Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest
Dette brief vil forsøge at give et overblik over den nyeste udvikling i konfl ikten i Somalia samt give et bud på, hvilke perspektiver konfl ikten giver for USA og Danmark. Transitional Federal Government (TFG) har vundet en klar militær sejr over United Islamic Courts (UIC), men der udestår nogle...... væsentlige udfordringer. De to vigtigste er etablering af lov og orden, begyndende i de store byer, dernæst skabe legitimitet og accept i den somaliske befolkning, blandt andet via frigørelse af etiopisk støtte og afholdelse af valg. Somalia slipper ikke for udenlandsk indblanding fra den ene dag til den...... anden, men der kan være et håb om, at IGAD1 Peace Support Operation to Somalia2 (IGASOM) kommer ind hurtigst muligt med solid støtte, idet en effektiv indsættelse vil være et markant signal i hele regionen. Den amerikanske strategi i Afrika peger i retning af en markant tilstedeværelse og støtte på...
Stokke, Daniel; Bartels, John
Rapporten er baseret på forskningspublikationer om Somalia og den nord- og østafrikanske region. Rapporten giver baggrundsviden om kulturelle faktorer i Somalia og sammenhænge med den nuværende konflikt.......Rapporten er baseret på forskningspublikationer om Somalia og den nord- og østafrikanske region. Rapporten giver baggrundsviden om kulturelle faktorer i Somalia og sammenhænge med den nuværende konflikt....
p. 35. 9. Sahnoun, Somalia, pp. 6–8. 10. Ibid., pp. 9–10; Abul Fazal Md Sanaullah, United Nations’ Operation in Somalia: The Possibility of Success...Abul Fazal Md. United Nations’ Op- eration in Somalia: The Possibility of Success with a Different Approach or Application. Fort Leavenworth, Kans
A survey of the status of language usage in Somalia begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Somali, the official language, and three languages previously used officially: English, Italian, and Arabic. The cultural context that for many years has supported the usage of a single native language for communication and administration is also…
Mosdal, Anders Glosimodt
Briefet analyserer den seneste politiske og sikkerhedsmæssige udvikling i Somalia. Bl.a. er en ny præsident, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed med baggrund i de magtfulde islamiske domstole (ICU), blevet valgt og Etiopien har trukket sine styrker ud af landet. Med valget af Ahmed er Somalia tilbage ved...... udgangspunktet i 2006, hvor Ahmed ledte den moderate del af ICU i Somalia. Der er flere positive tegn ved denne nye proces end i 2006, men Ahmed står overfor enorme udfordringer, som ikke helt ligner udfordringerne fra 2006. USA, Etiopien og andre regionale aktører vil holde et vågent øje med udviklingen i...
agricultural goods are the most threatened. Agricultural goods like mangoes, avocadoes and canned beans are exported by sea. 9 The value of these...imported and exported goods. 1 It is of international strategic importance because of the importance of the sea lanes off the Somalia coast (roughly...vessels re-route to avoid the HOA, and increased delays in delivery of goods.31 Kenya’s major exported items, including tea, coffee, and other
A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…
-central Somalia. Existing analyses have focused predominantly on local actors and internal dynamics to account for the continuous political disorder in the former Somali Democratic Republic since 1991. In contrast, this study highlights the role of external aid in dysfunctional statebuilding efforts in Somalia...
Full Text Available The strategies of Yemeni refugees in Somalia are extensively based on the social networks and cultural linkages that exist between the Horn of Africa and Yemen. Meanwhile, Somali refugees returning from Yemen need to find safer areas within Somalia.
Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)
dynamics sustain it, of what reality on the ground looks like in collapsed states, and of how the international ... displaced persons as well as disease, poverty and hunger. ... Recall that after 1989, former superpower proxies lost vital ..... 2007). Months of tense co-existence between the antagonists ensued: while the UIC.
conception of “Failed States” and the implications of such reductionist view on the .... killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both towers collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. ... intervention (Operation Restore Hope) to save life, property and restore calm ...
Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) interventions to stabilise the failed state, ... intervention into Somalia using “just-war” theory, particularly that of jus ad bellum .... Aideed himself and his staff, the Blackhawk Down disaster of 3 October 1993 .... justifying a case for intervention in Somalia is in no significant way impeded by the.
Somalia gained its independence in 1960; however, civil conflict broke out in 1991. The outbreak of civil conflict was the final blow for already collapsed education in Somalia. The civil conflict completely destroyed the remaining educational structure. Despite the protracted nature of the conflict Somalia has slowly been pushed out of the active…
ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.
Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.
Burcharth, Hans F.
The first stage of the port of Bosaso will be completed within half a year's time. It offers accomodation for one general cargo/Ro-Ro vessel of 5,000 DWT plus 350 meters of quays for small cargo vessels and fishing boats. Hinterlands for handling of the goods are arranged along the quays. Areas...... for long term storage of goods and storage of oil are not yet provided. The first stage represents a significant development in the transport system of Somalia in being the most prosperous port in the northern Somalia because of its position at the terminal of the new north-south national main road and its...
Baş, Yılmaz; Hassan, Hussein Abshir; Adıgüzel, Cevdet; Bulur, Oktay; Ibrahim, İkram Abdikarim; Soydan, Seçil
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of cancer cases in a defined time period in Somalia. A total of 403 cancer cases were diagnosed between January 01, 2016 and March 01, 2017 in the Department of Pathology at the Somalia Mogadishu-Turkey Education and Research Hospital or the Department of Oncology at Uniso Hospital, Somalia University. Data on cancer type, patient age, and gender were obtained from pathology reports and hospital records. Female patients totaled 49.6% (n = 200) and 50.4% of patients were male (n = 203). The youngest patient was 18 years of age, the oldest was 97, and the average age was 53.4 years. The 10 most common types of cancer were esophageal (n = 130, 32.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 8.7%), liver (n = 26, 6.5%), breast (n = 24, 6.0%), skin (n = 17, 4.2%), thyroid (n = 13, 3.2%), brain (n = 12, 3.0%), bone (n = 11, 2.7%), colorectal (n = 11, 2.7%), and soft tissue (n = 11, 2.7%). The most common site of cancer in both males and females was the esophagus. These results show a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Somalia, and strongly suggest that environmental risk factors and nutritional habits have a strong impact in this population. Serious and extensive research on the etiology of esophageal cancer is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...
Full Text Available The interestingness of marine piracy issue in Somalia is caused by the fact that firstly, piracy problem is often shown and discussed in mass media and secondly because it is still an unsolved trouble. Finally pirates attacks in Somalia have a great influence on late delivery of cargo ships’ goods. Somalia is said to be the easiest and the most attractive region for pirates attacks. In fact, it is the truth because Somalia is an example of state with inner destabilization and without legal authority which would be able to face the problem. In this paper following topics will be touched: analysis of Convention on the High Seas from Geneva adopted on the 29th April 1958 (definition of piracy; genesis and history of piracy in Somalia; scale of danger from pirates side in Somalia; postulates of changes in article 100 of United Nation Convention of the Law of the Sea adopted on the 10th of December 1982; attitude of international community towards piracy in Somalia; International missions in Somalia; Somalia nowadays (statistics; prospects for the future...
Full Text Available The historical connection between Somalia and Italy was born in the second half of the XIX century, when Italy showed for the first time interest in the Horn of Africa. Following the establishment of the first colony, the Eritrea, Italians settled along the coast of Somalia and built trading outposts. The effective control of the whole colony came only with the fascist regime, through a harsh military repression. At the end of the Second World War, the United Nations entrusted to Italy a special protectorate over the country: the Italian Fiduciary Government of Somalia (Trust Territory of Somalia.
Veldhuis, Suzanne; van Altena, Richard; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Rauws, Erik A J; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Jan Karel M
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing worldwide. The determination of possible resistance is essential for adequate treatment. Tuberculosis is common amongst immigrants from Somalia and extra-pulmonary localisation is often seen. A 21-year-old woman from Somalia presented with progressive dysphagia and severe weight loss. Endoscopy revealed two ulcers in the mid-oesophagus. A chest x-ray showed enlarged lymph nodes in the right hilar and mediastinal regions. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain and PCR for mycobacteria were negative. Sputum samples and oesophageal biopsies were cultured. Quadruple tuberculostatic therapy was started empirically. After five weeks, a sputum culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. She was treated with second-line anti-tuberculous therapy and eventually recovered. Tuberculosis can manifest in many ways. It is important to obtain patient material for culture; not only to confirm the diagnosis but also for the determination of possible resistance which is necessary for adequate therapy.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Anarkiet i Somalia er til debat på dagens konference i Istanbul. Adjunkt Abdulkadir Osman Farah fra AAU, forklarer, at demokratisk udvikling, handel, rejser, iværksætterinitiativer og investeringer har resulteret i 3 pct. gennemsnitlig økonomisk vækst per år i Somalia, hvorfor de har oplevet grad...
a lack of proper diet and hygiene.236 The mission’s personnel were left to carry out a hugely dangerous set of tasks without key enablers including...Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Netherlands, Norway, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan
Poole, Walter S
In shaping policy towards Somalia, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Vice Chairman, and the Joint Staff had to advise how US military forces could execute an evolving range of missions "other than war...
Fox, John G
The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...
In October 2002, the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) launched a peace process designed to end factional fighting in Somalia, led by the government of Kenya under the leadership of Ambassador Bethuel Kiplagat...
... April 8, 2013 Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive... find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia...
... Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia By the authority vested in me as... Somalia declared in Executive Order 13536 of April 12, 2010, in view of United Nations Security Council...
... the Territory and Airspace of Somalia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia 1... 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory and airspace of Somalia below flight level (FL...
... in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, which have... determine that, among other threats to the peace, security, or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed... order, and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination. Sec. 8. This order is not...
Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal; Zignol, Matteo
In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.
It will be impossible to reconstruct Somalia without addressing its complex past. Yet the current definition of transitional justice appears too narrow to be beneficial, since it limits the space for local-based procedures in favour of Western concepts like the state, rule of law and democracy....
It has been argued that Africa has been sidelined in the global ICT revolution and that African societies appear to be cut off from global flows of information. Nevertheless, the manner in which war was waged in Somalia between 1991 and 1994 indicates that this global revolution has affected the
Fink, M.D.; Galvin, R.J.
The ongoing maritime operations against piracy off the coast of Somalia have not only put naval enforcement against piracy at sea in the spotlight, but also the legal aftermath of what to do with pirates after their capture. While warships at sea within the current legal framework of UNCLOS and the
Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal
In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia. PMID:23621911
Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.
Capacity development and material support were therefore identified as indispensable incentives for the sustainable production of honey and other hive products. Since 2013, FAO has intervened in apiculture in Somalia with the support of UKaid by forming rural beekeeping village groups and further supporting the groups ...
Caroline Abu Sa’Da
Full Text Available MSF recently asked Somali refugees in Dadaab’s Dagahaley camp about their living conditions and their thoughts about returning to Somalia in the near future. The responses suggest that bad living conditions in the camp are not conducive to wanting to return, despite a widespread belief to the contrary.
The constitution approved in 2012 represents an opportunity for Somalia to reestablish a central government which has been absent for the last two decades, and reach a stability that its society lacks since the pre-colonial era. The constitution envisages the implementation of a federalist...
Hanno (J H van Gemund
Full Text Available Growing numbers of people are escaping conflict and poverty in Somalia and Ethiopia by making a hazardous journey across the Red Sea. Yemen, their initial destination, has signed the 195 1 Refugee Convention – unlike its Arabian peninsula neighbours – but this poorest of Arab states lacks the means to provide support.
Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm
Knowledge of Nubia/Somalia relative motion since the Early Neogene is of particular importance in the Earth Sciences, because it (i) impacts on inferences on African dynamic topography; and (ii) allows us to link plate kinematics within the Indian realm with those within the Atlantic basin. The contemporary Nubia/Somalia motion is well known from geodetic observations. Precise estimates of the past-3.2-Myr average motion are also available from paleo-magnetic observations. However, little is known of the Nubia/Somalia motion prior to ˜3.2 Ma, chiefly because the Southwest Indian Ridge spread slowly, posing a challenge to precisely identify magnetic lineations. This also makes the few observations available particularly prone to noise. Here we reconstruct Nubia/Somalia relative motions since ˜20 Ma from the alternative plate-circuit Nubia-Arabia-Somalia. We resort to trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian Inference, which has proved effective in reducing finite-rotation noise, to unravel the Arabia/Somalia and Arabia/Nubia motions. We combine the resulting kinematics to reconstruct the Nubia/Somalia relative motion since ˜20 Ma. We verify the validity of the approach by comparing our reconstruction with the available record for the past ˜3.2 Myr, obtained through Antarctica. Results indicate that prior to ˜11 Ma the total motion between Nubia and Somalia was faster than today. Furthermore, it featured a significant strike-slip component along the Nubia/Somalia boundary. It is only since ˜11 Ma that Nubia diverges away from Somalia at slower rates, comparable to the present-day one. Kinematic changes of some 20% might have occurred in the period leading to the present-day, but plate-motion steadiness is also warranted within the uncertainties.
On May 9, 2013, the Somalia Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a confirmed wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in a girl aged 32 months from Mogadishu (Banadir Region), with onset of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) on April 18, 2013. Subsequently, eight additional WPV1 cases have been confirmed in Somalia, seven in Banadir Region and one in Bay Region. These are the first reported polio cases in Somalia since March 2007.
Ahmed, B H; Giovagnoli, M R; Mahad, H; Tarsitani, G G
Somalia has suffered a massive internal population displacement and exodus that began in 1988 and is still ongoing during the prolonged and intermittent civil war. This review looks at the burden of HIV infection in Somali and the impact of civil war on its epidemiology. Serosurveys have indicated that HIV was not present in Somalia before the civil war and to date Somalia has had an HIV prevalence markedly below that of its neighbours. However, due to the ongoing war HIV sentinel surveillance cannot reach most of the affected areas in Somalia and the current HIV infection problem may be greater than the figures indicate.
Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.
Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham
Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, 4 years after the country established its national polio eradication program. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, have left Somalia vulnerable to 2 imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005-2007, resulting in >200 cases of paralytic polio, whereas the second, which began in 2013, is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous, but the country's polio program has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive lifesaving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia's polio-free status will depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Noor, Abdisalan M; Clements, Archie C A; Gething, Peter W; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W
Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of or = 5% prevalence were predominantly in the south. The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Chatterjee, Anirban; Bile, Yassin Nur; Birungi, Julianne; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mulugeta, Abraham
For >2 decades, conflicts and recurrent natural disasters have maintained Somalia in a chronic humanitarian crisis. For nearly 5 years, 1 million children polio once again. A case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was defined as a child Polio cases were defined as AFP cases with stool specimens positive for WPV. From 9 May to 31 December 2013, 189 cases of WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported from 46 districts of Somalia; 42% were from Banadir region (Mogadishu), 60% were males, and 93% were polio cases belonged to cluster N5A, which is known to have been circulating in northern Nigeria since 2011. In response to the outbreak, 8 supplementary immunization activities were conducted with oral polio vaccine (OPV; trivalent OPV was used initially, followed subsequently by bivalent OPV) targeting various age groups, including children aged polio outbreak erupted after a polio-free period of >6 years (the last case was reported in March 2007). Somalia interrupted indigenous WPV transmission in 2002, was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries a year later, and has since demonstrated its ability to control polio outbreaks resulting from importation. This outbreak reiterates that the threat of large polio outbreaks resulting from WPV importation will remain constant unless polio transmission is interrupted in the remaining polio-endemic countries. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8559] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Somalia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8227] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Somalia, and I...
Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris
In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7627] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign... Somalia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...
... unlawfully in densely populated civilian neighborhoods and at times used civilians as ``shields'' to fire... applying for an initial Attn: TPS Somalia, P.O. Box registration: 6943, Chicago, IL 60680-6943. Non-U.S. Postal Delivery Service: USCIS, Attn: TPS Somalia, 131 S. Dearborn--3rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If...
... designation of Somalia is effective March 18, 2011, and will remain in effect through September 17, 2012. The 60-day re-registration period begins November 2, 2010 and will remain in effect until January 3, 2011... humanitarian aid in Somalia is shrinking.'' The threat of piracy, insecurity, restrictions on movement and...
Moore, David A J; Granat, Simo M
Among the many challenges facing populations disrupted by complex emergencies, personal security and food security rank much higher than access to healthcare. However, over time health needs assume increasing importance. Many complex crises occur in settings where the background incidence of TB is already high; social and economic conditions in crises are then highly conducive to amplification of the existing TB problem. Innovative approaches to delivery of diagnostic and treatment services, transition planning and integration with other healthcare providers and services are vital. In the extremely challenging environment of Somalia, multiple partners are making headway though collaboration and innovation.
the Pan -~ab task force to join the European Union (EU), NATO and CTF. On June 10, 2010, the UN Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia...winning cooperation from local clans and business networks to provide authority and order is Mogusidshu’s best recipe for security. 103 The full U.N...21st Century Seapower. Naval War College Review 61, no. 1, (January 1): 6-19. http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed November 22, 2010). Cooke , Jennifer
Chu, Kathryn M; Ford, Nathan P; Trelles, Miguel
Somalia is one of the most political unstable countries in the world. Ongoing insecurity has forced an inconsistent medical response by the international community, with little data collection. This paper describes the "remote" model of surgical care by Medecins Sans Frontieres, in Guri-El, Somalia. The challenges of providing the necessary prerequisites for safe surgery are discussed as well as the successes and limitations of task shifting in this resource-limited context. In January 2006, MSF opened a project in Guri-El located between Mogadishu and Galcayo. The objectives were to reduce mortality due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth and from violent and non-violent trauma. At the start of the program, expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists established safe surgical practices and performed surgical procedures. After January 2008, expatriates were evacuated due to insecurity and surgical care has been provided by local Somalian doctors and nurses with periodic supervisory visits from expatriate staff. Between October 2006 and December 2009, 2086 operations were performed on 1602 patients. The majority (1049, 65%) were male and the median age was 22 (interquartile range, 17-30). 1460 (70%) of interventions were emergent. Trauma accounted for 76% (1585) of all surgical pathology; gunshot wounds accounted for 89% (584) of violent injuries. Operative mortality (0.5% of all surgical interventions) was not higher when Somalian staff provided care compared to when expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists. The delivery of surgical care in any conflict-settings is difficult, but in situations where international support is limited, the challenges are more extreme. In this model, task shifting, or the provision of services by less trained cadres, was utilized and peri-operative mortality remained low demonstrating that safe surgical practices can be accomplished even without the presence of fully trained surgeon and anesthesiologists. If security improves
Fowler, Charles W
... were sent? Indeed, when one considers the difficulties the United States has experienced in a long string of recent interventions, to include Lebanon, Somalia, Haiti, and the Balkan wars of Bosnia and Kosovo...
ALEJANDRO AMIGO TOSSI
Full Text Available In the current international system there are a number of intra-state situations that prevent the consolidation of a safe global environment. These states are stage of a series of events whose effects go beyond its borders. Somalia represented one of these cases between 2007 and 2010 as a series of internal events generated impacts in its neighbors, the region, and the international system. According to the above, the purpose of this article is “to analyze the cause-effect relationship between phenomena occurring within Somalia and stability of neighboring countries, the Horn of Africa and international security. As a methodology, in a first phase it is described the historical background of Somalia prior to the period analyzed, then it is analyzed internal phenomena that occurred in Somalia relevant from the perspective of international security, and finally, it is stated how these phenomena caused effects on neighboring states, the region’s stability and international security.
Foraker III, Joseph C
This paper examines operational command and control issues encountered during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada, the deployment of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu, Somalia, and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo...
Mabry, Robert L; Holcomb, John B; Baker, Andrew M; Cloonan, Clifford C; Uhorchak, John M; Perkins, Denver E; Canfield, Anthony J; Hagmann, John H
.... From July 1998 to March 1999 data were collected for a retrospective analysis of all combat casualties sustained by United States military forces in Mogadishu, Somalia, on October 3 and 4, 1993...
... by the fragile security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and... continue in effect beyond April 12, 2012. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...
... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed... in effect beyond April 12, 2011. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...
... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, acts of piracy and armed... measures adopted on that date and on July 20, 2012, to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect...
In July 2011, the internationally supported Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit-Somalia conducted nutrition and mortality surveys across 17 livelihood zones in southern Somalia to assess the impact of 18 months of insecurity and drought, which have resulted in crop failure, livestock mortality, increased cereal prices, and widespread malnutrition. On July 14, CDC was asked to assist with analyzing the survey data. This report describes the results of that analysis.
Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Ecker, Olivier; Mabiso, Athur
Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict outbreaks with drought incidence and severity, we show that this causality is valid also for Somalia at the local level. We find that livestock price shocks drive drought-induced conflicts through reducing the opportunity costs of conflict participation. Ou...
urban areas who continue to hold economic interests in their relative’s herds .9 Scholars describe Somali society as egalitarian, segmentary and a... Porcupine Dilemma: Governance and Transition in Somalia,” Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 7, no. 6 (2007): 58. 32Jay Walz, “Somalia...based on herding camels, sheep and goats over long distances did not mean governance and judicial systems did not exist.24 Customary tribal law
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham
Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, four years after establishing its national polio eradication programme. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, left the country vulnerable to two subsequent imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005–2007, resulting in over 200 cases of paralytic polio, while the second importation in 2013 is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous but the country’s polio programme has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive life-saving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia’s polio-free status will, however, depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. PMID:25316833
Qayad, Mohamed Gedi; Tarsitani, Gianfranco
The Borama TB program in Somalia lost resources for TB operations in 2003. We evaluated the impact of the loss on the program. Pre-event (2002-2003) and post-event (2007) design were used. All TB patients registered in Borama and a sample of four months from Hargeisa (comparison) TB patients in both periods were abstracted. The following TB treatment outcomes were estimated: treatment success, treatment failure, case fatality, treatment interruption and transfer rates, along with percentage of patients with sputum specimen prior to treatment, percentage of patients from neighboring countries, and monthly average patients enrolled in treatment. The pre-event to post-event outcomes and measures were compared using descriptive and multivariate analyses. In total, 3,367 TB cases were abstracted. In Borama, the TB treatment success rate increased 6% in the post-event. The treatment failure and interruption rates both declined 75%. Monthly average TB patients declined 55%. Percentage of patients smear tested prior to the initiation of the treatment declined 9%. Percentage of TB patients from neighboring countries and other parts of Somalia declined 51%. Treatment interruption/transfer rates declined significantly in the post-event, compared to the pre-event period. Treatment failure/death rate did not change in the post-event period. In Hargeisa, the treatment success, failure/death, and interruption/transfer rates were similar in both periods. The RR did not change in these measures after adjusting for age and gender. This study indicates a significant setback to the Borama TB control program in the majority of measures evaluated, except the TB success rate.
Mohamud, O A
In Somalia, a demographer analyzed urban data obtained from the Family Health Survey to examine the effect female circumcision has on child mortality and the mechanism of that effect. Girls undergo female circumcision between 5-12 years old in Somalia. Since sunni circumcision (removal of the clitoral prepuce and tip of the clitoris) and clitoridectomy (removal of the entire clitoris) did not affect child mortality, he used them as the reference group. Infibulation (entire removal of the clitoris and of the labia minora and majora with the remains of the labia majora being sewn together allowing only a small opening for passage of urine) did affect child mortality. Female children who underwent infibulation and whose mothers most likely also underwent infibulation experienced higher mortality (13-72%) than those from other circumcised mothers. Female mortality exceeded male mortality indicating possible son preference. Mothers with clitoridectomy or infibulation had significantly higher infant mortality than those with sunni circumcision with the strongest effects during the neonatal period (95% and 42% higher mortality, respectively; p=.01). The effect of female circumcision on child mortality decreased with increased child's age. This higher than expected mortality among women with clitoridectomy may have been because women with infibulation had more stillbirths which were not counted as births. The exposed vagina of clitoridectomized women is more likely to be infected resulting in high risk of stillbirths and premature births than the closed vagina of infibulated women. The researcher suggested that the policies promoting education and consciousness raising may eventually eradicate female circumcision. This longterm campaign should use mass media, senior women of high status, and respected religious leaders. Legislation prohibiting this practice would only drive it underground under unsanitary conditions. Demographers should no longer ignore female circumcision
Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad
To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential
Abdi A. Gele
Full Text Available Somalia has the highest global prevalence (98% of female circumcision (FC, and, despite a long history of abandonment efforts, it is not clear as to whether or not these programmes have changed people’s positive attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Hargeisa and Galkayo districts to the practice of FC. Methods. A purposive sampling of 24 Somalis, including activists and practitioners, men and women, was conducted in Somalia. Unstructured interviews were employed to explore the participants' knowledge of FC, their attitudes toward the continuation/discontinuation of the practice, and the type they want to continue or not to continue. Result. The findings of this qualitative study indicate that there is a strong resistance towards the abandonment of the practice in Somalia. The support for the continuation of Sunna circumcision is widespread, while there is a quite large rejection of Pharaonic circumcision. Conclusion. Therefore, since the “zero tolerance policy” has failed to change people’s support for the continuation of the practice in Somalia, programmes that promote the pinch of the clitoral skin and verbal alteration of status, with the goal of leading to total abandonment of FC, should be considered for the Somali context.
Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.
Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one
Kassim, Ismail A. R.; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J.
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15–45 y) and children (aged 6–11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health. PMID:24500936
Kassim, Ismail A R; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.
Subrahmanyam, B.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, L.V.G.
. The region of lower sea levels off the central Somalia Coast (between 6 degrees N and 9 degrees N) coincides with the cold water wedge formed by the offshore movement of the cold upwelled waters from the Somalia Coast during the summer monsoon. By September...
Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.
Kinyoki, Damaris K; Berkley, James A; Moloney, Grainne M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Noor, Abdisalan M
To investigate the predictors of wasting, stunting and low mid-upper arm circumference among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia using data from household cross-sectional surveys from 2007 to 2010 in order to help inform better targeting of nutritional interventions. Cross-sectional nutritional assessment surveys using structured interviews were conducted among communities in Somalia each year from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agro-pastoral and riverine). Predictors of three anthropometric measures, weight-for-height (wasting), height-for-age (stunting) and mid-upper arm circumference, were analysed using Bayesian binomial regression, controlling for both spatial and temporal dependence in the data. The study was conducted in randomly sampled villages, representative of three livelihood zones in Somalia. Children between the ages of 6 and 59 months in Somalia. The estimated national prevalence of wasting, stunting and low mid-upper arm circumference in children aged 6-59 months was 21 %, 31 % and 36 %, respectively. Although fever, diarrhoea, sex and age of the child, household size and access to foods were significant predictors of malnutrition, the strongest association was observed between all three indicators of malnutrition and the enhanced vegetation index. A 1-unit increase in enhanced vegetation index was associated with a 38 %, 49 % and 59 % reduction in wasting, stunting and low mid-upper arm circumference, respectively. Infection and climatic variations are likely to be key drivers of malnutrition in Somalia. Better health data and close monitoring and forecasting of droughts may provide valuable information for nutritional intervention planning in Somalia.
Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo
One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.
Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Ratnayake, Ruwan
Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake use field data to demonstrate the severe vulnerability faced by much of the Somalian population due to ongoing conflict, and call for concerted public health interventions and access to food aid especially in southern Somalia.
The perplexing numbers of Somali children withdrawn from schools in Norway and sent to Somalia is the concern of this study. These students are often brought back and re-enroll later as adolescents with concomitant educational challenges. The findings are critically analyzed employing John Ogbu's cultural ecology of minorities and a CHAT-based…
Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William
Objectives To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Design Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007–2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to Somalia. Participants Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Main outcome measure Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. Results The contemporary annual PfPR2–10 map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR2–10). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%–50% PfPR2–10) and the rest as hypoendemic. Conclusion Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning. PMID:22855625
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [CIS No. 2538-13; DHS Docket No. USCIS-2013-0006] RIN 1615-ZB24 Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2013-25969 beginning on page 65690 in the issue of Friday, November...
Dirie, Mohamed Farah
Concern over the poor and illegible handwriting of the students in Somalia led to the development of this handwriting manual for primary school teachers to: (1) give teachers guidance in teaching handwriting; (2) help teachers in the methodology of teaching handwriting; (3) let teachers know the easier ways of making cheap and obtainable materials…
Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Mulugeta, Abraham
Somalia, one of the most unstable countries in the world, has been without a permanent government for nearly 2 decades. With a health system in total disarray, coverage of basic health interventions remains low and, maternal and child mortality is among the highest in the world. Health partners jointly outlined an integrated package of critical child survival interventions to be delivered through a population-based delivery strategy known as Child Health Days (CHDs), to reduce child mortality. Using this strategy, key child survival interventions are delivered to the community with an objective of reaching children Somalia every 6 months. Through this strategy, immunization services were reached in remote areas, and coverage disparity between the urban and rural areas was reduced from 17% (42% urban and 25% rural) to 10% (50% urban and 60% rural). In addition, infants were reached with a third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, achieving 51% coverage during 2009 and 66% in 2010. This paper summarizes the challenges of scaling up child interventions in the troubled context of Somalia by reviewing the planning, implementation, and achievements of CHDs as well as reflecting on challenges for the future of child survival in Somalia.
Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam
Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…
Michelsen, Anders Ib; Farah, Abdulkadir Osman; Farah Aden, Mahad
I efteråret 2012 fik Somalia for første gang en parlamentsformand, en præsident og en statsminister fra civilsamfundet. Den føderale regering beskyttes af ca. 18.000 afrikanske tropper fra Uganda, Kenya mv. Ekstremistiske grupper er i defensiven, men ikke nedkæmpet. 6. marts 2013 ophævede Sikkerh...
Noor, Abdisalan Mohamed; Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William
To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007-2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to contemporary (2010) mean PfPR(2-10) and the maximum annual mean PfPR(2-10) (receptive) from the highest predicted PfPR(2-10) value over the study period as an estimate of receptivity. Randomly sampled communities in Somalia. Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. The contemporary annual PfPR(2-10) map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR(2-10)). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%-50% PfPR(2-10)) and the rest as hypoendemic. Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning.
This article presents information on the environmental hazards prevailing in Somalia and recommends a health prophylaxis in connection with a potential deployment of Polish Military Contingent to this part of the world. Somalia is a country located in the eastern part of Africa, in the so-called Horn of Africa. The country has been continuously at war for over two decades. Because of its much-devastated municipal and industrial infrastructure, widespread famine and limited access of the local people to healthcare it is considered one of the countries where living conditions are extremely difficult. Epidemiological indexes in Somalia are the worst in the world, and the Somali citizens are entirely dependent on foreign humanitarian assistance. At present, three different military operations, under the auspices of international organizations, have been carried out on the soil and the territorial waters: the European Union Naval Force Somalia--Operation Atlanta, the NATO Operation Ocean Shield, and the biggest of the three--the UN peacekeeping mission AMISOM with 9,5 thousand African troops, mainly from Uganda and Burundi). Despite their presence, the situation of the civilian population is critical. If the number ofpeacekeeping and stabilization troops deployed to the Horn of Africa is increased, it is very likely that Polish soldiers will also get involved in the military operations in Somalia. because of a strong possibility that following European military contingents are going to be relocated to East Africa to carry out the mandatory tasks, in relation to the occurrence of difficult climatic conditions and low sanitary standards, it is necessary to undertake appropriate preventive measures before the departure (compulsory/recommended vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, stocks of medicines to be taken by soldiers for an extended period of time, prevention and treatment kits), throughout the deployment (acclimatization, avoiding alcohol, water and
Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette
Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.
Full Text Available Este fragmento se escribió en un contexto, que puede seguir pareciendo familiar hoy día, en el que varios estados africanos estaban atravesando diversas crisis. Martin Doornbos advierte de que este fenómeno no es homogéneo y que cada estado estaba entonces en una fase diferente de crisis, con unas circunstancias y características propias. El Estado de Somalia se encontraba en un momento de estancamiento. Se trata así de un estado fallido en el que, no obstante, parece que han ido surgiendo elementos que podríamos denominar estatales. Por eso este capítulo se va a centrar en el caso de Puntlandia, una región somalí en la que se ha producido este fenómeno. Se analizará así cuándo se puede considerar que un estado efectivamente es un estado, y si Puntlandia realmente cumple las condiciones fundamentales para ser considerado de esta manera. También surgirá la pregunta de si el camino seguido por Puntlandia puede servir como guía para una Somalia unida en el futuro. This fragment was written in a context, which may seem familiar nowadays, where a number of African States were experiencing different crisis. Martin Doornbos advises us that these phenomena were not homogenous and that each state was in a different stage of crisis with independent circumstances and characteristics. Somalia was in a period of stagnation. It is a failed State in which elements of stateness nevertheless seem to reappear. For this reason this chapter concentrates on the case of Puntland, a Somali region where this phenomenon is taking place. It will analyze when a State is a State and if Puntland complies with the fundamental conditions that make it possible for it to be considered one. It also asks us whether the path followed by Puntland could serve as a guide for a unified Somalia in the future.
Levich, Robert A.; Muller-Kahle, Eberhard
The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Somalia suggests that in addition to the reasonably assured resources (RAR) of 5 000 t uranium and estimated additional resources (EAR) of 11 000 t uranium in calcrete deposits, the speculative resources (SR) could be within the wide range of 0 - 150 000 t uranium. The majority of these speculative resources are related to sandstone and calcrete deposits. The potential for magmatic hydrothermal deposits is relatively small. The Mission recommends an exploration programme of about US $ 22 000 000 to test the uranium potential of the country which is thought to be excellent. The Mission also suggests a reorganization of the Somalia Geological Survey in order to improve its efficiency. Recommended methods include geological mapping, Landsat Imagery Interpretation, airborne and ground scintillometer surveys, and geochemistry. Follow-up radiometric surveys, exploration geophysics, mineralogical studies, trenching and drilling are proposed in favourable areas
Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe
We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.
Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J
To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.
Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In response to Kenyan citizens ’ growing uneasiness with regard to...Kenyan citizens ’ growing uneasiness with regard to the cross- border violence from Somalia-based terrorists, the government of Kenya has begun to...85 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Al Shabaab’s Influence on Terrorism in Kenya
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Owino, Brian Ogola; Mengistu, Kumlachew F; Ehrhardt, Derek; Elsayed, Eltayeb Ahmed
Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio eradication activities in Somalia, including AFP surveillance, given the country's vulnerability to polio outbreaks. To assess the impact of the VPV program on AFP surveillance, we determined case counts, case-reporting sources, and non-polio AFP rates in the years before and after program introduction, i.e., 2011-2016. We also compared the stool adequacy and timeliness of cases reported by VPVs to those reported by other sources. In the years following program introduction, VPVs accounted for a high proportion of AFP cases reported in Somalia. AFP case counts rose from 148 cases in 2012, the year before program introduction, to 279 cases in 2015, during which VPVs accounted for 40% of reported cases. Further, the non-polio AFP rate improved from 2.8 cases in 2012 to 4.8 cases per 100,000 persons Somalia, similar community-based programs could play a crucial role in enhancing surveillance activities in countries with limited healthcare infrastructure.
Gure, Faduma; Dahir, Mohammed Koshin; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M
In conflict-affected settings such as Somalia, emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to serve as an important means of pregnancy prevention. Yet Somalia remains one of the few countries without a registered progestin-only EC pill. In 2014, we conducted a qualitative, multi-methods study in Mogadishu to explore awareness of and perceptions of need for EC. Our project included 10 semi-structured key informant interviews, 20 structured in-person interviews with pharmacists, and four focus group discussions with married and unmarried Somali women. Our findings reveal a widespread lack of knowledge of both existing family planning methods and EC. However, once we described EC, participants expressed enthusiasm for expanding access to post-coital contraception. Our results shed light on why Somalia continues to be a global exception with respect to an EC product and suggest possible politically and culturally acceptable and effective avenues for introducing EC into the health system. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte
Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte
Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013–2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia. PMID:26365693
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham
Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
The historical significance of smallpox eradication from Somalia lies in the fact that the country was the last to record the last endemic smallpox case in the world. Before 1977 the programme was mismanaged. In the mid-1970s, the programme was plagued with concealment. Confirmation of smallpox outbreak in Mogadishu in September 1976 delayed global smallpox eradication. The Government maintained that there was no ongoing smallpox transmission in the country after the Mogadishu outbreak and frustrated independent attempts to verify its claim. In February 1977 the Government allowed World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiologists to search, unhindered, for smallpox outside Mogadishu. Soon widespread smallpox transmission was detected. The Government appealed for international support. The strategy to stop the smallpox transmission was based on surveillance and containment. The WHO took the leading role of the campaign which, in spite of the Somalia/Ethiopia war of 1977/78, culminated in the eradication of smallpox from the country. Somalia was certified smallpox-free on 19 October 1979. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warsame, Ali A.
Although Somali is the mother tongue of over 95 per cent of the population of Somalia, when the country received independence in 1960 it took English, Italian, and Arabic as its official languages. Because of controversy involving technical, religious and political questions, no script for the Somali language could be agreed upon, either in the colonial era or in parliamentary years, 1960-1969. The consequences of this non-decision were considerable for Somali society. However, when the authoritarian military rulers came to the power in the early 1970s, they made a final decision in regard to script. They also issued a decree to the effect that Somali was to be the language of political and administrative discourse in the Somali Republic. That act marked the beginning of the restoration of cultural and linguistic rights for Somali society. This article examines how Somalia, under a strong and totalitarian regime, was able to promote its language. The article also presents an overview of the organisation and the implementation of the literacy campaigns carried out in Somalia, as well as some notes on planning and the theoretical framework behind the campaigns.
Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.
The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The
A mild form of rinderpest was described and diagnosed in Tsavo East National Park in Kenya in 1994, and subsequently in Nairobi National Park (in 1994 to 1996). Initially the Tsavo rinderpest outbreak was thought to have originated from southern Sudan, but molecular evidence clearly showed that the Tsavo virus was genetically very different from the isolates from Nairobi National Park and fell into the African type 2 lineage. The exact location of this focus was uncertain, but it was suspected that the virus could have remained undetected for several years in the Northeast Province of Kenya and the neighbouring Trans Juba Region of southern Somalia. When the Siad Barre regime collapsed in 1991, all public institutions, services and assets were seriously disrupted or looted. This was followed by massive displacement of people inside and outside Somalia, widespread insecurity, serious famine, and the collapse of most formal economic activities. To alleviate the consequences of the humanitarian crisis and the collapse of the Somali state, the international community launched a significant response, with peacekeeping operations, direct assistance to displaced populations, restoration of local administrations, rehabilitation of public infrastructures, and support to economic activities. Given its socio-economic importance and prominence, the livestock industry was one of the sectors targeted for relief and rehabilitation interventions, through mass vaccination campaigns against infectious diseases, curative treatments, rehabilitation of watering facilities, and training of veterinary professionals and para-veterinarians. During this period, rinderpest was one of the target diseases, especially in light of global efforts to eradicate the disease from the African continent, and particularly from Somalia, which was one of the last suspected foci of infection. Terra Nuova, one of 12 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) initially involved in the livestock
Eric Pardo Sauvageot
Full Text Available El reciente incremento de la piratería en las costas del Cuerno de África ha puesto en alerta a la Comunidad Internacional. Los nuevos métodos y un armamento más sofisticado han permitido a los piratas dañar al libre comercio de mercancías creando así un nuevo problema de seguridad. Los límites en el Derecho Internacional existente y la incapacidad de muchos países de poner en práctica sus disposiciones han llevado al Consejo de Seguridad a emitir una serie de Resoluciones para involucrar a todos los países afectados en labores de represión: La respuesta ha sido un despliegue sin precedentes por parte de diversas armadas extranjeras a través de iniciativas unilaterales y multilaterales para poner fin a la piratería y a la serie de secuestros que han tenido lugar. Sin embargo el desastroso estado en el que se encuentra Somalia, paradigma de estado fallido, es clave para vislumbrar las posibilidades de éxito de cualquier iniciativa naval: Hasta que Somalia no tenga un verdadero gobierno, no se tratará más que de parches sobre el problema real. Intervenir en Somalia requerirá una clara comprensión de la situación real y la posesión de las herramientas para poner en práctica una solución a largo plazo.
Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham
After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn
Full Text Available Authorities are increasingly worried about the large number of Western foreign fighters present in Syria. However, the conflict in Syria is not the first to attract foreign fighters. In this Background Note, Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn and Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker investigate three historical cases of foreign fighting: Afghanistan (1980s, Bosnia (1990s and Somalia (2000s. In this Background Note they aim to give insight into what happened to these foreign fighters after their fight abroad had ended. The authors distinguish eight possible pathways for foreign fighters that can help to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of this complex phenomenon.
Full Text Available After briefly describing the origins of Islamic NGOs in Africa and the factors that boosted their growth during the last three decades, this chapter will discuss their notion of development and their understanding of basic development concepts such as the human rights and the needs’ approach. It will then review the strategic approaches used by Islamic NGOs to achieve development, using Somalia as a case study for confirming the nexus between migrations and the diffusion of Islamic NGOs in Africa, identified by Salih and Weiss, and for advancing the thesis that Islamic NGOs promote a private welfare system in developing countries.
Throughout history, physicians of the armed forces have gained experience in tropical medicine during deployment in tropical countries. During deployments in Cambodia and Somalia, dermatologists treated participants of the UN missions and also local people to win their confidence. The experience acquired during these missions is reported. The dermatologist was mainly confronted with the diagnosis and treatment of infectious skin diseases, including genitourinary diseases. Therapy of parasitic infections rarely imported to Europe was a challenge. Training and experience in Tropical Medicine are essential for medical officers deployed on missions as well as for physicians advising travellers.
Ф О Трунов
Full Text Available Staying Somalia in a state of instability is a serious threat for the security of the international community, including countries and institutions of the West. At the modern period, its key element is the activity of the international terrorist structure Al Shabab. Germany and its EU partners face with the problem of the revitalization of Al Shabab terrorists. The methodological basis of the paper is the theories of armed conflicts resolution and the con-struction of armed forces (at the example of the Somalian national army. The key research methods are the event-analyses and the comparative analyses. The aim of the article is the research of the German approach to resolving the “Somali problem”. In this regard, the first task is to study the previous experience of Germany in counteracting with in-stability in Somalia in the 1990-s and since the late 2000-s. (in the framework of counteracting piracy. The second task, on the solution of which is paid the main attention in the article, is the research of complex usage by Germany of its political, military and economic tools for the weakening of Al Shabab. The article studies German participation in the EU mission for the reform of the security sector of Somali. At this base, the article concludes about the military participation of Germany in the struggle with the international terrorism. The article covers the course, problems and prospects of using the national army of Somalia for fighting against Al-Shabab in the south, as well as separatist currents in the northern part of the country. The paper researches German promotion in restoring the structures of power in the country and the process of federalization as the key direction of the stabilization in Somalia. The article covers the features of German economic participation in the decision of deep internal Somali problems, which mainly led to the appearance and strengthening of the Al Shabab positions. The research paper concludes about
There are no up-to-date records on head and neck masses (HNMs) in Somalia. This cytological study is the first to demonstrate the benefits and findings of fine-needle aspiration cytology in evaluating HNMs in the adult population of Somalia. A total of 116 aspiration samples were taken from different levels of the neck region, except for the thyroid. Cases were classified as salivary gland, lymph node, or soft tissue/cystic lesions. They were classified according to age, gender, and cytological diagnosis. Patients included 54 (46.6%) males and 62 (53.4%) females, with a mean age of 40.6 years. Seventy-two patients (62.1%) had benign lesions, while 44 (37.9%) had malignant lesions. Necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (n = 51, 70.8% of the benign findings) and lymph node metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 13, 29.5% of the malignant findings) were the most frequent findings. Fine-needle aspiration is a useful procedure in the diagnosis of neck masses. It is a cheap and easy guiding method for diagnosing granulomatous lymphadenitis and advanced-stage metastatic cancers, which are common in this country. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail
To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.
Warsame, Marian; Atta, Hoda; Klena, John D; Waqar, Butt Ahmed; Elmi, Hussein Haji; Jibril, Ali Mohamed; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Hassan, Abdullahi Mohamed
In order to guide the antimalarial treatment policy of Somalia, we conducted therapeutic efficacy studies of routinely used antimalarial monotherapies as well as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria in three sentinel sites during 2003-2006. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetahmine (SP) monotherapies, and artesunate plus SP (AS+SP) or AQ (AS+AQ) were evaluated in children 6 months to 10 years old with uncomplicated malaria. For the assessment of the monotherapies, 2003 WHO protocol with 14-day follow-up was used while the 2005 WHO protocol with 28-day follow-up was used for testing the ACTs. Of the monotherapies, CQ performed very poorly with treatment failures varying from 76.5% to 88% between the sites. AQ treatment failure was low except for Janale site with treatment failure of 23.4% compared to 2.8% and 8% in Jamame and Jowhar, respectively. For SP, treatment failures from 7.8% to 12.2% were observed. A 28-day test of artemisinin-based combinations, AS+SP and AS+AQ, proved to be highly efficacious with cure rates of 98-100% supporting the choice of AS+SP combination as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria for Somalia.
Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, has been central to life, war, and peace in the country for almost two decades. Its urban characteristics, though, have been put to one side for the most part. In recent years, Mogadishu-related issues have been merged mostly into a global agenda for South and Central Somalia, resulting in the technical and coordination approaches employed in the city largely being reproductions of solutions utilised in refugee camps and rural areas. Unfortunately, urban problems require urban solutions. The aid system is just starting to discover how specific aid in cities at war should be, both from an organisational and a technical standpoint. The enhancement of aid practices in an urban setting implies, among other things, a more strategic approach to the specific spatial characteristics of the city, a more fine-tuned analysis of the technical requirements of the urban service delivery systems, and a better understanding of the role of urban institutions. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Gallagher, Meghan C; Baunach, Sabine; Cannon, Amy
Unsafe abortion is responsible for at least 9% of all maternal deaths worldwide; however, in humanitarian emergencies where health systems are weak and reproductive health services are often unavailable or disrupted, this figure is higher. In Puntland, Somalia, Save the Children International (SCI) implemented postabortion care (PAC) services to address the issue of high maternal morbidity and mortality due to unsafe abortion. Abortion is explicitly permitted by Somali law to save the life of a woman, but remains a sensitive topic due to religious and social conservatism that exists in the region. Using a multipronged approach focusing on capacity building, assurance of supplies and infrastructure, and community collaboration and mobilisation, the demand for PAC services increased as did the proportion of women who adopted a method of family planning post-abortion. From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 1111 clients received PAC services at the four SCI-supported health facilities. The number of PAC clients increased from a monthly average of 20 in 2013 to 38 in 2015. During the same period, 98% (1090) of PAC clients were counselled for postabortion contraception, of which 955 (88%) accepted a contraceptive method before leaving the facility, with 30% opting for long-acting reversible contraception. These results show that comprehensive PAC services can be implemented in politically unstable, culturally conservative settings where abortion and modern contraception are sensitive and stigmatised matters among communities, health workers, and policy makers. However, like all humanitarian settings, large unmet needs exist for PAC services in Somalia.
Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article examines the current wave of piracy off the coast of Somalia in light of political economy framework proposed by Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper. According to these authors, three types of economies flourish in protracted conflicts - combat economy, shadow economy, and coping economy - whose aims are, respectively, to finance combat activities, generate personal profits and provide minimum resources to the subsistence of poor and marginalized people. Based on empirical evidences showing that piracy in Somalia performs these three functions, one argues that the current international intervention against piracy is not sustainable because it does not seek to transform the factors and dynamics that make piracy an economically attractive alternative for local populations. For this reason, one proposes a shift on the Somali piracy agenda by adopting a critical perspective where piracy is no longer treated exclusively as a mere disruption of order at sea. Instead, one suggests a transformative approach where piracy is understood in its political economy dimension taking into account not only the local aspects, but also their regional links.
A full report has been compiled describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Somalia. The Mission suggests that in addition to the reasonably assured resources (RAR) of 5 000 t uranium and estimated additional resources (EAR) of 11 000 t uranium in calcrete deposits, the speculative resources (SR) could be within the wide range of 0 - 150 000 t uranium. The majority of these speculative resources are related to sandstone and calcrete deposits. The potential for magmatic hydrothermal deposits is relatively small. The Mission recommends an exploration programme of about US$ 22 000 000 to test the uranium potential of the country which is thought to be excellent. The Mission also suggests a reorganization of the Somalia Geological Survey in order to improve its efficiency. Recommended methods include geological mapping, Landsat imagery interpretation, airborne and ground scintillometer surveys, and geochemistry. Follow-up radiometric surveys, exploration geophysics, mineralogical studies, trenching and drilling are proposed in favourable areas. (author)
Abdulkadir Mohamud Dahie
Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of recruitment and selection on organizational performance, to examine the role of compensation and reward on organizational performance as well as the effect of performance appraisal management on organizational performance at Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu-Somalia. The researcher utilized convenient sampling to collect 100 questionnaires from Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu, Somalia. These respondents were provided a questionnaire with four main construct which measuring recruitment and selection, compensation and reward, performance appraisal management and organizational performance. However, using correlation coefficient, the study found that organizational performance (Dependent variable had significant positive influence with three dimensions of independent variable. The result of regression analysis found that three constructs had statistically significant, positive, and straight effects with organizational performance.
Abdi, Ahmed Ali
This study was designed to evaluate: (1) the content of the primary I-III science curriculum in Somalia; (2) the instructional materials that back up the content and methodologies; and (3) the professional competence of the teachers in charge of teaching this subject. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, observations, and unstructured…
Jama, Mohamed A. F.
This study sought to evaluate the mathematics curriculum of the Halane Teacher Training Institute in Somalia with a view toward: (1) determining its weaknesses and recommending measures for improvement; (2) examining its relevance to the present needs of the Somali society; (3) determining the suitability of instructional materials and other…
Refugee camps in Dadaab, Kenya, currently are receiving Somali refugees fleeing famine and armed conflict at a rate of approximately 1,400 refugees per day. New arrivals are at an elevated risk for mortality because of severe famine in Somalia, the dangerous journey, and overcrowding in the camps.
Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Bashir-Ali, Khadar; Abdi, Nimo; Witherspoon Arnold, Noelle
This article examines school leadership behaviors and understandings of Somaliland school principals. By using postcolonial theory and critical phenomenology, we explore culturally responsive leadership in Northern Somalia; we expound on the unique ways that school leaders enact school leadership, and interact with the students, families, and…
Mohamed, Ibrahim Jeylani
The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of modern mathematics in the primary schools of Somalia. In particular, three concerns were addressed: (1) teachers' confidence and ability in teaching mathematics; (2) students' interest in mathematics; and (3) students' examination performance in mathematics. Subjects were 30 teachers…
In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are
Noor, Abdisalan M; Rage, Ismail A; Moonen, Bruno; Snow, Robert W
Studies have highlighted the inadequacies of the public health sector in sub-Saharan African countries in providing appropriate malaria case management. The readiness of the public health sector to provide malaria case-management in Somalia, a country where there has been no functioning central government for almost two decades, was investigated. Three districts were purposively sampled in each of the two self-declared states of Puntland and Somaliland and the south-central region of Somalia, in April-November 2007. A survey and mapping of all public and private health service providers was undertaken. Information was recorded on services provided, types of anti-malarial drugs used and stock, numbers and qualifications of staff, sources of financial support and presence of malaria diagnostic services, new treatment guidelines and job aides for malaria case-management. All settlements were mapped and a semi-quantitative approach was used to estimate their population size. Distances from settlements to public health services were computed. There were 45 public health facilities, 227 public health professionals, and 194 private pharmacies for approximately 0.6 million people in the three districts. The median distance to public health facilities was 6 km. 62.3% of public health facilities prescribed the nationally recommended anti-malarial drug and 37.7% prescribed chloroquine as first-line therapy. 66.7% of public facilities did not have in stock the recommended first-line malaria therapy. Diagnosis of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or microscopy was performed routinely in over 90% of the recommended public facilities but only 50% of these had RDT in stock at the time of survey. National treatment guidelines were available in 31.3% of public health facilities recommended by the national strategy. Only 8.8% of the private pharmacies prescribed artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, while 53.1% prescribed chloroquine as first-line therapy. 31.4% of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have highlighted the inadequacies of the public health sector in sub-Saharan African countries in providing appropriate malaria case management. The readiness of the public health sector to provide malaria case-management in Somalia, a country where there has been no functioning central government for almost two decades, was investigated. Methods Three districts were purposively sampled in each of the two self-declared states of Puntland and Somaliland and the south-central region of Somalia, in April-November 2007. A survey and mapping of all public and private health service providers was undertaken. Information was recorded on services provided, types of anti-malarial drugs used and stock, numbers and qualifications of staff, sources of financial support and presence of malaria diagnostic services, new treatment guidelines and job aides for malaria case-management. All settlements were mapped and a semi-quantitative approach was used to estimate their population size. Distances from settlements to public health services were computed. Results There were 45 public health facilities, 227 public health professionals, and 194 private pharmacies for approximately 0.6 million people in the three districts. The median distance to public health facilities was 6 km. 62.3% of public health facilities prescribed the nationally recommended anti-malarial drug and 37.7% prescribed chloroquine as first-line therapy. 66.7% of public facilities did not have in stock the recommended first-line malaria therapy. Diagnosis of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT or microscopy was performed routinely in over 90% of the recommended public facilities but only 50% of these had RDT in stock at the time of survey. National treatment guidelines were available in 31.3% of public health facilities recommended by the national strategy. Only 8.8% of the private pharmacies prescribed artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, while 53
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
The United Nations Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) implements Security Council resolutions. The mission supports the Somali Federal Government (SFG) and combines formality with informality in facilitating transnational power and legitimacy claims. While informal interactions sustain internal legitimac...
Full Text Available For more than two decades, the EU and other donors have spent billions of euros to rebuild the Somali state and, more recently, to counter the rise of the violent Islamist group Al Shabaab. But Somalia remains a weak, if not “failed state”, and progress is nowhere near commensurate with international support. This is because donors failed to generate enough Somali political will to reform dysfunctional and corrupt administrations that undermine their programmes, as well as counter-terrorism and stabilisation goals. To be more effective, the EU needs to become more adept at understanding local political dynamics as well as better at employing carrots and sticks to nudge Somali leaders to support governance reform and better administration. Otherwise, its expensive technical assistance and training programmes may have only temporary and limited impact.
Linard, Catherine; Alegana, Victor A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J
Millions of Somali have been deprived of basic health services due to the unstable political situation of their country. Attempts are being made to reconstruct the health sector, in particular to estimate the extent of infectious disease burden. However, any approach that requires the use of modelled disease rates requires reasonable information on population distribution. In a low-income country such as Somalia, population data are lacking, are of poor quality, or become outdated rapidly. Modelling methods are therefore needed for the production of contemporary and spatially detailed population data. Here land cover information derived from satellite imagery and existing settlement point datasets were used for the spatial reallocation of populations within census units. We used simple and semi-automated methods that can be implemented with free image processing software to produce an easily updatable gridded population dataset at 100 × 100 meters spatial resolution. The 2010 population dataset was matched to administrative population totals projected by the UN. Comparison tests between the new dataset and existing population datasets revealed important differences in population size distributions, and in population at risk of malaria estimates. These differences are particularly important in more densely populated areas and strongly depend on the settlement data used in the modelling approach. The results show that it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable settlement and population distribution datasets of Somalia using existing data. The 2010 population dataset produced is freely available as a product of the AfriPop Project and can be downloaded from: http://www.afripop.org.
Wallin, Anne-Marie; Ahlström, Gerd
Being diagnosed as having a chronic disease gives rise to emotions. Beliefs about health are culturally constructed and affect people's decisions regarding treatment. No studies have been reported that focus on the health beliefs of immigrants of Somalian origin with diabetes and how these people experiences the diagnosis. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate how immigrants from Somalia living in Sweden experienced receiving the diagnosis and describe their beliefs about health. The sample consisted of 19 adults with diabetes born in Somalia and now living in Sweden who were interviewed with the aid of an interpreter. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. From the analysis of what the participants said about their experiences of the diagnosis there emerged three themes: 'Existential brooding', 'Avoiding the diagnosis' and 'Accepting what is fated'. Three themes also emerged from the analysis of what they said about beliefs about health: 'Health as absence of disease', 'Health as general well-being' and 'Fated by a higher power'. A major finding was that women when they communicated their experiences regarding the diagnosis and health beliefs made more use of supernatural beliefs than men did. The participants, irrespective of gender, did not immediately respond with shock or other strong emotion when they received the diagnosis. The study provides health-care staff with knowledge concerning a minority group's experiences of being diagnosed as having diabetes and their beliefs about health. The findings indicate that men and women differ in how they experiences the diagnosis and how they described their health beliefs. The quality improvement of health education and nursing for patients with diabetes calls for consideration of the variation of beliefs related to cultural background and gender.
Zachariah, R.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Khogali, M.; Manzi, M.; van Griensven, J.; Ayada, L.; Jemmy, J. P.; Maalim, A.; Amin, H.
Setting: A district hospital in conflict-torn Somalia. Objective: To report on in-patient paediatric morbidity, case fatality and exit outcomes as indicators of quality of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Results: Of 6211 children, lower respiratory tract infections (48%) and severe acute malnutrition (16%) were the leading reasons for admission. The highest case-fatality rate was for meningitis (20%). Adverse outcomes occurred in 378 (6%) children, including 205 (3.3%) deaths; 173 (2.8%) absconded. Conclusion: Hospital exit outcomes are good even in conflict-torn Somalia, and should boost efforts to ensure that such populations are not left out in the quest to achieve universal health coverage. PMID:26393014
Maalim, Abdisalan M; Zachariah, Rony; Khogali, Mohamed; Van Griensven, Johan; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Kizito, Walter; Baruani, Bienvenu; Osoble, Abdirahman; Abdirahman, Faiza; Ayada, Latifa; Mohamed, Abdinoor H
We describe an innovative strategy implemented to support national staff at Istarlin Hospital in the conflict setting of Somalia; and report on inpatient morbidities, mortality and adverse hospital exit outcomes. This was a retrospective analysis of hospital data for 2011. Of 8584 admitted patients, the largest numbers were for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (2114; 25%), normal deliveries (1355; 16%) and diarrhoeal diseases (715; 8%). The highest contributors to mortality were gunshot wounds in surgery (18/30; 60%), LRTIs in internal medicine (6/32; 19%) and malnutrition in paediatrics (30/81; 37%). Adverse hospital exit outcomes (deaths and absconded) were well within thresholds set by Médecins Sans Frontières. With a support package, satisfactory standards of care were met for hospital care in Somalia.
Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Lewi, E.; Grandin, R.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Bendick, R. O.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.
The Afar Depression is an extraordinary submerged laboratory where the crustal mechanisms involved in the active rifting process can be studied. But the crustal movements at the regional scale are complicated by being the locus of the meeting of three divergent plate boundaries: the oceanic spreading ridges of the Red Sea and the Aden Ridge and the intra-continental East-African Rift (EAR). We present here the first GPS measurements conducted in a new network in Central Afar, complementing existing networks in Eritrea, around the Manda-Harraro 2005-2010 active segment, in the Northern part of the EAR and in Djibouti. Even if InSAR data were appropriate for mapping the deformation field, the results are difficult to interpret for analyzing the regional kinematics because of the atmospheric conditions, the lack of complete data catalogue, the acquisition configuration and the small velocity variations. Therefore, our measurements in the new sites are crucial to obtain an accurate velocity field over the whole depression, and focus specifically on the spatial organization of the deformation to characterize the tripe junction. These first results show that a small part of the motion of the Somalia plate with respect to the Nubia plate or the Arabia plate (2-3 mm/yr) occurs south of the Tadjura Gulf and East of the Adda-do segment in Southern Afar. The complex kinematic pattern involves a clockwise rotation of this Southeastern part of the Afar rift and can be related to the significant seismic activity regularly recorded in the region of Jigjiga (northern Somalia-Ethiopia border). The western continuation of the Aden Ridge into Afar extends West of the Asal rift segment and does not reach the young active segment of Manda-Inakir (MI). A slow gradient of velocity is observed across the Dobi Graben and across the large systems of faults between Lake Abhe and the MI rift segment. A striking change of the velocity direction occurs in the region of Assaïta, west of Lake
Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.
Seismic reflection profile, gravity anomaly, and biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells have been used to determine the tectonic subsidence, structure and evolution of the Nogal basin, Northern Somalia, one of a number of ENE-WSW trending early Mesozoic rifts that formed prior to opening of the Gulf of Aden. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data at the Nogal-1 and Kali-1 wells provides new constraints on the age of rifting, and the amount of crustal and mantle extension. The tectonic subsidence and uplift history at the wells can be generally explained as a consequence of two, possibly three, major rifting events. The first event initiated in the Late Jurassic (~156 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the break-up of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. The second event initiated in the Late Cretaceous (~80 Ma) and lasted for ~20 Myr. This event probably correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The backstripped tectonic subsidence data can be explained by a multi-rift extensional model with a stretching factor, β, in the range 1.17-1.38. The third and most recent event occurred in the Oligocene (~32 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. This rift only developed at the centre of the basin close to Nogal-1 well, and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Aden. The amount of crustal thinning inferred at the Kali-1 well is consistent with the results of Process-Oriented Gravity and Flexure (POGM) modelling, assuming an elastic thickness of ~30 km. The thinning at the Nogal-1 well, however, is greater by ~ 7 km than predicted suggesting that the basin may be locally underplated by magmatic material. Irrespective, POGM suggests the transition between thick crust beneath Northern Somalia to thin crust beneath the Indian Ocean forms a ~500 km wide
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Gathenji, Caroline
In April 2013, a case of wild polio virus (WPV) was detected in the Somalia capital Mogadishu. This inaugurated what is now referred to as the 2013-2014 Horn of Africa Polio outbreak with cases reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. By the notification of the last polio case in August 2014, 223 cases of WPV had been reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia of which 199 in Somalia alone. The outbreak response required timely exchange of information between the outbreak response coordination unit (in Nairobi) and local staff located in multiple locations inside the country. The need to track and timely respond to information requests, to satisfy the information/data needs of polio partners and to track key outbreak response performance indicators dictated the need to urgently set up an online dashboard. The Somalia Polio Room dashboard provided a graphical display of the polio outbreak data to track progress and inform decision making. The system was designed using free and open sources components and seamlessly integrated existing polio surveillance data for real time monitoring of key outbreak response performance indicators. In this article, we describe the design and operation of an electronic dashboard for disease surveillance in an outbreak situation and used the lessons learned to propose key design considerations and functional requirements for online electronic dashboards for disease outbreak response.
Bousema, Teun; Youssef, Randa M; Cook, Jackie; Cox, Jonathan; Alegana, Victor A; Amran, Jamal; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris
Areas in which malaria is not highly endemic are suitable for malaria elimination, but assessing transmission is difficult because of lack of sensitivity of commonly used methods. We evaluated serologic markers for detecting variation in malaria exposure in Somalia. Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax was not detected by microscopy in cross-sectional surveys of samples from persons during the dry (0/1,178) and wet (0/1,128) seasons. Antibody responses against P. falciparum or P. vivax were detected in 17.9% (179/1,001) and 19.3% (202/1,044) of persons tested. Reactivity against P. falciparum was significantly different between 3 villages (p<0.001); clusters of seroreactivity were present. Distance to the nearest seasonal river was negatively associated with P. falciparum (p = 0.028) and P. vivax seroreactivity (p = 0.016). Serologic markers are a promising tool for detecting spatial variation in malaria exposure and evaluating malaria control efforts in areas where transmission has decreased to levels below the detection limit of microscopy.
Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T
The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.
Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan
Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W
Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.
Liddle, Karin Fischer; Elema, Riekje; Thi, Sein Sein; Greig, Jane; Venis, Sarah
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides TB treatment in Galkayo and Marere in Somalia. MSF international supervisory staff withdrew in 2008 owing to insecurity but maintained daily communication with Somali staff. In this paper, we aimed to assess the feasibility of treating TB in a complex emergency setting and describe the programme adaptations implemented to facilitate acceptable treatment outcomes. Routinely collected treatment data from 2005-2012 were retrospectively analysed. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with successful outcome (cure or completion versus failure, death and default) were assessed, including the presence of international supervisory staff. Informal interviews were conducted with Somali staff regarding programmatic factors affecting patient management and perceived reasons for default. In total, 6167 patients were admitted (34.8% female; median age 24.0 years [IQR 13.0-38.0 years]). Treatment success was 79% (programme range 69-87%). Presence of international staff did not improve outcomes (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.66-1.09; p=0.27). Perceived reasons for default included being away from family, nomadic group, insecurity, travel cost, need to return to grazing land or feeling better. Despite the challenges, a high percentage of patients were successfully treated. Treatment outcomes were not adversely affected by withdrawal of international supervisory staff.
Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; deCastro, M.; Días, J. M.
SST trends measured in the Somalia region during the southwest monsoon season over the period 1982-2013 have shown the existence of a warming-cooling dipole. The positive spot, with a warming trend on the order of 0.37°C dec-1, is centered around 5.1°N-50.3°E and the negative one, with a trend on the order of -0.43°C dec-1, around 11.1°N-52.2°E. The migration of the Great Whirl (GW) over the last three decades at a speed of -0.3°C dec-1 in longitude and -0.6°C dec-1 in latitude was considered as the possible origin of the SST dipole. The displacement of the GW produces changes in the geostrophic currents which, in turn, generate changes in the amount of advected water from and to coast.
Bennouna, Cyril; van Boetzelaer, Elburg; Rojas, Lina; Richard, Kinyera; Karume, Gang; Nshombo, Marius; Roberts, Leslie; Boothby, Neil
The United Nations' Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism is charged with documenting six grave violations against children in a time of conflict, including attacks on schools. Many of these incidents, however, remain unreported across the globe. This study explores whether or not a local knowledge base of education and child protection actors in North and South Kivu Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in Mogadishu, Somalia, could contribute to a more complete record of attacks on education in those areas. Hundreds of semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants across the three settings, and in total 432 attacks on education were documented. Purposive samples of these reports were verified and a large majority was confirmed. Local non-governmental organisations and education institutions were most knowledgeable about these incidents, but most never reported them to a monitoring authority. The study concludes that attack surveillance and response were largely insufficient, and recommends investing in mechanisms that utilise local knowledge to address these shortcomings. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Yalahow, Abdiasis; Hassan, Mariam; Foster, Angel M
Following two decades of civil war, Somalia recently entered the post-conflict rebuilding phase that has resulted in the rapid proliferation of higher education institutions. Given the high maternal mortality ratio, the federal government has identified the reproductive health education of health service professionals as a priority. Yet little is known about the coverage of contraception, abortion, pregnancy, childbirth, and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in medicine, nursing, or midwifery. In 2016, we conducted a multi-methods study to understand the reproductive health education and training landscape and identify avenues by which development of the next generation of health service professionals could be improved. Our study comprised two components: interviews with 20 key informants and 7 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 48 physicians, nurses, midwives, and medical students. Using the transcripts, memos, and field notes, we employed a multi-phased approach to analyse our data for content and themes. Our findings show that reproductive health education for medical and nursing students is inconsistent and significant content gaps, particularly in abortion and SGBV, exist. Students have few clinical training opportunities and the overarching challenges plaguing higher education in Somalia also impact health professions programmes in Mogadishu. There is currently a window of opportunity to develop creative strategies to improve the breadth and depth of evidence-based education and training, and multi-stakeholder engagement and the promotion of South-South exchanges appear warranted.
Henning-Smith, Carrie; Shippee, Tetyana P; McAlpine, Donna; Hardeman, Rachel; Farah, Farhiya
We examined differences in self-reported mental health (SRMH) between US-born and Somalia-born Black Americans compared with White Americans. We tested how SRMH was affected by stigma toward seeing a mental health provider, discrimination in the health care setting, or symptoms of depression. Data were from a 2008 survey of adults in Minnesota and were limited to US-born and Somalia-born Black and White Americans (n = 938). Somalia-born adults were more likely to report better SRMH than either US-born Black or White Americans. They also reported lower levels of discrimination (18.6%) than US-born Black Americans (33.4%), higher levels of stigma (23.6% vs 4.7%), and lower levels of depressive symptoms (9.1% vs 31.6%). Controlling for stigma, discrimination, and symptomatology, Somalia-born Black Americans reported better SRMH than White and Black Americans (odds ratio = 4.76). Mental health programming and health care providers who focus on Black Americans' mental health might be missing important sources of heterogeneity. It is essential to consider the role of race and ethnicity, but also of nativity, in mental health policy and programming.
Ahmed, Mumina M.
Five day care centers in Mogadiscio, the capital city of Somalia, were studied to (1) identify problems encountered in teaching a course in child care; (2) observe teaching methods and assess their effectiveness; (3) ascertain reasons for the lack of preservice training for day care teachers; and (4) develop a new syllabus for a course in child…
The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.
Full Text Available After the collapse of Siyad Barre' regime, Somalia lost any form of agricultural research with negative consequences on food availability and seed sector stability. A fi rst step to restore food security can be represented by enhancing local genetic resources. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a very important crop in rainfed areas of Somalia serving as primary source of food and forage. Eight morphological and productive characteristics were chosen to assess the phenotypic variability of 7 accessions from South Somalia. Univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (discriminant and cluster analysis methods were used to assess the productive variation within the accession and to group the 7 accessions into clusters based on quantitative characters. The results showed that there is a wide morpho-agronomical diversity among accessions, especially regarding specifi c features suitable for different purpose, such as grain and/or forage production. Moreover the landraces were able to grow and produce under harsh environmental conditions. The gathered information can be used to promote the conservation and future improvement of local sorghum landraces, thus aiding in the stabilisation of a secure and sustainable food resource for farmers of southern Somalia.
Doubkova, M.; Bartsch, A.; Wagner, W.
Large and widely dispersed populations in Somalia depend on pastoralism and on rainfed and irrigated farming. Droughts and floods that have plagued the country in the course of its history were critical for the herders and farmers and have often initiated long-lasting food crises. Recently, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) has initiated collaborative activities to identify and quantify the physical causes of drought for better understanding of this phenomenon and better addressing the humanitarian aid in Somalia. The soil moisture was identified as one of the parameter that may improve the drought assessment studies in Somalia. The poor accessibility and long-lasting conflicts in Somalia region caused periods of missing values in the meteorological networks that complicate or disable further weather analyses. In this study, a comparison of operational available spatial soil moisture dataset from active microwave sensor with 50 km spatial resolution - ASCAT scatterometer - with existing in-situ rainfall data is performed. The ASCAT data are processed at the Vienna University of Technology (TU WIEN), and recently became operationally available via EUMETCAST. Together with its predecessor - ERS 1/2 - the ASCAT/ERS scatterometers embrace period of 1992 until recent with existing gap over Somalia (2001-2007). The rainfall data were provided by the SWALIM organization. The focus is brought on the ability of the ASCAT scatterometer to detect first rains in the season that dictate the schedule of agricultural activities from land preparation, crop variety to selection to planting. Further, the ability to detect moisture deviations with coarse resolution soil moisture data is studied. The remote sensing data are especially important for countries like Somalia with the poor field accessibility. The improved understanding of the soil moisture data from active microwave sensor may help in interpolating data from existing in-situ networks both
Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1–3 Mohamed Yusuf Ahmed,4 Prabhjot Kour,2 Sadiyo Ali Moallim,5 Abdulwahab Moallim Salad,3 Bernadette Kumar2 1Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Department of Health, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science, 2Department for Research, Norwegian Centre for Minority Health Research, Oslo, Norway; 3Center for Health Research, Somali National University, 4Department of Business Management, Simad University, 5Faculty of Medicine, Benadir University, Mogadishu, Somalia Background: In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as “access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price”. Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia’s largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people’s trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country.Methods: A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis.Results: Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country’s citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging – including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up – which
Abdalla, E; Ekanem, E; Said, D; Arube, P; Gboun, M; Mohammed, F
The prolonged civil strife in the North-West Zone of Somalia (Somaliland) has hampered the development of social infrastructure and public health services. There are limited data on HIV/AIDS. In 2004, a sentinel HIV seroprevalence survey was conducted. Blood samples were collected from 1561 women attending antenatal care clinics, 249 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 243 people attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Samples were tested for syphilis and HIV. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.4%, significantly higher than that observed in many other countries in the Region. Prevalence was 1.2% among pregnant women 15-24 years, 12.3% among patients with STD and 5.6% among TB patients. The prevalence of syphilis was 1.3% in the pregnant women.
Full Text Available Although currently on a declining trend, large scale piracy off the coast of Somalia cannot be safely dismissed as a thing of the past: since the mid-2000s, piracy in the Western Indian Ocean has put in peril the international and regional security. Maritime threats are interdependent, asymmetric, persistent, shifting and generated by manifold and mutually-reinforcing root causes, hence their high probability of recurrence or relocation in the absence of a generally improved and self-sustaining security environment. Confronted with these complex challenges, numerous state and non-state actors have taken steps to prevent, mitigate or suppress piracy off the Somali coast. Within the security governance framework, the present paper outlines the major actors activating in the counter-piracy field in the region and their specific responses, focusing on the comprehensive measures undertaken by the EU in this realm.
Kinyoki, Damaris K; Berkley, James A; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Noor, Abdisalan M
To determine the sub-national seasonal prevalence and trends in wasting from 2007 to 2010 among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia using remote sensing and household survey data from nutritional surveys. Bayesian hierarchical space-time model was implemented using a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach in integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) to produce risk maps of wasting at 1 × 1 km(2) spatial resolution and predict to seasons in each year of study from 2007 to 2010. The prevalence of wasting was generally at critical levels throughout the country, with most of the areas remaining in the upper classes of critical and very critical levels. There was minimal variation in wasting from year-to-year, but a well-defined seasonal variation was observed. The mean difference of the prevalence of wasting between the dry and wet season ranges from 0% to 5%. The risks of wasting in the South Central zone were highest in the Gedo (37%) and Bay (32%) regions. In North East zone the risk was highest in Nugaal (25%) and in the North West zone the risk was high in Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed regions with 23%. There was a clear seasonal variation in wasting with minimal year-to-year variability from 2007 to 2010 in Somalia. The prevalence was high during the long dry season, which affects the prevalence in the preceding long rainy season. Understanding the seasonal fluctuations of wasting in different locations and at different times is important to inform timely interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kinyoki, Damaris K; Berkley, James A; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Noor, Abdisalan M
Objective To determine the sub-national seasonal prevalence and trends in wasting from 2007 to 2010 among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia using remote sensing and household survey data from nutritional surveys. Methods Bayesian hierarchical space–time model was implemented using a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach in integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) to produce risk maps of wasting at 1 × 1 km2 spatial resolution and predict to seasons in each year of study from 2007 to 2010. Results The prevalence of wasting was generally at critical levels throughout the country, with most of the areas remaining in the upper classes of critical and very critical levels. There was minimal variation in wasting from year-to-year, but a well-defined seasonal variation was observed. The mean difference of the prevalence of wasting between the dry and wet season ranges from 0% to 5%. The risks of wasting in the South Central zone were highest in the Gedo (37%) and Bay (32%) regions. In North East zone the risk was highest in Nugaal (25%) and in the North West zone the risk was high in Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed regions with 23%. Conclusion There was a clear seasonal variation in wasting with minimal year-to-year variability from 2007 to 2010 in Somalia. The prevalence was high during the long dry season, which affects the prevalence in the preceding long rainy season. Understanding the seasonal fluctuations of wasting in different locations and at different times is important to inform timely interventions. PMID:26919757
Gele, Abdi A; Bø, Bente P; Sundby, Johanne
Female circumcision is a major public health problem that largely contributes to the ill-health of women and their children globally. Accordingly, the international community is committed to take all possible measures to abolish the practice that is internationally considered to be absolutely intolerable. While the practice is a social tradition shared by people in 28 African countries, there is no country on earth where FC is more prevalent than in Somalia. Yet, since the early 1990s, there is no quantitative study that has investigated whether the perception towards the practice among Somali men and women in Somalia has improved or not. Thus, this cross-sectional quantitative study examines the attitudes toward the practice among people in Hargeisa, Somalia. A cross-sectional study of 215 randomly selected persons, including both men and women, was conducted in Hargeisa, Somalia from July to September of 2011. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires, with questions including the circumcision status of the female participants, the type of circumcision, if one has the intention to circumcise his/her daughter, whether one supports the continuation or discontinuation of the practice and men's perceptions toward having an uncircumcised woman as a wife. The findings show that 97% of the study's participants were circumcised with no age differences. Of this, 81% were subjected to Type 3, while 16% were subjected to either Type 1 or 2 and only 3% were left uncircumcised. Approximately 85% of the respondents had intention to circumcise their daughters, with 13% were planning the most radical form. Among men, 96% preferred to marry circumcised women, whereas overall, 90% of respondents supported the continuation of the practice. The vast majority of the study's respondents had a good knowledge of the negative health effects of female circumcision. In multivariate logistic regressions, with an adjustment for all other important variables, female
A few international energy companies have shown strong interest in the northern regions of Somalia for the exploration of oil, particularly since Somalia shares geological trends with Yemen and Sudan, both of which have prolific hydrocarbon basins. Two Calgary lawyers have been working with the government of Somalia in developing a new set of oil and gas laws. After decades of repression, Iraq's Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) has now asked one of the lawyers to also help develop their laws. Unlike the Somalis who live in a region where hydrocarbons have barely been explored, the Kurds live in a mountainous region with one of the world's largest hydrocarbon basins. The lawyers began by teaching the Somalis the basics of petroleum legal practices and designing Somalia's new system. This article emphasized that the task of creating a foundation for the petroleum legal system is quite similar for both regions, in terms of who is entitled to the resource and how much will be shared with foreign companies in return for investment and expertise. The Somalis have asked for advice on the best way to divide profits between the state and the foreign investor. This article also discussed the political challenges facing the Kurds in terms of negotiating their own exploration and development contracts in Iraq. One of the greatest challenges is that when a new Iraq National Oil Company was created, it was given basically every current field in the country, even those in Kurdistan. While oil companies prefer concession regimes, Iraq offers 3 different types of contracts, namely Production Sharing Agreements, service contracts and risk exploration contracts. 4 figs.
Gele, Abdi A; Ahmed, Mohamed Yusuf; Kour, Prabhjot; Moallim, Sadiyo Ali; Salad, Abdulwahab Moallim; Kumar, Bernadette
In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as "access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price". Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia's largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people's trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country. A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country's citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging - including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up - which inflates the costs. The study also found poor patient-provider relationship and widespread distrust of the private health care system. The study findings underline the need for the Somali government to develop regulatory mechanisms and guidelines with the potential to guide the private health care sector to provide equitable and affordable health care to people in Mogadishu. The doctor-patient relationship has been - and remains - a keystone of care; thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for private health care providers to treat their patients with
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Wallace, Aaron; Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Nandy, Robin; Durry, Elias; Everard, Marthe
Child Health Days (CHDs) are increasingly used by countries to periodically deliver multiple maternal and child health interventions as time-limited events, particularly to populations not reached by routine health services. In countries with a weak health infrastructure, this strategy could be used to reach many underserved populations with an integrated package of services. In this study, we estimate the incremental costs, impact, cost-effectiveness, and return on investment of 2 rounds of CHDs that were conducted in Somalia in 2009 and 2010. We use program costs and population estimates reported by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to estimate the average cost per beneficiary for each of 9 interventions delivered during 2 rounds of CHDs implemented during the periods of December 2008 to May 2009 and August 2009 to April 2010. Because unstable areas were unreachable, we calculated costs for targeted and accessible beneficiaries. We model the impact of the CHDs on child mortality using the Lives Saved Tool, convert these estimates of mortality reduction to life years saved, and derive the cost-effectiveness ratio and the return on investment. The estimated average incremental cost per intervention for each targeted beneficiary was $0.63, with the cost increasing to $0.77 per accessible beneficiary. The CHDs were estimated to save the lives of at least 10,000, or 500,000 life years for both rounds combined. The CHDs were cost-effective at $34.00/life year saved. For every $1 million invested in the strategy, an estimated 615 children's lives, or 29,500 life years, were saved. If the pentavalent vaccine had been delivered during the CHDs instead of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, an additional 5000 children's lives could have been saved. Despite high operational costs, CHDs are a very cost-effective service delivery strategy for addressing the leading causes of child mortality in a conflict setting like Somalia and compare
Weigmann, Simon; Kaschner, Carina Julia
A new very small deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus vivaldii, is described based on two female specimens caught off Somalia in the northwestern Indian Ocean during the German 'Valdivia' expedition in 1899. It is morphologically closest to the recently described B. bachi, which is the only other Bythaelurus species in the western Indian Ocean that shares a stout body of large specimens and the presence of oral papillae. It further resembles B. vivaldii in the broad mouth and broad posterior head, but differs in the presence of composite oral papillae and a higher diversity in dermal denticle morphology. Additionally, the new species differs from all congeners in the western Indian Ocean in a larger pre-second dorsal fin length, a longer head, a larger interdorsal space, a larger intergill length, a longer pectoral-fin posterior margin, a shorter caudal fin, an intermediate caudal fin preventral margin, and a larger internarial width. Furthermore, the second dorsal fin of the new species is smaller than in its congeners in the western Indian Ocean except for B. lutarius, which is easily distinguished by the slender body and virtual absence of oral papillae, as well as the aforementioned further characters. An updated key to all valid species of Bythaelurus is provided.
Dr. Jean-Paul Gagnon
Full Text Available This work will try to analyse China’s naval policy off the Somali coast. The maincontribution this work will attempt to make is to offer evidence concerningwhether China’s anti-pirating policies in the Gulf of Aden are more for thebenefit of the international community, China’s own strategic interest (apolitical economy outlook, or diplomatic growth. This work may be importantas it could contribute to our understanding of China’s current foreign policy toa slightly better degree. This will be attempted in the first instance by analysingthe literature concerning China’s humanitarian policies in Africa to establish asense of the literature on this subject. In the second instance, we will examinethe official foreign policy stance provided to the international community bythe current administration in China. And finally, in the third instance, we willcomparatively analyse if the policy statement is logically compatible with theextant literature. The analytical structure used to do so is Charmaz’s (2006grounded theory methodology. This study shows that China’s foreign navalpolicy off the coast of Somalia is probably a mix of humanitarian, economic,and international diplomatic goals.
Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M
Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has
Torrado Soto, Jacklyn Joelle
Dado que actualmente las instituciones internacionales después de la reconfiguración del sistema tras el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y materializado aún más después de la Guerra Fría, han cobrado un papel alterno fundamental; es necesario entender el trasfondo de las intervenciones que ha realizado las Naciones Unidas (ONU) en Somalia frente a la crisis alimentaria. Teniendo como precedente dos intervenciones fallidas, la iniciativa actual de asistencia humanitaria de las instituciones a...
Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Alberto; Bartolini, Laura; Pecile, Patrizia; Trotta, Michele; Rogasi, Pier Giorgio; Santini, Maria Grazia; Dilaghi, Beatrice; Grifoni, Stefano; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro
Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by Pediculus humanus humanus, is the etiological agent of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). Currently the main focus of endemicity of LBRF is localized in East African countries. From July 2015 to October 2015, 36 cases of LBRF have been diagnosed in Europe in immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Here we report a case of LBRF with meningitis diagnosed in Florence, Italy, in an immigrant arrived from Somalia. In October 2015, a 19-year-old Somali male presented to the emergency department of the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy, with a 3-day history of high fever. The patient had disembarked in Sicily 10 days before admission after a long migration trip from his country of origin. On clinical examination, neck stiffness was found. Main laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, increased procalcitonin, and increased polymorphonucleates in the cerebrospinal fluid. Suspecting a possible meningitis, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone, pending results of laboratory testing for malaria, and developed severe hypotension that was treated with fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone. Hemoscopic testing revealed the presence of spirochetes and no malaria parasites. The patient rapidly improved with doxycycline for 7 days and ceftriaxone for 11 days, then was lost to follow-up. Total DNA from blood was extracted, and amplification and sequencing with universal 16S rDNA primers D88 and E94 revealed a 100% identity with B. recurrentis A1. LBRF is a rare but emerging infectious disease among vulnerable displaced immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Since immigrants from endemic areas can carry the vector with them, the infection should be suspected even in subjects with compatible clinical features living in the same place where new arrival immigrants are hosted. Healthcare providers should be aware of this condition to implement adequate diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health measures.
Yoong, W; Kolhe, S; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Ullah, M; Nauta, M
Little published research exists regarding obstetric performance of immigrant women in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to evaluate the obstetric performance and fetal outcomes of Somalian women who received prenatal care and requested to deliver at a teaching hospital in North London. This is a case-control study in which consecutive Somalian women were identified as index cases and the subsequent British-born Caucasian women listed in the delivery book served as controls. 69 index and 69 control cases were analyzed. Fifty-five percent of the Somalian women spoke little or no English. Half (50%) had undergone circumcision, the majority being type I WHO classification of female genital circumcision, which did not require significant surgical intervention prior to labor; 13% had cesarean sections, 13% instrumental vaginal deliveries, and 74% had vaginal deliveries. The Somalian women had higher parity (2.35 vs. 1.18) and were more likely to be grand multiparous (9/69 vs. 1/69) compared to controls. Epidural use was less frequent in Somalian women, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to maternal age, rates of induction of labor, cesarean sections, duration of labor, premature deliveries, instrumental deliveries, and birth weights. The demographic characteristics of the Somalian female population appear to exert minimal effect on obstetric and fetal outcomes. This may be due to the increased vigilance exercised by health professionals as well as to the fact that recent arrivals are from more urban and westernized areas in Somalia.
Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin
The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.
The Role of National Adult Education Centre in Curriculum Development in Somalia in Selected Government Primary Adult Schools of Mogadisho. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation, No. 109.
Bahar, Ismail F. S.
A study of curriculum development in Somalia focused on the role of the National Adult Education Centre (NAEC) and involvement of teachers and inspectors. The sample consisted of 80 Mogadisho primary adult school teachers. Information sources were related literature, teacher questionnaires, and unstructured interviews with school inspectors,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. Methods In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. Results Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12 and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%. The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p Conclusion Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of khat and the onset of psychotic symptoms among the male
Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tempia, Stefano; Otieno, F Tom; Aden, Hussein H; Costagli, Riccardo
disease surveillance and control activities for rinderpest in Somalia. The methodology applied here, involving spatial and network parameters, could also be applied to other diseases and/or species as part of a standardized approach for the design of risk-based surveillance activities in nomadic pastoral settings.
Gele, Abdi A; Ahmed, Mohamed Yusuf; Kour, Prabhjot; Moallim, Sadiyo Ali; Salad, Abdulwahab Moallim; Kumar, Bernadette
Background In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as “access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price”. Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia’s largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people’s trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country. Methods A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Results Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country’s citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging – including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up – which inflates the costs. The study also found poor patient–provider relationship and widespread distrust of the private health care system. Conclusion The study findings underline the need for the Somali government to develop regulatory mechanisms and guidelines with the potential to guide the private health care sector to provide equitable and affordable health care to people in Mogadishu. The doctor–patient relationship has been – and remains – a keystone of care; thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for
Gargano, Lisa M; Hajjeh, Rana; Cookson, Susan T
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children less than five years old during humanitarian emergencies. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the leading causes of bacterial pneumonia. Vaccines for both of these pathogens are available to prevent pneumonia. Problem This study describes an economic analysis from a publicly funded health care system perspective performed on a birth cohort in Somalia, a country that has experienced a protracted humanitarian emergency. An impact and cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing: no vaccine, Hib vaccine only, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 10 (PCV10) only, and both together administered through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). The main summary measure was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted for uncertainty in parameter values. Each SIA would avert a substantial number of cases and deaths. Compared with no vaccine, the DALYs averted by two SIAs for two doses of Hib vaccine was US $202.93 (lower and upper limits: $121.80-$623.52), two doses of PCV10 was US $161.51 ($107.24-$227.21), and two doses of both vaccines was US $152.42 ($101.20-$214.42). Variables that influenced the cost-effectiveness for each strategy most substantially were vaccine effectiveness, case fatality rates (CFRs), and disease burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a cost-effective intervention as costing one to three times the per capita gross domestic product (GDP; in 2011, for Somalia=US $112). Based on the presented model, Hib vaccine alone, PCV10 alone, or Hib vaccine and PCV10 given together in SIAs are cost-effective interventions in Somalia. The WHO/Strategic Advisory Group of Experts decision-making factors for vaccine deployment appear to have all been met: the disease burden is large, the vaccine-related risk is low, prevention in this setting is more feasible than treatment, the vaccine
Los obstáculos en la construcción de un estado en Somalia frente a los logros relativos en Somalilandia | The obstacles to the construction of a State in Somalia in light of the relative achievements in the Somaliland state
Alejandro POZO MARÍN
Full Text Available Desde 1991, Somalia es una nación sin estado. Somalilandia, una de sus regiones, consiguió en cambio formar una estructura estatal independiente poco después del colapso general. Entre los cuantiosos y complejos factores que intentarían explicar la diferente evolución de los hechos en ambos territorios, cabe destacar, por su relevancia, cuatro: la manipulación del clan y las disputas internas en las facciones armadas; la violencia extendida, favorecida por las continuas transferencias de armas que violan el embargo de la ONU; la injerencia de varios países que buscaban satisfacer sus propios intereses incluso a costa de perpetuar los problemas en Somalia; y, finalmente, los escasos recursos de todo tipo de los que disponía el país para construir un estado junto a la descarada impunidad demostrada en los procesos de formación de gobierno, plagado de caciques. Ni los 14 procesos políticos acontecidos en la última década y media ni el periodo de relativa estabilidad proporcionado por la Unión de Tribunales Islámicos fueron capaces de mejorar el bienestar de la castigada población somalí. Since 1991, Somalia has been a nation without state. In contrast, Somaliland, one of its regions, has managed to form an independent state structure shortly after the general collapse. Among the numerous and complex factors that could explain the differing evolutions of these two territories, four of them are distinguished by their relevance: clan manipulation and internal disputes between armed factions; rampant violence, favoured by the constant arms traffic that violates the UN embargo; the interference of different states trying to satisfy their own interests, even at the expense of perpetuating the problems in Somalia; and finally, the scarcity of resources necessary for state-building, as well as the existence of the blatant impunity demonstrated throughout the government formation process, heavily manipulated by local tyrants. None of the
Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War the United Nations gave to Italy a special protectorate on the own former colony by the International Trusteeship System of Somalia, which concludes in 1960. During the Fifties there are many relationships between the italian men and the somali women: from these liaisons there are a lot of children which have different destinies and their history represents one of the heredity of the italian past in Africa. From this italo-somali métissage, rises an association who asks the recognition of all the pains suffered by a part of that community and in the same time it asks a collective reflections of the historic memories about the Trusteeship System.
Zachariah, R; Bienvenue, B; Ayada, L; Manzi, M; Maalim, A; Engy, E; Jemmy, J P; Ibrahim Said, A; Hassan, A; Abdulrahaman, F; Abdulrahman, O; Bseiso, J; Amin, H; Michalski, D; Oberreit, J; Draguez, B; Stokes, C; Reid, T; Harries, A D
In a district hospital in conflict-torn Somalia, we assessed (i) the impact of introducing telemedicine on the quality of paediatric care, and (ii) the added value as perceived by local clinicians. A 'real-time' audio-visual exchange of information on paediatric cases (Audiosoft Technologies, Quebec, Canada) took place between clinicians in Somalia and a paediatrician in Nairobi. The study involved a retrospective analysis of programme data, and a perception study among the local clinicians. Of 3920 paediatric admissions, 346 (9%) were referred for telemedicine. In 222 (64%) children, a significant change was made to initial case management, while in 88 (25%), a life-threatening condition was detected that had been initially missed. There was a progressive improvement in the capacity of clinicians to manage complicated cases as demonstrated by a significant linear decrease in changes to initial case management for meningitis and convulsions (92-29%, P = 0.001), lower respiratory tract infection (75-45%, P = 0.02) and complicated malnutrition (86-40%, P = 0.002). Adverse outcomes (deaths and lost to follow-up) fell from 7.6% in 2010 (without telemedicine) to 5.4% in 2011 with telemedicine (30% reduction, odds ratio 0.70, 95% CI: 0.57-0.88, P = -0.001). The number needed to be treated through telemedicine to prevent one adverse outcome was 45. All seven clinicians involved with telemedicine rated it to be of high added value. The introduction of telemedicine significantly improved quality of paediatric care in a remote conflict setting and was of high added value to distant clinicians. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah
Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.
of the Ogaden. At that time the WSLF could count on about 6,000 men in well-disciplined units, an unspecified but reportedly substantial percentage of...the saint at his tomb, pil- grims journey there to seek aid (such as a cure for illness or infertil - ity). Members of the saint’s order also visit the... Nigeria , Liberia, Senegal, Sudan, Camneroon, Tanza- nia, Mauritania, and Lesotho) under the chairmanship of the Nige- rian foreign minister to mediate
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Low and Middle Income Countries, mental health services are often poorly developed due to the lack of resources and trained personnel. In order to overcome these challenges, new ways of care have been suggested such as a focus on community-based services. In Somalia, the consumption of the natural stimulant khat is highly prevalent, aggravating mental illness. At the same time, mental health care is largely unavailable to the vast majority of the population. In a pilot project, we tested possibilities for effective measures in community-based out-patient mental health care. Methods Thirty-five male patients with chronic psychotic disorders and their carers were involved in a 10-months follow-up study. All of them abused khat. Seventeen outpatients experiencing acute psychotic episodes were recruited from the community and received an intensive six week home-based treatment package. Additionally eighteen patients with chronic psychotic disorders in remission were recruited either following hospital discharge or from the community. In a second phase of the study, both groups received community-based relapse prevention that differed in the degree of the family’s responsibility for the treatment. The treatment package was comprised of psycho-education, low-dose neuroleptic treatment, monthly home visits and counseling. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS was applied three times. Additionally, we assessed functioning, khat use and other outcomes. Results Of the 35 patients enrolled in the study, 33 participated in the 10-month follow-up. Outpatients improved significantly in the first six weeks of treatment and did not differ from remitted patients at the start of the second treatment phase. In the preventive treatment phase, we find heterogeneous outcomes that diverge between symptom and functioning domains. With the exception of depressive symptoms, symptoms in all patients tended to worsen. The outpatient group had
Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: a Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China.
Johnsson, Ewa; Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F
Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants' capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. The study investigated whether immigrants' experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Immigrants' long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin
The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M
A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.
Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: A Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China
Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F
Background: Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants’ capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. Aims: The study investigated whether immigrants’ experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. Methods: The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Results: Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Conclusions: Immigrants’ long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. PMID:24927925
Full Text Available ‘True’ Stories and Heroines in Novels: The Representation of Somalia in Ilaria Alpi: The Young Woman Who Wanted to Narrate Hell and Don’t Tell Me You Are AfraidThis article analyses Gigliola Alvisi’s Ilaria Alpi: La ragazza che voleva raccontare l’inferno [Ilaria Alpi: The Young Woman Who Wanted to Narrate the Hell] (2014 and Giuseppe Catozzella’s Non dirmi che hai paura [Don’t Tell Me You Are Afraid] (2014, two novels that deal with two recent events in Somali and Italian history, the killing of the journalist Ilaria Alpi in Mogadishu in 1994 and the death of Samia Yosuf Omar while she was trying to reach the Italian shores from Libya by boat. Alvisi’s text is analysed in comparison with other fictional and journalistic representations of Ilaria Alpi, while Non dirmi che hai paura is examined through what Catozzella considers the two constitutive dimensions of the novel: documentation and identification. Drawing on Stefano Jossa’s reflections on the construction of literary heroes, the article challenges Alvisi’s and Catozzella’s claims that they represent ‘true stories’. The article also argues that the main characters of these literary works are portrayed as heroines and role models for the emancipation of Muslim women.
Valderrama Franco, Julieth Katherine
La creación de un entorno seguro para otorgar la ayuda humanitaria a la población somalí, fue un desafío de proporciones internacionales, en el que la máxima potencia del mundo, Estados y organizaciones, vieron fracasar todos los proyectos tanto en forma de ayudas como en estrategias y operaciones. Las razones de este fracaso de carácter mundial, debido a que representó una amenaza para la paz y la seguridad internacional, todavía se pueden evidenciar en Somalia; este país continúa siendo un...
Ope, Maurice; Nyoka, Raymond; Unshur, Ahmed; Oyier, Fredrick O; Mowlid, Shafe A; Owino, Brian; Ochieng, Steve B; Okello, Charles I; Montgomery, Joel M; Wagacha, Burton; Galev, Aleksandar; Abdow, Abdikadir; Esona, Mathew D; Tate, Jacqueline; Fitter, David; Cookson, Susan T; Arunmozhi, Balajee; Marano, Nina
AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT! ® Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged < 5 years hospitalized with acute diarrhea, defined as ≥ 3 episodes of loose stool in 24 hours for < 7 days. Stool samples were collected and tested by trained surveillance clerks using ICS-RV per manufacturer's instructions. The field performance characteristics of ICS-RV were evaluated against the gold standard test, Premier ™ Rotaclone ® enzyme immunoassay. The operational characteristics were evaluated using World Health Organization (WHO) ASSURED criteria to determine whether ICS-RV is appropriate as a point-of-care test by administering a standard questionnaire and observing surveillance clerks performing the test. We enrolled 213 patients with a median age of 10 months (range = 1-48); 58.2% were male. A total of 71 (33.3%) and 60 (28.2%) patients tested positive for rotavirus infection by immunoassay and ICS-RV, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICS-RV compared with the immunoassay were 83.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.3-91.0), 99.3% (95% CI = 96.1-100), 98.3% (95% CI = 91.1-100), and 92.1% (95% CI = 86.6-95.5), respectively. The ICS-RV fulfilled the WHO ASSURED criteria for point-of-care testing. ICS-RV is a field-ready point-of-care test with good field performance and operational characteristics. It can be useful in determining rotavirus outbreaks in resource-limited settings.
Lamkaddem, Majda; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Devillé, Walter; Gerritsen, Annette; Stronks, Karien
Worldwide, refugees show a poorer mental and physical health than the populations among which they resettle. Little is known about the factors influencing health after resettlement. We examined the development of mental and physical health of refugees. As experienced living difficulties might decrease with obtaining a residence permit, we expected this to play a central role in health improvement after resettlement. A two-wave study conducted in the Netherlands among a cohort of 172 recent (n = 68) and longstanding (n = 104) permit holders from Afghanistan, Iran and Somalia between 2003 and 2011. Multivariate mediation analyses were conducted for the effect of changes in living difficulties on the association between change in status and changes in health. Health outcomes were self-reported general health, number of chronic conditions, PTSD and anxiety/depression. Recent permit holders had larger decreases in PTSD score (-0.402, CI -0.612; -0.192) and anxiety/depression score (-0.298, CI -0.464; -0.132), and larger improvements in self-rated general health between T1 and T2 (0.566, CI 0.183; 0.949) than longstanding permit holders. This association was not significant for changes in number of chronic conditions. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of getting a residence permit on health improvements transited through an improvement in living conditions, in particular employment and the presence of family/social support. These results suggest that change in residence permit is beneficial for health mainly because of the change in living difficulties. These results add up to the evidence on the role of social circumstances for refugees upon resettlement, and point at labour participation and social support as key mechanisms for health improvements. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
government, has remained stable and continues efforts to establish a constitutional ... 10 countries internationally. ... second comprised 3 paediatricians, 6 dieticians, 2 nurses, 7 general practitioners, 3 orthopaedic surgeons, 3 anaesthetists, 1 emergency ... and relief efforts go beyond dropping food parcels, treating patients.
Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.
salt water lagoons and transmits malaria along coastal areas. At least 75% of the population suffers from one or more types of intestinal parasites ...public health status and medical developments. Current disease risk assessments, additional information on other parasitic and infectious diseases, and...Horn of Africa is bordered by the Gulf of Aden on the north, the Indian Ocean on the east and south, and Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya on the west
Full Text Available Involving IDPs, host communities and international agenciesin thinking about the city, the quality of life and economicopportunities in Bossaso has led to significant improvements insettlement organisation and shelter provision for displaced people.
Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are often considered to lack legitimacy as potential counterparts in building security institutions but when they are in fact in control, this point of view has to be reviewed...
... reference books, photocopies, credit reports, transcripts of statements, registered mail, insurance... alia, the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701- 1706), the National Emergencies... section. Note 2 to Sec. 551.201: Section 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...
Olsen, Gorm Rye
-Kenyan origin who pursued their own interests. Security and economic concerns did play a role, while the paper dismisses that the invasion can be understood as a consequence of the Kenyan government pursuing an ‘international image management strategy’. Theoretically, the paper concludes that ‘Western’ theories...
Iliolfiman-LaRoche, Nutleyý. N.1) three tablets at once on the last day of quinine Although ongoing research may ultimately yield an effec- a1diniiistiation...resistance ’Tuberculosis to isoniazid , rilanipin, streptomycin, and ethambutol; 78% of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the four drugs...administration of streptomycin, isoniazid , The leishmanial diseases of humans are commonly divided and thiacetazone followed by a 9-month maintenance regi
Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an ...
David R. Davis, "The Third Leg of the Kantian Tripod for Peace: International Organizations and Militarized Disputes, 1950-1985," International...of American Omnipotence." Harper’s MagazineDecember 1952. Bruce Russett, John R. Oneal, David R. Davis. "The Third Leg of the Kantian Tripod for
The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia.
Jelle, Mohamed; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; King, Sarah; Cox, Cassy L; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Morrison, Joanna; Colbourn, Timothy; Fottrell, Edward; Seal, Andrew J
The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP) in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6-59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide funding for this study. The European Civil Protection and
The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. Methods/design A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6–59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6–59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide
hijacked. In 2009, the Ukrainian-owned ship, MV Faina, which was carrying 33 T-72 tanks and other weapons and a Japanese -owned ship, MV Chemstar, were...characterized as extremist and jihadist. The ICU was accused of shutting down cinemas and prohibiting women from working. Some of these measures were
Kismayo. The SSNM was the political and military arm of the Biyemal clan of the Dir clan-family. There also were several religious -based factions...reverence and rap- prochement, has been replaced by the conference hall. Yet the promises made here are no less sacred or bind- ing. Therefore, we
Ameh, Charles; Adegoke, Adetoro; Hofman, Jan; Ismail, Fouzia M; Ahmed, Fatuma M; van den Broek, Nynke
To provide and evaluate in-service training in "Life Saving Skills - Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care" in order to improve the availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Somaliland. In total, 222 healthcare providers (HCPs) were trained between January 2007 and December 2009. A before-after study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate trainee reaction and change in knowledge, skills, and behavior, in addition to functionality of healthcare facilities, during and immediately after training, and at 3 and 6 months post-training. The HCPs reacted positively to the training, with a significant improvement in 50% of knowledge and 100% of skills modules assessed. The HCPs reported improved confidence in providing EmOC. Basic and comprehensive EmOC healthcare facilities provided 100% of expected signal functions-compared with 43% and 56%, respectively, at baseline-with trained midwives performing skills usually performed by medical doctors. Lack of drugs, supplies, medical equipment, and supportive policy were identified as barriers that could contribute to nonuse of new skills and knowledge acquired. The training impacted positively on the availability and quality of EmOC and resulted in "up-skilling" of midwives. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, John T; El Bushra, Hassan; Lebo, Emmaculate J; Bwire, Godfrey; Kiyengo, James; Emukule, Gideon; Omballa, Victor; Tole, John; Zuberi, Muvunyi; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A
In July 2009, WHO and partners were notified of a large outbreak of unknown illness, including deaths, among African Union (AU) soldiers in Mogadishu. Illnesses were characterized by peripheral edema, dyspnea, palpitations, and fever. Our objectives were to determine the cause of the outbreak, and to design and recommend control strategies. The illness was defined as acute onset of lower limb edema, with dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or headache. Investigations in Nairobi and Mogadishu included clinical, epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory studies. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for illness. From April 26, 2009 to May 1, 2010, 241 AU soldiers had lower limb edema and at least one additional symptom; four patients died. At least 52 soldiers were airlifted to hospitals in Kenya and Uganda. Four of 31 hospitalized patients in Kenya had right-sided heart failure with pulmonary hypertension. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal hematologic, metabolic, infectious or toxicological abnormalities. Illness was associated with exclusive consumption of food provided to troops (not eating locally acquired foods) and a high level of insecurity (e.g., being exposed to enemy fire on a daily basis). Because the syndrome was clinically compatible with wet beriberi, thiamine was administered to ill soldiers, resulting in rapid and dramatic resolution. Blood samples taken from 16 cases prior to treatment showed increased levels of erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient, consistent with thiamine deficiency. With mass thiamine supplementation for healthy troops, the number of subsequent beriberi cases decreased with no further deaths reported. An outbreak of wet beriberi caused by thiamine deficiency due to restricted diet occurred among soldiers in a modern, well-equipped army. Vigilance to ensure adequate micronutrient intake must be a priority in populations completely dependent upon nutritional support from external sources.
United States. The force was also provided a complete array of equipment to include weapons, body armor and the R21 MkII “Casper” armoured vehicle.47...interdict Al Shabab finances would be to reduce international donations to their fundraising cells. These cells are hidden within the Somali expatriate
Due to recent political instability and unrest across the Horn of Africa region,. Somaliland (the ... and peak bird breeding season (Ash & Miskell 1998). We entered Somaliland over- .... Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus. A group of c.
the northern Somali coast, but rather to safeguard the supply of meat to their garrison located in Aden.17 In fact, Britain had no intention of...retribution” attack in Ethiopia and the recent 2013 Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya. They are proven players in the Islamic terrorist game . The
Jonathan R. Beloff
Full Text Available The international community has united in its mission to halt the hijacking of merchant ships in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea with a massive naval presence that monitors the vast, strategic seas in which Somali pirates operate. This naval presence consequently has had some success in reducing pirate attacks in 2012, but why are the Somalis turning to piracy in the first place? The economic history of piracy has been well documented with other former “pirate hotspots” worldwide; however, there is little data available on the microeconomic affects of piracy. This article explores the underlying reasons of why Somalis have turned to piracy as a “profession,” and offers recommendations for the international community to eliminate piracy effectively through non-military means.
Section. 5concludes. 2. Literature on federal finance. Federal system is a form of government where power ..... end of 2004 and the adoption of provisional constitution and formation of ..... However, due to its strategic importance .... 7 See Article 11 sub-article 2 (k) and Article 54 of the Addis Ababa City Government Revised.
identity is historically rooted in paternal descent (tol), which is meticulously memorialized in genealogies (abtirsiinyo, reckoning of ancestors...of his maternal kin. Siyad Barre’s “MOD” coalition first led him into the disastrous Ogaden War (1977–78), a clumsy attempt to exploit the chaos of...of a mediating force in managing pragmatic interaction between custom and tradition; Islam and the secular realm of modern nationalism,” leading to
international and legal conditions in the host nation. Examples are: Pepsi , Starbucks, Nike, and Toyota just to mention a few (rateitall.com 2008...to mean free market and, for the poor world, it was defined as doing whatever the IMF and the World Bank tells you to do‖ (Easterly 2008, 1-3...describes a model on the re-establishment of a market economy that can develop if there is a liberal government that is able to instil reform within a
limited U.S. military foot- print, which minimized the risk of U.S. casualties, financial costs, and likelihood of triggering nationalist or religious ...Banaadir Province,” Shahada News Agency, July 11, 2014; “Ali Dheere: We Targeted the French in Djibouti for Their Mas- sacres in Central Africa,” Shahada...the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report, New York: W. W. Norton, 2004, pp. 59–60; Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror
The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate
Mikkelsen, Martin; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W; Zimmermann, Bettina; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Hansen, Anders J; Parson, Walther; Morling, Niels
The African mitochondrial (mt) phylogeny is coarsely resolved but the majority of population data generated so far is limited to the analysis of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-1) of the control region (CR). Therefore, this study aimed on the investigation of the entire CR of 190 unrelated Somali individuals to enrich the severely underrepresented African mtDNA pool. The majority (60.5 %) of the haplotypes were of sub-Saharan origin with L0a1d, L2a1h and L3f being the most frequently observed haplogroups. This is in sharp contrast to previous data reported from the Y-chromosome, where only about 5 % of the observed haplogroups were of sub-Saharan provenance. We compared the genetic distances based on population pairwise F (st) values between 11 published East, Central and North African as well as western Asian populations and the Somali sequences and displayed them in a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Genetic proximity evidenced by clustering roughly reflected the relative geographic location of the populations. The sequences will be included in the EMPOP database ( www.empop.org ) under accession number EMP00397 upon publication (Parson and Dür Forensic Sci Int Genet 1:88-92, 2007).
Full Text Available The role of the recent drought in producing migration cannot be understood in isolation from human practices and past and concurrent political processes. The environmental dimensions of recent displacement prompt a series of policy challenges in relation to prevention, response and rights protection.
Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo
We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan
Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured
Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J
Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
correctly, that such an esteemed lineage is apocryphal, it is still an important founding myth for the Somali people and an indicator of their wish to...urban elites. Flush with money and with access to the halls of power, they used land registration laws (backed with a healthy dollop of armed...node/108486. 345. Nagl, John A. Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam. Paperback ed. Chicago: University
Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah
Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '
and World Order, Draft, Royal Irish Academy, National University of Ireland , Galway (Galway: Centr for Ocean Policy Studies, 2009), 26–27...Kismayo.75 Thus, piracy was transformed by warlord entrepreneurship , in its organization, targets, tactics, and potential profitability beginning in...World Order, Draft, Royal Irish Academy, National University of Ireland , Galway (Galway: Centr for Ocean Policy Studies, 2009), 26–27. Percy, Sara
... 2007: Starting from scratch on the long and winding road to peace and democracy? ... other 40-odd minor tribes falling into the “half” category) blundered into the 21st century without a modern state or its institutions (Mbugua, 2004:26).
membership base, and gave both women and youth active roles in party affairs. This organizing effort to make the PDG representative of all Guineans was...to accept a certain degree of indigenous private enterprise, it has instituted a policy which excludes the entreprenuers from holding party posts...mobilize the nation’s youth 37 and women . To accomplish the first task the PDG leadership made Diallo Saifoulaye (a Foulah) Vice President of the
primary school enrollment increased 100% from 1970 to 1971, and the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis , and other endemic diseases was sharply...reported between Jess and Adn Nur "Gabiyu". Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF). The SSDF was formed in 1979 by members of the Majerteen sub-clan (of...forces. This disarmament agreement took years to forge as well - A U.N. brokered peace agreement was signed in Mexico in January 1992 that began the
This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration and new discovery in Algeria and Libya, birth of a joint venture for the building of a gas pipeline between Ukraine and Europe. The building of another pipeline, between Algeria and Europe, will begin in April 1993. Several agreements for oil and gas fields development in Qatar, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates have been signed. Petroleum industry has criticized energy taxing project in Usa
The fiscal relationships between the federal and state governments are provided in the Constitution addressing the four major components of federal finance. The expenditure assignments among tiers of government appears to be in line with the general principles while taxing power is over concentrated in the hands of ...
weapons storage areas, a Pakistani unit was badly mauled. In a lengthy firefight, Aideed’s militia killed 23 and wounded 59. UNOSOM II’s Malaysian ...Regiment (SOAR), equipped with MH60 Black Hawk utility helicopters and MH6 and AH6 “Little Bird ” light helicopters. Small numbers of communicators...Americans through the night. By most accounts, only the dauntless actions of the AH6 Little Bird pilots, flying all night long, kept the besieged
emerge and are amplified. More specifically, we argue that the relation between cinema and enactments of geopolitical intervention must be understood...the spp found are widely distributed in the Indo- Malaysian area. Database: ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts. Sartoni, G. 1974...Indian ocean is very scarce. The presence of a remarkable percentage of spp that are widely distributed in the Indo- Malaysian area, has been found
This shrub grows in most of the country's arid regions in open bush savanna at 300-1000 m altitude. The nuts contain 37% starch, 25% sugar, 13% protein, 11% fat, and various minerals, and are a staple of peoples in the area. Yicib is also a valuable livestock forage plant and is used as a dye and for firewood. The National Range Agency has designated several reserves to protect the species, and is sponsoring domestication studies.
Mikkelsen, Martin; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.
Somali individuals to enrich the severely underrepresented African mtDNA pool. The majority (60.5 %) of the haplotypes were of sub-Saharan origin with L0a1d, L2a1h and L3f being the most frequently observed haplogroups. This is in sharp contrast to previous data reported from the Y-chromosome, where only...... about 5 % of the observed haplogroups were of sub-Saharan provenance. We compared the genetic distances based on population pairwise F (st) values between 11 published East, Central and North African as well as western Asian populations and the Somali sequences and displayed them in a multi...
M. azadirachta (Azadirachta indica), also known as 'meri-meri', a straight-stemmed evergreen exotic which grows to 18 m height, tolerates 250 mm annual rainfall and dry or saline soils. Primary uses are in shelterbelts and as a soil binder; the timber is used for building, fuelwood (at 10 yr old) and charcoal; the fruits (from 5 yr old) yield oil; and the tree has medicinal uses.
... groups controlling IDP sites. These threats combined with lack of infrastructure and logistical... approximately 535,000 registered Somali refugees at the end of July 2012), Yemen, and Ethiopia. As of January...
unrest, outside stakeholders will always have concerns regarding any signs of institu- tional, economic, political , and social instability . From...predictability, stability , continuity, and security, 40 Political Culture and Risk Analysis MCU Journal serving as a filter for all subsequent (collective...armed conflict and its accompanying instability has remained. 46 Political Culture and Risk Analysis MCU Journal The 30 years preceding 1991 was
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) established in 1981 to serve as the world’s focal point in matters related to maritime crime, there were 293...International Chamber of Commerce , “IMB Reports a Cluster of Pirate Attacks Off the East Coast of Africa.” 3 U.S. National Security Council, Countering Piracy...Counter-Piracy and Combined Task Force 151.” 17 International Chamber of Commerce – International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against
Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...
civilian, constitutional systems have become common across the continent, effectively .... they intended to reunite ethnic Somalis living in Ethiopia and Kenya with their .... entrepreneurs, of which the prime minister claimed no knowledge.
37 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: a Problem Solved?” Naval War College review, summer 2009, 62:3, 37. 38...302 Catherine Zara Raymond, “Piracy in Southeast Asia: new trends, Issues and Responses,” Institute of Defense and strategic Studies Singapore...search.aspx?query=pirates%20threaten%20ship%20traffic %20in%20gulf%20of%20aden (accessed October 4, 2010). Raymond, Catherine Zara . “Piracy and
Asgary, Ramin; Grigoryan, Zoya; Naderi, Ramesh; Allan, Richard
Effectiveness of providing health education solely via mass media and the providers' targeted training in malaria control needs further exploration. During pre-epidemic season, we conducted a qualitative study of 40 providers and community leaders using focus groups, comprehensive semi-structured interviews and consultation observations. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed for major themes. Community leaders believe that they can acquire malaria from contaminated water, animal products, air or garbage. Consequently, they under-utilise bed nets and other protective measures due to perceived continued exposure to other potential malaria sources. Practitioners do not provide individualised health counselling and risk assessment to patients during sick visits, leading to a range of misconceptions about malaria based on limited knowledge from rumours and mass media, and a strong belief in the curative power of traditional medicine. Providers overdiagnose malaria clinically and underutilise available tests due to time constraints, and the lack of training and resources to correctly diagnose other illnesses. Subsequently, misdiagnoses lead them to question the efficacy of recommended treatments. Promoting counselling during clinical encounters to address patient misconception and change risky behaviour is warranted. Wider-ranging ongoing training could enable providers to properly diagnose and manage differential diagnoses to manage malaria better.
The main objective of this study is to apply the most appropriate change detection techniques to assess land development achievements on Al Sammalyah Island, off the coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates capital city. This was accomplished by mapping trajectory of land cover change of the whole island between 1999 and 2005. Another objective was to assess the level of development that occurred on the island and the level of change in the local environment. Available historical large scale aerial photographs from the late nineties to the most recent 2005 were used for the multi temporal study. Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen digitizing of corrected and co-registered images. A GIS overlay analysis combined with post classification change detection method analysis schema was adopted. Results of the current study demonstrate intense land development occurring on the Al Sammalyah Island; vegetation cover extent has increased from 3.742 km/sup 2/ (1.44 miles/sup 2/) in 1999 to 5.101 km/sup 2/ (1.97 miles/sup 2/) in 2005 that corresponds to 36.3% increase over this period. The study also shows that this increase in vegetation extent is mostly attributed to the increase in mangrove planted areas alone with an aerial increase from 2.256 km/sup 2/ (0.87 miles/sup 2/) in 1999 to 3.568 km/sup 2/ (1.38 miles/sup 2/) in 2005, an increase of 58.2% in seven years. (author)
Hay detonantes de la migración de los afganos y somalíes a Europa que no están suficientemente reconocidos, provocados por décadas de conflicto. Aunque oficialmente se catalogan como “posconflicto”, la realidad es muy diferente.
the area. So until the end of 2008, India, Malaysia , Saudi Arabia, Iran and EU, with the exception of France (with its naval forces known as 9...members succeeded in collecting information and data about possible contractors (local reliable bank, local association of business and industry ...expenses (e.g., food, drink, laundry ). For some team members, their home country paid these directly, but others were forced to cover the expenses
... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...
3 25 February 2, 2009 (THAILAND): Suspected Muslim separatists killed and then beheaded two Thai paramilitary rangers in southern Thailand...killed and then beheaded two Thai soldiers in Yala Province in southern Thailand. – Reuters, February 20 February 21, 2009 (PAKISTAN): A senior...serve him with tea and then free him.” – Reuters, February 22 February 22, 2009 (PAKISTAN): In a new statement, Pakistan’s North- West Frontier
Dr. Jean-Paul Gagnon
This work will try to analyse China’s naval policy off the Somali coast. The maincontribution this work will attempt to make is to offer evidence concerningwhether China’s anti-pirating policies in the Gulf of Aden are more for thebenefit of the international community, China’s own strategic interest (apolitical economy outlook), or diplomatic growth. This work may be importantas it could contribute to our understanding of China’s current foreign policy toa slightly better degree. This will b...
Fontana, A; Litz, B; Rosenheck, R
The impact of combat and sexual harassment on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is compared for 1,307 men and 197 women peacekeepers who served in the same military units. A theoretical model was proposed to express the nature of the impact. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the model separately for men and women. Good-fitting, parsimonious models were developed that showed substantial similarity for men and women. For men, severity of PTSD symptoms was impacted by exposure to combat directly and indirectly through fear and sexual harassment. For women, severity of PTSD symptoms was impacted by combat indirectly through the same two influences, although the mechanisms involving fear and sexual harassment were somewhat different. For both genders, moreover, PTSD severity was impacted directly by exposure to the dying of the Somali people. These similarities suggest that in modern stressful overseas military missions, both genders may be susceptible to the same types of risk for the development of PTSD. The incidence and impact of sexual harassment is particularly noteworthy in the case of men and calls for more detailed investigation in future studies.
independence of others.”36 In addition, the new strand of transnational security threats such as terrorism and natural calamities transcends the...256 Ibid., 60. 257 Isabella Sankey, “Liberty’s Response to Home Office Consultations on the Prevent Strand of UK Counter Terrorism Strategy,” 2010, 3...within the Ethnic Somali Population of the United States: An Argument for Applying Best Practices for Stemming Youth Gang Recruitment and Initiation
Kågesten, Anna E; Zimmerman, Linnea; Robinson, Courtland; Lee, Catherine; Bawoke, Tenaw; Osman, Shahd; Schlecht, Jennifer
Very young adolescents (VYA) in humanitarian settings are largely neglected in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study describes the characteristics of VYA aged 10-14 years in two humanitarian settings, focusing on transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with Somali VYA residing in the Kobe refugee camp in Ethiopia ( N = 406) and VYA from Myanmar residing in the Mae Sot and Phop Phra migrant communities in Thailand ( N = 399). The average age was 12 years (about half were girls) in both communities. Participants were recruited using multi-stage cluster-based sampling with probability proportional to size in each site. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sociodemographic, family, peer, and schooling characteristics and to explore transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Most VYA in both sites reported living with both parents; nine in ten reported feeling that their parents/guardians care about them, and over half said that their parents/guardians monitor how and with whom they spend their free time. High proportions in both sites were currently enrolled in school (91.4% Somali, 87.0% from Myanmar). Few VYA, particularly those aged 10-12, reported starting puberty, although one in four Somali indicated not knowing whether they did so. Most girls from Myanmar who had started menstruating reported access to menstrual hygiene supplies (water, sanitation, cloths/pads). No Somali girls reported access to all these supplies. While over half of respondents in both sites reported learning about body changes, less than 20% had learnt about pregnancy and the majority (87.4% Somali, 78.6% from Myanmar) indicated a need for more information about body changes. Parents/guardians were the most common source of SRH information in both sites, however VYA indicated that they would like more information from friends, siblings, teachers and health workers. This study highlights gaps in SRH information necessary for healthy transitions through puberty and supplies for menstrual hygiene in two humanitarian settings. VYA in these settings expressed closeness to their parents/guardians and the majority were in school. Introducing early SRH interventions that involve parents and educational centers may thus yield promising results, providing VYA with the necessary skills for understanding and dealing with their pubertal and sexual development.
Generaal, C. [Faculteit Luchtvaart- en Ruimtetechniek, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)
The Winddrinker turns salt water into clean drinking water utilizing solely wind energy. It is a promising solution to solve water problems in dry coastal areas of developing countries. The Winddrinker combines a windmill and a desalination pump in the most efficient way. A mechanical coupling ensures a cheap, simple and reliable technology. [Dutch] De Winddrinker kan brak water ontzouten en veranderen in drinkwater met behulp van wind energie. Het is een veelbelovende oplossing voor het drinkwaterprobleem in droge kustgebieden in ontwikkelingslanden. De Winddrinker is een zeer efficient systeem bestaande uit een windmolen en een ontziltingspomp. Een mechanische koppeling zorgt voor een goedkope, eenvoudige en betrouwbare technologie.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 26 February 1979 to...
Routine testing for Campylobacter spp. in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of C. jejuni and C. coli, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter spp., and their relative contribution to human illness, is not well understood. A survey to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp....
Lamkaddem, M.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.; Devillé, W.; Gerritsen, A.; Stronks, K.
Introduction: Worldwide, refugees show a poorer mental and physical health than the populations among which they resettle. Little is known about the factors influencing health after resettlement. We examined the development of mental and physical health of refugees. As experienced living
Full Text Available This paper concludes that in Africa the non-Western press may have the best chance to employ peace journalism, given its proximity to major conflicts. Nevertheless, the Kenyan press has so far failed to take advantage of an ideal opportunity for such an experiment in reporting on the war against terror. Kenya's press still operates within the war journalism framework. This paper employs a theoretical approach that combines theories of media representation in mainstream journalism with the concepts of peace journalism. Methodologically, it adopts a triangulating approach, employing both quantitative and qualitative content analysis to study the representations of Operation Linda Nchi by the Kenyan Daily Nation and The Standard and thereby offers a critical appraisal of the possibility for peace journalism to cover international terrorism in Africa.
Belasco, Amy; Cunningham, Lynn J; Fischer, Hannah; Niksch, Larry A
This report discusses the political context and congressional consideration of various funding and other restrictive legislative language applying to military operations in Indochina between 1970 and 1973...
M. A. Belenguer-Plomer
Full Text Available The Horn of Africa is one of the most food-insecure locations around the world due to the continuous increase of its population and the practice of the subsistence agriculture. This causes that much of the population cannot take the minimum nutritional needs for a healthy life. Moreover, this situation of food vulnerability may be seriously affected in the coming years due to the effects of climate change. The aim of this work is combine the information about the state of the vegetation that offers the NDVI with rainfall data to detect negative anomalies in food production. This work has been used the monthly products of NDVI MOD13A3 of MODIS and the rainfall estimation product TAMSAT, both during the period 2001-2015. With these products we have calculated the average of the entire time period selected and we have detected the years whose NDVI values were further away from the average, being these 2010, 2011 and 2014. Once detected the years with major anomalies in NDVI, there has been an exclusive monthly analysis of those years, where we have analysed the relationships between the value of NDVI and monthly rainfall, obtaining a direct relationship between the two values. It also has been used crop calendar to focus the analysis in the months of agricultural production and finding that the main cause of anomalies in vegetation is a decrease in the registration of rainfall during the months of agricultural production. This reason explains the origin of the food shortages that occurred in 2010 and 2011 that generated an enormous humanitarian crisis in this area.
Lamkaddem, M.; Essink-Bot, M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.; Stronks, K.
Introduction: Refugees and asylum seekers are an important group of new immigrants in today’s Europe. Despite recent research efforts information on changes in health upon resettlement is scarce. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying changes in mental and physical health after arrival in The
Finch, Brian W.; Hunter, Nigel D.; Winkelmann, Inger Eleanor Hall
species as L. (aethiopkus) erlangeri, until now considered a Somali endemic, and these populations should take the oldest available name L. nigerrimus. The overall classification of coastal boubous also proved to require revision, and this paper presents a preliminary new classification for taxa...
Vergne, J.; Doubre, C.; Mohamed, K.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Maggi, A.
In the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift in Djibouti is a young segment on land at the propagating tip of the Aden Ridge. This segment represents an ideal laboratory to observe the mechanisms of extension and the structural evolutions involved, from the continental break-up to the first stage of oceanic spreading. However, we lack first order information about the crustal and upper mantle structure in this region, which for example prevent detailed numerical modeling of the deformations observed at the surface from GPS or InSAR. Moreover the current permanent network is not well suited to precisely constrain the ratio of seismic/aseismic deformation and to characterize the active deformation and the rifting dynamics. Since November 2009 we have maintained a temporary network of 25 seismic stations deployed along a 150 km-long profile. Because we expect rapid variations of the lithospheric structure across the 10 km-wide central part of the rift, we gradually decreased the inter-stations spacing to less than 1 km in the middle section of the profile. In order to obtain a continuous image of the plate boundary, from the topographic surface to the upper mantle, several techniques and methods will be applied: P and S wave receiver functions, tomographies based on body waves, surface waves and seismic noise correlation, anisotropy, and finally a gravity-seismic joint inversion. We present some preliminary results deduced from the receiver functions applied to the data acquired during the first months of the experiment. We migrate several sets of receiver functions computed in various frequency bands to resolve both mantle interfaces and fine scale structures within the thin crust in the center of the rift. These first images confirm a rapid variation of the Moho depth on both sides of the rift and a very complex lithospheric structure in the central section with several low velocity zones within the top 50km that might correspond to magma lenses.
This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration and new discovery in Algeria and Libya, birth of a joint venture for the building of a gas pipeline between Ukraine and Europe. The building of another pipeline, between Algeria and Europe, will begin in April 1993. Several agreements for oil and gas fields development in Qatar, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates have been signed. Petroleum industry has criticized energy taxing project in Usa.
... deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed..., or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia threaten the... Annex to this order, and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination. Sec. 8. This...
Francisco Lertora Pinto
Full Text Available The judgment on preliminary objection was pronounced by the International Court of Justice on 2 February 2017. In this sentence, the Court rejected all the preliminary objections presented by Kenya. One of the most important task realized by the Court in every judgment is the work of interpretation of treaties. In the present case, the interpretation was relevant for the purpose of determinate both, why the Court has jurisdiction and why all the preliminary objections should be rejected. The interpretation according to the rules of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, in particular the Articles 31 and 32, are the purpose of the present study in relationship to its application in this case, particularly in the interpretation of the MOU.
Marín Meneses, Laura Ximena
Con el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y el escenario que planteaba la Guerra Fría, la manera de entender y explicar la seguridad en la comunidad internacional se amplió, y pasó de ser concebida únicamente en términos políticos y militares, a incluir aspectos como el medio ambiente, la economía y la sociedad. Por esta razón el concepto de seguridad se complejizó dando paso a la construcción de distintas definiciones y debates alrededor de la ampliación de la agenda de seguridad y los temas ...
Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry
Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus
Inherited adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency, varying from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the majority of cases to a less severe form in a small minority of patients. Five patients of Somali origin from four unrelated families......, with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1.1 kb...... upstream of the ADA transcription start site. All patients were homozygous for the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7. Among 207 Somali immigrants to Denmark, the frequency of ADA c7C>T and the maximum likelihood estimate of the frequency of the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7 were both...
Manseau, Nicole C
.... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...
.... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...
species to the adjacent Somalia, Somalia wa included in ... flora areas (i.e., Ethiopia, Eritrea, East Africa and .... red sandy soil. HA. N1-2C1-2 S1. C. hornbyi B.D. Burtt. 380-1220. 450-750 ..... Commiphora, belong to deciduous woodland and/or ..... The fruit of Commiphora. ... Botany with practical references to tropical plants.
2 See Testimony by David H. Shinn, Somalia: U.S. Govrenemnt Policy and Challenges, ... a state of relative peace—one that can be best described as cold peace. ... denied sending its troops to Somalia until it formally declared war on 24 ...... Lebanese government, the invitation of the USSR by the dubious government of.
In the absence of a working state for the last over 25 years, hunger and malnutrition have been serious challenges in Somalia and great causes for concern to the international humanitarian community. Given the state of insecurity in Somalia, it is important that continuous research be done to understand the causes of lack ...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other han...
This Working Paper presents a case study of sugar smuggling along the trade corridor between Kismayu in Somalia and Nairobi in Kenya. The trading and smuggling of sugar in the Kenya – Somalia borderlands is a dangerous, lucrative, and highly political business. The paper explores the involvement ...
Full Text Available Somalia, as one of the poorest countries in Africa has been on the top list of the failed states, and tried to meet the challenges such as armed conflicts, poverty and mass migration since 1991. The attempts by the international community to ensure the peace and stability in Somalia have not produced the desired results by 2011. With the famine crisis in the 2011 summer, Turkey has initiated an opening towards Somalia. Turkey’s intervention and aids are soon welcomed by the people of Somalia and the expectations for the provision of the peace and stability have increased. Yet some critiques have arisen about Turkey’s policy toward Somalia. The critiques are focused on Turkey’s work in isolation from the international community, unawareness of Somali’s realities, the lack of institutional capacity and a long term strategy. The historical backdrop, social context and multi dimensional causes of the Somalia crisis indicate that the peace and stability can only be achieved by a long term and comprehensive work coordinated with all actors. In this context, Turkey should review the current Somalia policy and develop a comprehensive strategy
eligibility with risk exposure. All of the alternatives were firmly planted within the prevailing perspective of recognition for risk; none proposed... Montenegro ; Somalia; Sudan; Haiti; Azerbaijan; Pakistan; Burundi; Democratic Republic of Congo; Egypt; Athens, Greece; Jordan; Tajikistan; Qatar; Rwanda
Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, South Africa and Madagascar; it ... effects of khat chewing; for instance, a study revealed .... cervical cancer screening coverage in women, and provision ..... Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in.
.... Peace operations in Somalia, especially the deaths of 18 U.S. servicemen and the wounding of almost 100 others on October 3, 1993, profoundly influenced the American public's perceptions of modern urban combat in the developing world...
Moyer, Jeanette M
...: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Haiti, Iraq, Kosovo, and Somalia. With the exception of some important older titles, most of the books, documents, articles and online resources cited are dated 2003 to the present...
Roy, William F; Vaughn, Mark; Bell, Greg
..., and termination in dealing with indigenous warlords. By looking at our past experience in Somalia, as well as current operations in Afghanistan, the influence of sub-national actors warlords can have a...
.... Success in these operations has been elusive. The US interventions in Panama 1989-1991 Somalia 1992- 1994 and Haiti 1994-1996 provide excellent case studies for determining the foundational causes of its poor performance...
U.S. involvement in Somalia serves as a useful case study of the unique challenges an operational staff may face when applying operational design to the planning and execution of a peace enforcement operation. U.S...
Full Text Available Could there be a better way to create more hardship,more instability and more potential refugees,while increasing the appeal of extremism, than tocut off the money transfer lifeline to Somalia byshutting down remittance agencies?
.... The author examines how Special Forces and conventional forces worked together in the past in Vietnam, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield...
.... The declining defense budget means painful force structure decisions lie ahead. Even as funds are drying up, the armed forces are being called upon to execute contingencies in places such as Haiti, Somalia, Liberia, and Bosnia...
... (2) of the Order and for materially assisting, sponsoring, or providing financial, material... organizing a suicide bombing attack carried out by a Somali-American from Minnesota who traveled to Somalia...
middle-income,” and. “upper-middle-income” countries, with the exceptions noted below. Countries that are not eligible: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Korea (Democratic People's Republic of), Somalia, and countries from Eastern Europe or Central Asia.
.... However, for operations other than war-such as Somalia, Haiti, and potentially the Balkans or other trouble spots-the Army may not be able to call on the reserve components for frequent or extended deployments...
... Argentina Entire E 15 NA NA Armadillo, pink fairy Chlamyphorus truncatus Argentina ......do E 3 NA NA Ass, African wild Equus asinus Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia ......do E 3, 22 NA NA Ass, Asian wild Equus hemionus...
Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin
.... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...
Stig Jarle Hansen
Full Text Available This article explores the social mechanisms that lead to the emergence of suicide attacks in new theatres, as well as factors influencing the frequency of such suicide attacks, by studying one of the states in which suicide attacks have most recently occurred – Somalia. The article argues that a suicide attack in the Somali setting seems to be a well-planned reaction to diplomatic or military moves by opposing parties in the conflict. However, it also poses that the initial emergence of suicide attacks in Somalia is grounded in ideological elements new to Somalia. The article thus argues that while frequency variations in suicide attacks are best understood as the result of rational calculations within an organisation, ideological elements and organisational belief systems have to be explored in order to understand the initial adoption of suicide attacks in Somalia.
3, 2016 dans la plupart des pays africains pauvres comme le Cameroun s'inscrit dans ... acquired by governments and foreign companies within the last 10 years. ... Uganda, and Somalia all passed laws which made rural populations more.
Emerging economies argue that their approach to development and security is ... Their national experiences provide them with more relevant insights into the ... and Turkey's role in Somalia, particularly in the areas of security and justice.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Contemporary scholarship characterizes Somalia as a nation in search of statehood. The approach presupposes a homogenous cohesive nation and society- with considerable traditional democratic pastoralism. This book portrays a complex nation with multiple heterogeneous characteristics. This alterna...
These social menace, when put together impinge on the security of lives and property of ..... America in September, 2001 by Late Osama Bin Laden led Al Queda Network, ... Yemen, Pakistan, Somalia, Chad, Mauritania and Algeria. Besides ...
Islamophobia breeds justifies the need to deconstruct the social contexts. .... that many Muslims travel to conservative Islamic countries like Yemen, Somalia, .... is already apparent from arguments in the social media), attacks and reprisal ...
... Iraq Nigeria Somalia South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen All emergencies » Latest » By country By disease Disease ... conditions in Africa in areas with limited health infrastructure and resources, ceftriaxone is the drug of choice. \\ ...
... Iraq Nigeria Somalia South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen All emergencies » Latest » By country By disease Disease ... billion/year by 2030. Areas with weak health infrastructure – mostly in developing countries – will be the least ...
characteristics of the volcanic units, we describe the compositional differences ...... Geology and mineral resources of Somalia and surrounding regions. ... zone (Ethiopia) Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research, 80: 267-280.
Estimating Selected Disease and Non-Battle Injury Echelon I and Echelon II Outpatient Visits of U.S. Soldiers and Marines in an Operational Setting from Corresponding Echelon III (Hospitalization) Admissions in the Same Theater of Operation
Kilian, Dennis B
.... This has been demonstrated throughout history from Napoleon's typhus outbreak in the retreat from Moscow, to Merrill's Maraders' dysentery outbreak in Burma, and to the US Forces-Somalia dengue and malaria outbreak...
.... Strategists have had to adjust to a baffling number of challenges. In Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Rwanda, and the Straits of Taiwan events did not fit neatly into familiar categories of demands on military power...
End Date: March 31, 2015. Topic: CONFLICTS, CAPITAL MOVEMENTS, STATE, Economic and social development, MILITARY ACTIVITY. Region: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice.
reside on a permanent basis, outside of the borders of their claimed homeland.”21 Since Al-Shabaab has emerged as a radical force in Somalia, so too...disappeared from the Somali community and later emerged in southern Somalia. He later communicated with other Diaspora, “bragging about his position...First Smoking, Football , Films and bras – now Al-Shabaab has banned the Internet, accessed on Sept 17, 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world
one cause for hospital admission among troops deployed to Operation Restore Hope in Somalia from 1992 to 1993.  These data suggest that not only... Hope , Somalia, 1992-1993. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1995. 52(2): p. 188-93. 124 30. Taylor, S.F., R.H. Lutz, and J.A. Millward, Disease and nonbattle...Hux, C. Attard, and N. Milkovich, Cost- effectiveness of becaplermin for nonhealing neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage, 2003. 49
Copyright @ 2011 Brunel University Naval counter-piracy measures off Somalia have failed to change the incentives for pirates, raising calls for land-based approaches that may involve replacing piracy as a source of income. This paper evaluates the effects of piracy on the Somali economy to establish which (domestic) groups benefit from ransom monies. Given the paucity of economic data on Somalia, we evaluate province-level market data, nightlight emissions and high resolution satellite im...
Cedric de Coning
Full Text Available On a recent visit to Mogadishu I was again confronted with the tension between local ownership and international self-interest. On the one hand was the Somali President, who wanted to assert his sovereign authority and lead the peace process according to his vision for Somalia. On the other hand, there was a powerful but diverse international community that has the resources necessary to enhance peace, though such resources were accompanied by a set of ideas concerning what the Somali President should be doing. Officially everyone claimed to support the Federal Government of Somalia, but in reality each outside nation and organisation is engaged in Somalia for its own strategic political, security and economic needs and interests.
Ian Liebenberg; Abel Esterhuyse
This edition of Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, brings three very particular themes together: history, contemporary military operations, and military technology. From a historical perspective, the focus is on the Anglo-Boer War. The two articles on the contemporary use of force places the emphasis on Iraq and Somalia. The 2003 Iraqi War is used as a case study in the analysis of ‘civil war’ as a concept. The article on Somalia addresses the need for military int...
Gabowduale, Kassim Gabowduale
An increasing number of Somali families have been flashed out of their homes and forced to migrate as a result of the ongoing conflict in Somalia. With the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia in the late eighties and early nineties, a large exodus of refugees fled the country. There are almost twenty three thousand Somalis living in Norway today; the majority of them settled in and around Oslo according to Statistics Norway (Henriksen 2008). Upon arrival, Somalis, still suffering from the tr...
brochures /Somalia/Somalia.htm (downloaded 10 October, 2008), 8-10. 86Ibid., 9-10. 87U.S. Department of the Army, United States Forces After Action Review...Modeling, and Prediction, College Park, MD, April 3-5, 2012). 232U.S. Department of the Air Force, Air Mobility Planning Factors, Air Force Pamphlet 10...U.S. Department of the Air Force. Air Mobility Planning Factors. Air Force Pamphlet 10-1403. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office (2003
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Mogensen, H S; Friis, S L; Hallenberg, C; Stene, M C; Morling, N
A concordance study of the results of PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 and AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ kits obtained from 591 individuals from Somalia (N=198), Denmark (N=199) and Greenland (N=194) was performed. Among 9456 STR types, seven discordant results were found with the two kits: one observed in the D19S433 system in an individual from Denmark and six in the SE33 system in six individuals from Somalia. Sequencing of SE33 in the six samples with discordant results showed G>A transition 15bp downstr...
Royer, J.-Y.; Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.; Ramprasad, T.
with systemahyphenminus tic ridge propagation in both basins (Miles & Roest 1993: Chaubey er at. 1998. Dyment 1998). Ridge propagation explains the large spreading asymmetry between the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins. Between Chrons 26 and 25. c. 65% of the crust..., the differences be- tween the India-Somalia and Capricorn-Somalia motions in Paleogene time can be used to estimate and refine the Capricorn-India integral motion as suggested by Royer & Chang (1991). Such en- deavour would require an accurate assessment...
Bruno, J.B.; Amorim, L.O.
The technological routes for the treatment of the gold and uranium ores are presented. The results obtained during the continuous tests with the uraniferous Ores of Wabo in Somalia are presented. The utilization of 99% of the uranium content in the alkaline pulp is obtained. (C.B.) [pt
Oct 27, 2010 ... With funding from IDRC, a UN pilot initiative, the War-torn Societies Project, sought durable, locally rooted solutions to the conflicts in four test countries: Somalia ... "The issues the projects were working on were defined by the ...
von Huth, Sebastian; Pedersen, Court; Johansen, Isik Somuncu
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) denotes infection of the meninges with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In Denmark, TBM is rare, but requires correct handling and rapid treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a previously healthy 19-year-old man from Somalia, whose primary symptoms were fever...
Mar 13, 1990 ... regularis (Frost 1985). ,. Bufo garmani was described from Somalia (Meek 1897), while the morphologically similar B. poweri was described from Kimberley (Hewitt 1935). A long-standing problem has been to determine the status of B. poweri, based on preserved material. These two species are so similar ...
Birds of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Socotra. Nigel Redman, Terry Stevenson and John Fanshawe with contributions from Nik Borrow and Brian Finch. Illustrated by John Gale and Brian Small. 2009. Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: an atlas of distribution. John Ash and John Atkins.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entities owned by a person whose property and interests in property are blocked. 551.406 Section 551.406 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 551.406 Entities owned by a person whose property...
franchise based in Algeria and north- ern Mali, and the Harakat al-Shabab network based in southern Somalia.13 In North and West Africa, AQIM is the...instance, ele- ments of PAGAD became radicalized to the point of launching a terrorist bombing attack at the Planet Hollywood restaurant in Cape Town in
Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) franchise based in Algeria and northern Mali, and the Harakat al-Shabab network based in southern Somalia.13 In North and West...point of launching a terrorist bombing attack at the Planet Hollywood restaurant in Cape Town in August 1998. This shift toward the informal and
Researchers are working on a vaccine for cattle disease. For more information visit the Regional. Office for Sub-Saharan Africa website: www.idrc.ca/rossa. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin/. SOMALIA. UGANDA. SUDAN. TANZANIA. Lake. Victoria. Lake. Turkana. INDIAN. OCEAN. Nairobi ✪. ○. ○. ○.
, practices and dynamics that dominate political life. Individual chapters are devoted to Darfur, Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, Somaliland, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, leaving only Djibouti out from the region. De Waal writes eloquently and with great wit, offering the reader many insights. Thirdly, The Real...
Jung, S.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Davies, G.R.
We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ~6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations
van Tubergen, Frank
Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…
Pio Penna Filho
This article discusses the situation in Somalia, especially the recent food crisis, from the country's recent history, especially with the disintegration of the state with the fall of Siad Barre in the early 1990s. It argues that only you can forward the issue of hunger when the state is rebuilt and restored peace.
Aug 20, 2013 ... Introduction. Although there are no confirmed polio cases in South. Sudan since June 2009, vital indicators for polio eradication activities are not satisfactory [1.]. Hence, the recent huge polio outbreak in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia demanded a safety net SNIDs for four States, including Upper Nile.
The importance of respecting and protecting the environment and living in harmony with it. SEYCHELLES. Melting Ice - A Hot Topic? SOMALIA. Stop the war; war destroys the environment. SOUTH AFRICA. Eco- Design for Competitive Advantage. Touch Africa Lightly. The Wolf in the Forest. An Inconvenient Truth.
Keywords. Primary production; upwelling; winter cooling; Ekman-pumping, nutrient transport; Arabian Sea ... on the other hand, is driven by advection from the Somalia upwelling. Surface cooling and convection resulting from reduced solar radiation and increased evaporation make the northern region productive in winter.
3 Information in this section is taken from USSOCOM Information Paper , “Special Operations Forces: 2020: Theater Special Operations...1985), Panama (1989), the Mideast during the Gulf War (1991), Somalia (1993), Haiti (1994), the Balkans (1996-2002), Afghanistan (2001-present), and
violence and social disintegration in a society.'·'. This study has shown that ... urban battle in Somalia," body armour was shown to reduce the number of fatal ... will be piloted in three police stations with responsibility for education, training and ...
Ramos Vera, Mario
Review Essay de: * GUTIÉRREZ DE TERÁN, Ignacio, Somalia, Clanes, Islam y terrorismo internacional, Los Libros de la Catarata, Madrid, 2007. * NAÍM, Moisés, Ilícito, Cómo traficantes, contrabandistas y piratas están cambiando el mundo, Debate, Barcelona, 2006.
The maritime domain of the East African Community (EAC) is affected by a number of maritime security threats, including piracy, armed robbery against ships and an ongoing maritime border dispute between Kenya and Somalia. Neither the EAC nor its member States have long-term and holistic maritime security policies.
The annual variation of the SST along a zonal strip from the coast of Somalia to the southwest coast of India was simulated using available data (monthly-mean heat and momentum fluxes across the air-sea interface, surface advective field, etc...
Army officer Operation Warden). In terms of formal farewell between the two of us it was extremely quick and painless . Because we had done Somalia...second one I went to said "OK fine, but I’ll do some blood tests". Because I have a thyroid problem, that was playing up, there was something wrong with my
World Bank Group; UNHCR
The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the re...
TEXTOR, ROBERT B., ED.
THE PRESENT WORK CONTAINS ANALYSES OF PEACE CORPS PROGRAMS IN SELECTED HOST COUNTRIES (THE PHILIPPINES, MALAYA, THAILAND, PERU, BOLIVIA, AFGHANISTAN, SOMALIA, NIGERIA, TANGANYIKA, SIERRA LEONE, TUNISIA, MOROCCO, AND JAMAICA) WRITTEN BY AN AUTHORITY ON EACH COUNTRY. COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC OPERATIONS OF THE PEACE CORPS IS STRICTLY LIMITED TO WHAT IS…
ElObeidy, Ahmed A.
Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…
15 2. Managing Careers by Core Competencies ......................................15 D. GLASS CEILINGS ...Transforming the Force: Past, Present & Future,” Slide presentation, Washington, D.C., October 28, 2002, 5. 38 Ibid. 17 D. GLASS CEILINGS Getting AF...Agency Support to PR MSN Mission Planning SOF Mission Planning Exercise/Organization, Case Studies (Somalia/ Lebanon ), HUMINT case study SYS Systems
Eastern Africa has experienced more than its fair share of violent conflict over the last two decades. Somalia and Sudan have just emerged from prolonged intrastate conflicts. Uganda still faces internal conflict in the North and Kenya has recently emerged from over two decades of dictatorship. These countries need to build ...
Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Dalton, Desiré L.
populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive...
Région: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 685,000.00. Le rôle des milices, des autorités malveillantes et du capital voyou dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Projet.
of the importance of consensus. By the time that the Battle of Mogadishu took place and the decision taken to remove US forces shortly thereafter...internationally.42 The media immediately drew parallels between the deaths in Fallujah and the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia in 1993, and political leaders...18 Operation Al Fajr – the Second Battle of Fallujah ........................................................... 18
Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.
Pirateri er blevet synonymt med Somalia og det Indiske Ocean. Men pirateriet ændrer karakter og geografisk placering, og de hidtidige bekæmpelsesmetoder er ikke effektive. Pirateriet er en destabiliserende faktor i Det indiske Ocean, men nu også i stigende grad ud for Vestafrika. Hvis denne desta...
Somaliland Plateau back in 1855, is a common and widespread species throughout much of the Horn of Africa ... nominate form occurs in northern Somalia, where it is a common and well established resident in coastal ... assisted passage by ship, rail or truck, it would seem that these factors could have been responsible for ...
Results 921 - 930 of 9578 ... Agriculture and Environment ... Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Micronesia, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of), Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, .... Kenya has an estimated 18.2 million cattle, 16.3 million sheep, and 24.6 million goats.
The study reports 140 species, 46 were measured in only one plot, and affinities for 75 species to the Somalia-Masai (43%), Afromontane (29%), and Zanzibar- Inhambane (Coastal, 28%) floristic regions. Cluster and Indicator Species Analyses identified eight community types. Mount Kasigau uniquely conserves much ...
providing developing-country researchers with financial resources, advice, and training to find solutions to local problems;; sharing our knowledge with policymakers, researchers, and communities ... Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Somalia, China, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Turkey, Zambia, Republic Of Congo, South Africa.
providing developing-country researchers with financial resources, advice, and training to find solutions to local problems;; sharing our knowledge with policymakers, researchers, and communities ... Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Somalia, China, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Turkey, Zambia, Republic Of Congo, South Africa.
and northern Red Sea is more affected by the intensity of the eddies. Evidence also suggests that potential connectivity exists between the coastal southern Red Sea and the coasts of Oman, Socotra, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the north coast of the Madagascar.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
For more than two decades Somalia has lacked nationwide functioning bureaucratic Western inspired state institutions. Under such stateless circumstances, formally and informally organized social groups, have tried to fill the vacuum in providing social, economic, security and political services...... proposes tentative strategic ideas on how to overcome major societal obstacles that have so far confronted Somali civil society in contributing to security consolidation....
Prevalence of laminitis and the patterns of claw lesions in dairy cows in Nairobi and the Peri-Urban Districts · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... A serosurvey of Bovine Brucellosis in three cattle-rearing regions of Somaliland (Northern Somalia) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
van Aalderen, M. C.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Terpstra, W. E.
An HIV-positive man from Somalia presented with severe malaise, weight loss, relapsing fever, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. An FDG-PET-scan-guided lymph node biopsy revealed the characteristic histological features of the plasma cell variant of Castleman's disease. A high HHV-8 viral load was
Elqayam, Shira; Thompson, Valerie A.; Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Over, David E.
Humans have a unique ability to generate novel norms. Faced with the knowledge that there are hungry children in Somalia, we easily and naturally infer that we ought to donate to famine relief charities. Although a contentious and lively issue in metaethics, such inference from "is" to "ought" has not been systematically…
Arrival Date METL Mission Essential Task List MFO Multinational Force and Observers MOS Military Occupational Specialty NATO North Atlantic ...containing the total number of USAR Soldiers activated in Somalia is unavailable. Although US Military operations as part of the North Atlantic ...DC), the territories of Guam and the US Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, mobilized to the Gulf Coast states of
The Arabian Sea contains the only major western-boundary upwelling system in the world's oceans During summer, strong southwesterly winds bring up subsurface waters from depths of up to 200m off Somalia, Yemen and Oman These waters, having high...
33 6. Water Tables, Aquifers , and Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7. Sea Water Stratification...may be shallow or deep (figure 6). Some water continues to trickle down through cracks and crannies until contained by aquifers encased in nearly...Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, all in the Horn of Africa; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and
The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.
The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.
A global and cooperative professional/academic effort to advocate the value of public relations to organizations and society - How the global alliance is changing the future of the public relations profession
Toni Muzi Falconi
Maria Immacolata Macioti
... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...
... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...
... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...
Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa
The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…
Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed
Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)
tant role in an open global economy? Would it have the ... topics such as urban migration, labour issues, HIV/AIDS, and the ... A new approach to finding local solutions to armed conflict grew ... the fighting in four test countries: Somalia,. Eritrea ...
..., Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Over the past six years, the Department of Homeland... Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. See, e.g., 67 FR 67766 (Nov. 6... establishment in 2003, DHS has developed substantial infrastructure and adopted more universally applicable...
are also long-term psychological affects that hostages and their families will undergo for many years after such an experience...guardian. However, with subtle interaction and assistance, the United States may be able to nudge the course of Somalia toward stability. If it does
In recent years, maritime piracy has reemerged as a serious threat to the international community, notably following the increase in piracy incidents off the coast of Somalia. Piratical activity has threatened the safety of navigation, the lives of seafarers, and the delivery of humanitarian aid.
... mail or delivery to Regulatory Policy Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of..., Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam... under ECCN 0E604 or 9E604 would be subject to the licensing policies that apply to items controlled for...
on Drugs and Crime Regional Office in ..... ever-changing crime committed by various forms of criminal networks that ... Furthermore, her co-operation is ensured .... 34 Gundel J “The migration-development nexus-Somalia case study” (2002) 40 .... Somalis who are situated in major East African cities and at key transit points, ...
Date de début : 3 novembre 2008. End Date: 25 juin 2012. Sujet: ARMED FORCES, MILITARY PERSONNEL, LEGAL STATUS, REGULATIONS, LEGISLATION, CIVIL SOCIETY. Région: South of Sahara, Angola, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Uganda, South Africa, Sudan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice.
depreciation and replacement costs. The FMS process is an acquisition process where a foreign country or international organization identifies a need for a... Mexico , Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia and NATO. In
Burcharth, H. F.; Toschi, P.B; Turrio, E.
The paper deals with some design and construction aspects related to the new port at Bosaso, which is the terminal of the newly completed road system which connects northern Somalia with Mogadishu in the south. The port and the road project was financed by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Funding...
...: Operation Desert Storm, Operation Restore Hope (Somalia) and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It describes some of the motivations and concerns of the news media, and examines doctrine from the perspective of the media's requirements for information. Finally, recommendations are made to improve future media coverage of operations.
Background: The MCH clinic workers in Somalia receive formal and in-service training to perform their professional duties. Their competence in the field was never examined. This study assessed their competencies in detecting malnourished children 5 years and below in Beledweyne. Objective: To assess the competence ...
systems Anesthesia Antisepsis/sanitation (Lister, Pasteur , Koch) Nursing care (Nightingale) World War I and World War II Antibiotics Blood...to preserve the life of casualties in critical conditions. TACEVAC includes evacuation by both designat- ed medical (MEDEVAC) mobility assets and...military experience in Somalia, Afghanistan, and Iraq revitalized the concept of treating hemorrhage with plas- ma to preserve coagulation system
(2000), Malawi (2002), and Somalia (2011)—and to analyse key socioeconomic determinants of famine. The study finds that income (or poverty) together with state fragility appear to be the major determinants of cross-country variations in famine reporting, while political regimes do not appear to have any...
The science and dynamics underlying drought is complex, yet understandable if approached carefully using scientific method. In this paper, scientific perspective was applied to explain and compare drought indices in Somalia and Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze ...
Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.
all the participants turned again in Pavlovian style to Matthew’s board. He, too, spoke not a Somalia • No operational commander. • Very...ourselves fighting may very well not be nation-states. Drug cartels, cultures whose membership crosses international boundaries, criminal
Sujet: PEACE RESEARCH, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 364,500.00. Enseignements tirés de la justice transitoire et ...
Šoškić Svetislav D.
Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.
Odenwald, Michael; Hinkel, Harald; Schauer, Elisabeth; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas R; Rockstroh, Brigitte
For more than a decade, most parts of Somalia have not been under the control of any type of government. This "failure of state" is complete in the central and southern regions and most apparent in Mogadishu, which had been for a long period in the hands of warlords deploying their private militias in a battle for resources. In contrast, the northern part of Somalia has had relatively stable control under regional administrations, which are, however, not internationally recognized. The present study provides information about drug abuse among active security personnel and militia with an emphasis on regional differences in relation to the lack of central governmental control-to our knowledge the first account on this topic. Trained local interviewers conducted a total of 8,723 interviews of armed personnel in seven convenience samples in different regions of Somalia; 587 (6.3%) respondents discontinued the interview and 12 (0.001%) were excluded for other reasons. We assessed basic sociodemographic information, self-reported khat use, and how respondents perceived the use of khat, cannabis (which includes both hashish and marijuana), psychoactive tablets (e.g., benzodiazepines), alcohol, solvents, and hemp seeds in their units. The cautious interpretation of our data suggest that sociodemographic characteristics and drug use among military personnel differ substantially between northern and southern/central Somalia. In total, 36.4% (99% confidence interval [CI] 19.3%-57.7%) of respondents reported khat use in the week before the interview, whereas in some regions of southern/central Somalia khat use, especially excessive use, was reported more frequently. Self-reported khat use differed substantially from the perceived use in units. According to the perception of respondents, the most frequent form of drug use is khat chewing (on average, 70.1% in previous week, 99% CI 63.6%-76.5%), followed by smoking cannabis (10.7%, 99% CI 0%-30.4%), ingesting psychoactive
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, most parts of Somalia have not been under the control of any type of government. This "failure of state" is complete in the central and southern regions and most apparent in Mogadishu, which had been for a long period in the hands of warlords deploying their private militias in a battle for resources. In contrast, the northern part of Somalia has had relatively stable control under regional administrations, which are, however, not internationally recognized. The present study provides information about drug abuse among active security personnel and militia with an emphasis on regional differences in relation to the lack of central governmental control-to our knowledge the first account on this topic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trained local interviewers conducted a total of 8,723 interviews of armed personnel in seven convenience samples in different regions of Somalia; 587 (6.3% respondents discontinued the interview and 12 (0.001% were excluded for other reasons. We assessed basic sociodemographic information, self-reported khat use, and how respondents perceived the use of khat, cannabis (which includes both hashish and marijuana, psychoactive tablets (e.g., benzodiazepines, alcohol, solvents, and hemp seeds in their units. The cautious interpretation of our data suggest that sociodemographic characteristics and drug use among military personnel differ substantially between northern and southern/central Somalia. In total, 36.4% (99% confidence interval [CI] 19.3%-57.7% of respondents reported khat use in the week before the interview, whereas in some regions of southern/central Somalia khat use, especially excessive use, was reported more frequently. Self-reported khat use differed substantially from the perceived use in units. According to the perception of respondents, the most frequent form of drug use is khat chewing (on average, 70.1% in previous week, 99% CI 63.6%-76.5%, followed by smoking cannabis (10
Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose
A total of 201 males from Somalia were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y kit (Promega). A total of 96 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0.9715. The ......A total of 201 males from Somalia were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y kit (Promega). A total of 96 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0...
-makers in the U.S. and elsewhere would be better able to judge when counter-piracy intervention is necessary. By preventing piracy from developing into large-scale professionalized operations, as witnessed in Somalia since 2007, the international community will be able carryout more efficient and effective piracy......This article provides a theoretical framework for examining Somali piracy from its origins in the 1990s to the present. This analysis provides both a detailed description of the changing nature of piracy, as well as explanations for why these changes have occurred. The increase in pirate activity...... off Somalia from 1991 to 2011 did not occur in a steady linear progression, but took place in three separate phases. These three phases can be viewed in terms of a “cycle of piracy,” based on a theory developed by the pirate historian Philip Gosse in 1932. By employing this framework, policy...
Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Hosier, R.H.; Milukas, M.V.
This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)
a revised certification with Jordan’s Water Author- ity to inform funding decisions, in particular, for a new plant in Tafilah Governorate worth...Germany Moldova Slovakia Bahrain Greece Montenegro Slovenia Belgium Hungary Morocco Somalia Bosnia and Herzegovina Iceland The Netherlands...treatment plant in Tafilah Governorate worth about $18 million. Certification is required by Section 611(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as
examination. Dr Matthew said that since mid-April, the start of the local breeding season for mosquitoes carrying the malarial parasite , the Medical Com...the list just three months ago, when Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya were declared free of the disease; India, Bhutan and Nepal were declared safe in...enterotoxigenic and produce symptoms similar to those of cholera because they release toxins in the intestine . The president of the State Cholera Commission
The Arabian Shield forms the western part of the country and is composed of Precambrian metasediments of undescribed composition. The literature mentions calcareous duricrust formations in the eastern desert part of the country. This juxtaposition of possible source and duricrust is very similar to Somalia and leads to the view that the Speculative Potential may be in the 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)
Nordby, Johannes Riber
Somaliland er det tætteste man kommer på et godt eksempel, når det gælder om at løse fremtidens sikkerhedsudfordringer på Det afrikanske Horn – herunder en varig løsning af piratproblemet. Vejen til et mere stabilt Somalia går derfor gennem og en opdeling af landet, men den Afrikanske Union...
Banany, Mohamad; Lababidi, M.M.
This is the second part of a paper given during the third Arab energy conference held in Algeria, 4 - 9 May, 1985. Information concerning uranium resources and exploration in some Arab Countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Lybia is presented. In addition to that, uranium content in phosphate rocks in the world and specially in Arab Countries is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Verfassungsschutzbericht 2011,” Bundesamt für Ver- fassungsschutz, June 2012. The report distinguishes be- tween Salafists, al-Qa`ida and franchises , and regional jihadist...Unity and Jihad in West Africa. – AP, November 3 November 3, 2012 (SOMALIA): Two suicide bombers targeted the Vil lage restaurant and café near...Mogadishu’s Soobe intersection, ki l l ing at least one person. The restaurant is frequented by government off icials and members of the
about 70 percent of its product requirements, the importation of refined petrol - eum products has further exacerbated the trade-deficit problem. In the...Lesotho Panama India Portugal Malawi Uruguay Indonesia Romania Mali Malaysia Sudan Niger Nepal Tunisia Nigeria Pakistan Turkey Senegal Philippines...countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia , and Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania, also Arab League countries, are in the EEC-ACP
initial conquest of North Africa in 662 AD. His forces established the city of Kairouan in Tunisia , which was the first new Islamic city in North Africa...Pakistan, the Philippines, Somalia, Switzerland, Tunisia , Turkey, the United States, the United Kingdom and Yemen. Israel suffered an attack from an...outskirts of Peshawar, using rockets and petrol bombs to destroy the parked vehicles. – AFP, March 28 March 28, 2009 (ALGERIA): Al- Qa`ida in the
Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Joint Publication 1-02) (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2016), http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine...holdings have devastatingly reduced the organization’s span of control in Somalia to small pockets of territory (see Figure 3). 38 Areas...no. 1 (March 2011): 3–31. doi:10.1080/09592318.2011.546572. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated
rate high and local communities focusing on survival. With agriculture limited more or less to self-sustainment, and the waters overfished by...the last two decades. The reason behind this is the failure of the international community to focus on the hub of the region’s piracy: The failed state...decades. The reason behind this is the failure of the international community to focus on the hub of the region‟s piracy: The failed state of Somalia
in the NSS and reiterated in the QDR is risk mitigation to American security by handling pandemic crises abroad. In 2014, amidst the regional Ebola ...The NSS states that the Ebola outbreak within West Africa “in 2014 serves as a stark reminder of the threat posed by infectious disease and the...Provide Relief in Somalia, Operation United Assistance in Liberia , Operation Unified Response in Haiti, and numerous additional smaller-scale missions
future. Some of those spaces are darkened for ecological reasons. Some are void of light for eco-political reasons. Moreover, some are void for reasons...characteristics: geographic regions characterized by their ecology and their condition of habitability. Geographic regions include water, arid and desert...indices of failed states.30 For over 20 years, Somalia has not had a functioning government.31 It has been ruled by anarchy and more recently by
Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker
We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.
three categories, core, intermediate, and peripheral.6 Core interests are those interests that concern the physical survival of a nation. Magyar states...6 Karl P. Magyar, “Conflict in the Postcontainment Era,” War & Conflict AY97 Coursebook (1996): 14. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 Donald...Postcontainment Era.” War & Conflict AY97 Coursebook (1996): 1 -16. Maren, Michael. “The Pentagon quits Somalia: Spinning Dunkirk.” The New Republic
Colorado. The Larson’s have two children Andrew 12, and Ava 9. They reside in Virginia Beach where they enjoy water sports, soccer, and equine ...building strategy. The understanding and complexity of the problem unfolds with the knowledge that previous security sector reform efforts in Somalia may...at security sector reform,” Abdi observers, “have seen money disappear into a black hole as there was no accountability.൱ It appears that both
The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...
Somalia Peacekeepers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 909-913. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Olsen CH. A cross-sectional survey of the...relationship between partner deployment and stress in pregnancy during wartime. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Partner deployment and stress in pregnant...Identify 3-5 key words relating to the proposal. (Required) I used MESH Headings instead of the CRISP Thesaurus for key
absorb rebel units into the national army failed to deconstruct previous personal and ideological allegiances to the former rebel movement and thus...victors our outside interveners, such as India in Sri Lanka, the U.S. in Somalia and Haiti, and UN interventions in Albania and Haiti.30 Nevertheless...Reconstructing Masculinities : The Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Colombia.” Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.31
Revolutionary Development Support, commonly referred to as “CORDS”, was established in 1967 under Robert “Blowtorch” Komer. As the director of CORDS, Robert ...combat operations spanning the complete spectrum of warfare. As Robert Citino, the author of Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm wrote about the development of...US forces in Somalia. Haiti In 1915, Smedley Butler and 3,000 Marines invaded Haiti and quickly pacified the entire island. Eighty years
Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM).30 This Western intervention further cemented Bin Laden’s hatred of the United States, and ultimately led to his decision to...Western-owned businesses and have had a profoundly detrimental impact on the tourism industry in Kenya.48 This was evident during our recent travel to...ownership is yet another destabilizing factor used to incite violence along the coast and the MRC has used this topic around Mombasa to attract supporters
irredentist promise of a larger Somalia. The military coup of 1969 and the Siad Barre dictatorship were reactions to the weakness and corruption of...memories of the blurred boundaries of childhood be- tween India, Pakistan, and Turkey. Musharraf gives the reader a view of a young child with a keen sense...Musharraf. His was a childhood spent immersed in love, adventure, and controversy. He brings his complex personality alive, detailing the transformation
deputies responsible for finance , administration, and security. Coordination among regional groups is common.10 The deputy leader of al-Shebab, Mukhtar...Maaliya (Ministry of Finance ) controlled taxation. A complex court system also emerged. Multiple training camps were built that focused on hand-to-hand...Nathan Chandler, Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in Somalia: Assessing the Campaign Against Al Shabaab, Rand Corporation , 2016, accessed 6/5
glass ceiling for advancement on the members of the lesser tribes. For that reason, Perry asserts that the Air Force has no choice but to change. 65...quarter century is clear: the Soviets in Afghanistan, the Israelis in Lebanon , the United States in Somalia, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Smaller, irregular...Air Force has used to justify procurement of addition numbers of fifth-generation F-22‘s above the final-buy ceiling (187 aircraft) established by
Rescue Medic in Mogadishu , Somalia, and Special Forces battalion surgeon during Operation Enduring Freedom. He is currently the Director of the Military...the CoTCCC, an organization born outside the traditional military medical establishment, exposes a void in ownership and expertise in battle - field...serve as bat- talion surgeons responsible for the resuscitation of battle casualties in the battalion aid station. This is reminiscent of how
occurred in 1992, with the bombing of two hotels in Aden housing American troops transiting to Somalia. The attacks resulted in the deaths of two...independently minded regional military leaders, Islamists, the Huthis, and Hirak for the Weberian monopoly of violence.309 IHS Jane’s asserts that...Yemeni government estimates two to three weapons per male aged 16–44. The Huthis also have access to the country’s largest arms market Suq al-Talh
including those working undercover amongst their fellow citizens. Nevertheless, the state security apparatus has generally been considered less...December 2007 and the months of violence which followed resulted in another steep decline in tourism. The Economist reports the country lost $191 million...still weak, and the ICU continues to act as an insurgent and terrorist organization within Somalia. The Economist reports that Al Shabaab, a follow-on
Civil Protection, Transport, Public Health, Food and Water, and Industrial Resources and Communications. Available at <www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive...operations are increasingly dependent on local “ franchises ,” such as in Yemen, Somalia, the Middle East, and North Africa.4 While potentially...experts from the public and private sectors and industry to coordinate planning in various areas of civil activity. The five planning groups are
Preparedness and Support Project (NGO-SPAS) in Somalia and the now defunct Baluchistan NGO Security Office ( BINGO ) in Pakistan. ANSO has often been...interference by powerful local actors. Similar concerns sparked the closure of BINGO by the Pakistani government. Overall, the general trend in incident...outweighed by the benefit derived from the open source environment. In the end, however, users will be required to exercise judgment when reviewing
would fight. War- time missions are executed with United States and foreign forces, just as would occur &WV ft Ra RDdNemv cowei hr ~u~, FY M87 Exwutdm...Luxembourg Somalia Bermuda Greece Madagascar South Korea Bolivia Greenland Malaysia Spain Brazil Grenada Marshall Islands Sweden Cameroon Guam Mexico...Major Dell M. Dempsey, USMCR Ecuadoran Military attache in Panama 0 Colonel James V. Dugar, ANGUS * Young, Colonel Ralph R. (USAR) 0 Colonel
is also believed to be responsible for setting up the anomalouscirculationoffwesternAustraliareferredtoabove(SchottandMcCreary, 2001). The differential heating and cooling of air over land and sea forces semi-annual reversals of winds and surface currents...SWMwindsarestrongerintheArabianSealeadingtothedevelopmentofavery strong western boundary flow (the Somali Current) and vigorous upwelling off the coastsofSomalia,YemenandOman(SchottandMcCreary,2001).Anotablefeature of circulation in the region during the SWM is the persistence of several meso-scale eddies that account...
of Somalia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Pakistan and Eastern and Western shelves of India (except a part of inner shelf), irrespective of primary productivity variation (Fig. 3), is mainly ascribed to decomposition of organic matter in contact.... Nevertheless, moderate to very high concentrations of organic carbon (Fig. 1) are invariably associated with the entire slope sediments, forming a long and wide band in contact with oxygen minima from Saurashtra to the southern tip of India. It may...
Al Saafani, M.A.
and limited hydrographic observations. Wooster et al.  stated that the winter pattern starts in October with a weak westward flow into the gulf. It developed fully in November and persisted till April . During summer, the direction of the surface current... current in the northwestern Arabian Sea, the Somali Current, flows poleward (equator ward) along the coast of Somalia during the summer (winter) monsoon (see the reviews by Schott ; Shetye and Gouveia ; Schott and McCreary ). Owing...
they develop an innovative weapon or tactic.10 And as Aum Shinrikyo’s sarin nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway demonstrated, terrorists can wreak...mission to Moga- dishu, Somalia, to provide security for the distribution of food and medical supplies and to relieve a potentially catastrophic...together by a loosely networked transnational constitu- ency? Has it become a franchise operation with like-minded local representatives independently
comprised of radicalized indigenous Bedouin Arabs, foreign fighters, and Palestinian militants. On social media , the group has displayed various...this statement, the group has since referred to itself simply as “the Islamic State,” although U.S. government officials, some international media ...interest, including Nigeria, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Turkey, Yemen , Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Russia, and Indonesia. U.S
the playing field with their exploitation of information technology using mass media .18 As has been the case in segments of Yemen , Somalia...contrast, horizontal communication technologies, such as social media , may increase collective violence.68 This finding suggests that in areas where state... Media , Social Media , and the Geography of Collective Violence in African States,” Journal of Peace Research, February 11, 2015, 00223433145581 02, doi
provided for a wide range of recipient countries, including Yemen , Somalia, Kenya, and the Philippines. In addition to...nations engaged in counterterrorism and crisis response activities; 39 Commander’s Emergency Response Program, which generally supports infrastructure ...Percentage Equipment and Transportation $1.7 $0.7 $2.3 25% Infrastructure $0.2 $0.1 $0.3 3% Sustainment $4.0 $1.9 $6.0 64% Training and Operations $0.7
counterterrorism operations in Somalia, Yemen , Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Syria.3 Absent the operational capability of terrorists to function in these...action by USSOF comes with some challenges. A fundamental challenge to USSOF operations outside the US, as evinced in the USSOF raid in Yakla- Yemen , is...assets. 8 Additionally, poor infrastructural facilities in the Sahel exacerbate the problem of poor logistics to support USSOF operations in
central government’s control and militants’ ability—and willingness—to quietly blend in.38 A security official in Hadramawt explained the group’s...safari.”17 8 Secunder Kermani, “Drone Victim’s Somalia Visits Probed,” BBC, May 30, 2013. 9 Personal interview, Tam Hussein, community worker who...shared vision of the Center products like the CTC Sentinel could not be produced. If you are interested in learning more about how to support the
set off tsunamis, as occurred in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, when an earthquake and tsunami killed over 225,000 people. Natural events...in Somalia, the ability to counter the menagerie of gangs that currently plough the seas off the Horn of Africa will be minimal. Further, the...Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 3, Sea-Lanes to Asia sunk several Vietnamese ships, killing 70 Vietnamese sailors (EIA, 2008b). As states
Satan � that its enemies claimed. Groups like Ansar Al-Islam incorporated the pictures into their recruiting literature, and Abu Musab Zarqawi�s...November 2002, 304, available to download at http://www.dodccrp.org/publications/ pdf /Smith_EBO.PDF. - 59 - external power sources for the next...Proverbs 16:9, New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993� Army helicopters
fears that Americans were the “Great Satan ” that its enemies claimed. Groups such as Ansar al-Islam incorporated these pictures into their recruit- ing...his steps. —Proverbs 16:9 —New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia...Command and Control Research Pro- gram, Nov. 2002. http://www.dodccrp.org/publications/ pdf / Smith_EBO.PDF. Snook, Scott A. Friendly Fire: The Accidental
Soldiers’ retirements cost less because they do not collect pay or benefits immediately upon retirement, but must generally wait till age 60 to...collect retirement pay and benefits . A second method compared the costs of similar units in the Army and Army National Guard. The CAPE study compared...Implementation, Sixth Edition, ed. David A. Williams (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002), 55. 37 Michael Wines , “MISSION TO SOMALIA: Bush Declares Goal in
Bruvik Westberg, Andreas
a considerable impact on the decline in piracy. Moreover, naval–coastal engagement and cooperation run deeper than is commonly perceived. While grievances against illegal fishing are widespread, examination of the fishing sector reveals a significant amount of predation committed by local stakeholders....... Competition for fishing sector rents, particularly over distribution of licences, occurs on the local, regional and national levels. Bonds between some pirates, smugglers and officials threaten coastal community development and undermine their security. This study concludes that Somalia's maritime predatory...
This paper critically assesses the EU’s anti-piracy operation Atalanta in the light of the protection of Union citizens. The main question is to which extent a Union citizen threatened by pirates off the coast of Somalia could rely on the promise of civis europaeus sum. The paper discusses the various legal aspects pertaining to the forceful protection of EU citizens in international law, EU constitutional law and the operational parameters of Atalanta. It argues that within the particular fr...
independent multiracial government, dominated primarily by the Zulu tribe and the local Asian population, had been proclaimed and aspired to control all of the...concentrated most of South Africa’s - remaining English-speaking population, and by the reigning Chief of the Zulu tribe , speaking for the self-styled...Africa. Facilities in one or more northern African countries-- Morocco, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia--could be critical to U.S. military actions in the
Elijah Onyango Standslause ODHIAMBO
Full Text Available Terrorist groups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, (ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have the knowledge and the capability to strike anywhere in Kenya and with Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia in mid-October 2011, the citizens in Mandera, Moyale, Garrisa, Nairobi and Mombasa have been attacked and lives lost. This confirms that Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have been motivated by Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF, now under the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM incursion into Somalia and they will continue to attack Kenya as a way of retaliation. The importance of Learning Institutions makes it a soft target for ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists. The fact that ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists will strike at Learning Institutions is real and this can be confirmed by the Garissa University College, Kenya terror attack where 148 people were killed on 2 April, 2015. The risk of terrorists attack against this critical infrastructure can result in communal disruptions, disarray, and even overreaction on the part of governments and the public as a result of any attack, may be high. We argue that Learning Institutions are vulnerable to ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks. In summary, the article looks at the concepts of terrorism, the dangers of attack on Learning Institutions, Kenya’s Learning Institutions preparedness and concludes with a set of recommendations.
Thijs Brocades Zaalberg
Full Text Available Klep, Christ, Somalië, Rwanda, Srebrenica. De nasleep van drie ontspoorde vredesmissies (Dissertatie Utrecht 2008; Amsterdam: Boom, 2008, 385 blz., ISBN 978 90 8506 668 2The Aftermath of Somalia, Rwanda and Srebrenica: Parallels and DifferencesChrist Klep has written an impressive and highly accessible thesis on the aftermath of three unsuccessful peace operations. By using a bold comparative approach and an ambitious tone of enquiry he places the traumatic Dutch Srebrenica experience in the context of two broadly similar processes of finger-pointing and evading responsibility in Canada and Belgium following their respective interventions in Somalia and Rwanda. He thus exposes many fascinating parallels, yet the historian Klep pays little attention to the differences between his case studies. This is regrettable, as this would have strengthened rather than weakened his otherwise compelling argument. The Somali case in particular differs from ‘Srebrenica’ and ‘Rwanda’, since the murders perpetrated by Canadian soldiers – horrific as they may have been – and the subsequent cover-up in no way constituted a defining moment in the collapsing international mission as a whole. Unlike the genocides in Rwanda and Srebrenica the death of the two Somalis was the result of a purely national Canadian failure, which helps explain why the Somalia Inquiry could identify guilty compatriots far more decisively than, for example, the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIOD in its Srebrenica report.
Full Text Available Violent conflict is very old in human society. The development of military technology brought with itself the worst tragedies loss of human live and material devastation in the second half of 20th century in the Horn of Africa. This region is one of the centers of various political violent conflicts in the world, according to length of these violent conflicts, the number of death of people, mainly civilian, refugees and internal displaced persons (IDP. This study elucidates the root causes of long wars in the Horn of Africa focusing mainly on South Sudan and Somalia. It also illustrates how the Super Powers during the Cold War helped their client states to prolong the suffering of people in the region. When Socialist system disappeared from Eastern Europe, Mengistu Haile Mariam's and Siyad Barre's regime ignominiously collapsed. In Ethiopia Amhara power elite, who ruled the Empire state from 1889 to 1991 lost their state power and Tigrian guerrilla fighters captured it through the power of the gun, Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia, South Sudan is emerging from long heinous war to independence. The violent conflict in Somalia transformed after the old regime demise in 1991 and the new leaders unable to build new central government. Somalia is fragmented and became the good example of failed state in the theory of contemporary political sociology. The paper tries to explain these complex violent conflicts in this part of Africa.
Full Text Available Violent conflict is very old in human society. The development of military technology brought with itself the worst tragedies loss of human live and material devastation in the second half of 20th century in the Horn of Africa. This region is one of the centers of various political violent conflicts in the world, according to length of these violent conflicts, the number of death of people, mainly civilian, refugees and internal displaced persons (IDP. This study elucidates the root causes of long wars in the Horn of Africa focusing mainly on South Sudan and Somalia. It also illustrates how the Super Powers during the Cold War helped their client states to prolong the suffering of people in the region. When Socialist system disappeared from Eastern Europe, Mengistu Haile Mariam’s and Siyad Barre’s regime ignominiously collapsed. In Ethiopia Amhara power elite, who ruled the Empire state from 1889 to 1991 lost their state power and Tigrian guerrilla fighters captured it through the power of the gun, Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia, South Sudan is emerging from long heinous war to independence. The violent conflict in Somalia transformed after the old regime demise in 1991 and the new leaders unable to build new central government. Somalia is fragmented and became the good example of failed state in the theory of contemporary political sociology. The paper tries to explain these complex violent conflicts in this part of Africa.
Supervie, Virginie; Halima, Yasmin; Blower, Sally
To quantify the potential impact of mass rape on HIV incidence in seven conflict-afflicted countries (CACs), with severe HIV epidemics, in sub-Saharan Africa. Uncertainty analysis of a risk equation model. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the potential impact of mass rape on increasing HIV incidence in women and girls in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, southern Sudan and Uganda. The model was parameterized with data from UNAIDS/WHO and the US Census Bureau's International Database. Incidence data from UNAIDS/WHO were used for calibration. Mass rape could cause approximately five HIV infections per 100,000 females per year in the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and Sierra Leone, double the number in Burundi and Rwanda, and quadruple the number in Uganda. The number of females infected per year due to mass rape is likely to be relatively low in Somalia and Sierra Leone at 127 [median (interquartile range [IQR] 55-254)] and 156 [median (IQR 69-305)], respectively. Numbers could be high in the DRC and Uganda: 1120 [median (IQR 527-2360)] and 2172 [median (IQR 1031-4668)], respectively. In Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, the numbers are likely to be intermediate. Under extreme conditions, 10,000 women and girls could be infected per year in the DRC and 20 000 women and girls could be infected per year in Uganda. Mass rape could increase annual incidence by approximately 7% [median (IQR 3-15)]. Interventions and treatment targeted to rape survivors during armed conflicts could reduce HIV incidence. Support should be provided both on the basis of human rights and public health.
Tomas, C; Mogensen, H S; Friis, S L; Hallenberg, C; Stene, M C; Morling, N
A concordance study of the results of PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 and AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ kits obtained from 591 individuals from Somalia (N=198), Denmark (N=199) and Greenland (N=194) was performed. Among 9456 STR types, seven discordant results were found with the two kits: one observed in the D19S433 system in an individual from Denmark and six in the SE33 system in six individuals from Somalia. Sequencing of SE33 in the six samples with discordant results showed G>A transition 15bp downstream of the repeat unit in three of the individuals, and G>A transition 68bp downstream of the repeat unit in the other three individuals. Population data for 16 autosomal STR systems analyzed in 989 individuals from Somalia, Denmark and Greenland are also presented. The highest mean heterozygosity was observed in Danes (82.5%). With the exception of D8S1179 in Danes, no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed. Only one pair of systems (D12S391 and D18S51) showed significant allelic association in Greenlanders (after Holm-Šidák correction). A MDS plot drawn from pairwise FST values calculated between 21 populations showed a clear displacement of the Greenlandic population versus the other ones included in the analyses. The highest combined chance of exclusion and power of discrimination was observed for Danes reaching values of 99.9999987% and 1 in 1.8×10(21), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liliya Igorevna Romadan
Full Text Available The article addresses the cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, in particular the African Union in the sphere of security and settlement of conflicts. Over the last decade the role of the AU and sub regional organizations has dramatically increased. Through its agencies of ensuring peace and security the African Union is making significant contribution to strengthening stability and promotion of democracy and human rights in Africa. In the beginning of the article authors make a review of the level of security on the African continent and stress the sharpest conflict zones. According to researches one of the most turbulent regions on continent in terms of security is the North-East Africa. Continuing quarter-century war in Somalia, conflict relations between Somalia and Ethiopia, the border crises between Ethiopia and Eritrea, which in the late 20th century turned into the war between the two countries, finally, the number of armed clashes in Sudan attracted the special attention to the region of the entire world community. Authors pay the main attention to the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in the sphere of settling regional conflicts and holding peacekeeping operations. In the article the main mechanisms and methods that are used by the United Nations and the African Union to hold peacekeeping operations are analyzed in details. The situation in Somalia and efforts of the United Nations and the African Union that are making towards stabilization in this country are also studied. Authors reveal the basic elements and make a review of the mixed multicomponent peacekeeping operation of the United Nations and the African Union in Sudan. In the conclusion authors stress the measures that could strengthen the strategic cooperation between the United Nations and the African union. According to the authors the most important task is to solve problems of financing joint peacekeeping operations
Fernando Alvarez Uría
Full Text Available Fortunately, clitoral ablation is now a receding practice, but it is still practiced in around 30 countries in the Sahel strip, from Somalia to Senegal. This kind of violence affects 3 million girls every year in Africa and the Middle East, having affected 125 million women. Western European ethnocentrism too often makes invisible the women suffering this violence, which is both physical and symbolic. Once again, critical sociology tries to respond to the social demand of making visible what is invisible—on this occasion resourcing to life stories, such as the one of Asha Ismail Hussein—and hence contribute to banish the intolerable situations from society.
The position of oil companies toward East Africa has changed considerably since 2006 when the first reserves in Uganda came to light. However, for many investors interested in the region, it remains difficult to get a clear picture of the scale of developments of this sector. This paper will discuss the locations of reserves, their volumes, when they will be developed, what they will be used for, and possible impediments to their development. In addition to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which already have ample hydrocarbon resources, it will be useful to address the future of certain countries such as Ethiopia, Somalia, Madagascar, and the Comoro Islands, which have largely underestimated potentials. (author)
Amenu Wesen Denegetu
Full Text Available The recent polio outbreak in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia demanded a safety net Sub-National Immunization Days (SNIDs for four bordering States, including Upper Nile. Aiming to reach children aged 0-59 months, a house-to-house strategy was employed from 20-23 of August 2013 to vaccinate all children in Maban County. The post Campaign evaluation is conducted to assess coverage by finger mark (quality by proxy and help to ensure improvements for subsequent campaigns. The main objective of the evaluation was to assess the quality of the campaign to learn lessons for subsequent plans.
Full Text Available Come altre zone del Corno d’Africa, la regione dell’Awdal è un’area di lunga presenza dell’aiuto umanitario internazionale. È un’area, considerando gli ultimi 30 anni, di emergenza strutturale (Piguet 1998, prodotto di una serie ricorrente di destabilizzazioni politiche e sociali – si pensi alla grande carestia del 1974 che ha colpito l’intera regione, alla guerra dell’Ogaden tra Etiopia e Somalia nel 1977-78 e infine al conflitto civile somalo, cominciato nel Nord nel 1988 ma preceduto da continue tensioni per tutti gli anni Ottanta – a cui hanno fatto seguito interventi esterni d’aiuto.
Shah, K P; Shah, P M
The Mother's Card and its use are described. The card is filled out by the health worker and provides data on the mother concerning family planning, menstrual cycles, pregnancy period (including whether at risk, state of nutrition, immunization against tetanus, and expected date of birth), and breastfeeding. The card is kept by the mother, and the health worker keeps a copy. Each card has space for 10 years and up to 4 pregnancies. The cards have been used successfully in India since 1976 and in Somalia since early 1980, and were useful in strengthening family planning programs as well as identifying pregnancies at risk for special attention.
Jung, S.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Davies, G.R.
We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ~6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ~8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O v...
THE COMPTROLLER VII 3 1 Mission VII 3 Organi zation VII 4 Staffing and Po-r-anel VII 4 Director’ s Overview VII 5 Progr am iri Bidget Divisioa VII 6...M119 TDP was purchased with the initial increment of FY 1986 weapon funding to facilitate an ILS/logistic support analysis record provisioning and...support of the military assistance program-funded FMS program. .4 V 23 I .a% , Logistics Readiness Somalia The first increment of six SDAF-produced M198
Duza, M B
"The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in  selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. excerpt
This master thesis deals with the approaches of international actors, especially UN, EU and USA, to the concept of failed states, which are demonstrated on the illustrative example of a state of this category, i.e. Somalia. We think of failed states as a security threat, with which the international community provisionally cannot deal. The master thesis discusses how the international actors deal with this issue in terms of its solution and how they think of the failed states in terms of sove...
Demissew, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib
On field trips to southeastern Ethiopia in 2012 the authors collected a semi-prostrate shrub of the genus Commiphora and matching the taxon named “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” in the Flora of Ethiopia (1989). In the Flora of Somalia (1999) “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was considered...... a synonym of Commiphora oddurensis Chiov. However, in 2006 “Commiphora sp. = Friis et al. 3160” was described as a distinct species endemic to southeastern Ethiopia and named Commiphora suffruticosa Teshome. Although validly published, that scientific name has not been included in international data bases...
Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil
BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....
Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abdullahi A; Guled, Ibrahim A; Elamin, Hayfa M; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H
An emerging dimension of 21(st) century integrative biology is knowledge translation in global health. The maternal mortality rate in Somalia is amongst the highest in the world. We set out to study the "know-do" gap in family planning measures in Somalia, with a view to inform future interventions for knowledge integration between theory and practice. We interviewed 360 Somali females of reproductive age and compared university-educated females to women with less or no education, using structured interviews, with a validated questionnaire. The mean age of marriage was 18 years, with 4.5 pregnancies per marriage. The mean for the desired family size was 9.3 and 10.5 children for the university-educated group and the less-educated group, respectively. Importantly, nearly 90% of the university-educated group knew about family planning, compared to 45.6% of the less-educated group. All of the less-educated group indicated that they would never use contraceptives, as compared to 43.5% of the university-educated group. Prevalence of contraceptive use among ever-married women was 4.3%. In the less-educated group, 80.6% indicated that they would not recommend contraceptives to other women as compared to 66.0% of the university-educated group. There is a huge gap between knowledge and practice regarding family planning in Somalia. The attendant reasons for this gap, such as level of education, expressed personal religious beliefs and others, are examined here. For primary health care to gain traction in Africa, we need to address the existing "know-do" gaps that are endemic and adversely impacting on global health. This is the first independent research study examining the knowledge gaps for family planning in Somalia in the last 20 years, with a view to understanding knowledge integration in a global world. The results shall guide policy makers, donors, and implementers to develop a sound family planning policy and program to improve maternal and child health in 21(st
Somalia es un ejemplo de consenso en torno a su denominación como “Estado fallido”. Sin embargo, diferentes estrategias han sustituido al Estado como estructurador de la sociedad y así los somalíes han dinamizado su sociedad y su economía (liderazgo religioso, fenómenos de segregación locales, etc). La guerra, las graves carencias en derechos humanos y la dependencia frente a la ayuda externa llaman aún la atención de los especialistas. Vemos aquí el papel de las mujeres somalíes, principales...
Somalia es un ejemplo de consenso en torno a su denominación como “Estado fallido”. Sin embargo, diferentes estrategias han sustituido al Estado como estructurador de la sociedad y así los somalíes han dinamizado su sociedad y su economía (liderazgo religioso, fenómenos de segregación locales, etc). La guerra, las graves carencias en derechos humanos y la dependencia frente a la ayuda externa llaman aún la atención de los especialistas. Vemos aquí el papel de las mujeres somalíes, principales...
Full Text Available A specimens of Blue-nosed Grubfish, Parapercis alboguttata (Günther, 1872 were collected from reef flat of RonBolaan, Lembeh Island, North Sulawesi on 21 July 2008. It was caught by hook and line from a depths of about 10 - 20m. First record of this specimen found in Makassar Strait and deposited at the Bishop Museum (BPBM in Honolulu,USA. P. alboguttata has been found in many scattered locations in the Indo-West Pacific, from north western Australia,Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Oman and Somalia. Morphological features of the Indonesian specimenare reported.
The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....
ABSTRACT: This article addresses the legal condition of the Muslim minority in Italy, considering the progressive development of the sociological situation of various Muslim communities, approaching to Italy from different Islamic countries (from Morocco to Somalia, from Tunisia to Egypt in the last 20 years. More in detail, the paper analyzes the current limits in the application of the constitutional norms concerning the agreements of cooperation (called “intese” and Islam, and proposes an alternative and diffuse system of local agreements more fitting with the Islamic political tradition as well as with the fundamental rights of the faithfuls, in an even more parochial and multifaceted society.
Antonio M. Morone
Full Text Available The loss of the colonies during the Second World War is usually related to the end of the Italian colonial rule in Africa. In fact the existence of a “Ministero Italiano dell’Africa” until 1953 and of a Italian Amministration of Somalia (AFIS until to 1960 show a long transition: this could be considered as a decolonization case which ended only with the independence of the country on 1th July 1960. The AFIS experiment played a key role in the making of some of the most popular and enduring themes Italian narrative about the colonialism.
Olsen, Gorm Rye
The French intervention in Mali in early 2013 emphasizes that the decision-makers in Paris, Brussels, and Washington considered the establishment of the radical Islamist regime in Northern Mali a threat to their security interests. The widespread instability including the rise of radical Islamist...... groups in Somalia was perceived as a threat to western interests. It is the core argument of the paper if western powers decide to provide security in Africa, they will be inclined to use proxy instead of deploying own troops. Security provision by proxy in African means that African troops are doing...
Kanavin, Øjvind; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil
previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD. PMID: 17883863 [PubMed - in process]......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism...
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Stangegaard, Michael; Børsting, Claus
, Somalia and Greenland were investigated with GenPlex using a Biomek 3000 (Beckman Coulter) robot. The results were compared to results obtained with an ISO 17025 accredited SNP typing assay based on single base extension (SBE). With the GenPlex SNP genotyping system, full SNP profiles were obtained in 97.......6% of the investigations. Perfect concordance was obtained in duplicate investigations and the SNP genotypes obtained with the GenPlex system were concordant with those of the accredited SBE based SNP typing system except for one result in rs901398 in one of 286 individuals most likely due to a mutation 6 bp downstream...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman; Dini, Shukria
Somali women mobilise nationally – through NGOs and civic movements. They succeeded in overcoming challenges, and confront warlordism and violence. This dimension is well documented and well known by the international community. Lesser-known Somali is the transnational dimension of Somali women......’s mobilisation. Osman Farah and Shukria Dini contend that Somali Women’s transnational efforts for justice and social empowerment, and their efforts of co-operating with transnational NGOs and transnational communities, play a central role in peace and reconciliation processes in Somalia. The two authors argue...
En el momento en que los demócratas de los Estados Unidos han encabezado, al parecer, la cruzada mundial contra el cambio climático, quizá no es inútil leer (o releer) el ensayo del periodista Paul Roberts, publicado a finales del 2004 bajo el título llamativo de "El fin del petróleo". En efecto, cuando se reactivan las recetas del "charity business" (como eran los megaconciertos contra la hambruna y la sequía en Somalia, o para la liberación de Mandela) para salvar nuestro planeta, y m...
ready for rule 3 Ibid., 1-2. 4 Ibid., 3. 5 Ibid., 3-5. 6 Lester H. Brune, The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and Clinton in...Somalia, and heavy fighting against peacekeeping troops erupted in November 22 Brune, The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and...that a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil could cause an ensuing tornado in Texas, otherwise known as the “ Butterfly Effect”6. The reality of
Full Text Available Suddenly, in 1998, the brotherly and friendly states of Eritrea and Ethiopia went into a bloody two-year war that stunned the world by its ferocity, the extent of human casualties and the destruction of resources. One of the root causes was the boundary between the two countries, which was never demarcated. But this was not the first boundary war in the troubled Horn of Africa. In 1964 and again in 1977-8, Somalia launched war on Ethiopia; the latter was massive and bloody. Much later, Eritre...
Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Bureau. “Weekly Piracy Report 13-28 OCT 2007”. http://www.icc-ccs.org/prc/piracyreport.php (accessed 30 October 2007) 2 quarter of 2007 jumped by 37% when compared to the second quarter of 2006.2 The smuggling of refugees across the Gulf of Aden from Somalia to Yemen is also approaching record levels and reflects growing instability in the region. Piracy and human smuggling are motivated by profit and are predominantly criminal enterprises. Although both pirate and terrorist networks exist in
, and on questions of migration and integration. He is the author of the book “Somali Oral Poetry and the Failed She-Camel Nation State: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Deelley Poetry Debate (1979-1980)”, published in 2015. Ali is also an eminent voice of Italian post-colonial studies: his “I peccati storici...... del colonialismo” is a must-read for those interested in understanding the legacy of Italian colonialism in Somalia. Marco Zoppi has conducted this interview for WardheerNews.com, and wishes to thank Ali M. Ahad for his kind availability....
Eka Nizmi, Yusnarida
By 1990, Somalia had become a good example of what was becoming known as a “failed state”- a people without a government strong enough to govern the country or represent it in International organizations; a country whose poverty, disorganization, refugee flows, political instability, and random warfare had the potential to spread across borders and threaten the stability of other states and the peace of the region. At the end of the cold war there were several such failed states in Africa,...
Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L
Cirolana bambang sp. nov. from Bitung, North Sulawesi, Indonesia is described. The species can be recognised by generally smooth body with small, acute, submedian nodules on pleonites 4-5 and the anterior dorsal surface of the pleotelson together with a flat, pentagonal frontal lamina, linguiform and sexually dimorphic pleotelson with the dorsal surface covered by short setae in males, deeply bifid uropod apices, and a conspicuously large robust seta on the superodistal angle of pereopod 1 ischium. Cirolana bambang sp. nov. appears to belong to a group of Indo-West Pacific Cirolana with prominent penial process, a large robust seta on the superodistal angle of pereopod 1 ischium and the presence of setae on dorsal surface of pleotelson and or uropod in males. The most similar species are Cirolana comata Keable, 2001; Cirolana dissimilis Keable, 2001; Cirolana aldabrensis Schotte Kensley, 2005; and Cirolana somalia Schotte Kensley, 2005. Cirolana kiliani Müller, 1993 and C. somalia are found not to belong to the Cirolana'parva-group'.
el Matri, A
The Arab world, as a whole, now has 8.5 medical doctors per 10,000 population. This average covers a great diversity of national situations; for example 0.6 doctors per 10,000 population in Somalia, and 17.5 doctors per 10,000 population in Qatar. From the viewpoint of medical staffing, the Arab countries can be grouped into four categories: (i) Countries with low medical density: their national staff is scarce, they do not have a long academic tradition, and they have to rely on foreign physicians (Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia, Mauritania). (ii) Countries with acceptable medical density: they have strengthened their medical training system during the last decades, their production of medical graduates is now fairly high, and there is seemingly a threat of oversupply (Algeria, Tunisia, Syria, Iraq). (iii) Countries with relatively high medical density: their medical staffing is below that of developed countries, but their economic possibilities are reduced, which leads to an oversupply; these countries are exporters of medical manpower (Egypt, Jordan). (iv) Countries that import medical manpower although their own medical density is quite high: their medical training is recent or non-existent and their health system relies to a great extent on foreign doctors (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Libya, Kuwait). They are all oil producers. In brief, a shortage and an oversupply of medical doctors coexist in the Arab world, and concerted action is required.
Osman Sayid Hassan Musse
Full Text Available The dollarization phenomenon has been widespread among the East African countries for many decades. This trend results in several consequences that might be either beneficial or harmful to these countries and their likes.The objective of this research was to empirically examine the causes, consequences and the future scenarios of dollarization in one of the leading regional countries such as Somalia. The research used a survey of over 100respondents and applied descriptive statistics and t-tests to achieve the above objectives. The findings show that the main causes of Dollarization in Somalia are the implementation of the Hawallah (money transfer system,the remarkable absence of the central bank and other monitoring financial authorities, the increasing exports and imports of the Somalian economy, the loss of confidence in the local Somalian Shilling, and the relative ease atwhich the Somalian Shilling can be printed and manipulated by selected market players. These causes are found to be mainly triggered by the revenue from exports, the policies and regulations implemented by the Somali government, the Somali Diaspora, and the international aid organizations. This has resulted in the foreign traders buying Somali goods at a relatively lower price and taking advantage of the depreciated Somali Shilling against most international currencies.
Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.
The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.
Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber
Full Text Available Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber, Heinrich W. Freiboth DOI: 10.22495/rgcv4i3art2 Abstract Since the earliest days of maritime trade, piracy has been a great cause of concern for the maritime community. During recent years it has evolved into a highly lucrative “profession”, which serves as a financial outcome to people in some of the poorest regions of the world, including Somalia, while disrupting important international supply chains at a great cost to trade. This paper investigates the geography of modern maritime piracy and the common socio-economic circumstances that underlie the causes of Somali piracy. Key findings include the fact that maritime piracy in the Gulf of Aden has recently declined as a result of coordinated international efforts, but remains a serious threat with cost implications for the maritime transport industry and world trade. The paper concludes by identifying the need in Somalia to change the incentive structure that promotes piracy as an alternative to legal pursuits. This can be achieved by restoring a central authority in the country, creating a stable and safe social environment, and re-establishing formal economic and financial systems
Vangen, S; Stoltenberg, C; Skrondal, A; Magnus, P; Stray-Pedersen, B
We studied prevalences and risk factors for cesarean section among different groups of immigrants from countries outside Western Europe and North America in comparison to ethnic Norwegians. The study is population based using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 553,491 live births during the period 1986-1995 were studied, including 17,891 births to immigrant mothers. The prevalences of cesarean section ranged from 10.1% among women from Vietnam to 25.8% in the group of Filipino origin. The use of abdominal delivery was also high in the groups from Sri Lanka/India (21.3%), Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia (20.5%) and Chile/Brazil (24.3%), while the frequency among women from Turkey/Morocco (12.6%) and Pakistan (13.2%) was approximately the same as among ethnic Norwegians (12.4%). Feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor were the most important diagnoses associated with the high prevalences, but the significance of these diagnoses differed among the groups. Other unknown factors come into play, particularly among women from Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia and Chile/Brazil. There was substantial variation in the use of cesarean section among ethnic groups in Norway. The diagnoses feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor may be confounded by a number of factors including maternal request for cesarean section and difficulties in handling the delivery. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences.
Full Text Available Asli Kulane,1 Douglas Sematimba,1 Lul M Mohamed,2 Abdirashid H Ali,2 Xin Lu1,3,4 1Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Women and Child Care Section, Banadir Maternity & Children Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia; 3College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 4Flowminder Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden Background: The recurrent civil conflict in Somalia has impeded progress toward improving health and health care, with lack of data and poor performance of health indicators. This study aimed at making inference about Banadir region by exploring morbidity and mortality trends at Banadir Hospital. This is one of the few functional hospitals during war. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted with data collected at Banadir Hospital for the period of January 2008–December 2012. The data were aggregated from patient records and summarized on a morbidity and mortality surveillance form with respect to age groups and stratified by sex. The main outcome was the number of patients that died in the hospital. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the association between sex and hospital mortality. Results: Conditions of infectious origin were the major presentations at the hospital. The year 2011 recorded the highest number of cases of diarrhea and mortality due to diarrhea. The stillbirth rate declined during the study period from 272 to 48 stillbirths per 1,000 live births by 2012. The sum of total cases that were attended to at the hospital by the end of 2012 was four times the number at the baseline year of the study in 2008; however, the overall mortality rate among those admitted declined between 2008 and 2012. Conclusion: There was reduction in patient mortality at the hospital over the study period. Data from Banadir Hospital are consistent with findings from Banadir region and could give credible public health
Ruud, Sven Eirik; Aga, Ruth; Natvig, Bård; Hjortdahl, Per
The Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) experienced a 5-6% annual increase in patient visits between 2005 and 2011, which was significantly higher than the 2-3% annual increase among registered Oslo residents. This study explored immigrant walk-in patients' use of both the general emergency and trauma clinics of the OAEOC and their concomitant use of regular general practitioners (RGPs) in Oslo. A cross-sectional survey of walk-in patients attending the OAEOC during 2 weeks in September 2009. We analysed demographic data, patients' self-reported affiliation with the RGP scheme, self-reported number of OAEOC and RGP consultations during the preceding 12 months. The first approach used Poisson regression models to study visit frequency. The second approach compared the proportions of first- and second-generation immigrants and those from the four most frequently represented countries (Sweden, Pakistan, Somalia and Poland) among the patient population, with their respective proportions within the general Oslo population. The analysis included 3864 patients: 1821 attended the Department of Emergency General Practice ("general emergency clinic"); 2043 attended the Section for Orthopaedic Emergency ("trauma clinic"). Both first- and second-generation immigrants reported a significantly higher OAEOC visit frequency compared with Norwegians. Norwegians, representing 73% of the city population accounted for 65% of OAEOC visits. In contrast, first- and second-generation immigrants made up 27% of the city population but accounted for 35% of OAEOC visits. This proportional increase in use was primarily observed in the general emergency clinic (42% of visits). Their proportional use of the trauma clinic (29%) was similar to their proportion in the city. Among first-generation immigrants only 71% were affiliated with the RGP system, in contrast to 96% of Norwegians. Similar finding were obtained when immigrants were grouped by nationality. Compared to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Care during pregnancy and labour is of great importance in every culture. Studies show that people of migrant origin have barriers to obtaining accessible and good quality care compared to people in the host society. The aim of this study is to compare the access to and use of maternity services, and their outcomes among ethnic minority women having a singleton birth in Finland. Methods The study is based on data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register in 1999–2001 linked with the information of Statistics Finland on woman's country of birth, citizenship and mother tongue. Our study data included 6,532 women of foreign origin (3.9% of all singletons giving singleton birth in Finland during 1999–2001 (compared to 158,469 Finnish origin singletons. Results Most women have migrated during the last fifteen years, mainly from Russia, Baltic countries, Somalia and East Europe. Migrant origin women participated substantially in prenatal care. Interventions performed or needed during pregnancy and childbirth varied between ethnic groups. Women of African and Somali origin had most health problems resulted in the highest perinatal mortality rates. Women from East Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Somalia had a significant risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns. Most premature newborns were found among women from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. Primiparous women from Africa, Somalia and Latin America and Caribbean had most caesarean sections while newborns of Latin American origin had more interventions after birth. Conclusion Despite good general coverage of maternal care among migrant origin women, there were clear variations in the type of treatment given to them or needed by them. African origin women had the most health problems during pregnancy and childbirth and the worst perinatal outcomes indicating the urgent need of targeted preventive and special care. These study results
Diaz, Esperanza; Mbanya, Vivian N; Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette
Immigrants' utilization of primary health care (PHC) services differs from that of the host populations. However, immigrants are often classified in broad groups by continent of origin, and the heterogeneity within the same continent may hide variation in use among immigrant groups at a national level. Differences in utilization of PHC between sub-Saharan African immigrants have not received much attention. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration. African immigrants and their descendants registered in Norway in 2008 (36,366 persons) where included in this study. Using χ 2 test and logistic regression models, we assessed the differences in the use of PHC, including general practitioner (GP) and emergency room (ER) services, and the distribution of morbidity burden for immigrants from Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Gambia. For the analyses, we used the number of visits and medical diagnoses from each consultation registered by the physician. Among the total studied population, 66.1% visited PHC within 1 year. The diagnoses registered were similar for all four immigrants groups, regardless of country of origin. Compared to immigrants from Somalia, the age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) for use of GP were significantly lower for Ethiopians (OR 0.91; 0.86-0.97), Eritreans (OR 0.85; 0.79-0.91), and Gambians (OR 0.88; 0.80-0.97). Similarly, we also observed lower use of ER among Ethiopians (OR 0.88; 0.81-0.95), Eritreans (OR 0.56; 0.51-0.62) and Gambians (OR 0.81; 0.71-0.92). However, immigrants from Somalia reduced their use of PHC with longer duration of stay in Norway. Differences between groups persisted after further adjustment for employment status. Despite the similarities in diagnoses among the sub-Saharan African immigrant groups in Norway, their use of PHC services differs by country of origin and length of stay. It is important to assess the reasons for the differences
Full Text Available World Health Organization has recommended all countries to introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV in routine immunization schedule, especially those countries with higher rate of mortality in children. However, Islamic Republic of Iran and more than 50 other countries including Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Cabo Verde, Chad, China, Comoros, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Gabon, Grenada, Guinea, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Montenegro, Nauru, Poland, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovenia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, and Viet Namhave not introduced PCV till April 2016.
M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.
Alexander P. Sukhorukov
Full Text Available The genus Paramollugo with the type species Paramollugo nudicaulis (≡Mollugo nudicaulis has recently been described after molecular investigations. Here we report two new endemic Malagasy species: Paramollugo simulans and P. elliotii, and transfer a forgotten New Caledonian endemic Mollugo digyna to Paramollugo (P. digyna. Consequently, the number of Paramollugo species in the Eastern Hemisphere is increased from three to six. Almost all genus representatives (except P. nudicaulis, which has a wide distribution in Southern Asia, Arabia and tropical Africa are endemic to Madagascar, Somalia, or New Caledonia. Since the type of seed coat ornamentation is crucial for species delimitation, a diagnostic key with new taxonomically significant carpological characters and other new traits is provided for all the herbaceous Paramollugo. The distribution patterns of P. nudicaulis s.str., P. simulans and P. elliotii are presented.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the Anglo-American playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker’s approach to the issues of history, nationality and identity in her play Credible Witness (2001, and to discuss the significance of these concepts in our modern world through a close analysis of the play. In Credible Witness, the playwright brings together people from diverse countries, such as Sri Lanka, Algeria, Eritrea, Somalia and Macedonia in a detention centre in London, and via the stories of these asylum seekers, and particularly through the dramatic encounter between Petra, a Macedonian woman with strong nationalistic pride, and her son Alexander, a history teacher forced to seek refuge in Britain for political reasons, Wertenbaker tries to demonstrate “what happens to people when they step outside, or are forced outside, their history, their identity” (Aston 2003, 13.
Founded in 1927 as the Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists, the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists is dedicated to promote and further the study of petroleum and natural gas geology and all the study fields related to it. Its 3300 members represent Canada and 30 other countries. The annual convention is held to provide a forum for the exchange of information on topics related to petroleum geology and to foster the spirit of scientific research with the members. Another objective of the Society and annual convention is to make the general public aware of the need for professional and well-trained scientists. In excess of 100 presentations were made at the 2001 annual convention on topics that included petroleum potential in Somalia, seismic imaging, faulting and fault seal, multi-scale reservoir compartmentalization, non-invasive geochemical and remote sensing methods, and much more. refs., tabs., figs.
Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.
Full Text Available With several rising powers emerging as new actors on the humanitarian scene, viewing all ‘emerging donors’ as a homogenous group inevitably undermines efforts to constructively engage with them. With Turkey’s widely recognized engagement in Somalia and Syria, the country merits a nuanced analysis. How does it conceptualize humanitarian assistance? What norms and interests shape its humanitarian engagement? How is such an engagement financed and organized? Thoroughly evaluating how foreign and domestic agendas shape Turkey’s humanitarian engagement, the paper details how Ankara designs and implements its humanitarian assistance. The collaborative relationship between the government, faith-based businesses, and the religious segment of a generally deeply divided civil society emerges as a unique feature of Turkey’s humanitarian assistance. This set-up calls for an informed approach towards working with specific Turkish actors. It also questions the sustainability and scalability of current aid levels.
JUAN C. FERNÁNDEZ SANZ
Full Text Available This study aims to conduct an analysis of the current piracy situation -as defined in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982- and the International Maritime Organization’s armed robbery against ships concept. This analysis is focusing on those places in which it is more common the occurrence of these violations, such as Somalia and Southeast Asia. This study includes a statement of its causal factors, as well as a review of statistical and ‘modus operandi’ of those crimes. It will be also shown the identification of the geographical zones where the attacks at sea are more frequently. Finally it an study of the the answers and the naval operations that the international community has developed against those felonies, will be presented.
Daniel Duarte Flora Carvalho
Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, when the number of peacekeeping and peacebuilding interventions considerably increased, the debate about their ethics raised as an important aspect regarding both its ends and its means. Literature was roughly divided between those who advocated for an approach centred on global actors, liberal peace and cosmopolitanism and those who stood for the role of local actors and indigenous solutions for the problems in question. In this regard, the relationship that the International Community usually held with warring parties in civil conflict came to the fore. This essay looks forward to providing insights about the role that warlords can play in facilitating and hindering internationally-led peace process. Using Burundi and Somalia as case-studies, it is argued that warlords can only commit to liberal and cosmopolitan ethics after the state institutions have been built and solidified.
Kohler Jillian Clare
Full Text Available Abstract This research assesses informal markets that dominate pharmaceutical systems in severely disrupted countries and identifies areas for further investigation. Findings are based on recent academic papers, policy and grey literature, and field studies in Somalia, Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti. The public sector in the studied countries is characterized in part by weak Ministries of Health and low donor coordination. Informal markets, where medicines are regularly sold in market stalls and unregulated pharmacies, often accompanied by unqualified medical advice, have proliferated. Counterfeit and sub-standard medicines trade networks have also developed. To help increase medicine availability for citizens, informal markets should be integrated into existing access to medicines initiatives.
Wickett, John; Carrasco, Peter
Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment. Logistical challenges in the smallpox programme included vaccine delivery, supplies, staffing, vehicle maintenance, and financing. Ensuring mobility was essential as health workers had to travel to outbreaks to contain them. Three examples illustrate a range of logistic challenges which required imagination and innovation. Standard price lists were developed to expedite vehicle maintenance and repair in Bihar, India. Innovative staffing ensured an adequate infrastructure for vehicle maintenance in Bangladesh. The use of disaster relief mechanisms in Somalia provided airlifts, vehicles and funding within 27 days of their initiation. In contrast the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces more complex logistical challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Óscar Mateos Martín
Full Text Available While sub-Saharan Africa in recent years has faced a marked decline in the number of armed conflicts, a number of countries continue to suffer the consequences of organized violence, especially some contexts such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Darfur region (western Sudan and Somalia, to name a few. As some institutions (UN or NGO or lead scholars have highlighted for several years, the main victim of violence is often civilians, mainly children and women. This article aims to analyze the impact of armed conflicts in Africa have in childhood and in such important areas as education. This object of study has in recent years an important reference as it has been the publication in 1996 of the so-called “Machel Report”. Fifteen years after the appearance of this document is of interest to a do a brief balance of some of the progress, gaps and main challenges of protecting children in armed conflict.
Full Text Available First and second generation programmes of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR, are no longer ‘fit for purpose’ in contexts of violent extremism. Recognising this, voices from within the United Nations (UN system have recently called for the development of a practice framework combining DDR and Countering Violent Extremism (CVE. Drawing on examples from Nigeria and Somalia, this commentary outlines six issue areas where DDR and CVE overlap, and where further operational guidance is required. These issue areas are: safe passage; the handling of seized and captured weapons; risk assessment; the use of deradicalisation programmes; the reintegration of extremist offenders; and the links between DDR and rehabilitation programmes for extremist prisoners.
Jung, S. J. A.; Ganssen, G. M.; Davies, G. R.
We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ˜8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O variations between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. most likely document changes in the evaporation-precipitation balance in the central Red Sea. Changes in water temperature and salinity cause the outflowing Red Sea Water to settle roughly 800 m deeper than today.
Lincoln, Alisa K; Lazarevic, Vanja; White, Matthew T; Ellis, B Heidi
Refugee adolescents often immigrate to a new society because of experiences of persecution and trauma, which can have profound effects on their mental health. Once they immigrate, many refugees experience stressors related to resettlement and acculturation in the new society. The current study examined relationships among acculturation styles and hassles and the well-being of young refugees as well as the role of gender. Data were collected from 135 young refugees (M age = 15.39, SD = 2.2; 62 % male) from Somalia resettled in the United States The findings from our study indicate that in addition to trauma history, acculturative hassles and acculturation style impact the wellbeing of Somali refugee adolescents. These findings indicate the need to understand both past experiences as well as current challenges. Potential areas for intervention are discussed.
Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.
José Manuel Sánchez Patrón
Full Text Available States are failing to monopolize the use of force. Its use is being shared by private security companies that exploit the lack of regulations, both international and internal, which exists in this regard. The involvement of these private security companies in armed conflicts has received special attention. However, this concern has not spread to other situations in which these private security companies are also participating: the fight against maritime piracy; especially in the waters off the coast of Somalia. This contribution is to study this new phenomenon in relation to the last of the cases mentioned: the fight against maritime piracy. To this end, this study will attempt to answer the main legal questions that arise in connection with the use of armed force and its use by private security companies, as well as on the international responsibility for their actions and their possible attribution to State.
Nielsen, Signe Smith; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Kreiner, Svend
), and immigrants from RGC (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Somalia). Survey data was linked to healthcare utilisation registries. Using Poisson regression, contacts with private practising psychiatrists and psychologists were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and mental health status. RESULTS......: Overall, 2.2 % among ethnic Danes, 1.4 % among labour immigrants and 6.5 % among immigrants from RGC consulted a psychiatrist or psychologist. In adjusted analyses, for psychiatrists, compared with ethnic Danes, labour-immigrant women (multiplicative effect = 1.78), and immigrant women from RGC...... (multiplicative effect = 2.49) had increased use, while labour-immigrant men had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.03). For psychologists, immigrant men from RGC had increased use (multiplicative effect = 2.96), while labour-immigrant women had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.27) compared...
Hightower, Allen; Kinkade, Carl; Nguku, Patrick M; Anyangu, Amwayi; Mutonga, David; Omolo, Jared; Njenga, M Kariuki; Feikin, Daniel R; Schnabel, David; Ombok, Maurice; Breiman, Robert F
We estimated Rift Valley fever (RVF) incidence as a function of geological, geographical, and climatological factors during the 2006-2007 RVF epidemic in Kenya. Location information was obtained for 214 of 340 (63%) confirmed and probable RVF cases that occurred during an outbreak from November 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Locations with subtypes of solonetz, calcisols, solonchaks, and planosols soil types were highly associated with RVF occurrence during the outbreak period. Increased rainfall and higher greenness measures before the outbreak were associated with increased risk. RVF was more likely to occur on plains, in densely bushed areas, at lower elevations, and in the Somalia acacia ecological zone. Cases occurred in three spatial temporal clusters that differed by the date of associated rainfall, soil type, and land usage.
YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association
Duhec, Aurélie V.; Jeanne, Richard F.; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan
The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments
African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Mogensen, H S; Friis, S L
A concordance study of the results of PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 and AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ kits obtained from 591 individuals from Somalia (N=198), Denmark (N=199) and Greenland (N=194) was performed. Among 9456 STR types, seven discordant results were found with the two kits: one observed in the D19S......-Weinberg expectations were observed. Only one pair of systems (D12S391 and D18S51) showed significant allelic association in Greenlanders (after Holm-Šidák correction). A MDS plot drawn from pairwise FST values calculated between 21 populations showed a clear displacement of the Greenlandic population versus the other...... ones included in the analyses. The highest combined chance of exclusion and power of discrimination was observed for Danes reaching values of 99.9999987% and 1 in 1.8×10(21), respectively....
Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.
Hawkey, Alexandra J; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine
Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition, identifying the overall theme "cycles of shame" and two core themes. In "becoming a woman," participants constructed menarche as a marker of womanhood, closely linked to marriage and childbearing. In "the unspeakable," women conveyed negative constructions of menstruation, positioning it as shameful, something to be concealed, and polluting. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation is essential for culturally safe medical practice, health promotion, and health education.
Kristiansen, M; Lue-Kessing, Linnea; Mygind, A
to be caused by multiple factors, including genetics, health behaviour, stress, fertility and breastfeeding. Some women perceived breast cancer to be more prevalent in Denmark as compared with their country of birth, and perceived their risk of developing breast cancer to increase with length of stay......Migrants are less likely to participate in mammography screening programmes compared with local-born populations in Europe. We explored perceptions of breast cancer risk and the influence on participation in mammography screening programmes among migrant women born in countries with low incidence...... rates of breast cancer. We conducted eight individual interviews and six group interviews including a total of 29 women aged 50-69 years living in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were migrants born in Somalia, Turkey, Pakistan or Arab countries. Phenomenological analysis was used. Breast cancer was perceived...
Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.
In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.
Full Text Available Khat is a drug widely used in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Khat leaves contain, among other substances, the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone, which induce central nervous system stimulation leading to euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, and insomnia. However, it also could cause psychological adverse effects such as lethargy, sleepiness, psychoses, and depression necessitating pharmacologic treatment. Here we report the case of a 35-year-old man from Somalia who became unconscious and developed aspiration pneumonia and subsequent ARDS after excessive consumption of khat leaves. His unconsciousness was possibly caused by the sleepiness developed after khat consumption and a benzodiazepine intake by the patient himself. Thus, khat-induced adverse effects should not primarily be treated pharmacologically, but patients should be urged to quit khat consumption in order to eliminate or, at least, reduce the severity of present psychological adverse effects.
Full Text Available In Links, Nuruddin Farah (2003 portrays a Somali back to his country after more than two decades of exile. The scenario he meets is aSomalia already free from the dictatorship that expulsed him, but still immersed in a bloody civil war between rival militias. Farah’s narrative is largely built around extensive scenes of conversation and confront between this returnee and the Somalis who remained and became involved in the conflict. The current paper demonstrates that the reckoning made possible by these confrontations does not actually mean a leveling of blame, since Farah seems to be very specific about the main reasons for the nation’s current state of destruction.