment of radiation health risks; the second covers comparison of epidemiological and animal experimental data on the dose-effect relationship for carcinogenesis, together with problems in epidemiological and experimental studies; the third discusses significance and problems in animal experiments on modifying factors of radiation carcinogenesis; the fourth deals with studies on carcinogenesis mechanism, aiming at elucidating their significance and potential role in the risk evaluation for humans; and the last section is a compilation of panel discussion of differences in humans and animals, giving a proposal for future research. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  20. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells

  1. Top-down cellular pyramids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A Y; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-10-01

    A cellular pyramid is an exponentially tapering stack of arrays of processors (cells), where each cell is connected to its neighbors (siblings) on its own level, to a parent on the level above, and to its children on the level below. It is shown that in some situations, if information flows top-down only, from fathers to sons, then a cellular pyramid may be no faster than a one-level cellular array; but it may be possible to use simpler cells in the pyramid case. 23 references.

  2. Cellular and soluble components decrease the viable pathogen counts in milk from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiishi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Masako; Miyake, Hajime; Hisaeda, Keiichi; Isobe, Naoki

    2017-08-10

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the factors that reduce the viable pathogen count in milk collected from the udders of subclinical mastitic cows during preservation. Milk was centrifuged to divide somatic cells (cellular components, precipitates) and antimicrobial peptides (soluble components, supernatants without fat layer); each fraction was cultured with bacteria, and the number of viable bacteria was assessed prior to and after culture. In 28.8% of milk samples, we noted no viable bacteria immediately after collection; this value increased significantly after a 5-hr incubation of milk with cellular components but not with soluble components (48.1 and 28.8%, respectively). After culture with cellular components, the numbers of bacteria (excluding Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis) and yeast decreased dramatically, although the differences were not statistically significant. After cultivation with soluble components, only yeasts showed a tendency toward decreased mean viability, whereas the mean bacterial counts of S. uberis and T. pyogenes tended to increase after 5-hr preservation with soluble components. These results suggest that most pathogens in high somatic cell count (SCC) milk decreased during preservation at 15 to 25°C, due to both the cellular components and antimicrobial components in the milk. Particularly, the cellular components more potently reduced bacterial counts during preservation.

  3. Cellular senescence and organismal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Sedivy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Cellular senescence, first observed and defined using in vitro cell culture studies, is an irreversible cell cycle arrest which can be triggered by a variety of factors. Emerging evidence suggests that cellular senescence acts as an in vivo tumor suppression mechanism by limiting aberrant proliferation. It has also been postulated that cellular senescence can occur independently of cancer and contribute to the physiological processes of normal organismal aging. Recent data have demonstrated the in vivo accumulation of senescent cells with advancing age. Some characteristics of senescent cells, such as the ability to modify their extracellular environment, could play a role in aging and age-related pathology. In this review, we examine current evidence that links cellular senescence and organismal aging.

  4. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  5. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  6. Cellular Angiofibroma of the Nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Zülküf Burak; Yener, Haydar Murat; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karaaltin, Ayşegül Batioğlu; Inan, Hakki Caner; Alaskarov, Elvin; Gozen, Emine Deniz

    2017-11-01

    Angiofibroma is a common tumor of the nasopharynx region but cellular type is extremely rare in head and neck. A 13-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for 6 months. According to the clinical symptoms and imaging studies juvenile angiofibroma was suspected. Following angiographic embolization total excision of the lesion by midfacial degloving approach was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of staghorn blood vessels and irregular fibrous stroma. Stellate fibroblasts with small pyknotic to large vesicular nuclei were seen in a highly cellular stroma. These findings identified cellular angiofibroma mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This article is about a very rare patient of cellular angiofibroma of nasopharynx.

  7. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  8. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis initiated from the Arabidopsis shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Tarr, Paul; Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2018-04-28

    Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. In vivo somatic mutation systems in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to meet the need for a fast and cheap in vivo prescreen for inherited mammalian point mutations, a somatic forward-mutation method, originally developed in an x-ray experiment, has more recently been tested in work with chemical mutagens. The method makes use of coat-color mutations because the gene product is usually locally expressed, mosaics can be detected with minimal effort, and opportunities for making comparison with induction of germinal point mutations are greatest.--Following treatment of embryos that are heterozygous at specific coat-color loci, various induced genetic changes can result in expression of the recessive (RS) in clones derived from mutant melanocyte precursor cells. However, other events, such as decrease in the number of precursor cells, or disturbed differentiation, can also result in spots, which with careful classification can usually be distinguished from RS's on the basis of their location and color. When this is done, the relative RS frequencies for a series of compounds at least roughly parallel the relative spermatogonial mutation rates. The fact that easily measurable (though low) RS rates are obtained with compounds that have yielded negative results in spermatogonial tests is not surprising in view of the fact that RS's can be caused by several mechanisms besides point mutation.--In spite of the parallelism observed in one laboratory, the usefulness of the in vivo somatic mutation method as a prescreen could come to be doubted because of major discrepancies between results of similar experiments at different laboratories. However, It appears probable that at least some of these discrepancies are due to failure to discriminate between spots that probably resulted from melanocyte insufficiency and spots that resulted from expression of the recessive.--Reverse somatic mutation systems can potentially avoid some of the pitfalls of forward mutation systems. Such system are still in developmental stages

  10. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  11. Novel technologies using radiation and somatic embryogenesis for Kenaf improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Siti Mariam Mohd Nahar; Siti Hajar Mohd Nahar; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a plant in the Malvaceae family, similar to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), holds a promising potential in the Malaysian bio composite industry. Its long fibres are suitable in the process of making a number of products such as pulp and paper, fibre and particle boards, as well as fibre reinforced plastic components and chemical absorbent. Most varieties of kenaf are photo period sensitive and vegetative growth increases until the daylight period becomes less than 12 h 30 min. flowering is then initiated and the vegetative growth rate declines. At present, most of the varieties planted by the farmers produced very low yield, between 3-5 tons/ha. The aim of this research proposal is to study the potential of using nuclear technique with the use radiation in combination with biotechnology to induce genetic variability in kenaf using somatic embryogenesis. Since mutation is a single cell event, irradiation of cell cultures such as somatic embryos will induce high rate of mutation for selection of desired traits. One of the main objectives of the project was to establish an efficient and productive regeneration system for intact plants from somatic embryos obtained from the original mother plant varieties: G4, V36 dan G393. Once regeneration protocol has been optimized, somatic embryos were irradiated using both acute (high dose rate) and chronic (lower dose rate) gamma irradiation with effective doses (2-3 doses). It takes between 4-5 months to reach maximum height of 4-6 meters from seed propagated plants before they can be harvested. With the use of in vitro mutagenesis, screening and selection of new mutant lines with traits of interest can be achieved within a short period of time (3-5 years). Field evaluations were carried out in collaboration with National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (NKTB) and Kelantan Biotech Corporation Sdn. Bhd. targeted for desired

  12. Method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Cibelli, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been a well-known technique for decades and widely applied to generate identical animals, including ones with genetic alterations. The system has been demonstrated successfully in zebrafish. The elaborated requirements of SCNT, however, limit reproducibility of the established model to a few groups in zebrafish research community. In this chapter, we meticulously outline each step of the published protocol as well as preparations of equipments and reagents used in zebrafish SCNT. All describable detailed-tips are elaborated in texts and figures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of functional somatic syndrome with abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuya; Kanbara, Kenji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2009-09-01

    Functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with abdominal pain include functional gastrointestinal disorder, chronic pancreatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which generally contain autonomic dysfunction. Regarding the treatment of FSS, it is important to know about FSS for a therapist at first. Secondly, the therapist should find out physical dysfunction of patients positively, and confirm objectively the hypotheses about both peripheral and central pathophysiological mechanisms as much as possible. Heart rate variability is an easy method, and useful to assess autonomic function. After grasping the patient's explanatory model about the illness, the therapist showes the most acceptable treatment for the patient at last.

  14. Do yogis have “Learning Styles”? (A somatic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ben Strean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: "Learning styles" has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. Aims: This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students′ differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. Conclusion: A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.

  15. Molecular profiling of Vitis vinifera Chardonnay obtained by somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bertsch

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the help of microsatellite profiling, we showed that Vitis vinifera Chardonnay clone 96 is a periclinal chimera plant which is composed at least of two distinct cell layers. Performing somatic embryogenesis allowed us to separate the two cell layers and to regenerate L1 plants. These regenerated L1 plants did not show phenotypic differences to the parental clone when grown in greenhouse conditions, suggesting therefore that the phenotype of Chardonnay 96 did not result of an interaction between the two distinct cell layers L1 and L2.

  16. Do yogis have "Learning Styles"? (A somatic solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, William Ben

    2017-01-01

    Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al . asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students' differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.

  17. Do yogis have “Learning Styles”? (A somatic solution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, William Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background: Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. Aims: This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students’ differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. Conclusion: A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning. PMID:28149066

  18. [Disease at any price: psychological challenge and the financial costs of somatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, A

    1996-01-01

    In clinical medicine we sometimes deal with patients with unexplained somatic complaints. In a 45-year-old woman with multiple somatic complaints, 2 years of medical examinations in search of a disease diagnosis cost almost 250,000 shekels (about +84,000). The differential diagnosis between somatization, hypochondriasis and psychosomatic pain, and the reasons why physicians are tempted to participate in the "investigation dance" are presented.

  19. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  20. Monitoring Genetic Stability in Quercus serrata Thunb. Somatic Embryogenesis Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh C., Thakur; Susumu, Goto; Katsuaki, Ishii; S. Mohan, Jain; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; University of Helsinki

    1999-01-01

    Genetic stability of propagules regenerated via somatic embryogenesis is of paramount importance for its application to clonal forestry. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the genetic stability in somatic embryogenesis of Quercus serrata Thunb. (Japanese white oak). Forty samples from an embryogenic line, consisting of regenerated plantlets, somatic embryos, and embryogenic calli, were examined using 54 decanucleotide primers. A total of 6520 clear reproduc...

  1. Cell-Nonautonomous Mechanisms Underlying Cellular and Organismal Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkour, Younes; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes have been established; these mechanisms regulate longevity-defining processes within a single eukaryotic cell. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into cell-nonautonomous mechanisms modulating cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla; these mechanisms involve a transmission of various longevity factors between different cells, tissues, and organisms. Herein, we review such cell-nonautonomous mechanisms of aging in eukaryotes. We discuss the following: (1) how low molecular weight transmissible longevity factors modulate aging and define longevity of cells in yeast populations cultured in liquid media or on solid surfaces, (2) how communications between proteostasis stress networks operating in neurons and nonneuronal somatic tissues define longevity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the rates of aging in different tissues, and (3) how different bacterial species colonizing the gut lumen of C. elegans define nematode longevity by modulating the rate of organismal aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W. Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  3. Is chronic pain associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? An evidence-based structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun; Cole, Brandly; Steele Rosomoff, R

    2009-01-01

    This is an evidence-based structured review. The objectives of this review were to answer the following questions: (1) Are somatization/hypochondriasis associated with chronic pain? (2) Is the degree of somatization/hypochondriasis related to pain levels? (3) Does pain treatment improve somatization/hypochondriasis? (4) Are some pain diagnoses differentially associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? Fifty-seven studies which fulfilled inclusion criteria and had high quality scores were sorted by the above-mentioned objectives. Agency for health care policy and research guidelines were utilized to type and characterize the strength/consistency of the study evidence within each objective. Somatization and hypochondriasis were both consistently associated with chronic pain (consistency ratings B and A, respectively). Study evidence indicated a correlation between pain intensity and presence of somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating A and B, respectively). Pain treatment improved somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating B and A, respectively). Some chronic pain diagnostic groups somatized more (consistency rating B). Somatization is commonly associated with chronic pain and may relate to pain levels.

  4. Maturation and germination of somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de J Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], developed protocols for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis do not include maturation stage. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving the maturation and germination of sorghum somatic embryos in cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'. It were studied four concentrations of sucrose (30, 50, 70 and 90 g l-1, two of abscisic acid (0.25 and 0.5 μM and a control without this growth regulator. Germination initiation (days and number of somatic embryos with complete germination were evaluated in three periods (1 - 7, 8 - 14 and 15 - 21 days of culture. In addition, the effect of 6-BAP (8.9, 17.8 and 26.6 μM on somatic embryo germination was determined. The germination start time (days and after 21 days the number of somatic embryos with complete germination and plants with malformations were determined. The addition of 70 g l-1 sucrose in the culture medium without abscisic acid increased the germination of the somatic embryos to 37.2 plants per embryo group (0.5 g of fresh mass. The highest number of somatic embryos germinated was obtained with 17.78 μM 6-BAP in the germination culture medium. It was demonstrated the need of a maturation stage in the sorghum somatic embryogenesis to increase the germination percentage.   Keywords: somatic embryogenesis, sorghum, sucrose, 6-BAP

  5. Determination of organ doses during radiological examinations and calculation of somatically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are used to demonstrate that a shift in the point of emphasis is necessary with regard to radiation hazard in medicinal X-ray diagnosis. The parameters employed in this study to calculate somatic dose (SD) and somatically significant dose (SSD) may well be in need of modification; nevertheless the numerical estimation of SSD arrived at here appears to reflect the right order of magnitude for the estimation of somatic risk. The consideration of the threshold dose for somatic injury remains a problem. (orig./MG) [de

  6. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo eChoi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy from others. In study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  7. Transcriptional landscape of ncRNA and Repeat elements in somatic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) sequencing technology has enabled many projects targeted towards the identification of genome structure and transcriptome complexity of organisms. The first conclusions of the human and mouse projects have underscored two important, yet unexpected, findings. First, while almost the entire genome is transcribed, only 5% of it encodes for proteins. Thereby, most transcripts are noncoding RNA. This includes both short RNA (<200 nucleotides (nt)) comprising piRNAs; microRNAs (miRNAs); endogenous Short Interfering RNAs (siRNAs) among others, and includes lncRNA (>200nt). Second, a significant portion of the mammalian genome (45%) is composed of Repeat Elements (REs). RE are mostly relics of ancestral viruses that during evolution have invaded the host genome by producing thousands of copies. Their roles within their host genomes have yet to be fully explored considering that they sometimes produce lncRNA, and have been shown to influence expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, because some REs can still mobilize within host genomes, host genomes have evolved mechanisms, mainly epigenetic, to maintain REs under tight control. Recent reports indicate that REs activity is regulated in somatic cells, particularily in the brain, suggesting a physiological role of RE mobilization during normal development. In this thesis, I focus on the analysis of ncRNAs, specifically REs; piRNAs; lncRNAs in human and mouse post-mitotic somatic cells. The main aspects of this analysis are: Using sRNA-Seq, I show that piRNAs, a class of ncRNAs responsible for the silencing of Transposable elements (TEs) in testes, are present also in adult mouse brain. Furthermore, their regulation shows only a subset of testes piRNAs are expressed in the brain and may be controlled by known neurogenesis factors. To investigate the dynamics of the transcriptome during cellular differentiation, I examined deep RNA-Seq and Cap

  8. Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Excretory/Secretory (ES and Somatic Products of Marshallagia marshalli on Allergic Airway Inflammation in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima PARANDE SHIRVAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inverse relationship between helminths infection and immune-mediated diseases has inspired researchers to investigate therapeutic potential of helminths in allergic asthma. Helminth unique ability to induce immunoregulatory responses has already been documented in several experimental studies. This study was designed to investigate whether excretory/secretory (ES and somatic products of Marshallagia marshalli modulate the development of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model.Methods: This study was carried out at the laboratories of Immunology and Parasitology of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran during spring and summer 2015. Allergic airway inflammation was induced in mice by intraperitoneal (IP injection with ovalbumin (OVA. The effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli were analyzed by inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, pathological changes and IgE response.Results: Treatment with ES and somatic products of M. marshalli decreased cellular infiltration into BALF when they were administered during sensitization with allergen. Pathological changes were decreased in helminth-treated group, as demonstrated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial lesion and smooth muscle hypertrophy. However, no significant differences were observed in IgE serum levels, cytokines and eosinophil counts between different groups.Conclusion: This study provides new insights into anti-inflammatory effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli, during the development of non-eosinophilic model of asthma. Further study is necessary to characterize immunomodulatory molecules derived from M. marshalli as a candidate for the treatment of airway inflammation.

  9. Somatic and movement inductions phantom limb in non-amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, D. M.; Gentiletti, G. G.; Braidot, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The illusion of the mirror box is a tool for phantom limb pain treatment; this article proposes the induction of phantom limb syndrome on non-amputees upper limb, with a neurological trick of the mirror box. With two study situations: a) Somatic Induction is a test of the literature reports qualitatively, and novel proposal b) Motor Induction, which is an objective report by recording surface EEG. There are 3 cases proposed for Motor illusion, for which grasped movement is used: 1) Control: movement is made, 2) illusion: the mirror box is used, and 3) Imagination: no movement is executed; the subject only imagines its execution. Three different tasks are registered for each one of them (left hand, right hand, and both of them). In 64% of the subjects for somatic experience, a clear response to the illusion was observed. In the experience of motor illusion, cortical activation is detected in both hemispheres of the primary motor cortex during the illusion, where the hidden hand remains motionless. These preliminary findings in phantom limb on non-amputees can be a tool for neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-prosthesis control training.

  10. A stochastic model of epigenetic dynamics in somatic cell reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eFloettmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell reprogramming has dramatically changed stem cell research inrecent years. The high pace of new findings in the field and an ever increasingamount of data from new high throughput techniques make it challengingto isolate core principles of the process. In order to analyze suchmechanisms, we developed an abstract mechanistic model of a subset of theknown regulatory processes during cell differentiation and production of inducedpluripotent stem cells. This probabilistic Boolean network describesthe interplay between gene expression, chromatin modifications and DNAmethylation. The model incorporates recent findings in epigenetics and reproducesexperimentally observed reprogramming efficiencies and changes inmethylation and chromatin remodeling. It enables us to investigate in detail,how the temporal progression of the process is regulated. It also explicitlyincludes the transduction of factors using viral vectors and their silencing inreprogrammed cells, since this is still a standard procedure in somatic cellreprogramming. Based on the model we calculate an epigenetic landscape.Simulation results show good reproduction of experimental observations duringreprogramming, despite the simple stucture of the model. An extensiveanalysis and introduced variations hint towards possible optimizations of theprocess, that could push the technique closer to clinical applications. Fasterchanges in DNA methylation increase the speed of reprogramming at theexpense of efficiency, while accelerated chromatin modifications moderatelyimprove efficiency.

  11. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B Williams

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience.

  12. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian J

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  13. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  14. A somatic marker perspective of immoral and corrupt behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Mona; Bechara, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who engage in corrupt and immoral behavior are in some ways similar to individuals with psychopathy. Normal people refrain from engaging in such behaviors because they tie together the moral value of society and the risk of punishment when they violate social rules. What is it, then, that allows these immoral individuals to behave in this manner, and in some situations even to prosper? When there is a dysfunction of somatic markers, specific disadvantageous impairments in decision-making arise, as in moral judgment, but, paradoxically, under some circumstances, the damage can cause the patient to make optimal financial investment decisions. Interestingly, individuals with psychopathy, a personality disorder, share many of the same behavioral characteristics seen in VMPFC and amygdala lesion patients, suggesting that defective somatic markers may serve as a neural framework for explaining immoral and corrupt behaviors. While these sociopathic behaviors of sometimes famous and powerful individuals have long been discussed, primarily within the realm of social science and psychology, here we offer a neurocognitive perspective on the possible neural roots of immoral and corrupt behaviors.

  15. Zygotic and somatic embryo morphogenesis in Pinus pinaster: comparative histological and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, Susana; Zoglauer, Kurt; Milhinhos, Ana; Miguel, Célia; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2007-05-01

    We compared morphogenesis and accumulation of storage proteins and starch in Pinus pinaster Ait. zygotic embryos with those in somatic embryos grown with different carbohydrate sources. The maturation medium for somatic embryos included 80 microM abscisic acid (ABA), 9 g l(-1) gellam gum and either glucose, sucrose or maltose at 44, 88, 175 or 263 mM in the presence or absence of 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 MW. Maturation medium containing 44 or 88 mM of a carbohydrate source produced only one or no cotyledonary somatic embryos per 0.6 g fresh mass of culture. The addition of PEG to the basal maturation medium resulted in a low yield of cotyledonary somatic embryos that generally showed incomplete development and anatomical abnormalities such as large intercellular spaces and large vacuoles. High concentrations of maltose also induced large intercellular spaces in the somatic embryonic cells, and 263 mM sucrose produced fewer and less developed cotyledonary somatic embryos compared with 175 mM sucrose, indicating that the effect of carbohydrate source is partially osmotic. Zygotic embryos had a lower dry mass than somatic embryos at the same stage of development. Starch granules followed a similar accumulation pattern in zygotic and somatic embryos. A low starch content was found in cotyledonary zygotic embryos and in somatic embryos developed in the presence of 175 mM maltose or 263 mM glucose. In zygotic embryos and in PEG-treated somatic embryos, protein bodies appeared later and were smaller and fewer than in well-developed somatic embryos grown without PEG. We propose that storage protein concentration might be a marker of embryo quality.

  16. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  18. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...... and that offer advantages of functionalization, and conducting polymers were used as electrochemical sensor surface modifications for increasing the sensitivity towards relevant analytes, with focus on the detection of dopamine released from cells via exocytosis. Vertical peptide nanowires were synthesized from...

  19. The special cell effects and somatic consequences of exposure to low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regina Fedortseva; Sergei Aleksanin; Eugene Zheleznyakov; Irina Bychkovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The experimental data presented in the report put some clarity into the ongoing polemics about possibility of induction of harmful non-carcinogenic effects in human body as a result of exposure to low doses of radiation. The denial of this possibility is based on the fact that traditionally studied genotoxic effects cannot be the cause of this pathology: the incidence of these effects in exposure to low doses of radiation is fairly low; the effects are not overt in critical slowly regenerating tissues, since they can only be morphologically manifested in actively growing cell populations. Methods: Endothelium of myocardial and alveolar capillaries were studied ultra-structurally in 236 rats irradiated by a wide range of X-ray doses (0,25;0,5;2,25;4,5;9;30;48;100) and 28 intact control animals. Studies were conducted during 12-18 months. The material consisted of 2-3 portions from various parts of myocardium and lung. From each portion, sections were prepared, in which all capillary sections were analyzed and ultra-structure of all lining capillary endotheliocytes (their number most often was more than 100) was studied. In each animal the percentage of non-viable endotheliocytes with signs of generalized organoid destruction, damage of plasmalemma and nuclear structures was accounted. Results: Irradiation of rat to low and higher doses caused significant (up to 7 times) increase number of endothelial cells with various ultra-structural damages (from relatively light ones to in the cell death). Even the lowest dose - 0,25 Gy produce an increasing degeneration, intracellular lysis and defects of mitochondria. We found unusual features of postradiational endothelium changes: dose independence, necessity of revealing the long-term, non-mutational cellular effects, massive involvement of cells, early development of the maximum effect already after the low dose irradiation. These special somatic effects, unlike genotoxic

  20. A los 150 años desde "El origen de las especies": ¿es darwinista la biología contemporánea? At 150 years since "The origin of species": Is contemporary biology Darwinian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO FOLGUERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A los 150 años de la publicación de "El origen de las especies" de Charles Darwin, numerosos homenajes se han realizado en diferentes ciudades del mundo. Sin embargo, es importante preguntarse hacia el seno de la comunidad científica acerca del alcance efectivo del darwinisimo dentro de la biología. En este trabajo analizamos este supuesto intentando responder, al menos de una manera aproximativa, la pregunta: ¿es darwinista la biología en la actualidad? A estos fines, consideramos algunos de los principales aportes que suelen asignarse al darwinismo en las ciencias de los sistemas vivos: el análisis y centro en la diversidad, un origen único de los sistemas vivos, la incorporación del azar y el reconocimiento de las causas proximales. En términos generales detectamos importantes líneas de continuidad entre el darwinismo y las diferentes disciplinas que componen a la biología contemporánea. Sin embargo, esta situación dista de ser general y no ocurre para todas las ideas analizadas. En este sentido, en algunas áreas del conocimiento el darwinismo solo se ha filtrado mediante la implementación de recortes significativos (tal como el caso de la reducción de los procesos evolutivos a la selección natural, o bien a través de aspectos que aún no son debidamente incorporados en la investigación científica (tal como en el caso del estudio de la variabilidad. Por lo tanto, la futura incorporación de estos elementos se presenta como un desafío importante para lograr una biología integradora.After 150 years of the publication of the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, a number of tributes had honored him worldwide. However, it seems important to ask about the effective application of Darwin's ideas within the biological disciplines. Herein we analyze this problem trying to answer the question: is contemporary biology Darwinian? To this end, we consider some of the main assumed contributions of Darwinism to the sciences of living

  1. Global properties of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence

  2. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  3. Influence of different dose irradiation on genetic effect in mice somatic and germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrova, L.N.; Molofej, V.P.; Mosseh, I.B.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of clastogenic effects of different radiation doses in somatic and germ cells of one the same animals has been studied. Correlation analysis allows to extrapolate genetic effects from somatic cells to germ ones. This can be useful for human model elaboration. (authors)

  4. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spermatogenesis, involving multiple transit amplification divisions and meiosis, occurs within an enclosure formed bytwo somatic cells. As the cohort of germline cells divide and grow, the surface areas of the somatic cells expandmaintaining a tight encapsulation throughout the developmental period. Correlation between ...

  5. Antigen receptors and somatic hypermutation in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Richter's transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Laura A.; van Maldegem, Febe; Langerak, Anton W.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; de Wit, Mireille J.; Bea, Silvia; Campo, Elias; Bende, Richard J.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin genes in B cells. It has been proposed that aberrant targeting of the somatic hypermutation machinery is instrumental in initiation and

  6. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  7. Injection molded pinched flow fractionation device for enrichment of somatic cells in cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Marie, Rodolphe; Olesen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the continuous microfluidic separation technique pinched flow fractionation is applied to the enrichment of somatic cells from cow milk. Somatic cells were separated from the smallest fat particles and proteins thus better imaging and analysis of the cells can be achieved...

  8. Pervasive developmental disorder behavior in adolescents with intellectual disability and co-occurring somatic chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior.

  9. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated

  10. Contrastive Study of Somatisms Distinctive Features in Phraseology of Different Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbat Muhamedzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes semantic transformations of phraseologically active somatisms, based on contrastive study of fixed combinations in Kazakh and French languages. The prospects for the study of fixed combinations, having somatic vocabulary as a semantic kernel in conceptualization of idioethnic anthropological paradigm was studied

  11. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Gupta

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... like growth factor (IGF) families, control the tissue homeosta- sis (Biteau et al. 2011 ... A breach in the somatic encapsulation due to the loss of somatic cyst cells .... populations at the apical region of testes of 4-days-old adults.

  12. Genetic associations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM), lactational average somatic cell score (LACSCS), and patterns of peaks in somatic cell count (SCC) which were based on deviations from the typical lactation curve for SCC. The dataset contained test-day

  13. Effects of Response Styles on the Report of Psychological and Somatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Wolfgang; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the impact of two major response style dimensions (self-deception and impression management) on the report of psychological and somatic symptoms. Results confirmed that response styles were more predictive of psychological than somatic symptoms. Both anxiety and depression were associated with a high rate of physical symptoms,…

  14. Somatic gene mutation in the human in relation to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the measurement of somatic gene-mutation frequencies in the human. We ask the following questions. How well can they be measured? Do they respond to radiation? Can they also function as a dosimeter? What do they tell us about the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis?

  15. Somatic Markers and Explicit Knowledge Are both Involved in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sebastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lawrence, Natalia; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, it was proposed that decision-making requires emotion-related signals, known as somatic markers. In contrast, some authors argued that conscious knowledge of contingencies is sufficient for advantageous decision-making. We aimed to investigate the respective roles of somatic markers and explicit knowledge in decision-making. Thirty…

  16. Somatic complaints in childhood : how they are related to children's emotional and social functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, Francisca Catharina

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with emotional and social influences on childhood somatic complaints. Strong support is provided for the idea that negative affect contributes to the development of somatic complaints in childhood. In addition, the studies described give information about the type and levels of

  17. PREDICTORS FORMATION OF SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH CONCOMITANT SOMATIC-NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Semionovici PIDKORYTOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the level of stress in patients with paranoid schizophrenia with concomitant somatic-neurological disorders and quality of life as predictors of the formation of their social exclusion. The influence of somatic-neurological pathology for paranoid schizophrenia at different levels of stress.

  18. Somatic Experiencing Treatment with Social Service Workers Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, M. Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves. This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model[TM] (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing[R] (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers…

  19. The Contribution of High Levels of Somatic Symptom Severity to Sickness Absence Duration, Disability and Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Krol, Boudien; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Introduction: The primary objectives were to compare the duration of sickness absence in employees with high levels of somatic symptom severity (HLSSS) with employees with lower levels of somatic symptom severity, and to establish the long-term outcomes concerning return to work (RTW), disability

  20. Symptom-specific associations between low cortisol responses and functional somatic symptoms : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.A.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J.G.

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), like chronic pain and overtiredness, are often assumed to be stress-related. Altered levels of the stress hormone cortisol could explain the association between stress and somatic complaints. We hypothesized that low cortisol levels after awakening and

  1. CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka BERNACKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.

  2. Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-H; Bhalla, P L

    2004-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Scaevola aemula R. Br. was achieved. Somatic embryos were induced from explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.2-0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Various developmental stages of somatic embryos were found on this medium-from globular embryos to germinated embryos. The transfer of globular embryos to MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP resulted in a high frequency of shoot regeneration. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of BAP and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid formed adventitious shoots and roots. Histological examination confirmed the process of somatic embryogenesis. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Scaevola provides a system for studying embryogenesis in Australian native plants and will facilitate the improvement of these plants using genetic transformation techniques.

  3. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  4. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  5. Cellular automaton for surface reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechatnikov, E L [AN SSSR, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Otdelenie Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Frankowicz, A; Danielak, R [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-06-01

    A new algorithm which overcomes some specific difficulties arising in modeling of heterogeneous catalytic processes by cellular automata (CA) technique is proposed. The algorithm was tested with scheme introduced by Ziff, Gulari and Barshad and showed a good agreement with their results. The problem of the physical adequacy and interpretation of the algorithm was discussed. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs.

  6. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ernest

    1994-01-01

    The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

  7. Cellular buckling in long structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, G.W.; Peletier, M.A.; Champneys, A.R.; Woods, P.D.; Wadee, M.A.; Budd, C.J.; Lord, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    A long structural system with an unstable (subcritical)post-buckling response that subsequently restabilizes typically deformsin a cellular manner, with localized buckles first forming and thenlocking up in sequence. As buckling continues over a growing number ofcells, the response can be described

  8. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  9. X-ray sensitivity of somatic cell hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampetti-Bosseler, F.; Heilporn, V.; Lievens, A.; Limbosch, S.

    1976-01-01

    Different somatic cell hybrids have been studied as a function of their x-ray survival and karyotypic properties. Hybrids between x-ray-sensitive mouse lymphoma cells and mouse fibroblasts, retaining a large proportion of both parental chromosomes, were much more resistant to irradiation than either of the parental cells. On the other hand, hybrids between sensitive mouse lymphoma cells and hamster fibroblasts which also retained a relatively high number of chromosomes from both parents had a sensitivity intermediate between the sensitivities of the parental cell lines. Finally, hybrids between mouse fibroblasts and hamster fibroblasts carrying at least one hamster genome and less than one mouse genome resembled the hamster parent with respect to survival capactity. The significance of these results is discussed

  10. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM 1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  11. Somatic embryogenesis in cell cultures of Glycine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamborg, O L; Davis, B P; Stahlhut, R W

    1983-08-01

    This report describes the development of procedures for the production of somatic embryos in cell cultures of Glycine species including soybean. The conditions for callus induction and initiation of rapidly growing cell suspension cultures were defined. Methods for inducing embryogenesis were tested on 16 lines of several Glycine species and cultivars of soybean. The SB-26 Culture of a G. soja gave the best results and was used in the experiments. Embryogenesis required the presence of picloram or 2,4-D. AMO 1618, CCC, PP-333 and Ancymidol enhanced the embryogenesis frequency. Plants of the G. soja (SB-26) were grown to maturity from seed-derived shoot tips. Characteristics of the plants are discussed.

  12. Histology study of the somatic embryogenesis in Agave fourcroydes Lem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alemán García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of the structures embryogenic formed from meristem of Agave fourcroydes, with the objective of observing the behavior of the somatic embryogenesis from the induction until the formation of the embryo was carried out. The meristem cultivated in vitro was subculture in modified MS medium the induction. The samples to be included intheresinJB–4weretakenperiodically.Thehistologicalscutsof5-10µmwerecarriedoutwithrotatorymicrotome and strained in 2% toluidine blue. The sections were observed and photographed in light microscopy Axioplan Zeiis with increases of 20X. The results show to the 60 days of culture the presence of cells meristematic pre-embrygenic. Embryos in different phases of formation globular and scutellum were observed in all the mass of the callus in the following subculture. Key words: Agavaceae, in vitro culture, embryo, histology

  13. Characterizing somatization, hypochondriasis, and hysteria in the borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, S; Pitts, W M

    1986-03-01

    Somatization, hypochondriasis, and hysteria have often been considered as associated features of the borderline personality disorder. This study was designed to characterize these three syndromes in the borderline patient. Inpatients with DSM-III borderline personality disorder were compared with controls with dysthymic disorder. Scales and items from standardized rating instruments which measured the three syndromes were scored and compared between groups. Although the hysteria-obvious and hypochondriasis scales of the MMPI and the Hamilton Depression Scale item measuring hypochondriasis were elevated in the borderline group, there were no significant differences between groups. Scores of dysthymic patients significantly exceeded those of borderline patients on four of five MMPI codetypes measuring the three syndromes. Findings are discussed in light of previous psychodynamic, empirical, and research literature.

  14. Improvement of quantification of somatic radiation risks at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Henrichs, K.; Hettig, H.; Jacob, P.; Merkle, W.; Messerer, P.; Schindel, F.

    1985-10-01

    In this research contract several selected topics of basic relevancy for assessment models of radiological consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents have been considered. The investigations focussed on the following areas: 1) Age dependent dose conversion factors for members of the public and their variability for radioisotopes of iodine, strontium, and caesium, - improvement of the accuracy of dose calculations for external gamma irradiation from cloud- and ground-shine; 2) analysis of data and models relevant for the assessment of exposure-time-effect relationships for lethal somatic late effects of lung and breast cancer and of leukemia; 3) analysis of various health status indices (e.g. ''loss of healthy life span'') with respect to their usefulness in addition to incidence, mortality, etc. for the evaluation of the magnitude of a health detriment due to a previous radiation exposure. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  16. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  17. Family intervention for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    lidelser, Århus; Århus universitet Aim & Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS...... and on society. In clinical practice and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research...... quality scores on the POMRF. Many different outcome measures were employed, and the outcome measures chosen did not necessarily reflect what was targeted in the therapy. Focus on illness beliefs and shifting focus away from an organic explanation was agreed upon in all studies, with the alternative...

  18. Family therapy for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    Introduction: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS and on society. In clinical practice...... and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research in this area. Method: The review...... on family based CBT. Conclusions and implications: The family’s illness explanations are an important target for intervention and coordination between paediatric and CAMHS is important, when treating youngsters with FSS. Clinical implications of the findings and recommendations for future research...

  19. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-08

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  1. Ultraviolet irradiation disrupts somatic pili structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverblatt, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    Three piliated bacterial species were exposed to ultraviolet light and the effect of increasing duration of irradiation on the integrity of the somatic pili was quantitated by negative-stain electron microscopy. Heavily piliated Proteus mirabilis became devoid of pili after 20 min of irradiation, but Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae required 40 min for complete depiliation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that new, small molecular weight fragments appeared after irradiation of purified E. coli pili, suggesting that cleavage of the peptide chain rather than dissociation of pilin monomers accounted for the loss of pili structure. These observations indicate that the ultrastructural integrity and function of pili can be disrupted by ultraviolet light.

  2. Neuroticism and maladaptive coping in patients with functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Frølund; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The cognitive-behavioural model of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) proposes a multifactorial aetiology consisting of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. In this study, we sought to investigate three questions that can be drawn from this model: (1) Do patients...... with FSS show high levels of neuroticism? (2) Does neuroticism affect physical health and social functioning, either directly or indirectly through maladaptive coping? (3) Does more adaptive coping mediate the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) on outcome? Design. Secondary analysis....... Reduction in symptom catastrophizing during group CBT partially mediated its long-term effect. Conclusions. The results give support to a generic cognitive-behavioural model of FSS. Targeting symptom catastrophizing may be an essential component in CBT for patients with FSS, regardless of their specific...

  3. Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Leal, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David A; Lau, Ching C

    2014-07-10

    Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumours that are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographical and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically five- to eightfold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries, with peak incidence near the time of puberty. About half of the tumours are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3-4:1 overall, but is even higher for tumours located in the pineal region. Owing to the scarcity of tumour specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signalling pathway frequently mutated in more than 50% of IGCTs, including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gains of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional co-repressor and tumour suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, which codes for a histone demethylase and is a coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway.

  4. Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D.; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Wheeler, David A.; Lau, Ching C.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumors which are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographic and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically 5–8 fold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries1 with peak incidence near the time of puberty2. About half of the tumors are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3–4:1 overall but even higher for tumors located in the pineal region3. Due to the scarcity of tumor specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next generation sequencing, SNP array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signaling pathway frequently mutated in over 50% of IGCTs including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gain of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional corepressor and tumor suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, a histone demethylase and coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway. PMID:24896186

  5. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  6. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N OE) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N OE and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs

  7. Somatic hybrid plants between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L W; Nickels, R L; Cameron, M W; Moore, P P; Sink, K C

    1986-02-01

    Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Lycopersicon esculentum (2n=2x=24) were fused with suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Solanum lycopersicoides (2n=2x=24) and intergeneric somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following selective conditions. A two phase selection system was based on the inability of S. lycopersicoides protoplasts to divide in culture in modified medium 8E and the partial inhibition of L. esculentum protoplasts by the PEG/DMSO fusion solution. At the p-calli stage, putative hybrids were visually selected based on their hybrid vigor and lime-green coloration in contrast to slower growing parental calli characterized by a watery, whitish-brown coloration. Early identification of the eight hybrid plants studied was facilitated by isozyme analysis of leaf tissue samples taken from plants in vitro at the rooting stage. Regenerated plants growing in planting medium were further verified for hybridity by 5 isozymes marking 7 loci on 5 chromosomes in tomato. These included Skdh-1 mapped to chromosome 1 of tomato, Pgm-2 on chromosome 4, Got-2 and Got-3 on chromosome 7, Got-4 on chromosome 8, and Pgi-1 and Pgdh-2 both on chromosome 12. Fraction I protein small subunits further confirmed the hybrid nature of the plants with bands of both parents expressed in all hybrids. The parental chloroplasts could not be differentiated by the isoelectric points of the large subunit. Seven of the eight somatic hybrids had a chromosome number ranging from the expected 2n=4x=48 to 2n=68. Mixoploid root-tip cells containing 48, 53, 54 or 55 chromosomes for two of the hybrids were also observed.

  8. Operationalization of diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nana; Zhang, Yaoyin; Wei, Jing; Leonhart, Rainer; Fritzsche, Kurt; Mewes, Ricarda; Hong, Xia; Cao, Jinya; Li, Tao; Jiang, Jing; Zhao, Xudong; Zhang, Lan; Schaefert, Rainer

    2017-11-07

    The aim of this study was to test the operationalization of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder (SSD) psychological criteria among Chinese general hospital outpatients. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 491 patients from 10 general hospital outpatient departments. The structured clinical "interview about cognitive, affective, and behavioral features associated with somatic complaints" was used to operationalize the SSD criteria B. For comparison, DSM-IV somatoform disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus. Cohen's к scores were given to illustrate the agreement of the diagnoses. A three-structure model of the interview, within which items were classified as respectively assessing the cognitive (B1), affective (B2), and behavioral (B3) features, was examined. According to percentages of screening-positive persons and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, a cut-off point of 2 was recommended for each subscale of the interview. With the operationalization, the frequency of DSM-5 SSD was estimated as 36.5% in our sample, and that of DSM-IV somatoform disorders was 8.2%. The agreement between them was small (Cohen's к = 0.152). Comparisons of sociodemographic features of SSD patients with different severity levels (mild, moderate, severe) showed that mild SSD patients were better-off in terms of financial and employment status, and that the severity subtypes were congruent with the level of depression, anxiety, quality of life impairment, and the frequency of doctor visits. The operationalization of the diagnosis and severity specifications of SSD was valid, but the diagnostic agreement between DSM-5 SSD and DSM-IV somatoform disorders was small. The interpretation the SSD criteria should be made cautiously, so that the diagnosis would not became over-inclusive.

  9. L(3)mbt and the LINT complex safeguard cellular identity in the Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coux, Rémi-Xavier; Teixeira, Felipe Karam; Lehmann, Ruth

    2018-04-04

    Maintenance of cellular identity is essential for tissue development and homeostasis. At the molecular level, cell identity is determined by the coordinated activation and repression of defined sets of genes. The tumor suppressor L(3)mbt has been shown to secure cellular identity in Drosophila larval brains by repressing germline-specific genes. Here, we interrogate the temporal and spatial requirements for L(3)mbt in the Drosophila ovary, and show that it safeguards the integrity of both somatic and germline tissues. l(3)mbt mutant ovaries exhibit multiple developmental defects, which we find to be largely caused by the inappropriate expression of a single gene, nanos , a key regulator of germline fate, in the somatic ovarian cells. In the female germline, we find that L(3)mbt represses testis-specific and neuronal genes. At the molecular level, we show that L(3)mbt function in the ovary is mediated through its co-factor Lint-1 but independently of the dREAM complex. Together, our work uncovers a more complex role for L(3)mbt than previously understood and demonstrates that L(3)mbt secures tissue identity by preventing the simultaneous expression of original identity markers and tissue-specific misexpression signatures. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Somatic mutagenesis with a Sleeping Beauty transposon system leads to solid tumor formation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura McGrail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes and mouse transposon-induced tumors has identified a vast number of genes mutated in different cancers. One of the outstanding challenges in this field is to determine which genes, when mutated, contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression. To identify new and conserved genes that drive tumorigenesis we have developed a novel cancer model in a distantly related vertebrate species, the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The Sleeping Beauty (SB T2/Onc transposon system was adapted for somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish. The carp ß-actin promoter was cloned into T2/Onc to create T2/OncZ. Two transgenic zebrafish lines that contain large concatemers of T2/OncZ were isolated by injection of linear DNA into the zebrafish embryo. The T2/OncZ transposons were mobilized throughout the zebrafish genome from the transgene array by injecting SB11 transposase RNA at the 1-cell stage. Alternatively, the T2/OncZ zebrafish were crossed to a transgenic line that constitutively expresses SB11 transposase. T2/OncZ transposon integration sites were cloned by ligation-mediated PCR and sequenced on a Genome Analyzer II. Between 700-6800 unique integration events in individual fish were mapped to the zebrafish genome. The data show that introduction of transposase by transgene expression or RNA injection results in an even distribution of transposon re-integration events across the zebrafish genome. SB11 mRNA injection resulted in neoplasms in 10% of adult fish at ∼10 months of age. T2/OncZ-induced zebrafish tumors contain many mutated genes in common with human and mouse cancer genes. These analyses validate our mutagenesis approach and provide additional support for the involvement of these genes in human cancers. The zebrafish T2/OncZ cancer model will be useful for identifying novel and conserved genetic drivers of human cancers.

  11. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Siela N; Florez, Sergio; Shen, Xiangling; Niemenak, Nicolas; Zhang, Yufan; Curtis, Wayne; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-07-16

    Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation. These differences in gene

  16. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5 during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI or in vitro fertilization (IVF and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic

  17. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  18. Simulating physics with cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichniac, G Y

    1984-01-01

    Cellular automata are dynamical systems where space, time, and variables are discrete. They are shown on two-dimensional examples to be capable of non-numerical simulations of physics. They are useful for faithful parallel processing of lattice models. At another level, they exhibit behaviours and illustrate concepts that are unmistakably physical, such as non-ergodicity and order parameters, frustration, relaxation to chaos through period doublings, a conspicuous arrow of time in reversible microscopic dynamics, causality and light-cone, and non-separability. In general, they constitute exactly computable models for complex phenomena and large-scale correlations that result from very simple short-range interactions. The author studies their space, time, and intrinsic symmetries and the corresponding conservation laws, with an emphasis on the conservation of information obeyed by reversible cellular automata. 60 references.

  19. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  20. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  1. Trauma exposure and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress on somatic symptoms in civilian war victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Klaghofer, Richard; Müller, Julia; Martin-Soelch, Chantal

    2018-04-10

    It has been well documented that the exposure to war has a negative effect on the psychological health of civilian. However, little is known on the impact of war exposure on the physical health of the civilian population. In addition, the link between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study examined levels of somatic symptoms in the aftermath of war, and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms. Civilian war survivors (N = 142) from Kosovo were assessed for potentially traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Data were analyzed using mediation analyses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were categorized based on King's four factor model (Psychol Assessment. 10: 90-96, 1998). Participants reported on average more than 5 types of traumatic exposure. The cut-off indicative for PTSD was exceeded by 26.1% of participants. Symptom levels of PTSD were associated with somatic symptoms. The relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms was partly mediated by the active avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters of PTSD. Active avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms seem to play a key role in traumatized people suffering from somatic symptoms.

  2. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  3. Characterization of somatic embryo attached structures in Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra M; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2010-06-01

    The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected by culture media composition. Histological and ultrastructural analysis indicated that the attached structures of somatic embryos displayed a great morphological diversity ranging from a few cells to massive and columnar structures. This contrast with the simple suspensors observed in zygotic embryos which were only formed by five cells. As well as the suspensor of zygotic embryos, somatic embryo attached structures undergo a process of degeneration in later stages of embryo development. Other characteristic shared by zygotic suspensors and somatic embryo attached structures was the presence of thick cell walls surrounding the cells. Elongated thin filaments were often associated with the structures attached to somatic embryos, whereas in other cases, tubular cells containing starch grains connected the embryo to the supporting tissue. These characteristics associated with the presence of plasmodesmata in the cells of the attached structures seem to indicate a role on embryo nutrition. However, cell proliferation in the attached structures resulting into new somatic embryos may also suggest a more complex relationship between the embryo and the structures connecting it to the supporting tissue.

  4. Depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care: syndrome overlap and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Spitzer, Robert L; Williams, Janet B W; Mussell, Monika; Schellberg, Dieter; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    To determine diagnostic overlap of depression, anxiety and somatization as well as their unique and overlapping contribution to functional impairment. Two thousand ninety-one consecutive primary care clinic patients participated in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in 15 primary care clinics in the United States (participation rate, 92%). Depression, anxiety, somatization and functional impairment were assessed using validated scales from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) (PHQ-8, eight-item depression module; GAD-7, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; and PHQ-15, 15-item somatic symptom scale) and the Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate unique and overlapping associations of depression, anxiety and somatization with functional impairment. In over 50% of cases, comorbidities existed between depression, anxiety and somatization. The contribution of the commonalities of depression, anxiety and somatization to functional impairment substantially exceeded the contribution of their independent parts. Nevertheless, depression, anxiety and somatization did have important and individual effects (i.e., separate from their overlap effect) on certain areas of functional impairment. Given the large syndrome overlap, a potential consideration for future diagnostic classification would be to describe basic diagnostic criteria for a single overarching disorder and to optionally code additional diagnostic features that allow a more detailed classification into specific depressive, anxiety and somatoform subtypes.

  5. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  6. A pathway-centric survey of somatic mutations in Chinese patients with colorectal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ling

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies on colorectal carcinomas (CRC have identified multiple somatic mutations in four candidate pathways (TGF-β, Wnt, P53 and RTK-RAS pathways on populations of European ancestry. However, it is under-studied whether other populations harbor different sets of hot-spot somatic mutations in these pathways and other oncogenes. In this study, to evaluate the mutational spectrum of novel somatic mutations, we assessed 41 pairs of tumor-stroma tissues from Chinese patients with CRC, including 29 colon carcinomas and 12 rectal carcinomas. We designed Illumina Custom Amplicon panel to target 43 genes, including genes in the four candidate pathways, as well as several known oncogenes for other cancers. Candidate mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing, and we further used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to assess potentially functional mutations. We discovered 3 new somatic mutations in gene APC, TCF7L2, and PIK3CA that had never been reported in the COSMIC or NCI-60 databases. Additionally, we confirmed 6 known somatic mutations in gene SMAD4, APC, FBXW7, BRAF and PTEN in Chinese CRC patients. While most were previously reported in CRC, one mutation in PTEN was reported only in malignant endometrium cancer. Our study confirmed the existence of known somatic mutations in the four candidate pathways for CRC in Chinese patients. We also discovered a number of novel somatic mutations in these pathways, which may have implications for the pathogenesis of CRC.

  7. Alexithymia and Somatosensory Amplification Link Perceived Psychosocial Stress and Somatic Symptoms in Outpatients with Psychosomatic Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuhiro Nakao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosomatic patients often complain of a variety of somatic symptoms. We sought to clarify the role of clinical predictors of complaints of somatic symptoms. Methods: We enrolled 604 patients visiting a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. The outcome was the total number of somatic symptoms, and the candidate clinical predictors were perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, somatosensory amplification, adaptation, anxiety, and depression. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the outcome and the predictors. Results: The average number of reported somatic symptoms was 4.8; the most frequent was fatigue (75.3%, followed by insomnia (56.1%, low-back pain (49.5%, headache (44.7%, and palpitations (43.1%. Multiple regression analysis showed that the total number of somatic symptoms was significantly associated with the degree of perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, somatosensory amplification, and depression. Also, structural equation models indicated links between excessive adaptation (via perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, and somatosensory amplification and the total number of somatic symptoms. Conclusion: The results suggested that the association between psychosocial stress and reported somatic symptoms is mediated by alexithymia and somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic patients.

  8. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  9. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Schuabb Heringer

    Full Text Available The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E and non-embryogenic (NE callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L(-1 of activated charcoal (AC. Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L(-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project, including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus.

  10. The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma.

  11. Monitoring somatic symptoms in patients with mental disorders: Sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the Somatic Symptom Scale - 8 (SSS-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Hagemann-Goebel, Marion; Löwe, Bernd; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    The SSS-8 is a brief questionnaire for the assessment of somatic symptom burden. This study examines its sensitivity to change and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in patients with mental disorders. 55 outpatients with mental disorders completed the SSS-8 and measures of anxiety, depression, and disability before and after receiving treatment. Effect sizes and correlations between the change scores were calculated. The MCID was estimated using a one standard error of measurement threshold and the change in disability as an external criterion. There was a medium decline in somatic symptom burden for the complete sample (n=55, d z =0.53) and a large decline in a subgroup with very high somatic symptom burden at baseline (n=11, d z =0.94). Decreases in somatic symptom burden were associated with decreases in anxiety (r=0.68, pSSS-8 is sensitive to change. A 3-point decrease reflects a clinically important improvement. Due to its brevity and sound psychometric properties, the SSS-8 is useful for monitoring somatic symptom burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, somatic mutations and candidate genetic risk variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M O'Brien

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or "signatures" in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT. Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836 and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836. CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic

  13. Improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations at National Botanical Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Research work on improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations has been in progress at the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, since 1964. The methods of treatments with gamma rays, detection, isolation and multiplication of induced somatic mutations have been given for Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, perennial Portulaca, rose and tuberose. During the last 15 years, a total of 38 new cultivars of different ornamentals evolved by gamna induced somatic mutations have been released. They include Bougainvillea 1; Chrysanthemum 28; perennial portulaca 6; rose 1 and tuberose 2. Descriptions of the original cultivars and their gamma induced mutants are given along with other pertinent details. (author)

  14. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnino, A; Thinh, N T; Santangelo, E; Mini, P [Centro Ricerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs.

  15. Genetic improvement of sweet potato through somatic embyrogenesis and in vitro induction of mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Thinh, N.T.; Santangelo, E.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mutation breeding is a promising option for the genetic improvement of sweet potato. Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was investigated in twenty-two sweet potato varieties of different origin. Plant regeneration was found to depend on the genotype and composition of the induction medium. The regeneration through somatic embryogenesis induced morphological and physiological changes among the regenerated plants. The irradiation with 30 to 50 Gy of meristems before culture on induction medium inhibited somatic embryogenesis. A number of accessions were evaluated in field trials and showed wide differences in yield. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  16. [Structure of childhood and adolescent invalidity in persons with chronic somatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, N M; Bogmat, L F; Tolmacheva, S R; Timofeeva, O N

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of statistical data, prevalence is estimated of disorders with invalidism patterns outlined among those children and young adults under 40 years of age presenting with chronic somatic disorders in Kharkov. Both in children (52.4%) and in young adults (43.9%) diseases of the nervous system held the prominent place. Invalidity due to formed somatic disorders was identified in 10.9% of children and 24.3% of those persons less than 40 years old. There prevailed diseases of the circulation organs. The necessity is substantiated for the rehabilitation to be carried out of children with somatic disorders to prevent their disability.

  17. Analysis of cytoplasmic genomes in somatic hybrids between navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) and 'Murcott' tangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Ohgawara, T; Fujiwara, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-07-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced by protoplast fusion of navel orange and 'Murcott' tangor. Hybridity of the plants was confirmed by the restriction endonuclease analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. All of the plants (16 clones) were normal, uniform, and had the amphidiploid chromosome number of 36 (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The cpDNA analysis showed that each of the 16 somatic hybrids contained either one parental chloroplast genome or the other. In all cases, the mitochondrial genomes of the regenerated somatic hybrids were of the navel orange type.

  18. At the crossroads of fate - somatic cell lineage specification in the fetal gonad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotgers, Emmi; Jørgensen, Anne; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2018-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal...... of the reproductive tracts. Impairment of lineage specification and function of gonadal somatic cells can lead to disorders of sexual development (DSDs) in humans. Human DSDs and processes for gonadal development have been successfully modelled using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we focus...

  19. Somatic health of 2500 women examined at a sexual assault center over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene; Skovlund, Charlotte W

    2016-01-01

    Assault in Copenhagen, and 10004 women without a known assault experience (controls). Somatic diagnoses were retrieved from the National Health Registry and number of visits to general practitioners from the Danish Health Insurance Registry. Somatic data were assessed during the five-year period before......INTRODUCTION: Sexual assault is a public health issue with many potential short- and long-term consequences for the victims. We aimed to investigate somatic health of women before and after sexual assault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 2501 women who attended the Centre for Victims of Sexual...

  20. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Christopher M; Marga, Francoise; Forgacs, Gabor; Heesch, Cheryl M

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual's quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration. (paper)